Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Groundwater Quality
L Elango Professor Dept. of Geology Anna University, Chennai, INDIA elango@annauniv.edu www.elango.5u.com
U ni ve rs ity

What happens to the quality in the hydrological cycle?
Water compositions change through reactions with environment
host rock, oxygen contribution, etc.

Water quality may yield information about environments through which water has circulated Chemical reactions are time and space dependent - can provide info on residence times, flowpaths and aquifer characteristics
L.Elango

Elango, L

An

na

1

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

What is Groundwater Geochemistry?
Science concerned with chemistry of water in subsurface environment Chemical composition of groundwater = combined result of infiltrated water(rain, etc.) + reactions with mineral present in the host rock
L.Elango

Why should we care to know groundwater geochemistry?
A groundwater sample has a certain set of chemicals in it h i l i
Those chemicals reflect the minerals that the water encountered in the subsurface, contaminants introduced and reactions with contaminants We can use the chemistry to determine
Groundwater flow paths Recharge areas Contamination Evolution of groundwater

The distribution of dissolved ions reflect minerals in and contamination of the subsurface
L.Elango

Elango, L

An

na

U

ni ve

rs

ity

2

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Factors controlling water chemistry
1. Rock type
Waters draining igneous and metamorphic rocks (BUT there will always be exceptions – this only generalisations)
TDS<500mg/l bicarbonate is major anion sodium and calcium major cations

Waters draining limestones and dolomites

Waters draining sandstones, shales
L.Elango

calcium, magnesium, bicarbonate as only significant solutes l i i bi b l i ifi l TDS between 100 and 600 mg/l limestones weather more rapidly than igneous rocks, so generally limestone waters are more concentrated most minerals unreactive in weathering environment

T a ble 9 - 1 0 . O r ig in o f m a j o r a qu e o us s pe c ie s in g r o u n d w a t e r * A q u e o u s sp e c ie s N a+ O r ig in N a C l d is s o lu tio n (s o m e p o llu tio n ) P la g io c la s e w e a th e r in g R a in w a te r a d d itio n K+ B io tite w e a th e rin g K - f e ld s p a r w e a th e r in g M g2+ A m p h ib o le a n d p y r o xe n e w e a th e rin g B io tite ( a n d c h lo rite ) w e a th e r in g D o lo m ite w e a th e r in g O liv in e w e a th e r in g R a in w a te r a d d itio n C a2 + C a lc ite w e a th e r in g P la g io c la s e w e a th e r in g D o lo m ite w e a th e r in g H C O3 C a lc ite a n d d o lo m ite w e a th e r in g S ilic a te w e a th e rin g SO4
2

An
P y r ite w e a th e rin g (s o m e p o llu tio n ) C a S O 4 d is s o lu tio n R a in w a te r a d d itio n C lN a C l d is s o lu tio n (s o m e p o llu tio n ) R a in w a te r a d d itio n H 4 S iO 4
(a q )

L.Elango

* F r o m B e r n e r a n d B e r n e r (1 9 9 6 )

Elango, L

na
S ilic a te w e a th e rin g

U

ni ve

rs

ity

3

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Factors controlling water chemistry
2. 2 Relief
as relief increases, rate of chemical weathering generally increase difficult to evaluate importance of relief alone (correlate with rock type, climate, vegetation, etc.) etc )

3. Climate

L.Elango

Factors controlling water chemistry
4. 4 Vegetation
effect complex - not independent of climate, rock type, relief vegetation supplies CO2 and organic acids to soil = increased rate of chemical weathering BUT vegetation stabilizes soil. i bili il

L.Elango

Elango, L

An

na

U

ni ve

rs

ity

4

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Concentrations
Amount of the solute in the solvent
e.g., the amount of chloride dissolved in water Mass solute per volume of solution
most often expressed as mg/l or μg/l.

Mass of solute per mass of solution
parts per million (ppm) or parts per billion (ppb); sometimes reported as mg/kg ti t d /k

Moles per volume (molarity) or moles per mass (molality) Equivalents – moles x charge of the atom
L.Elango

Concentration and unit conversion
CONCENTRATION UNITS - I Mass concentrations Water analyses are most commonly expressed in terms of the mass contained in a liter of solution (mg l-1, µg l-1, ng l-1) mass of solute (mg) −1
mg l = volume of solution (l)

Closely related to mg l-1 is parts per million (ppm) or mass of solute (mg) mg kg-1 −1
mg kg = mass of solution (kg)

L.Elango

These two units are related through the density of the solution (ρ) or mass per unit volume.

Elango, L

An

na

U

ni ve

rs

ity

5

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

CONCENTRATION UNITS - II

Mass concentrations (continued)
The conversion factor between mg L-1 and ppm is:

mg kg −1 = mg L−1 ×

1

ρ

Because the density of many natural waters is 1 near 1 kg l-1, it is often a sufficiently good approximation that mg l-1 and ppm are numerically equal.
L.Elango

CONCENTRATION UNITS - III

Mass concentrations (continued)
Ambiguity A bi it can arise for some components of i f t f natural waters. For example, we can express the concentration of sulphate as mg l-1 SO42or mg L-1 sulphate-S. The relationship among these is:
mg L−1 SO 2− × 4 32.066 = mg L−1 sulphate − S 96.06
S= 32.066 and 0 = 16

Atomic wt
L.Elango

Elango, L

An

na

U

ni ve

rs

ity

6

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

CONCENTRATION UNITS - IV
Molar concentrations
In almost all geochemical calculations, it is necessary to use molar concentrations rather than mass concentrations. Molarity (M) = moles of solute/liter of solution Molality (m) = moles of solute/1000 g of solvent If the density of the solution is significantly different f diff t from 1 k l-1, th molality and molarity kg 1 then l lit d l it will be quite different; however, in most natural waters, these quantities are nearly equal and the difference between them can be neglected.
L.Elango

CONCENTRATION UNITS - V
Molar concentrations (continued)
Conversion from mol L-1 (M) to mg L-1 is accomplished using the formula:
mg L−1 = mol L−1 × FW(g mol−1 ) × 1000 mg g

where FW is the formula weight of the 1 substance in g mol-1. The reverse conversion is accomplished using:
mol L−1 =
L.Elango

An
mg L-1 FW × 1000

Elango, L

na

U

ni ve

rs

ity

7

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

CONCENTRATION UNITS - VII
Equivalents and Normality
Equivalents (eq) are similar to moles, but take moles into account the valence of an ion. For example, 0.002 mol l-1 of Ca2+ = 0.004 eq l-1 Ca2+; 0.001 mol l-1 of Na+ = 0.001 eq l-1 Na+; and 0.003 mol l-1 La3+ = 0.009 eq l-1 La3+. 1 Normality (N) is another name for eq l-1. N lit i th f Alkalinity is an important solution parameter that is expressed as eq l-1 or meq l-1. Hardness is another parameter expressed as eq l-1.
L.Elango

Chemical Parameters
pH
Inverse log of hydrogen ion activity in the water

Alkalinity
Ability of the water to neutralize an acid

Specific conductance or Elec. conductivity
Ability of the water to conduct electricity Increases with increasing TDS

Total dissolved solids (TDS)
Everything dissolved in the water
L.Elango

Elango, L

An

na

U

ni ve

rs

ity

8

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

pH
pH = -log [H+] , based on dissociation of water where [H+] x [OH-] = 10-14 Measures hydrogen ion M h d i concentration Logarithmic scale, from 0 (acidic) to 14 (basic) Influences the solubility of many elements - important in surface and ground water Most aquatic species sensitive to pH with limited range that they can live in

Alkalinity is a measure of the ability of water to neutralise acids It is the sum of the anions capable of pairing with hydrogen ions For most natural waters these are:
Bicarbonate, Carbonate and Hydroxide

Under most environmental conditions CO32and OH- can be ignored, so g , Alkalinity = HCO3- as mg CaCO3 /l Occasionally it may be expressed as:
mg HCO3- /l or mg Ca /l
L.Elango

Elango, L

An

Alkalinity

na

U

ni ve

rs

ity

9

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Electrical Conductivity
The electrical conductivity of water estimates the total amount of solids dissolved in water - TDS,. TDS can be estimated easily in the field by measuring the electrical conductivity of the water Unit μS/cm (microSiemens/cm) dS/m (deciSiemens/m) Where: 1000 μs/cm = 1 dS/m TDS (ppm) = 0 64 X EC ( S/ ) = 640 X EC ( ) 0.64 (μS/cm) (dS/m) This relation provides an appox. estimate only!!
L.Elango

Conductivity/pH Field Meters
YSI Meter (Conductivity, Salinity/pH)

An

na
Watertight case 1-year instrument warranty Rugged weighted probe assembly Automatic t A t ti temperature t compensation Low battery indicator Conductivity, salinity, TDS, specific conductance, temperature Oakton Tester Waterproof, dustproof housing that floats Certified to IP67 standards Replaceable sensor lets you reuse same meter t body Hold function Auto-Off Automatic Temperature Compensation

Elango, L

U

ni ve

rs

ity

10

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Hardness
Hardness is the sum of the divalent cations, expressed as equivalent CaCO3 The major divalent cations are:
Calcium, Ca2+ and magnesium, Mg2+

Though there may also be a minor contribution from:
Iron, Fe2+ and divalent manganeseMn2+

Hardness = (Ca2+ + Mg2+) as mg CaCO3 /l Warning: occasionally it may be expressed as:
mg Ca /l
L.Elango

Descriptions of water hardness
Hardness (mg CaCO3 /l) 0 - 50 50 - 100 100 - 150 150 - 200 200 - 300 > 300 Description p

An
soft moderately soft slightly hard moderately h d d t l hard hard very hard
L.Elango

Elango, L

na

U

ni ve

rs

ity

11

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)
• The TDS is the total amount of salts dissolved in the water •TDS is measured in ppm (parts per million) or in mg/l • At l t 99 99% of the TDS comes from j t 7 major ions least 99.99% f th f just ions: • Nitrogen-based ions may also be present in significant quantity but are considered separately here, as they derive from biological and not geological sources Major Cations Sodium, Na+ Potassium, K+ Calcium, Ca2+ Magnesium, Mg2+
L.Elango

Major Anions Chloride, ClSulphate, SO42Bicarbonate, HCO3-

Primary Constituents
Primary cations and anions
Concentrations generally > 5 mg/L Make up about 95-99% of the typical groundwater sample (by weight)
Bicarbonate Calcium Chloride Magnesium Silicon Sodium Sulphate
L.Elango

Elango, L

An

na

U

ni ve

rs

ity

12

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Minor/Trace Elements
Minor constituents (concentrations ranging from 0.1 –10 mg/L) include:
Boron B Carbonate Fluoride Iron Nitrate Potassium Strontium

Trace elements generally < 0.1 mg/L
L.Elango

Major ion composition of seawater
pH = 8.2, TDS = 34,400 mg/l
20000

conc centration (mg/l)

15000

10000

5000

0 Na
L.Elango

K

An
Ca

na
Mg

U

ni ve

rs
Cl

ity

SO4

HCO3

Elango, L

13

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Major ion composition of rain water
pH = 5.7, TDS = 7 mg/l
4 3.5 conc centration (mg/l) 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 Na
L.Elango

K

Ca

Mg

Cl

SO4

HCO3

Major ion composition of groundwater
60 50 conce entration (mg/l) 40 30 20 10 0 Na
L.Elango

pH = 6 - 8, TDS = 100 - 300 mg/l Composition is highly variable, depending on geology

K

An

na
Ca Mg

U

ni ve

rs
Cl

ity

SO4

HCO3

Elango, L

14

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Rain water

4 3.5 3 2.5 mg/l 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 60 50 40 mg/l 30 20 10 0 20000 15000

Na

K

Ca

Mg

Cl

SO4

HCO3

Groundwater

Na

K

Ca

Mg

Cl

SO4 HCO3

Seawater
L.Elango

mg/l 10000
5000 0 Na K Ca Mg Cl SO4 HCO3

Groundwater Sampling
Important Points
Be sure to take a representative sample Make sure water bottles are properly rinsed Filter and preserve samples in the field Take field measurements with proper equipment Store on ice at 4o C Try to analyse in chemistry laboratory within 24 hours of sampling Have a quality control program with duplicates, blanks, field blanks, or spiked samples

Elango, L

An

na

U

ni ve

rs

ity

15

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

WELL SAMPLING
Calculating Well Volume: After determining static water level, the volume of water in the well casing must be calculated A minimum of three casing volumes is recommended, however, wells should be purged until field water chemistry parameters stabilize.
ity

ANALYSIS OF WATER SAMPLES
Field:
pH, specific conductance, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and alkalinity

Laboratory:
Cations: sodium, calcium magnesium, potassium, and iron Anions: bicarbonate, carbonate, sulfate, and chloride Trace Metals, Radioactivity

Elango, L

An

na

U

ni ve

rs

16

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

ION-BALANCE ERROR - I
Aqueous solutions must be electrically neutral. In other words, the sum of all negative charges must equal the sum of all positive charges. One check on the quality of a water analysis is the ion-balance error or charge balance error, calculated as follows:
C.B.E. =

∑m z − ∑m z ∑m z + ∑m z
c c c c

a a a a

× 100

Molality (m) = moles of solute/1000 g of solvent Z - valence
L.Elango

ION-BALANCE ERROR - II
There is always some error in the measurement of cation and anion concentrations. Thus, we cannot expect a charge-balance error of zero for any analysis. The I.B.E. may be positive or negative, depending on whether cations or anions are more abundant abundant. A reasonable limit for accepting an analysis as valid is ±5%.

L.Elango

Elango, L

An

na

U

ni ve

rs

ity

17

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

REASONS FOR I.B.E. VALUES GREATER THAN ±5%
An important anion or cation was not included in the analysis.
Sometimes this can point out the presence of a high concentration of an unusual anion or cation.

A serious, systematic error has occurred in the analysis. y One or more of the concentrations was recorded incorrectly.

L.Elango

Graphical representations of water geochemistry
Rather than providing just a list, or table, of l b f laboratory results, it is useful to view l f l the geochemical composition in graphical form Techniques include:
Pie and bar charts Stiff patterns (Kite diagrams) Piper diagrams (ternary graphs)

First it is necessary to express concentrations in terms of ionic strengths
L.Elango

Elango, L

An

na

U

ni ve

rs

ity

18

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Pie and bar charts
anions cations
Na K HCO3 Ca 2 1.5
Ca Mg M

HCO3

1
K

SO4 Cl
Na ?

0.5 SO4 Cl Mg ? 0

cations

anions

L.Elango

Stiff patterns
A Stiff pattern is a kite diagram containing the same information as pie and bar charts The ionic strength of the cations is plotted on the left hand side and the anions on the right On a Stiff pattern Na and K are lumped together If NO3 anion levels are significant then these can be added beneath Mg and SO4. Usually Fe is added as a cation opposite NO3 Stiff patterns are a useful visual indicator of the geochemistry of water samples. One Stiff pattern can easily be compared with another
L.Elango

Elango, L

An

na

U

ni ve

rs

ity

19

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Stiff Diagrams
Graphic representation of the water chemistry of a single sample

L.Elango

L.Elango

Elango, L

An
Stiff diagram

na

U

ni ve

rs

ity

20

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Schoeller Diagrams
Graph of concentrations of major ions Each sa p e has a spec c s ape to t e cu e; ac sample as specific shape the curve; can be used to compare to other samples

L.Elango

Piper diagrams
Piper diagrams are tri-linear graphs representing the ionic strengths of the cations and anions. Plotting the data onto the tri-linear graphs takes a little practice Again, Na and K are plotted together There is no room on a Piper diagram for NO3 as it is a purely geochemical method

L.Elango

Elango, L

An

na

U

ni ve

rs

ity

21

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Piper Diagram

Plots each ion as a value normalized to 100% Data on the 2 triangles is projected on the quadrilateral

L.Elango

Piper Diagram

An

na

U

ni ve

rs
1 mix

ity

Straight line = mixture

Piper diagrams also provide Indications of mixing of water masses

2

L.Elango

Elango, L

22

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Figure 9-7. Hydrochemical facies. After Back (1966).

L.Elango

Durov Diagram species in ground water* Ta ble 9-10. Origin of major aqueous
Aqueous species Na+ Origin NaCl dissolution (so me pollution) Plagioclase weathering Rainwater additio n K+ Biotite weathering K-feldspar weathering Mg 2 + A mphibole and pyro xen e weathering Biotite (and chlorite) we athering Dolo mite weathering Olivine weathering Rainwater additio n Ca2 + Calcite weathering Plagioclase weathering Dolo mite weathering HC O3 Calcite and dolo mite weathering Silicate weathe ring SO 4
2

An
Pyrite weathering (so me pollution) CaSO 4 dissolution Rainwater additio n Cl NaCl dissolution (so me pollution) Rainwater additio n

L.Elango

H 4SiO 4 (aq)

na
Silicate weathe ring *Fro m Berner and Berner (19 96)

Elango, L

U

ni ve

rs

ity

23

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Groundwater contamination

Natural/ Geogenic Anthropogenic
L.Elango

Aquifers particularly susceptible to contamination
Shallow water tables Thin soil cover Coarse soils with low clay content Unconfined aquifer Associated with low pH water

L.Elango

Elango, L

An

na

U

ni ve

rs

ity

24

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Contamination sources
Most important ones: Surface sources: landfills, dumps and surface impoundings for wastewater Ground sources: flaws in petrol storage tanks and wastewater (sewer) system Other sources: pesticides used in agriculture and runoff from paved areas Natural sources: Rocks, seawater
L.Elango

Sources of Groundwater Contamination
Designed discharges
On-site wastewater disposal Injection wells Landfill Open dumps Residential disposal Surface impoundments Waste tailings Waste piles Material stockpiles Graveyards G d Animal burial Aboveground storage tanks Underground storage tanks Containers Open burning and detonation Radioactive disposal

Storage, treatment and disposal

L.Elango

Elango, L

An

na

U

ni ve

rs

ity

25

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Transport and transmission Activities with incidental releases
Irrigation Pesticide application Fertilizer application Animal feeding operations De-icing salt application Urban runoff Atmospheric deposition Mining and mine drainage Pipelines Materials transport

Activities altering flow patterns
Oil and gas production wells Other Oth wells ll Excavation Surface-water interaction Natural leaching Salt-water intrusion

Natural sources

L.Elango

Many Sources and Types of Contaminants
Metals Non metals Organics O i Organisms

An

na

U

ni ve

rs

ity

Sources

L.Elango

Elango, L

26

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Metals (arsenic, cadmium, chromium)

L.Elango

Nonmetals (chloride, cyanide, nitrate)

L.Elango

Elango, L

An

na

U

ni ve

rs

ity

27

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Organics (gasoline, DDT, detergents)

Volatile organics (TCE, DCE, Benzene)

L.Elango

Organisms (Giardia, E. Coli)

www.groundwater.org/gi/sourcesofgwcontam.html
L.Elango

Elango, L

An

na

U

ni ve

rs

ity

28

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Septic Systems

Disposal of domestic waste Large quantity of wastewater discharged every year Anaerobic decomposition of waste occurs in septic tank
L.Elango

An
Problematic: Areas of High Density Homes Permeable Soils / Aquifer Shallow Water Table Leachate
L.Elango

Elango, L

na

U

ni ve

rs

ity

29

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Landfills
Burial of garbage

Landfills should be constructed above the water table Infiltrating precipitation generates leachate
www.groundwater.org/gi/sourcesofgwcontam.html
L.Elango

Capping the landfill with 1 – 2 m of clay or a tarp

L.Elango

Elango, L

An
Landfill Cap

na

U

ni ve

rs

ity

30

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

L.Elango

Leaking Gas Tanks LNAPL

L.Elango

Elango, L

An

na

U

ni ve

rs

ity

31

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

DNAPL (Denser)

L.Elango

An
Acid Mine Drainage
L.Elango

Elango, L

na

U

ni ve

rs

ity

32

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Restoration/Remediation

Hydrocarbon Clean Up 1. Remove floating product 2. Excavate heavily contaminated soil
L.Elango

3. Natural microbial biodegradation

Source Control Measures

An
2 . Physical Isolation

na

U

ni ve
Slurry Wall
1. Physical Removal L.ElangoExcavation

Elango, L

rs

ity

33

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Remediation
Plume Treatment
Extraction wells Capture the plume while minimizing water removed

Capture Zone Analysis
L.Elango

L.Elango

Elango, L

An

na

U

ni ve

rs

ity

34

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

L.Elango

Pump and Treat Systems

L.Elango

Elango, L

An

na

U

ni ve

rs

ity

35

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Natural and Enhanced

L.Elango

L.Elango

Injection of Oxygen and Nutrients

Elango, L

An

na

U

ni ve

rs

ity

36

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Remediation of groundwater polluted by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by physical and microbiological methods

Martin Höckenreiner1, Hannes Neugebauer2 and Lakshmanan Elango3
1BfU

- Büro für Umweltfragen GmbH Starnberger Strasse 22 82131 Gauting, Germany
2DB

Netz AG Regionalbereich Süd Regionale Instandsetzung Süd, Instandsetzung, Kanalprogramm/Bodensanierung Richelstraße 3, 80634 München, Germany
3Department

of Geology Anna University Chennai 600025, India

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Chemical compounds that contain fused aromatic rings without heteroatoms Pollution of groundwater by PAHs is of g y great concern as some of its compounds are carcinogenic. Generally PAHs occurs in oil, coal and tar. These compounds also known as dense non aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL)

L.Elango

Elango, L

An

na

U

ni ve

rs

ity

37

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Study Area

Kirchseeon region near M i h G Ki h i Munich, Germany Railway sleeper factory1869 – 1959 Impregnation of sleepers with tar-oil Loss of tar-oil led to soil and groundwater contamination L.Elango
U ni ve rs ity

To assess the status of the groundwater polluted by PAH To redemiatiate the PAH contaminated groundwater by physical and microbiological methods
L.Elango

Elango, L

An

Objective

na

38

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Hydrogeological Cross-section

L.Elango

Methodology
Location and Drilling of Wells (depth 40 – 48 m) Six wells for remediation Two recharge wells 15 observation wells Remediation well - two pums to pump contaminated groundwater and DNAPL

L.Elango

Elango, L

An

na

U

ni ve

rs

ity

39

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Salient Aspects of Design of Remediation Plant

L.Elango

Remediation Plant

L.Elango

Elango, L

An

na

U

ni ve

rs

ity

40

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Bacteria induced Redox Reaction
After a mechanical separation stage ambient air is pressed in the water (cO2 < 1 mg/l → ~ 10 mg/l) Oxygen-enriched water is pumped in bioreactors (different sand/anthracite-layers) where > 90 % of PAH is removed by physical and microbiological effects Frequent backwashing of bioreactors leads to sludgeq g g accumulation The resulting sludge contains PAH and Microorganisms

L.Elango

PAH-content of groundwater before and after bioreactor
10000

1000 c PAH [µg/l]

Input concentration

100 output concentration 10

1 15.11.05 14.07.06 10.08.06 06.09.06 06.10.06 02.11.06 30.11.06 19.12.06 25.01.07 21.02.07 22.03.07 20.04.07 14.05.07 12.06.07 07.08.07 06.09.07 27.11.07 04.03.08 06.06.08 02.09.08 04.12.08 04.03.09

L.Elango

Elango, L

An

na

U

ni ve

rs

ity

41

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Concentration in a downstream observation well GWM 9.3.

1200.00

1000.00

Σ PAK (EPA) w/o Naphthalines [µg/l]

800.00

600.00

400.00

200.00 200 00

0.00
20 04 -1 20 0 04 -1 20 2 05 -0 20 2 05 -0 20 4 05 -0 20 6 05 -0 20 8 05 -1 20 0 05 -1 20 2 06 -0 20 2 06 -0 20 4 06 -0 20 6 06 -0 20 8 06 -1 20 0 06 -1 20 2 07 -0 20 2 07 -0 20 4 07 -0 20 6 07 -0 20 8 07 -1 20 0 07 -1 20 2 08 -0 20 2 08 -0 20 4 08 -0 20 6 08 -0 20 8 08 -1 20 0 08 -1 20 2 09 -0 2

Sampling dates

Data from DB Netz (2009)
L.Elango

Conclusion
700.000 m³ groundwater purified to g q y drinking-water quality 7.000 liter DNAPL removed 950 kg dissolved PAH removed Up to 95 % decrease of pollutants in g the groundwater effluent Cost-Effective (biological treatment removes up to 90 % of pollutants) Remediation technique successful
L.Elango

Elango, L

An

na

U

ni ve

rs

ity

42

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

GW Quality
Drinking Industry Irrigation

L.Elango

Example Drinking Water Criteria
Criteria Coliform Bacteria pH Barium Nitrate Total Dissolved Solids Recommended Standard 0 colonies/ml 6.5-8.5 2 mg/L 10 mg/L 500 mg/L Reason Health Aesthetic Health Health Taste

US EPA Guidelines

Elango, L

An

na

U

ni ve

rs

ity

43

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

L.Elango

Industrial water quality
Depend on the type of industry

L.Elango

Elango, L

An

na

U

ni ve

rs

ity

44

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Sodium and Irrigation
Low-sodium water (S1) can be used for irrigation on almost ( ) g all soils with little danger of developing harmful levels of exchangeable sodium. Medium-sodium water (S2) will present an appreciable sodium hazard in certain fine-textured soils, especially under poor leaching conditions. This water may be safely used on coarsetextured or organic soils having good permeability. High-sodium water (S3) may produce harmful levels of exchangeable sodium in most soils and will require special soil g q p management such as good drainage, thorough leaching, and additions of organic matter. Very high sodium water (S4) is generally unsatisfactory for irrigation unless special action is taken, such as addition of gypsum to the soil.

Salinity and irrigation
Water of low salinity ( ) can be used for irrigation of most y (C1) g crops on most soils with little likelihood that soil salinity will develop. Water of medium salinity (C2) can be used if a moderate amount of leaching occurs. Crops having moderate salt tolerances, such as potatoes, corn, wheat, oats, and alfalfa, can be irrigated with C2 water without special practices. Water of high salinity (C3) cannot be used on soils having restricted drainage. g Water of very high salinity (C4) can be used only on certain crops and then only if special practices are followed.

Elango, L

An

na

U

ni ve

rs

ity

45

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

USSL Classification of groundwater

L.Elango

Sodium Adsorption Ratio
SAR calculated by the following formula, SAR = Na/[(Ca+Mg)/2]0.5 Concentration is expressed in meq/l

L.Elango

Elango, L

An

na

U

ni ve

rs

ity

46

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

SAR <10 10-18 18-26 >26
L.Elango

Suitability for irrigation Excellent Good Doubtful Unsuitable
ity

Sodium percentage
%Na+ = (Na+ +K+ ) X 100 (Ca2+ + Mg2+ +Na+ + K+)
Na% Suitability for irrigation Excellent Good Permissible Doubtful Unsuitable

concentrations are expressed in meq/l

An

na

U

ni ve
<20 20-40 40-60 60-80 >80
L.Elango

Elango, L

rs

47

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Wilcox diagram

(electrical conductivity and percent sodium )

L.Elango

Saltwater Intrusion

L.Elango

Elango, L

An

na

U

ni ve

rs

ity

48

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Seawater Intrusion
Lateral entry of seawater into aquifers Seawater generally intrudes upward and landward Naturally descends landward as a wedge within aquifers Common hydrogeological problem in coastal regions Lead to fresh water scarcity Occurs when fresh water is withdrawn faster than it can be recharged also due to general lowering of the water table near a coastline Freshwater-saltwater interface seldom remains stationary
L.Elango

L.Elango

Elango, L

An
Unconfined Aquifer

na

U

ni ve

rs

ity

49

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Confined Aquifer

L.Elango

An

na

U

ni ve

rs

ity

Confined

Unconfined

L.Elango

Fetter

Elango, L

50

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Seawater – Fresh water Relationship
What makes seawater intrusion an interesting phenomenon? Density difference between freshwater and seawater Several researchers
Ghyben –Hertzberg equation Seawater Salinity = 35‰ = 35,000 ppm = 35 g/l NaCl type water ρsw = 1.025 Freshwater < 500 ppm (MCL), mostly Chemically variable; commonly Na Ca HCO3 water ρfw = 1.000
L.Elango

Fresh Water-Salt Water Interface? Air hf
ρ=1.00

An

na

U

ni ve

rs

ity

Fresh Water
Sea level

? ? ?

Salt Water
ρ=1.025

L.Elango

Elango, L

51

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Ghyben-Herzberg

hf

Sea level

Fresh Water z Salt Water z

L.Elango

P

Ghyben-Herzberg Analysis
Hydrostatic Condition ∇P - ρg = 0 No horizontal P gradients Note: z = depth ρfw = 1.00 ρsw= 1.025
Developed initially by Ghyben in 1888, and later by Herzberg in 1901. Ghyben-Herzberg model is based on hydrostatic balance between fresh and saline water in a Ushaped tube

P = gzρ sw = g (h f + z ) ρ fw

ρ fw z = hf ≈ 40h f ρ sw − ρ fw
Substitution of ρfw (1000 kg m-3) and ρsw (1025 kgm-3) in this eqn. give that Z = 40 hf.

L.Elango

Elango, L

An

na

U

ni ve

rs

ity

52

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Ghyben-Herzberg

z = hf

ρ fw ≈ 40h f ρ sw − ρ fw f
hf

Sea level

Fresh Water z Salt Water z

L.Elango

P

Physical Effects Tend to have a rather sharp interface, only diffuse in detail

Interesting implications: 1) If ∇ is 10m ASL, then interface is 400m BSL

2) If ∇ decreases 5m ASL, then interface rises 200m BSL 3) Sl Slope of i t f f interface ~ 40 x slope of water t bl l f t table

L.Elango

Elango, L

An

na

U

ni ve

rs

ity

53

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

• This difference make even a small changes in fresh water level or head can effect large changes in the transition zone. • That is for every foot drop in head (water level), the transition zone immediately beneath will rise 40 feet. • Therefore even very small changes in the water level (whether they are caused by drought or over drafting the aquifer) can cause a significant intrusion of seawater.
L.Elango

… . ..

L.Elango

An

na

U

ni ve

rs

ity

Ford & Williams 1989

Elango, L

54

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Fresh Water Equipotentials ↓

… . ..
Fresh Water Equipotentials ↑

L.Elango

after Ford & Williams 1989

Transition zone

L.Elango

Elango, L

An

na

U

ni ve

rs

ity

55

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Fresh Water Lens in Island Fresh Water Lens on Island

0 0

Saline ground water 0 0
0

Saline ground water
0

L.Elango

after USGS WSP 2250

L.Elango

An
Up coning

na

U

ni ve

rs

ity

USGS WSP 2250

Elango, L

56

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Schematic Diagram of Seawater Intrusion

L.Elango

L.Elango

Elango, L

An

na

U

ni ve

rs

ity

57

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Methods of identification Groundwater level measurement Geophysical methods Geochemical analysis Isotopic analysis
L.Elango

Geophysical Mehtods

L.Elango

Gnanasundar. D and Elango. L (1999) Journal on Environmental Hydrology

Elango, L

An

na

U

ni ve

rs

ity

58

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Seawater intrusion - South Chennai
Location: Akkarai Configuration:Dipole-Dipole Direction: N92E

w

E

Configuration:Wenner-Schlumberger

w

E

L.Elango

Geochemical analysis
Concentration of major ions in Jan 2005

An

na

U

ni ve
Concentration of major ions in Jan 2005
1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0
HCO3 Cl SO4 Ca Mg Na+K

rs
Co nc entratio n in M e q / l

ity
Series1
Co nce ntratio n in M e q / l

1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0
HCO3 Cl SO4 Ca Mg Na+K

Series1

Concentration of Major ions in jan 2005

Concentration off major iion in Jan 2005 C t ti j i J

Co nc e ntratio n in M e q / l

2000 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0
HCO3 Cl SO4 Ca Mg Na+K

Series1

Co nc entratio n in M e q / l

2000 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0
HCO3 Cl SO4 Ca Mg Na+K

Series1

L.Elango

Elango, L

59

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

Oxygen-18 – Deuterium

Seawater

Correlation of Oxygen-18 – Deuterium values of groundwater

L.Elango

Methods of prevention
Reduction of pumping Rearrangement of pumping wells Artificial recharge (Ex: ponding) Artificial injection wells parallel to coast Seawater pumping wells parallel to coast Subsurface barrier

L.Elango

Elango, L

An

na

U

ni ve

rs

ity

60

Hydrogeology

Dept. of Geology

GW Reso. Evaluation
Aerial extent of aquifer Thickness Estimate Sy or S Estimate the resource Estimate annual fluctuation in gw level Estimate safe withdrawal

L.Elango

Elango, L

An

na

U

ni ve

rs

ity

61