Left and left bellow: Ggantija, Gozo (near Malta) Bellow: Menhir, Carnac, France

Before the Common Era or Before Christ (B.C.E. or B.C.) 3000
2500 B.C.E.

Mesopotamia
Sumer Civilization, Akkadian Empire

2000 B.C.E.
Neo-Sumer

1500 B.C.E.

1000 B.C.E.

500 B.C.E.

Common Era or Anno Domini (C.E. or A.D.)
300 C.E.

Assyria

Persia

“The Club of Great Powers

Protoliterary Period

Egypt
Old Kingdom Middle Kingdom New Kingdom

Greece and Classical Antiquity
Minoan and Mycenaean Architecture

Ancient Greece

Ancient Rome

Ur, Residential Area

3000 B.C.E

2500 B.C.E.

2000 B.C.E.

1500 B.C.E.

1000 B.C.E.

500 B.C.E.

Mesopotamia

Sumer Civilization,

Akkadian Empire

Neo-Sumerian Dynasties

Hittite Kingdom Assyrian Dynasties Babylonia Elam NeoBabylonian Period

Protoliterary Period

Proto-Dynastic Period

Persia—the Rein of Cyrus the Great and his descendants

Hattussa (Bogazkoy)

The White Tmple, The Oval Uruk; Temple Khafaje. The “low” Temple of Sin, Khafaje.

Khorsabad

Persepolis

Uruk Uruk (Warka) (Warka)

Warka (Uruk), White Temple and Ziggurat, c. 3500-3000 BCE

Eridu

Left: Great ziggurat of Ur-Namu, 21162096 BCE

Above, right and bellow: Ziggurat of Untash-Napirisha, 1260-1235 BCE

Above: Remains of the Ziggurat of DurKurigalzu (Kassite Civilization), 14th century BCE

Ashur, 19th – 9th centuries BCE.

Ur-Nammu, c. 2047-30

3000 B.C.E

2500 B.C.E.

2000 B.C.E.

1500 B.C.E.

1000 B.C.E.

500 B.C.E.

Mesopotamia

Sumer Civilization,

Akkadian Empire

Neo-Sumerian Dynasties

Hittite Kingdom Assyrian Dynasties Babylonia Elam NeoBabylonian Period

Protoliterary Period

Proto-Dynastic Period

Persia—the Rein of Cyrus the Great and his descendants

The White Tmple, Uruk; The “low” Temple of Sin, Khafaje. The Oval Temple Khafaje.

Great Ziggurat of Ur-Nammu

Hattussa (Bogazkoy) Khorsabad Persepolis

Ur

Ziggurat of UrNammu, 2116-2096 B.C.E.

3000 B.C.E

2500 B.C.E.

2000 B.C.E.

1500 B.C.E.

1000 B.C.E.

500 B.C.E.

Mesopotamia

Sumer Civilization,

Akkadian Empire

Neo-Sumerian Dynasties

Hittite Kingdom Assyrian Dynasties Babylonia Elam NeoBabylonian Period

Protoliterary Period

Proto-Dynastic Period

Persia—the Rein of Cyrus the Great and his descendants

Hattussa (Bogazkoy)

The White Tmple, The Oval Uruk; Temple Khafaje. The “low” Temple of Sin, Khafaje.

Khorsabad

Persepolis

Uruk Uruk (Warka) (Warka)

The Oval Temple Khafaje, 2650-2350 BCE.

Temple of IshtarKititum

3000 B.C.E

2500 B.C.E.

2000 B.C.E.

1500 B.C.E.

1000 B.C.E.

500 B.C.E.

Mesopotamia

Sumer Civilization,

Akkadian Empire

Neo-Sumerian Dynasties

Hittite Kingdom Assyrian Dynasties Babylonia Elam NeoBabylonian Period

Protoliterary Period

Proto-Dynastic Period

Persia—the Rein of Cyrus the Great and his descendants

Mari Palace
Great ziggurat of Ur-nammu The White Tmple, Uruk; The “low” Temple of Sin, Khafaje. The Oval Temple Khafaje.

Temple in IshtarKititum

Khorsabad

Persepolis

Mari

Babylon

Mari

Mari

Royal quarters

The Standard List of Professions

Hattusa (Bogazkoy)

3000 B.C.E

2500 B.C.E.

2000 B.C.E.

1500 B.C.E.

1000 B.C.E.

500 B.C.E.

Mesopotamia

“The Club of Great Powers

Sumer Civilization,

Akkadian Empire

Neo-Sumerian Dynasties

Hittite Kingdom Assyrian Dynasties Babylonia Elam NeoBabylonian Period

Protoliterary Period

Proto-Dynastic Period

Persia—the Rein of Cyrus the Great and his descendants

Great ziggurat of Ur-nammu The White Tmple, Uruk; The “low” Temple of Sin, Khafaje. The Oval Temple Khafaje.

Temple in Ishtar-Kititum

Hattusa
Mari Palace

Hattusa (Bogazkoy)

Khorsabad

Persepolis

3000 B.C.E

2500 B.C.E.

2000 B.C.E.

1500 B.C.E.

1000 B.C.E.

500 B.C.E.

Mesopotamia

Sumer Civilization,

Akkadian Empire

Neo-Sumerian Dynasties

Hittite Kingdom Babylonia

Protoliterary Period

Proto-Dynastic Period

Elam

Assyrian Dynasties

NeoBabylonian Period

Persia—the Rein of Cyrus the Great and his descendants

Great ziggurat of Ur-nammu The White Tmple, Uruk; The “low” Temple of Sin, Khafaje. The Oval Temple Khafaje.

Temple in Ishtar-Kititum

Hattussa (Bogazkoy)

Dur-Sharrukin (Khorsabad) Mari Palace Nineveh

Nineveh Khorsabad

Persepolis

Left: A relief form the North Palace of Ashurbanipal (668-627 BC) at Nineveh Right and below: Relieves form the Northern Palace of Ashurnasirpal (883-859 BC) at Kalhu

Nineveh, restored outer walls

Khorsabad, Neo-Assyrian Period

3000 B.C.E

2500 B.C.E.

2000 B.C.E.

1500 B.C.E.

1000 B.C.E.

500 B.C.E.

Mesopotamia

Sumer Civilization,

Akkadian Empire

Neo-Sumerian Dynasties

Hittite Kingdom Babylonia

Protoliterary Period

Proto-Dynastic Period

Elam

Assyrian Dynasties

NeoBabylonian Period

Persia—the Rein of Cyrus the Great and his descendants

Great ziggurat of Ur-nammu The White Tmple, Uruk; The “low” Temple of Sin, Khafaje. The Oval Temple Khafaje.

Temple in Ishtar-Kititum

Hattussa (Bogazkoy)

Dur-Sharrukin (Khorsabad) Mari Palace Nineveh

Nineveh Khorsabad

Persepolis

Babylon (Neo-Babylonian Period)

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