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Total Static Head (h, m) is different elevation between suction head and delivery head.
Hydraulic Efficiency (η ) or Manometric Efficiency (η
) is the ratio of actual head with theory head.
h = hd ± hs
η hyd =
with actual power.
Overall Efficiency (η ) is the ration of theory power
Where γ =Specific Weight = gρ (N/m3) P = Drive power (W) Energy Equation (Bernouli’s Equation) Suction Head (h , m) is elevation different from minimum possibility of water surface level to center line of suction pump. (- when reference point higher than suction pump, + when reference point lower than suction pump) Discharge Head or Delivery Head (h , m) is elevation different from maximum possibility of water surface level to center line of discharge pump. Absolute Static Head (h, m)
+ Z1 +
V12 P V2 + h p − hL = 2 + Z 2 + 2 2g γ 2g
Where P = Pressure from 1st reference point (Pa) P = Pressure from 2nd reference point (Pa)
Z = water level from 1 reference point (m)
P ( pa) has = as ρg
Net Head (h , m) is power in term of water height. Manometric Head (h , m) is actual head which pump can create, by checking thought pressure gauge.
Z = water level from 2 reference point (m) V = Decreasing velocity of 1 reference point (m/s)
1 2 st nd
V = Increasing velocity of 2 reference point (m/s) h = Power receiving from pump (m) h = Power lose from piping and fitting (m)
Which, normally h < h
Pout − Pin ρg
(if either size of 1st reference or 2nd reference are larger than 10 times of pipe diameter, V and V can be negligible)
net 1 2
Net Head (h , m) under Bernouli’s equation is the following.
Hydraulic Power (HP, W) is the theory power for liquid transportation.
HP = ρghQ
Where Q = Flow Rate (m3/s) Break Power or Shaft Power (BP, W) is power input to pump which related with pump efficiency (η )
⎛V 2 V 2 ⎞ ⎛P P ⎞ h p = ⎜ 2 − 1 ⎟ + (Z 2 − Z1 ) + ⎜ 2 − 1 ⎟ + hL ⎜γ ⎜ 2g 2g ⎟ γ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠
Net Positive Suction Pressure (NPSH) is the net suction pressure after minus suction loss and vapour pressure. NPSH consist of NPSH and NPSH
Drive Power (DP, W) is power input to motor drive which related with motor efficiency (η )
The other method for checking the height (deep) and pump are suitable properly. roughly a calculation for expedition pump characteristic is. m) can be calculated from the actual location. one is throatting in pipe and the other one is loss suction pump. h is the theory maximum allowable height (deep) for suction pipe. corrosion and less performance.3 NPSH R A From Bernouli’s equation P1 V12 P2 V22 + Z1 + + h p − hL = + Z 2 + γ 2g γ 2g 1 1 p Assume that V = 0 m/s. Cavitation can be occurred generally two styles. anyway. V = 0 m/s and P must more than P to protect cavitation (P > P ) 2 v 2 v 1 st Flow rate is constant but velocity is related with pipe size. or not. m) this value will get from manufacture but. Z = 0 m (reference point) and h is not available.NPSH (available net positive suction head. vibration. Cavitation in pipe (throatting) From Bernouli’s equation Then hs = Patm γ − Pv γ − Vs2 − h fs 2g Where V = V = Suction velocity (m/s) h Suction Friction Loss (m) Note The result. NPSH A ≥ 1. From Pv = Patm Then + Pgauge which Pgauge = P2 ⎛ N Q(m 3 / min) ⎞ ⎟ 3 ⎜ NPSH R = ⎜ ⎟ S ⎝ ⎠ Where N = revolution (rpm) 4 P2 = PV − Patm Cavitation incase loss suction pump rpm× m 2 S = Specific suction velocity min Recommendation NPSH for pump selection. And pressure which can cause cavitation is 2 then P2 γ = NPSH A + PV γ Where P = Vapour Pressure (Pa) v NPSH (Required net positive suction head. R vapour pressure. A Assume that pipe is in same elevation then Z = Z 1 P V22 NPSH A = + (Z1 − Z 2 ) − − hL − V 2g γ γ P1 Basis 1 reference point is bigger than suction pipe more than 10 times. Cavitation is main problem about pump such as abnormal sound. by checking s fs 2 s P1 γ + Z1 + V12 P V2 + h p − hL = 2 + Z 2 + 2 2g γ 2g .
etc) 2.Thoma cavitation coefficient (σ). Count all the fitting (ex. m) is loss from pipe length (main-loss) and any fitting (minor loss).103⎜ ⎛ NS ⎞ ⎟ ⎝ 1000 ⎠ 4 3 Criteria Cavitation will happen when L f σ <σc Friction loss (h or h . Where Re = Reynolds number = ρVd μ or vd ν ε = Pipe roughness (ft.s/m2) υ = Kinematics Viscosity = μ ρ (m2/s) . Darcy-Weisbach Equation hf = f LV2 d 2g Where f= Friction factor which can be found from MoodyChart or Colebrook’s equation or Haaland’s equation. (h ) L . 2. elbow. Calculation method is found many formulas. Relative roughness (ε/d) and Friction factor.s. 1. Mark the point on the graph. Thoma Cavitation Coefficient (σ) (Patm − PV ) σ= ⎛V 2 ⎞ −⎜ s + hs + h fs ⎟ γ ⎝ 2g ⎠ hm c and Critical Thoma Cavitation Coefficient (σ ) σ c = 0. mm) Where μ = Dynamic Viscosity (kg/m.Darcy-Weisbach Equation (Moody-Chart or Colebrook Equation or Haaland Equation) Using method Moody-Chart (for calculation mainloss) 1. N. . Valve.Equivalent pipe length and graph Williams-Hazen Using method graph Williams-Hazen. Moody-Chart is presented the relation of Reynolds number (Re). x-axial presented flow rate (m3/min) and y-axial present friction loss per 100 m.
7 d Re f 12 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ Which. Colebrook’s equation 1 f 1 2 ⎛ ε 2.8 log ⎜ 1 ⎢⎜ 3. (Assume temperature rises less than 15oC) 3 ⎛ m3 ⎞ QMF = 2. ft or mm) K-Value can be checked from “Resistance coefficient chart” as attachment.51 = −2 log⎜ + ⎜ 3. m /hr) Min-flow is the required flow rate to pump for protection the liquid temperature increasing. Darcy-Weisbach Equation will become ⎛ L N ⎞V 2 h f = ⎜ f + ∑ Ki ⎟ ⎝ d i −1 ⎠ 2 g Where K = minor-loss coefficient V = Velocity (m/s) Because of minor-loss head from i h f (min or ) = ∑ K i i =1 N V2 2g Pipe roughness (ε. Haaland’s Equation ⎤ ⎡⎛ ε ⎞1. this value will be provided by manufacture.4.9 ⎥ = −1. But the Colebrook’s equation has some difficulty about verify f-value by trial and error method. Minimum Required Flowrate (MF.10 × 10 − 4 Q⎜ ⎜ hr ⎟h(m) ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 3. .7 ⎟ Re ⎥ ⎟ f 2 ⎠ ⎥ ⎢⎝ ⎦ ⎣ Appling method of Moody-Chart (for calculation main-loss and minor-loss) 4.11 1 ⎢⎜ d ⎟ + 6. normally.
This method is applied for high viscosity pump which can be predicted by multiply correlation factor with water pump. ' Q P = C Q × QP ' hP = C H × hP ' ηP NPSH = C H × NPSH ' ' η P = Cη ×η P .75 ( min ) Viscosity Correction. Where ' QP = Capacity of pump when use with water ' hP = Head of pump when use with water NPSH ' = NPSH of pump when use with water = Water pump Efficiency The correlation equations are following.Pump Specific Speed (N dimensionless) Pump specific speed is used for impeller selection or estimate pump efficiency (%) s. Ns = N (rpm) Q l h 0.
5 m/s s s s m Pump System consists of two type. It depends on system loss.Series System H ≠ H +H T 1 2 Sometime.1Q1 (Depend on system loss) 2 . . V = Manifold velocity ≤ 0.Branches of suction pipe This is kind of manifold. .D (suction diameter) 3.6 0.Piping. total series flow more than parallel flow.9 m/s 2. The detail for calculation suction sump is presented by the other documents. . General recommendations for good design practice.Parallel System Q ≠ Q +Q Q T T 1 ≈ 1. Suction length (L ) ≥ 10. to protect the interference the following criteria should be considered.Suction sump WL = Water Level . V = Suction Velocity ≤ 1. parallel and series. mean downstream friction loss. 1.
Affinity Law To safe the power consumption.85 ×D − 4.87 ⎛Q⎞ ×⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 60 ⎠ 1. adjusting revolution is the other choice except pipe loss reduction. ⎛D Qn = Qo ⎜ 2 n ⎜D ⎝ 2o ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 ⎛D H n = H o ⎜ 2n ⎜D ⎝ 2o ⎡D ⎤ Pn = Po ⎢ 2 n ⎥ ⎣ D2 o ⎦ Where D = Diameter of impeller (mm) 2 3 Conclusion to get the higher flow Big pipe (low h ) – Parallel is advantage. 1. Performance curve. operation point 2.666 × 130 −1. Estimate total flow of parallel or series system h f = 10. f f System Loss Equation This formula is provided for head-loss-curve presentation which can be applied for checking the following. Small pipe (high h ) – Series is advantage. This method might use for reduce downstream pressure. ⎛N Qn = Qo ⎜ n ⎜N ⎝ o ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 3 2 ⎛N Hn = Ho⎜ n ⎜N ⎝ o ⎛N Pn = Po ⎜ n ⎜N ⎝ o Where Subscribe n = New and o = Old ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ The other way to change pump performance is the cutting impeller.85 ×L Q = Flow rate (m3/min) .
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