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Total Static Head (h, m) is different elevation between suction head and delivery head.

**Hydraulic Efficiency (η ) or Manometric Efficiency (η
**

mano

) is the ratio of actual head with theory head.

hyd

h = hd ± hs

η hyd =

with actual power.

o

hm h

Overall Efficiency (η ) is the ration of theory power

ηo =

Ptheory Pactual

=

γQhm

P

Where γ =Specific Weight = gρ (N/m3) P = Drive power (W) Energy Equation (Bernouli’s Equation) Suction Head (h , m) is elevation different from minimum possibility of water surface level to center line of suction pump. (- when reference point higher than suction pump, + when reference point lower than suction pump) Discharge Head or Delivery Head (h , m) is elevation different from maximum possibility of water surface level to center line of discharge pump. Absolute Static Head (h, m)

d s

P1

γ

+ Z1 +

V12 P V2 + h p − hL = 2 + Z 2 + 2 2g γ 2g

**Where P = Pressure from 1st reference point (Pa) P = Pressure from 2nd reference point (Pa)
**

2 1

**Z = water level from 1 reference point (m)
**

1 2

st

P ( pa) has = as ρg

Net Head (h , m) is power in term of water height. Manometric Head (h , m) is actual head which pump can create, by checking thought pressure gauge.

m net

**Z = water level from 2 reference point (m) V = Decreasing velocity of 1 reference point (m/s)
**

1 2 st nd

nd

V = Increasing velocity of 2 reference point (m/s) h = Power receiving from pump (m) h = Power lose from piping and fitting (m)

L P

hm =

Which, normally h < h

m

Pout − Pin ρg

(if either size of 1st reference or 2nd reference are larger than 10 times of pipe diameter, V and V can be negligible)

net 1 2

Net Head (h , m) under Bernouli’s equation is the following.

Hydraulic Power (HP, W) is the theory power for liquid transportation.

HP = ρghQ

Where Q = Flow Rate (m3/s) Break Power or Shaft Power (BP, W) is power input to pump which related with pump efficiency (η )

p

⎛V 2 V 2 ⎞ ⎛P P ⎞ h p = ⎜ 2 − 1 ⎟ + (Z 2 − Z1 ) + ⎜ 2 − 1 ⎟ + hL ⎜γ ⎜ 2g 2g ⎟ γ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠

Net Positive Suction Pressure (NPSH) is the net suction pressure after minus suction loss and vapour pressure. NPSH consist of NPSH and NPSH

A R

BP =

HP

ηP

D

Drive Power (DP, W) is power input to motor drive which related with motor efficiency (η )

DP =

BP

ηD

The other method for checking the height (deep) and pump are suitable properly. roughly a calculation for expedition pump characteristic is. m) can be calculated from the actual location. one is throatting in pipe and the other one is loss suction pump. h is the theory maximum allowable height (deep) for suction pipe. corrosion and less performance.3 NPSH R A From Bernouli’s equation P1 V12 P2 V22 + Z1 + + h p − hL = + Z 2 + γ 2g γ 2g 1 1 p Assume that V = 0 m/s. Cavitation can be occurred generally two styles. anyway. V = 0 m/s and P must more than P to protect cavitation (P > P ) 2 v 2 v 1 st Flow rate is constant but velocity is related with pipe size. or not. m) this value will get from manufacture but. Z = 0 m (reference point) and h is not available.NPSH (available net positive suction head. vibration. Cavitation in pipe (throatting) From Bernouli’s equation Then hs = Patm γ − Pv γ − Vs2 − h fs 2g Where V = V = Suction velocity (m/s) h Suction Friction Loss (m) Note The result. NPSH A ≥ 1. From Pv = Patm Then + Pgauge which Pgauge = P2 ⎛ N Q(m 3 / min) ⎞ ⎟ 3 ⎜ NPSH R = ⎜ ⎟ S ⎝ ⎠ Where N = revolution (rpm) 4 P2 = PV − Patm Cavitation incase loss suction pump rpm× m 2 S = Specific suction velocity min Recommendation NPSH for pump selection. And pressure which can cause cavitation is 2 then P2 γ = NPSH A + PV γ Where P = Vapour Pressure (Pa) v NPSH (Required net positive suction head. R vapour pressure. A Assume that pipe is in same elevation then Z = Z 1 P V22 NPSH A = + (Z1 − Z 2 ) − − hL − V 2g γ γ P1 Basis 1 reference point is bigger than suction pipe more than 10 times. Cavitation is main problem about pump such as abnormal sound. by checking s fs 2 s P1 γ + Z1 + V12 P V2 + h p − hL = 2 + Z 2 + 2 2g γ 2g .

etc) 2.Thoma cavitation coefficient (σ). Count all the fitting (ex. m) is loss from pipe length (main-loss) and any fitting (minor loss).103⎜ ⎛ NS ⎞ ⎟ ⎝ 1000 ⎠ 4 3 Criteria Cavitation will happen when L f σ <σc Friction loss (h or h . Where Re = Reynolds number = ρVd μ or vd ν ε = Pipe roughness (ft.s/m2) υ = Kinematics Viscosity = μ ρ (m2/s) . Darcy-Weisbach Equation hf = f LV2 d 2g Where f= Friction factor which can be found from MoodyChart or Colebrook’s equation or Haaland’s equation. (h ) L . 2. elbow. Calculation method is found many formulas. Relative roughness (ε/d) and Friction factor.s. 1. Mark the point on the graph. Thoma Cavitation Coefficient (σ) (Patm − PV ) σ= ⎛V 2 ⎞ −⎜ s + hs + h fs ⎟ γ ⎝ 2g ⎠ hm c and Critical Thoma Cavitation Coefficient (σ ) σ c = 0. mm) Where μ = Dynamic Viscosity (kg/m.Darcy-Weisbach Equation (Moody-Chart or Colebrook Equation or Haaland Equation) Using method Moody-Chart (for calculation mainloss) 1. N. . Valve.Equivalent pipe length and graph Williams-Hazen Using method graph Williams-Hazen. Moody-Chart is presented the relation of Reynolds number (Re). x-axial presented flow rate (m3/min) and y-axial present friction loss per 100 m.

7 d Re f 12 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ Which. Colebrook’s equation 1 f 1 2 ⎛ ε 2.8 log ⎜ 1 ⎢⎜ 3. (Assume temperature rises less than 15oC) 3 ⎛ m3 ⎞ QMF = 2. ft or mm) K-Value can be checked from “Resistance coefficient chart” as attachment.51 = −2 log⎜ + ⎜ 3. m /hr) Min-flow is the required flow rate to pump for protection the liquid temperature increasing. Darcy-Weisbach Equation will become ⎛ L N ⎞V 2 h f = ⎜ f + ∑ Ki ⎟ ⎝ d i −1 ⎠ 2 g Where K = minor-loss coefficient V = Velocity (m/s) Because of minor-loss head from i h f (min or ) = ∑ K i i =1 N V2 2g Pipe roughness (ε. Haaland’s Equation ⎤ ⎡⎛ ε ⎞1. this value will be provided by manufacture.4.9 ⎥ = −1. But the Colebrook’s equation has some difficulty about verify f-value by trial and error method. Minimum Required Flowrate (MF.10 × 10 − 4 Q⎜ ⎜ hr ⎟h(m) ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 3. .7 ⎟ Re ⎥ ⎟ f 2 ⎠ ⎥ ⎢⎝ ⎦ ⎣ Appling method of Moody-Chart (for calculation main-loss and minor-loss) 4.11 1 ⎢⎜ d ⎟ + 6. normally.

This method is applied for high viscosity pump which can be predicted by multiply correlation factor with water pump. ' Q P = C Q × QP ' hP = C H × hP ' ηP NPSH = C H × NPSH ' ' η P = Cη ×η P .75 ( min ) Viscosity Correction. Where ' QP = Capacity of pump when use with water ' hP = Head of pump when use with water NPSH ' = NPSH of pump when use with water = Water pump Efficiency The correlation equations are following.Pump Specific Speed (N dimensionless) Pump specific speed is used for impeller selection or estimate pump efficiency (%) s. Ns = N (rpm) Q l h 0.

5 m/s s s s m Pump System consists of two type. It depends on system loss.Series System H ≠ H +H T 1 2 Sometime.1Q1 (Depend on system loss) 2 . . V = Manifold velocity ≤ 0.Branches of suction pipe This is kind of manifold. .D (suction diameter) 3.6 0.Piping. total series flow more than parallel flow.9 m/s 2. The detail for calculation suction sump is presented by the other documents. . General recommendations for good design practice.Parallel System Q ≠ Q +Q Q T T 1 ≈ 1. Suction length (L ) ≥ 10. to protect the interference the following criteria should be considered.Suction sump WL = Water Level . V = Suction Velocity ≤ 1. parallel and series. mean downstream friction loss. 1.

Affinity Law To safe the power consumption.85 ×D − 4.87 ⎛Q⎞ ×⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 60 ⎠ 1. adjusting revolution is the other choice except pipe loss reduction. ⎛D Qn = Qo ⎜ 2 n ⎜D ⎝ 2o ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 ⎛D H n = H o ⎜ 2n ⎜D ⎝ 2o ⎡D ⎤ Pn = Po ⎢ 2 n ⎥ ⎣ D2 o ⎦ Where D = Diameter of impeller (mm) 2 3 Conclusion to get the higher flow Big pipe (low h ) – Parallel is advantage. 1. Performance curve. operation point 2.666 × 130 −1. Estimate total flow of parallel or series system h f = 10. f f System Loss Equation This formula is provided for head-loss-curve presentation which can be applied for checking the following. Small pipe (high h ) – Series is advantage. This method might use for reduce downstream pressure. ⎛N Qn = Qo ⎜ n ⎜N ⎝ o ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 3 2 ⎛N Hn = Ho⎜ n ⎜N ⎝ o ⎛N Pn = Po ⎜ n ⎜N ⎝ o Where Subscribe n = New and o = Old ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ The other way to change pump performance is the cutting impeller.85 ×L Q = Flow rate (m3/min) .

.

-- .End of doc.

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