ANTIOXIDANT AND LIFESPAN EXTENSION ACTIVITIES OF CORDYCEPS SINENSIS CS IN OXIDATIVE STRESS AND AGING MODELS

Jia-Shi Zhu, Yan Zhang, Jieying Yang, Ningzhi Tan, Angela Mastaloudis, and Chunsheng Zhao 1 2 2 Pharmanex Research Institute, Provo, UT 84601; Pharmanex Beijing Clinical Pharmacology Center: Xinkang Road, Beijing 100088, China; 3 School of Pharmacy, Shihezi University, Shihezi City, Xinjiang 832000, China
1,2,3 2 2 2 1 2

ABSTRACT Cordyceps sinensis has traditionally been used in China as a strategy to combat aging. We have reported the e ects of Cordyceps sinensis Cs-4 (Cs-4) a mycelia fermentation product of C. sinensis, in glucose-lipid-energy metabolisms, anti-fatigue, and endurance enhancement. In this study, we examined the e ect of Cs-4 on lifespan extension and antioxidant status in mice. For the lifespanextension study, 250 mice 12 months of age (both sexes) received either vehicle or Cs-4 (0.5, 1.0 or 1.5g/kg diet). Caloric intake was adjusted to match the levels for controls twice per week. Compared to controls, the Cs-4 dosage group’s 75% survival time was extended 94-108 days, 50% survival time extended 10-66 days, 25% survival time extended 29–44 days, and 12.5% survival time extended 7–50 days (86 weeks so far; treatment continues). The Kaplan-Meier Survivor analysis revealed the extended lifespan and the reduced risks of death by Cs-4. The antioxidant activity was tested in mice (6 months old) that received 60 days of vehicle or Cs-4 (0.5, 1.0 or 1.5 g/kg diet) and a single dose of 11Gy 60Co gamma-radiation on day 60. Compared to controls, Cs-4 prevented the depletion of plasma total thiol-groups, GSH and GSH-peroxidase, liver CAT, SOD, and GSH-reductase (p<0.05) caused by radiation exposure. Cs-4 also prevented the radiation-induced increases in liver protein carbonyls and 8-OHdG (p<0.05) observed in the control group. In conclusion, Cs-4 supplementation significantly improves the body’s antioxidant capacity and extends the lifespan in mice, supporting the traditional anti-aging uses of Cs-4 in humans. INTRODUCTION 1. Cordyceps sinensis is traditionally believed to have anti-aging activities and to promote longevity. 2. C. sinensis and its mycelia fermentation product C. sinensis Cs-4 have a broad spectrum of health benefits, including the therapeutic activities of improving cardiovascular, liver, lung, and kidney functions. (Zhu et al. J Altern Compl Med. 4:289–303, 429–457,1998) 3. We reported the endurance enhancement and anti-fatigue properties of Cs-4 and the improvement of energy, glucose, and lipid metabolisms by Cs-4 in animals and humans. (Dai et al. J Altern Compl Med. 7:231, 2001; Zhao et al. J Altern Compl Med. 8:309, 2002; Xiao et al. Chin J Integrat Med. 10:187, 2004; Li et al. Chin J Clin Pharmacy 16:274, 2007; Li et al. Shanghai J Prevent Med. 20:367, 2008; Wang et al. 2008 Symposium Chin Assoc Med Mycol. pp157–164) 4. The aim of this study was to test the lifespan-extension e ect and antioxidant activity of Cs-4 in mice.

LIFESPAN EXTENSION STUDY METHODS 8-month-old mice fed normal chow until 12 months of age. At 12 months, mice were randomized into one of four groups matched for gender and weight.
GROUPS:

ANTIOXIDANT METHODS

BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES STUDY

DIET AND ENDPOINTS:

200 100 0
Non radiation control

• Caloric intake of treatment groups was adjusted bi-weekly to match the intake of the control group • Deaths recorded daily • Lifespan study is ongoing LIFESPAN STUDY IN MICE

radiation control

-22%; p<0.05
500
60

• Control: Normal mouse chow • Treatment 1: Chow containing Cs-4: 500 mg/kg BW • Treatment 2: Chow containing Cs-4: 1000 mg/kg BW • Treatment 3: Chow containing Cs-4: 1500 mg/kg BW

GSH-Px (U/mg pro.)

Mice were randomized into five groups and treated for 64 consecutive days by gavage. Mice received 11Gy 60Co gamma-radiation on day 60 to induce oxidative stress and damage (except non-radiation control group). The study was completed on the fourth day and the liver and blood samples of all mice were collected and analyzed for antioxidant enzymes and biochemical markers of oxidative stress. ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES: 1. Superoxide dismutase (SOD)* 2. Catalase (CAT) 3. Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) 4. Glutathione reductase (GSH-Rd)* 5. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)* *Data not shown Mice randomized into five groups:
Non-radiation control (n=15)

Cs-4 Prevented Depletion of Liver GSH Peroxidase
700 600 500 400 300

MARKERS OF OXIDATIVE STRESS: 1. Total thiol groups and glutathione 2. Total protein carbonyl groups 3. 8-OHdG in liver

1000 Cs- (mg/kg)

1500

Co- Gy

8-month-old

Treatment starts at age of 12 months

~3+ years all mice dead

Cs-4 Prevented Depletion of Plasma GSH
Glutathiones (mg/L)
8 6 4 2 0

Cs-4 Attenuated Increases in Liver Protein Carbonyls and 8-OHdG
8– 30 – 7– 6– 25 –

Radiation control WEEKS OF CS 2 Live 8 Live 4 Live 4 Live 0 (days) Cs-4 500 mg/kg

(n=15) (n=15)

-25.3%; p<0.05

Vehicle control Cs-4 500 mg/kg Cs-4 1000 mg/kg Cs-4 1500 mg/kg CS

46 Dead 40 Dead 44 Dead 44 Dead

Cs-4 1500 mg/kg (n=15) 60
60

5– 4–

8-OHdG (ng/g liver tissue)

GSH-Px (U/mg pro.)

DEATHS AND SURVIVORS AFTER

Cs-4 1000 mg/kg (n=15)

20 –

15 –

-15.5%; p=0.05

+26%; p<0.05

+22%; p<0.05

+22%; p<0.05

-33%; p<0.05
1000

63

10 –

2– 1–

5–

DELAYS NORMAL DEATH OF MICE

Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc. 冬虫夏草
Isolation & Purification

(Collected from Qinghai-Tibetan plateau of China)

• Kaplan-Meier Cumulative Survival Plot for Time 1 • Censor Variable: Censor 1 • Grouping Variable: Group 1
1.0

Co Collect (11Gy) blood & liver Cs-4 Prevented Depletion of Plasma Thiols
0.7

Non radiation control

radiation control

500
60

1000 Cs- (mg/kg)

1500

0–
Non radiation control

0–
Non radiation control radiation control

Co- Gy

radiation control

500
60

1000 Cs- (mg/kg)

1500

500
60

Co- Gy

Co- Gy

Cs- (mg/kg)

Cs-4 Prevented Depletion Liver Catalase
40

SUMMARY

CONCLUSION

Cs-4

0.6 0.5 -21%; p<0.05 0.4 0.3

CAT (U/mg pro.)

(A fungal strain of Paecilomyces hepiali Chen et Dai) Industrial Fermentation

Cum. survival

0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0

Thiol groups (mmol/L)

(Cs-4 500 mg/kg)

1. Supplementation with Cordyceps sinensis Cs-4 prolongs lifespan in an aging mouse model. 2. Cordyceps sinensis Cs-4 supplementation increased antioxidant protection and reduced oxidative stress in mice exposed to radiation. 3. Cordyceps sinensis Cs-4 supplementation significantly improves the body’s antioxidant capacity, protects against oxidative damage, and extends the lifespan in mice, supporting the traditional use of Cs-4 as an anti-aging strategy in humans.

30 20 10 0 -23.5%; p<0.05

冬虫夏草 Cordyceps sinensis
POSTER WAS PRESENTED AT THE OXYGEN CLUB OF CALIFORNIA 2010 WORLD CONGRESS IN SANTA BARBARA, CALIFORNIA; MARCH 2010 WHERE IT RECEIVED THE DSM NUTRACEUTICAL RESEARCH AWARD.

(control)

Cordyceps sinensis Cs-4

0

100

200

300 400 Time

500

600

700

Non radiation control

radiation control

500
60

1000 Cs- (mg/kg)

1500

Co- Gy

Non radiation control

radiation control

500
60

1000 Cs- (mg/kg)

1500

Co- Gy

-21%; p=0.05
1500

3–

-12.5%; p<0.05

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