Example Problems and Exercises

Lesson 1
Lesson 1, Exercise 1 Problem Statement An electrical stove in the kitchen is initially at Ti =25°C. Assume that it generates Qg = 1.8 kW. At the same time, it loses energy to the air in the kitchen by a formula given as qout = 3(T – T∞) (in Watts). Other relevant data include: m = 1 kg, cv = 1200 J/kg-K, and T∞ = 25°C. Take Δt = 20 sec. For simplicity, use the explicit method during time integration. Find T(t) of the stove, and plot T(t) vs. time for a period of 20 min. Solution 1) Use the first law of Thermodynamics to set up a governing equation: ̇ ̇ ̇ ̇ = = = 0 (no work done on system) ̇ ̇

Therefore:

2) Use explicit method: By solving for dT/dt, we can use the explicit method, also known as the Forward Euler Method, to find T(t). Explicit Form: And ( )

Matlab Code
% Properties & Initial Conditions clc; clear m=1; cv=1200; T_inf=25; Ti=25; Q_g=1800; % Solving/Plotting Conditions Lt=1200; dt=20; nt=Lt/dt; ntp=nt+1; Tplot(1)=Ti; % For-loop Solver for i=2:ntp t(i)=(i-1)*dt; T=Ti + ((Q_g - 3*(Ti-T_inf))/(m*cv))*dt; Ti=T; Tplot(i)=T; end T plot(t,Tplot) xlabel 'Time (sec)'; ylabel 'Temperature (deg. C)'; title 'T(t) over 20 min (1200 sec)'

Results
T = 597.3581

Lesson 1, Exercise 2 Problem Statement A heat transfer system dissipates a rate that can be approximated by qout = -c1T2 (in Watts) where c1 = 0.1 W/K3. The system is initially at 200°C. Other relevant data include: m = 2 kg, cv = 1000 J/kg-K. Take Δt = 10 sec, and use the explicit method. What is the temperature of the system at t = 10 minutes? -1-

Solution 1) Use the first law of Thermodynamics to set up a governing equation: ̇ ̇ ̇ ̇ = = = 0 (no work done on system) ̇ ̇

Therefore:

2) Rearrange the governing equation to be used by the Explicit Method:

Then use the explicit form ( Matlab Code
% Properties clc;clear c1=0.1; m=2; cv=1000; Tp=200; % = initial temp. % Solving/Plotting Conditions Lt=600; dt=10; nt=Lt/dt; ntp=nt+1; Tplot(1)=Tp; % For-loop Solver for i=2:ntp t(i)=(i-1)*dt; T=Tp + ((-c1*Tp^2)/(m*cv))*dt; Tp=T; Tplot(i)=T; end T plot(t,Tplot) xlabel 'Time (sec)'; ylabel 'Temperature (deg. C)'; title 'T(t) over 10 min (600 sec)';

)

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Results
T = 27.7696

Lesson 2
Lesson 2, Example 1 Problem Statement Consider a 1-D heat conduction system whose temperature has been somehow found as shown in the figure below. Relevant data are A = 0.3 m2 and k = 2 W/m-K. What is the amount of heat transfer, Q in Joules, flowing from x1 to x2 during a period of one minute, if the heat flow rate is not a function of time?
T1=100°C T2=50°C x x2=1.1m

Solution

x1=1.0m

A, k, T1, T2, x1, x2, and Δt are all known, so we only need to plug these values into

Matlab Code
clc; clear A=0.3; k=2; dt=60; T1=100; T2=50; dx=0.1; Q = -A*k*(T2-T1)/dx*dt

Results
Q = 18000

-3-

Lesson 2, Example 2 Problem Statement When the weather is cold, we may often hear people mentioning “wind-chill factor” (WCF). The term is so popular that it is beneficial for us to know a little more about it. Relevant data include: skin temperature Ts = 37°C; air temperature T∞ = -2°C; air heat transfer coefficient (calm) hc = 100 W/m2-k; air heat transfer coefficient (windy) hw = 130 W/m2-k. We will feel colder in the windy condition even though true air temperatures of the two cases are the same because hw > hc. Let us now seek a fictitious cold ambient temperature, called WCF, such that our bodies feel qw’’ with the value of hc. Solution Heat Transfer Flux on a Calm Day: Heat Transfer Flux on a Windy Day: The equation governing the WCF becomes – So the WCF is the temperature it would need to be on a calm day in order to reproduce the same feeling on warmer but windy day. Matlab Code
clc;clear % Properties: T_s=37; T_inf=-2; h_c=100; h_w=130; % Solve with "solve" syms WCF q1 = h_w*(T_s - T_inf); q2 = h_c*(T_s - WCF); WCF=solve(q1-q2, WCF) % OR q_real = h_w*(T_s - T_inf); % q_real = h_c*(T_s – WCF) WCF = T_s - q_real/h_c

– –

Results
WCF = -137/10 WCF = -13.7000

-4-

Lesson 2, Example 3 Problem Statement Given: A gray surface (defined as surfaces whose radiative properties are not functions of the wavelength), Ts = 300 K, and ε = 0.4. Find: The emissive radiative flux and heat transfer rate from the surface. Solution All that is needed is to plug the given values into

Matlab Code
clc; clear e = 0.4; sig = 5.67e-8; Ts = 300; A=0.3; qflux = e*sig*Ts^4 q = A*qflux

Results
qflux = 183.7080 q = 55.1124

Lesson 2, Example 4 Problem Statement A car windshield or windows may gain a layer of ice during a clear, cold night even if the ambient air temperature, T∞, is above the freezing point of water (0 °C). The transfer of energy by heat is depicted in the following diagram: ----> q2” q1” ----> ----> q3” T∞

-5-

Parameters: q1” = heat flux from inside the car passing into the windshield q2” = heat flux due to convection = h(T - T∞) q3” = heat flux due to radiation = εσT4 ε = 0.4 σ = 5.67e-8 h = 15.0644 T∞ = 5 + 273 = 278 Assumptions: The car has been turned off for a long time (no residual heat from the engine or heater), radiative exchanges between the windshield and the car interior are equal, air inside the car is stagnant, radiation from the atmosphere is negligible (clear sky), windshield thickness is zero. Find: The temperature of the windshield, T. Solution Because this problem involves a non-linear term (q3”), we will employ the Newton-Raphson technique to linearize this term and solve for T iteratively to see if T < 0 °C. From the thin-sheet energy balance, we know that

→ already linear

q3” needs to be linearized in order to solve for T. Recall that an equation can be linearly approximated by the first two terms of the Taylor Series Expansion: ̅ ̅ ̅

where ̅ is a known value from a previous iteration. It becomes the initial condition for each subsequent iteration. Therefore ̅ Then: ̅ -6̅ ̅ ̅ ̅ ̅

Where ̅ ̅ Matlab Code
clc; clear eps=0.4; sig=5.67e-8; h=15.0664; Tinf=278; Tb=Tinf; % initial guess, Tb = “T-bar” for iter=1:5 a = h + 4*eps*sig*Tb^3; b = h*Tinf + 3*eps*sig*Tb^4; T = b/a; Tb = T; % update Tb for next iteration end T TC=T-273 % temperature in Celsius

Results
T = 270.0000 TC = -3.0000

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