UNITED STATES HISTORY: From 1775 to 2000 A Manual for Students in HSTAA 101

Professor Quintard Taylor Department of History University of Washington Fall 2004

Not to know what happened before one was born is to always remain a child. --Cicero

We are raising a generation of young people who are historically illiterate to a large degree. Everything we have--our institutions, our material advantages, our laws, our freedom, not to say our poetry...music and...architecture--all comes to us from people who went before us. And to not know anything about them, to be indifferent to them, which is even worse than being ignorant...is...really...mass ingratitude. --David McCullough

INTRODUCTION...........................................................7 COURSE SYLLABUS........................................................8 Reading Assignments...................................................10 Required Short Papers...........................................11 Optional Research Paper...............................................11 Optional Book Review Assignment.................................13 CHAPTER ONE\: ESTABLISHING THESE UNITED STATES........................14 Terms for Week 1................................................14 THE MAYFLOWER COMPACT, 1620.....................................15 GROWTH OF A COLONY\: MASSACHUSETTS BAY COLONY...................15 GOVERNMENT\: THE PRIVILEGES OF KINGS............................16 JOHN LOCKE\: \..................................................16 REPRESENTATIVE GOVERNMENT\: TWO VIEWS...........................18 VOTING REGULATIONS IN COLONIAL AMERICA..........................19 RUM AND DEMOCRACY...............................................20 CONNECTICUT'S \.................................................21 DINNER IN COLONIAL AMERICA......................................22 PATRICK HENRY\: \...............................................22 BOSTONIANS CALL FOR INDEPENDENCE................................24 THE \ 24 THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION\: A LOYALIST VIEW.......................26 ABIGAIL TO JOHN ADAMS\: REMEMBER THE LADIES.....................27 CAPTAIN PIPE ADDRESSES THE BRITISH..............................28 LORD DUNMORE'S PROCLAMATION.....................................29 COLONEL TYE\: BLACK LOYALIST LEADER.............................30 JAMES OTIS AND THOMAS JEFFERSON ON SLAVERY......................32 YELLOW FEVER IN PHILADELPHIA....................................33 DEATH OF A FOUNDING FATHER......................................34 CHAPTER TWO\: DEMOCRACY EXPANDED, DEMOCRACY TESTED....................35 Terms for Week 2................................................35 THE MONROE DOCTRINE.............................................36 THE EXTENSION OF VOTING RIGHTS..................................36 PRESIDENTIAL VOTING, 18241844...................................37 THE LOG CABIN CANDIDATE.........................................38 MANIFEST DESTINY\: TWO VIEWS....................................39 THE INDIAN REMOVAL ACT..........................................40 INDIAN REMOVAL\: AN INDIAN VIEW.................................41 THE TRAIL OF TEARS\: ONE STATE'S APOLOGY........................41

WESTWARD MIGRATION\: SETTLEMENT ON THE FRONTIER.................42 THE ATTRACTIONS OF FRONTIER ILLINOIS............................42 PUBLIC LANDS\: TERMS OF SALE, 17851820..........................43 WESTERN MIGRATION TO 1840.......................................44 A FRONTIER FARM.................................................44 THE FOURTH OF JULY ON THE OVERLAND TRAIL........................45 IMMIGRATION TO THE UNITED STATES, 18201860................46 EAST FROM CHINA\: THE ORIGINS OF CHINESE AMERICA................47 PORTLAND'S CHINATOWN............................................48 REV. CHARLES FINNEY ON THE OBLIGATION OF THE CHURCH.............49 HENRY DAVID THOREAU, \..........................................50 HORACE MANN ON PUBLIC SCHOOLS...................................50 ANTICATHOLICISM IN AMERICA......................................51 THE LOWELL GIRLS................................................52 FACTORY REGULATIONS IN LOWELL...................................53 AMERICAN URBANIZATION TO 1860.............................54 THE GRIMKE SISTERS ON THE RIGHTS OF WOMEN.......................55 THE SENECA FALLS CONVENTION.....................................56 CHAPTER THREE\: AMERICAN SLAVERY......................................57 Terms for Week 3................................................57 SLAVERY IN THE SOUTH, 1860................................58 TWO VIEWS OF SLAVERY............................................59 A NORTHERNER'S ATTITUDE TOWARD SLAVERY..........................60 SLAVERY AND SOCIAL CONTROL......................................61 SLAVERY'S IMPACT ON RACE AND GENDER ROLES.......................62 A TEXAS SLAVE'S LETTER TO HER HUSBAND, 1862.....................63 SLAVE AND FREE BLACKS IN INDIAN TERRITORY.......................63 RUNAWAY SLAVES IN MEXICO........................................65 THE MORMONS AND BLACK SLAVERY...................................67 THE DEBATE OVER CALIFORNIA......................................68 THE COMPROMISE OF 1850\: TWO VIEWS..............................69 ABOLITIONISTSGARRISON AND DOUGLASS..............................70 A FUGITIVE SLAVE RESPONDS TO HIS OWNER..........................71 OREGON TERRITORY BANS AFRICAN AMERICANS.........................72 BRIDGET \.......................................................73 BLEEDING KANSASONE SOUTHERNER'S VIEW............................75 THE DRED SCOTT DECISION.........................................76 JOHN BROWN'S LAST SPEECH, November 2, 1859......................77 LINCOLN'S POLITICS..............................................78 THE REPUBLICAN PARTY PLATFORM, 1860.............................78 THE PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION OF 1860...............................80 CHAPTER FOUR\: THE CIVIL WAR AND RECONSTRUCTION.......................80 Terms for Week 4................................................80 AMERICA'S BLOODIEST WAR.........................................82 SECESSIONONE PLANTER'S VIEW.....................................83 THE SECESSION CRISIS, 18601861..................................84 A SOUTHERN WOMAN DEFENDS SECESSION..............................84 RESOURCES OF THE UNION AND THE CONFEDERACY, 1861................85 THE EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION...................................86 THE NEW YORK DRAFT RIOT, AN EYEWITNESS ACCOUNT..................87

RELUCTANT LIBERATORS\: NORTHERN TROOPS IN THE SOUTH.............88 HARD TIMES IN THE CONFEDERACY...................................90 A SOLDIER WITH SHERMAN'S ARMY...................................90 A CONFEDERATE SUPPORTER DESCRIBES THE FALL OF RICHMOND..........91 THE FALL OF RICHMOND\: A BLACK SOLDIER'S PERSPECTIVE............92 FELIX HAYWOOD REMEMBERS THE DAY OF JUBLIO.......................94 JUNETEENTH\: BIRTH OF AN AFRICAN AMERICAN HOLIDAY...............94 THE POST WAR SOUTHA DEFEATED PLANTER LOOKS BACK.................96 SEND 97 IMPUDENT........................................................98 PRESIDENT JOHNSON MEETS BLACK LEADERS...........................98 RECONSTRUCTION AMENDMENTS, 18661870.............................99 RECONSTRUCTION AMENDMENTS\: OREGON'S RESPONSE..................100 BLACK VOTING RIGHTS\: OTHER VIEWS FROM THE FAR WEST............102 HELENA CITIZENS CELEBRATE THEIR NEW RIGHTS.....................103 THE BLACK CODES................................................104 THADDEUS STEVENS DEMANDS BLACK SUFFRAGE........................105 READMISSION OF EXCONFEDERATE STATES......................106 SOUTH CAROLINA UNDER BLACK GOVERNMENT..........................107 A DEBATE OVER PUBLIC SCHOOLS...................................108 BEN TILLMAN JUSTIFIES RECONSTRUCTION VIOLENCE..................111 CHAPTER FIVE\: INDUSTRIALIZING AMERICA...............................112 Terms for Week 5...............................................112 RAILROADS AND WESTERN LANDS\: San Luis Obispo..................113 ROCKEFELLER JUSTIFIES RAILROAD REBATES.........................114 ROCKEFELLER BREAKS A COMPETITOR................................115 WILLIAM GRAHAM SUMNER ON TRADE UNIONS..........................116 THE ROAD TO BUSINESS SUCCESS...................................117 CARNEGIE AND MORGAN\: A CONVERSATION ABOUT STEEL...............118 CHANGING WORLD INDUSTRIAL BALANCE, 18601980....................119 THE SHERMAN ANTITRUST ACT, 1890................................120 NUMBER OF TRUSTS FORMED, 18911903..............................121 MAJOR INDUSTRIAL TRUSTS, 1904..................................121 J. P. MORGAN DENIES A MONEY TRUST..............................121 THE TRUSTS\: A CRITICAL VIEW...................................122 WORK AND POVERTY...............................................123 HENRY WARD BEECHER\: THE WORKER'S STANDARD OF LIVING...........125 DOMESTIC SERVICEONE WOMAN'S ACCOUNT............................125 WOMEN'S WORK AND WORKING WOMEN, 1900...........................126 CHILD LABOR IN 19TH CENTURY AMERICA............................127 AMERICAN URBANIZATION, 18601900..........................128 A LETTER FROM ELLIS ISLAND.....................................129 FOREIGNBORN POPULATION OF THE U. S., 18701900............130 FOREIGNBORN IN THE TWENTY LARGEST CITIES, 1900.................131 TWO VIEWS OF URBAN AMERICA.....................................132 TENEMENT LIFE IN NEW YORK CITY, 1890...........................133 FREDERICK DOUGLAS DESCRIBES THE \..............................133 OATH OF THE AMERICAN PROTECTIVE ASSOCIATION....................135 A DISCONTENTED WIFE............................................135 CHAPTER SIX\: INDUSTRIALIZATION'S CRITICS............................136

.................................................................158 THE UNEMPLOYMENT CRISIS.....................................................................189 BLACKS.......169 EIGHT DEAD AT REPUBLIC STEEL.............138 THE POPULIST PARTY PLATFORM...........152 CHAPTER SEVEN\: THE GREAT DEPRESSION AND THE NEW DEAL.......................................................................................143 TERENCE V....................163 HUEY LONG\: AMERICAN DICTATOR............183 MONICA SONE DESCRIBES THE EVACUATION...................................................................................................................142 HENRY CLEWS OPPOSES THE ORGANIZATION OF LABOR..............................................181 Terms for Week 8.........Terms for Week 6..... ASIANS IN WORLD WAR II HAWAII.......................159 COLLEGE STUDENTS AND THE GREAT DEPRESSION.............................................154 ADVERTISING AND CONSUMER SOCIETY. WASHINGTON........154 Terms for Week 7..............................187 NISEI SOLDIERS IN EUROPE........ 2002...............................150 MAJOR U..................184 CAMP HARMONY.....................171 HITLER'S VIEWS\: TERROR.........................185 THE ZOOT SUIT RIOT.155 THE STOCK MARKET CRASH........................ WHITES..........160 THE NEW DEAL\: THE FIRST HUNDRED DAYS.............................161 MAJOR NEW DEAL AGENCIES.....174 JAPANESE FASCISM\: ONE INSIDER'S VIEW...................................149 LOUIS BRANDEIS INDICTS INTERLOCKING DIRECTORATES...................................176 THE 177 ROOSEVELT ON THE THREAT OF WAR..151 THE FIRST RED SCARE................141 THOMAS WATSON AND BLACK VOTERS..................................170 ORGANIZING A FILIPINO UNION..S..............137 A FARMER'S GRIEVANCE................................................146 BOSS RULE IN PHILADELPHIA.............173 GERMANY UNDER THE NAZIS........................138 MARY ELLEN LEASE RALLIES KANSAS...............143 SAMUEL GOMPERS DESCRIBES TRADE UNIONS....167 PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT'S SECOND INAUGURAL ADDRESS...144 THE \ 145 BOSSES AND POLITICAL MACHINES.................................168 THE NEW DEAL\: OPPOSING VIEWS......................173 HITLER AND THE JEWS.........................187 ONE SOLDIER'S STORY\: WALTER HIGGANS IN EUROPE....................164 CALIFORNIA DREAMING IN THE DEPRESSION........................ 1900-1920.................140 WHAT FARM PROBLEM?.. 1938.............................. CORPORATIONS...............................................190 .....................139 WILLIAM JENNINGS BRYAN'S CROSS OF GOLD SPEECH...................156 RUMBLES OF REVOLUTION.........150 WARTIME HYSTERIA............179 CHAPTER EIGHT\: WORLD WAR TWO AND THE COLD WAR.................................147 BOSS PLUNKITT DEFENDS HONEST GRAFT...................................... POWDERLY AND THE KNIGHTS OF LABOR..................................................................... AND THE MASTER RACE................................................................148 MAJOR PROGRESSIVE ACHIEVEMENTS.....................178 MARTIAN INVASION..................... 1917....182 THE INTERNMENT OF THE JAPANESE.........................

............211 TOTALITARIANISM\: IDEALISM.....212 LETTER FROM YUGOSLAVIA............................................218 THE END OF THE COLD WAR.. DISILLUSIONMENT..285 POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES....................198 HIROSHIMA\: DAY ONE OF THE NUCLEAR AGE............................. These aids include vignettes which are usually statements by important historical figures or commentary by observers of critical events and episodes in the history of African American people in the United States... Also included are lists of weekly terms introduced and emphasized during the lectures or discussed in the assigned readings................ 17902000...............200 SOVIETAMERICAN RELATIONS\: A DISSENTING VIEW............................................199 HANFORD AND THE BOMB.............................................285 GROWTH OF THE FEDERAL UNION..WORLD WAR II\: SEATTLE'S ECONOMY TRANSFORMED...197 THE WORLD THE SECOND WORLD WAR CREATED.................................................204 LEVITTOWN\: UP FROM THE POTATO FIELDS....207 JOHN F......................................................209 VIETNAM-A SOLDIER'S VIEW..196 SOVIETAMERICAN TENSION IN WORLD WAR II........192 BOEING AND THE LIBERATION OF INEZ SAUER.............215 TERROR AND THE COLD WAR................216 CHINA.......... KENNEDY AND THE COLD WAR.......................192 WEST COAST SHIPYARDS.............. United States History..........................................211 VIETNAMA PROTESTER'S VIEW........................................ statistical tables and information sheets.................................221 APPENDIX.........................213 BILLY JOEL'S \............................... or which explain and clarify the organization and requirements of the course.. 1989\: TIANANMEN SQUARE IN PERSPECTIVE...................................203 RED SCARE AT THE UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON......195 STALIN CALLS FOR A SECOND FRONT................... COMPROMISE..............................206 TEENAGE OPINIONS IN THE 1950s..............................................................220 CHAPTER NINE\: THE RISE AND FALL OF LIBERALISM........ These terms reflect some critical event ...........194 LYN CHILDS CONFRONTS A RACIST ACT.........................202 McCARTHYISM..........................202 A SENATOR SPEAKS UP (1950).....285 INTRODUCTION I have assembled in this booklet instructional aids which will help enhance your understanding of the lectures and readings for this course................................................201 THE RED SCARE\: THE TRUMAN ADMINISTRATION LOYALTY OATH..... 1788-2000.......................208 INCIDENT IN THE GULF OF TONKIN..................... 1775-2000.........

justice and equality. If you have any questions about any of the information presented in this manual please contact me during my office hours which are listed on your course syllabus. Since I will randomly choose some of the terms for your midterm and final exams you should learn the definition and historical significance of each of them. Fred Brown fbrown@u. My office hours for Winter 2003 are 10:30-11:30 MTuWTh. One final note: you should view the materials in this manual not simply as additional information you will have to learn for the exams but as data that will help you better comprehend and assimilate the varied issues addressed in the lectures and textbook reading assignments. identify and examine critical periods such as the revolutionary era. COURSE SYLLABUS UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON Department of History Fall.washington. All of the instructional materials are arranged in the approximate order in which they will be discussed during the quarter. The teaching assistants for this class are Mr. the era of .or development for a particular period of United States History or refer to a concept which will help you better understand the historical process.edu. My office is Smith 316-A and my office phone number is (206) 543-5698. this course cannot possibly present a detailed examination of the American historical experience.edu UNITED STATES HISTORY HSTAA 101 COURSE REQUIREMENTS The history of United States has been a paradox of triumph and tragedy as Americans over three centuries have continuously confronted each other over the meaning of democracy.edu. the 1830s. My email address is qtaylor@u.edu. It will. the Civil War and Reconstruction. 10:30-11:30 Email: qtaylor@u.washington. Those terms not specifically discussed in class will be explained in your textbooks or the manual so it is particularly important that you do all of the assigned reading.washington. and Mr.washington. They will provide you with their office hours and office phone numbers. Mr.edu. opportunity. however. Due to its ten week duration. 2004 Instructor: Prof. Quintard Taylor Office: Smith 316-A Phone: (206) 543-5698 Office Hours: MTuWTh. Brian Barnes bribarne@u. Joseph Wycoff jwycoff@u.washington.

The schedule for the short papers appears in the weekly assignment section below. The challenges continue through this day. Ca. All readings other than those from purchased texts are on reserve.: Wadsworth/Thomson.washington. 6th. The midterm is scheduled for the end of the fifth week.washington.edu Supplemental Readings: I have placed on reserve in Odegaard Undergraduate Library additional readings which will help explain the history of the United States. In that case I ask them to take a makeup exam scheduled for 5:00-6:00 p. Gary Gerstle. on the last Friday of instruction during the quarter. The room will be announced later. justice and equality over? Using a variety of historians and history sources. Liberty. Murrin. Emily S. Examinations/Grading: Your course grade is based on three exercises: a midterm exam (30%). You also have the option of writing a 10 page research paper in lieu of the three short papers.edu/qtaylor/ Teaching Assistants: Brian Barnes Fred Brown Joseph Wycoff bribarne@u.edu fbrown@u. 2004) Quintard Taylor. UNITED STATES HISTORY from 1775 to 2000: A Manual for Students in HSTAA 101 This manual is online at http://faculty. However we can take full advantage of our current vantage point to examine how this nation's past has prepared all of us in varied ways for our contemporary world. and 9th weeks of the term. However you must notify your Teaching Assistant of your intentions by the end of the second week of the term. Is the battle for democracy.washington. ______________________________________________________ Required Textbook: John M. Since the makeup exam will be penalized 10 points on a 100 point exercise. Rosenberg and Norman Rosenberg. The optional paper must be supported by research in primary sources. when those themes have been challenged and tested.edu jwycoff@u.m. Those students who perform poorly on the midterm exam (69 or below) have the . World War II and the 1960s. These papers will be due by Friday at noon of the 3rd. we shall try to answer that question during this quarter. Research on Pacific Northwest history topics is especially encouraged. Equality. a final examination (40%) and three short papers of 4-5 pages (10% each) describing and assessing a crucial period in United States history.washington. James M. McPherson. Some students will be unable to take the midterm exam with the rest of the class. As the need arises I may add other articles to the reserve room holdings. Paul E. all students should make every effort to take the exam at its scheduled time. Power: A History of the American People (Belmont.industrialization. Johnson. The completed research paper should be handed in by Wednesday of final exam week.

Chapter 25 Taylor. If you have not completed all of the course requirements by the end of exam week. My grading procedures are simple. Chapters 5-6 Taylor. Chapter 21 Taylor. explained why. it can be handed in no later than the Friday of the eighth week of the term. "C+"=78. Chapter 1 Week 2: Democracy Expanded. Democracy Tested Murrin. Chapter 2 Week 3: American Slavery Murrin. Since each exam is worth up to 100 points I will average your numerical score. Reading Assignments Week 1: Establishing these United States Murrin. Should you choose to write the review. Your numerical scores will then be averaged to determine your course grade. Chapter 7 . "C"=75. Chapter 3 First Short Paper Due Week 4: The Civil War and Reconstruction Murrin. etc. Thus if your overall average is 76 your course grade will be the numerical equivalent of a "C" in the UW grading system. handed in an assigned paper or otherwise met the course requirements. Chapters 15-17 Taylor. and you have not. your grade will be lowered accordingly. by that point.option of writing a book review to offset that grade. I do not issue "incompletes" to students who by the end of the quarter have not taken an exam. Chapter 4 Week 5: Industrializing America Murrin. Please read the page titled Optional Book Review Assignment in the manual before initiating your review. Chapter 5 MIDTERM EXAM Week 6: Industrialization's Critics Murrin. Chapter 6 Second Short Paper Due Week 7: The Great Depression and the New Deal Murrin. Chapters 13-14 Taylor. 19-20 Taylor. Chapter 11 Taylor. I will also assign a numerical score for your research paper.

Chapter 8 Week 9: The Rise and Fall of Liberalism. justice and equality. 1775-2000 As indicated above each student in HISTAA 101 will write three short papers describing and assessing episodes or events in United States history that reflected one of the themes of the course. Instead. democracy. December 15 Required Short Papers United States History. Similarly one could take the examples of the 19th Century debates over women's suffrage or business monopoly or the 20th Century conflict over affirmative action or federal subsidies to agriculture (or business) to explore themes of justice or equality. A paper on Reconstruction or the New Deal could explore the meaning of democracy in America. Wednesday. manual and other scholarly sources in United States history. For example a brief paper on 19th Century Irish immigration or 20th Century Filipino immigration to the United States could analyze the theme of opportunity. Chapter 9 Third Short Paper Due Week 10: The United States into the 21st Century No reading assignment. Final Examination is scheduled for 8:30-10:20 a. 1960-1990 Murrin. 31 Taylor. Your papers will be due by Friday at noon of the 3rd.Week 8: World War II and the Cold War World Murrin. 1775-2000 Your research paper should explore in depth some important issue or topic in American History between 1775 and 2000. 6th. given the resources at your disposal. When you use this evidence be sure to cite it in footnotes or endnotes.m. Avoid describing some individual or episode. and 9th weeks of the term.S. The arguments you advance in your short papers must be supported by evidence from the textbook. Optional Research Paper United States History. pose a question and. Chapters 26-27 Taylor. opportunity. Thus you should not simply write a paper on Abraham Lincoln's Presidency as much as you should focus on a particular historical problem related to the individual . Chapters 28. actually illustrated the opportunity sought. answer that question. prepare for the final exam. Here your paper should not simply "celebrate" the concept but should critically analyze both its meaning for the newcomers and whether the historical experiences of the immigrants in the U.

Please give me a one page outline which includes your major research question and a selected bibliography showing the books and articles you have already consulted by the seventh Friday of the Quarter. Suggested Topic Areas Loyalists and the American Revolution Antebellum Industrialization: Pittsburgh and Lowell Compared The Jeffersonian Ideal Henry Grady and the New South The Civil Rights Movement. A Manual for Writers (latest edition). 1954-1965 Populism and Progressivism Compared Women in the American Revolution Andrew Carnegie and the Gospel of Wealth The Abortion Debate The Rise and Decline of Organized Labor in America The Cuban Missile Crisis Elizabeth Cady Stanton and the 19th Century Feminist Movement 19th and 20th Century Immigration Compared The CIA and U. Foreign Policy since 1950 John D. Rockefeller and Bill Gates Compared The Reagan Revolution and Modern Conservatism The West and the Civil War The End of the Cold War . The completed paper should be handed in by the last regularly scheduled class meeting of the Quarter.and the era. I will not accept research papers presented to me after that date. You should include at least ten sources in your bibliography and each source should have a corresponding footnote or endnote in the text. could Lincoln have prevented Southern secession? How did Lincoln's racial beliefs affect his emancipation policy? Your paper should be no more than ten typewritten pages including bibliography and it should conform to Turabian's. For example.S.

The first page of each review should have information on the book which appears as follows: Quintard Taylor. 1994) You may choose almost any book on United States history except the ones that are primarily textbooks. 4. and include specific reasons for your decision. 1. my lectures. State whether you would recommend the book to others. and the discussions. As with most standard book "reviews.Hollywood and History in Washington Boeing Aircraft Company and the Cold War Revolution The Women’s Suffrage Campaign Women and the American Optional Book Review Assignment United States History. Assess whether you were convinced by the author's argument. Remember. 1.500 words for those of you who use computers. 1775-2000 As I indicated on the first day of class. you have the option of writing a book review to offset a low midterm exam grade. Describe how the book reinforced or challenged ideas about American history that you have learned from the assigned readings. Also not eligible are regularly assigned textbooks for any other history courses you are currently taking. I recommend that you devote the first three pages to a review of the book itself and the remaining two pages to respond to the four guidelines. . Your review should be approximately five typewritten pages. Discuss the most important new information you learned about American history from the book. Please number your pages. The Forging of a Black Community: Seattle's Central District from 1870 through the Civil Rights Era (Seattle: University of Washington Press. 2. I will not accept untyped book reviews submitted as an email attachment or faxed document. But I also request that you follow these guidelines in your assignment. collectively they are as important to your overall review grade as the report on the contents of the work. 3." you will describe the book's major thesis or argument.

The completed book review should be handed in by Friday.You should present your choice either via email or on a sheet of paper to one of the Teaching Assistants by the eighth Friday of the term: Friday. December 9. no book review will be accepted after the due date. Unless prior permission has been granted. November 18. CHAPTER ONE: ESTABLISHING THESE UNITED STATES Terms for Week 1 creed of political equality patriarchy Bacon's Rebellion deference John Locke "tyranny of the majority" "blue laws" Bill of Rights Boston Massacre Loyalists Shay’s Rebellion Colonel Tye Abigail Adams Captain Pipe Stamp Act Crisis The Philadelphia Convention Common Sense Lord Dunmore's Proclamation .

and receive individual title to the land from the colonial governor. Within the first year of settlement. GROWTH OF A COLONY: MASSACHUSETTS BAY COLONY The following account describes the rapid development of the Massachusetts Bay Colony in the 17th Century. to approximately 188. unto which we promise all due Submission and Obedience. Acts. And by Virtue hereof do enact. Having undertaken for the Glory of God. 1620 The Mayflower Compact was the first instrument of government drawn up in the English Colonies and as such reflected the tentative origins of the campaign for self-government that culminated in the American Revolution 156 years later. Leaders of the prospective new town were then . making it one of Great Britain's most populous North American possessions. Do by these presents. for our better Ordering and Preservation. as shall be though most meet and convenient for the general Good of the Colony. select a parcel of land.THE MAYFLOWER COMPACT. Unlike settlers in the middle and southern colonies. and after that by natural increase. By 1700. all on the Charles River. aided in its first decade by 15. the Loyal Subjects of our dread Sovereign Lord King James. from time to time. Roxbury. 1961). the deputy governor. Newtown (now Cambridge). and Offices.000 immigrants from England. Founded in 1630 by Puritans from England. American History: A Survey. Massachusetts Bay grew rapidly. &c.000 to 20. the executive council of assistants.000 and by 1750. there were eight towns in that county alone. there were twenty-two. and the representatives. colonists in Massachusetts Bay could not simply travel to an uninhabited area. We. Instead. (New York: Knopf. Defender of the Faith. all elected annually by the freemen to organize new towns. Watertown. a group of men who wanted to establish a town had to apply to the General Court for a land grant for the entire town. Charlestown.000. and the Honour of our King and Country. of Great Britain. whose names are underwritten. constitute. King. and Advancement of the Christian Faith. Ordinances. Massachusetts Bay's population had risen to almost 56. p. the six original towns of Massachusetts Bay were laid out-Dorchester. such just and equal Laws. which included the governor. by the Grace of God." Source: Richard Current. 17. covenant and combine ourselves together into a civil Body Politick. a Voyage to plant the first colony in the northern Parts of Virginia. By the time Middlesex County (west of Boston) was organized in 1643. and by 1700. and frame. In the name of God. Constitutions. and Boston. solemnly and mutually in the Presence of God and one another. This rapid population growth forced the government of Massachusetts Bay (called the General Court. The organization of towns was an important way for Puritan leaders to keep control of the rapidly growing population. and Furtherance of the Ends aforesaid. Amen. France and Ireland.

so is it sedition in subjects. and yet accountable to none but God only. and to God are both soul and body due. that as to dispute what God may do. Kings are justly called gods. and sit upon God's throne. King James I. but even by God himself they are called gods. Problems in American History (Englewood Cliffs. holding in common some land for grazing and other uses (hence the "town common"). 529—531. p. and to cry up. with this axiom of divinity. ensured Puritan economic and religious domination. you shall see how they agree in the person of a king. or destroy. but just kings will ever be willing to declare what they will do. and in all causes. They have power to exalt low things.. and abase high things. and make of their subjects like men at the chess. 1999). a pawn to take a bishop or a knight. 1 (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. 1616). of England describes how royal power is divinely conveyed. and to be judged nor accountable to none: to raise low things. or unmake at His pleasure. Leopold. eds. I will not be content that my power be disputed upon: but I shall ever be willing to make the reason appear of all my doings. The state of monarchy is the supremest thing upon earth: for kings are not only God’s lieutenants upon earth. and rule my actions according to my laws. 51-52. And the like power have kings: they make and unmake their subjects: they have power of raising. I conclude then this point touching the power of kings. vol. make. Becker. the new town's leaders apportioned the available land among the male heads of households who were church members. Source: William Bruce Wheeler and Susan D. God hath power to create. In this way. GOVERNMENT: THE PRIVILEGES OF KINGS In the following account originally published in 1616. and of death: judges over all their subjects. for that they exercise a manner or resemblance of Divine power upon earth: for if you will consider the attributes to God. or down any of their subjects. Having received the grant from the General Court. Source: James I. and to make high things low at His pleasure. Works (London. the Puritan leadership retained control of the fast-growing population. or send death.. as they do their money. reprinted in Richard W. NJ: 1966) JOHN LOCKE: "CIVIL SOCIETY" CHALLENGES MONARCHY . and casting down: of life. Discovering the American Past: A Look as the Evidence. and the single church was organized.. and guaranteed that large numbers of dissenters--men and women who might divert the colony from its "holy mission" in the wilderness-would not be attracted to Massachusetts Bay. is blasphemy. Link and Stanley Corbin.selected. eds. And to the king is due both the affection of the soul and the service of the body of his subjects.. if they will not incur the curse of God. to judge all. to give life.. Arthur S. to dispute what a king may do in the height of his power.

. one amongst another. derived from English political philosopher John Locke (1632-1704). or which is all one. Wherever. By today’s standards the measure was limited. However taken against the backdrop of state sanctioned or favored religion in most nations and in the rest of .. as the public good of the society shall require. with authority to decide controversies between them and punish offenders. no one can be put out of this estate. without his own consent.between the individuals that enter into or make up a commonwealth.. which is done by agreeing with other men to join and unite into a community. In 1689 Locke wrote "The Second Treatise on Civil Government" which describes the then radical concept of the right of individuals to govern themselves... as to quit every one his executive power of the law of nature. and independent. The Second Treatise of Civil Government reprinted in David E Shi and Holly A Mayer. and an uncontrolled enjoyment of all the rights and privileges of the law of nature. Man being born. And this. liberty. there. pp. hath by nature a power not only to preserve his property—that is. any number of men so unite into one society. 1999).. enter into society to make one people. therefore.agreeing to unite into one political society. to the execution whereof his own assistance. 1649 The first act establishing freedom of religion was passed by the overwhelmingly Catholic Maryland Colonial Legislature at the request of Lord Baltimore.Ironically most of the ideas which Americans eventually used to challenge the power of the British King over them. Whosoever therefore out of a state of nature unite into a community must be understood to give up all the power necessary to the ends for which they unite into society... in the state of nature. or else when any one joins himself to.. Men being. And this is done by. For hereby he authorizes the society. and peaceable living. is a political. For the Record: A Documentary History of America (Mew York. the legislative thereof.with a title to perfect freedom. but to judge and punish the breaches of that law in others.. ESTABLISHING FREEDOM OF RELIGION. to make laws for him. to the majority of the community. And this is done wherever any number of men..... Those who are united into one body. It did not extend that protection to non-Christians. any government already made. in a secure enjoyment of their properties and a greater security against any that are not of it.is due. and there only.. and incorporates with. and subjected to the political power of another.. and estate—against the injuries and attempts of other men.. or civil society.. equally with any other man or number of men in the world. equal. and to resign it to the public. 106-107. one body politic under one supreme government. his life... safe. are in civil society one with another.. for their comfortable.. eds.actually constitutes any political society is nothing but the consent of any number of freemen capable of a majority to unite and incorporate into such a society. and have a common established law and judicature to appeal to.by nature all free.[gives] beginning to any lawful government in the world. Source: John Locke. And thus that which. It simply said that anyone believing in Christianity would not be molested by the colonial government or individuals in the practice of his or her faith..

” REPRESENTATIVE GOVERNMENT: TWO VIEWS British and American political thinkers harbored vastly differing views on representative government. The Regulations Lately Made published in 1765 and the second is from the Providence Gazette. for the Right of Election is annexed to certain Species of Property. if it were otherwise. whether their own particular Representatives consented to or opposed the Measures there taken. my lord. none are actually. 1649. to peculiar Franchises. and the better to preserve mutuall Love and amity amongst the inhabitants thereof. The first is from Thomas Whately. the very declaration that anyone was free to worship in the Christian faith. or whether they had or had not particular Representatives there. but these Descriptions comprehend only a very small Part of the Land. The Colonies are in exactly the same Situation: All British Subjects are really in the same. ought to be the great Objects of his Attention.the colonies. have an equal Share in the general Representation of the Commons of Great Britain.. was considered a major statement of religious tolerance and the first step toward the religious freedom guaranteed by the U. Part of the statute appears below: And whereas the inforceing of the conscience in matters of Religion hath frequently fallen out to be of dangerous Consequence in those commonwealths where it hath been practiced. The American View: To infer. the Property. not as Representative of his own Constituents.. shall from henceforth bee any waies troubled in the free exercise thereof…or in any way compelled to the beliefe or exercise of any other religion against his or her consent… Source: Website. and to Inhabitancy in some particular Places. neither are Nine Tenths of the People of Britain Electors. Be it Therefore…Ordeyned and enacted…that noe person or persons whatsoever in this Province…professing to belieive in Jesus Christ. but as one of that august Assembly by which all the Commons of Great Britain are represented. Constitituion. however his own Borough may be affected by general Dispositions. that the British members [of Parliament] . that the Inhabitants of the Colonies are represented in Parliament: they do not indeed choose the Members of that Assembly. and the only Rules for his Conduct. and are bound by the Consent of the Majority of that House.S. for every Member of Parliament sits in the House. and the People of this Island. May 11. 1765) The British View: The Fact is. which are denied to Birmingham and to Manchester. and to sacrifice these to a partial Advantage in favour of the Place where he was chosen. Those differences are outlined in the two passages below. all are virtually represented in Parliament. but as it is. they and the Colonies and all British Subjects whatever. “From Revolution to Reconstruction. regardless of denomination. And for the more quiet and peaceable government of this Province. Old Sarum would enjoy Privileges essential to Liberty. Their Rights and their Interests. would be a Departure from his Duty. Documents: The Maryland Toleration Act.

could such sophistry ever persuade the people of Britain that they were represented and had a share in the national councils?. on complaint thereof to them made. And that if any freeman of this corporation shall walk scandalously.actually represent the colonies. though in unequal proportions to the several districts.. but enjoyed the right of sitting in parliament by hereditary descent. may if they desire it. now met at . detached from Britain. in case they take the oath provided by law for freemen: which oath any one assistant or justice of the peace is hereby empowered to administer in said freemen’s meeting. which cannot be avoided.91. by an ocean of immense breadth. who are not permitted to do the least act towards their appointment. VOTING REGULATIONS IN COLONIAL AMERICA The following vignettes describe the voting laws of Connecticut and South Carolina. Palatine. although every man in the kingdom.. 90. should be represented by the British members.--if the Americans only had leave to send members to parliament. shall be freemen of this corporation. could the common people be said to share in the national councils? If we are not their constituents. 1989). Is there no difference between a country's having a privilege to choose 558 members to represent them in parliament. South Carolina: Be it enacted by his Excellency John Lord Carteret. they are not our representatives. and their names shall be enrolled in the roll of freemen in the Town-Clerk’s office of that town wherein they are admitted.. And all such persons admitted and sworn. and the rest of the true and absolute Lords and Proprietors of this Province. and which is so extensive and populous. as aforesaid. and have the possession of freehold estate to the value of forty shillings per annum. to disfranchise such freeman. because Britain is unequally represented. or the major part of them. on their procuring the selectmen of the town wherein such persons inhabit. as aforesaid. or forty pounds personal estate in the general list of estates in that year wherein they desire to be admitted freemen. The National Experience: A History of the United States (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich... Suppose none of the 558 members were chosen by the people. and also are persons of a quiet and peaceable behavior.. be admitted and made free of this corporation. who shall stand disfranchised till by his good behavior the said Superior Court shall see cause to restore him to his franchisement or freedom again: which the said Court is empowered [sic] to do. or that we can have any interest in the house of commons. to certify that the said persons are qualified as above said. who hath certain legal qualifications can vote for some one to represent him. It is really a piece of mockery to tell us that a country. by and with the advice and consent of the rest of the members of the General Assembly. and not having liberty to choose any? To turn the tables. and civil conversation. pp. Source: John M. Blum. is such a piece of sophistry that I had half a mind to pass by the cobweb without blowing it to pieces. it shall be in the power of the Superior Court in this Colony. or commit any scandalous offence. Connecticut: That all such inhabitants in this Colony as have accomplished the age of twenty-one years.

eds. p.. shall be deemed a person qualified to vote for. gallons of rum punch. it is what I much desired. George Washington’s agent supplied 160 gallons to 391 voters and unnumbered hangers-on. The Statutes at Large of South Carolina. On election day the flow of liquor reached high tide. Leopold. reprinted in Richard W. 34 gallons of wine. ed. and 2 gallons of cider royal. or shall be Able to pay taxes to the support of this government. NJ: 1966). and by the authority of the same. Thomas Cooper. If a candidate’s campaign was under investigation. Lieutenant Charles Smith managed this business for George Washington during a campaign in Frederick County in 1758. III. the candidates usually made a point of having it understood that the refreshments were equally free to men of every political opinion. An itemized list of the refreshments included 28 gallons of rum. Virginia Colony in 1758. Link and Stanley Corbin. 1769). Link. Arthur S. Smith sent him receipts for itemized accounts that he had paid to five persons who had supplied refreshments for the voters. and hath a freehold of at least fifty acres of land. Arthur S. Source: Richard W. Although in this instance Washington encouraged the rum to be distributed to those inclined to vote against him as well. Douglas S. Source: Acts and Laws of His Majesty's English Colony of Connecticut in New England (New Haven. RUM AND DEMOCRACY Influencing voters through various "enticements" is a practice older than the nation as we see in this vignette which describes George Washington's liberal distribution of rum to influence the voters of Frederick County. Leopold. and may be capable of electing a representative or representatives to serve as a member or members of the Commons House of Assembly for the parish or precinct wherein he actually is a resident. Problems in American History (Englewood Cliffs.. 2-3. This amounted to more than a quart and a half a voter. Problems in . and Stanley Corbin. To avoid the reality as well as the appearance of corruption. which Washington had not been able to attend.. eds.Charlestown for the south and west part of this Province... 33-34. it was much in his favor if he could show that among his guests were some who had clearly said that they did not intend to vote for him.. (Columbia. 1838). 80-81. that every white man (and no other) professing the Christian religion. Candidates frequently arranged for treats to be given in their names by someone else. 46 gallons of beer. Freeman calculated that during a July election day in Frederick County in the year 1758. who has attained to the age of one and twenty years. and hath been a resident and an inhabitant of the parish for which he votes for a representative for the space of six months before the date of the writs for the election that he offers to give in his vote at. Two days after the election. for the sum of fifty pounds currant money. Washington reflected an acceptable attitude when he wrote while arranging for the payment of large bills for liquor consumed during a Frederick County election: I hope no Exception were taken to any that voted against me but that all were alike treated and all had enough..

or Holy Ghost. committed upon malice. shall curse or smite their natural father or mother.American History (Englewood Cliffs. enacted even in a limited democratic setting. or highhanded blasphemy. shall have or worship any other God but the Lord God. 15. 11. 14. NJ: 1966). ed. being his natural parents. 48. he shall be put to death. and will not obey their voice and chastisement.. he or she shall be put to death. reprinted in David E. If any person shall commit any willful murder. 9-10. family and the Christian commonwealth. or shall curse in the like manner. not in a man's just and necessary defense. or cruelty. 4. he shall be put to death. they shall be put to death. with direct. If any man or woman. 106-107.. Shi and Holly A Mayer. he or they shall be put to death. If any person within this colony shall blaspheme the name of God. . pp. he shall be put to death. For the Record: A Documentary History of America (New York. 3. eds. Source: George Brinley. lay hold on him and bring him to the magistrates assembled in court. presumptuous. he shall be put to death. has or consults with a familiar spirit. sixteen years of age. were strict and severe so as to prevent any resistance to authority. and testify unto them that their son is stubborn and rebellious.such a son shall be put to death. CONNECTICUT'S "BLUE LAWS" By any 21st Century measure. he will not harken unto them. 1865). If any man steals a man or mankind and sell him. If any child or children above sixteen years old and of sufficient understanding. 1999). hatred. viz. after legal conviction. 10. then may his father or mother. or so provoked them by extreme and cruel correction that they have been forced thereunto to preserve themselves from death or maiming. of sufficient understanding and years. Here are some laws from the Connecticut colony enacted in 1672 to insure proper respect for God. pp. unless it can be sufficiently testified that the parents have been very unchristianly negligent in the education of such children. express. 2. which will not obey the voice of his father or the voice of his mother and that when they have chastened him. 1. colonial laws.. If any man or woman be a witch. If any person rise up by false witness wittingly and of purpose to take away any man's life. Son. the Father. or if he be found in his hand. that is. p. The Laws of Connecticut (Hartford. nor by casualty [accident] against his will. If any man have a stubborn or rebellious son.

I stared att the novelty for some time. [I] dined att one Corson's. scales. I dined upon what I never had eat in my life before-a dish of fryed clams. Mr. my bag sleeve catched hold of the handle of the bed pan and unfortunately overset the clams. 1 (New York. deep. John's Church in Richmond [The House of Burgesses had earlier been Virginia's Royal Governor.muttered a scrape of Dutch of which I understood not a word except "mynheer. they had none to use. but I told them I had no stomach. or napkin because. The descriptions provide a glimpse into the home life of many colonial families. an inn across the Narrows from New York's Long Island.. One day att two o'clock. for she uttered her speech with an emphasis.. vol. Inventing America: A History of the United States. They had no cloth upon the table. of which shell fish there is abundance in these parts. and their mess was in a dirty. but I found that it was used by way of a chaffing dish to warm our dish of clams. The second is of a "Dutch" family in New York. plate. The first is a dinner with a ferryboat and his family on the Susquehanna River.before the mechanic arts had supplied them with instruments for the luxury and elegance of life. The landlady spoke both Dutch and English.. spoon. Henry called for armed resistance to the British. Note the numerous references to the potential political enslavement of the colonists by the British Empire. They used neither knife. I could not guess what she intended to do with it unless it was to warm her bed to go to sleep after dinner.DINNER IN COLONIAL AMERICA Alexander Hamilton. described two meals he had on a 1744 journey from Maryland to New York. cramming down skins.." but I suppose she swore. 2003). and reaching over for a mug of beer that stood on the opposite side of the table. President: . which was very good. The landlady called for the bed pan. 1775. I suppose. I drank some of their cider. The family said grace. Lord Dunmore] on March 23. They ate a homely dish of fish without any kind of sauce. wooden dish which they evacuated with their hands.stuff down the fryed clams with rye-bread and butter. PATRICK HENRY: "GIVE ME LIBERTY" Perhaps the most famous speech to emerge from the Revolutionary War Era is Patrick Henry's "Give Me Liberty or Give Me Death" oration before 122 delegates of the Virginia House of Burgesses who met illegally in St. They took such a deal of chawing that we were long at dinner. and the dish began to cool before we had eat enough. at which the landlady. 136. fork. Source Gentleman's Progress: The Itinerarium of Dr. They desired me to eat. Alexander Hamilton. then we began to. land all... I looked upon this as a picture of that primitive simplicity practiced by our forefathers. p. 1744 reprinted in Pauline Maier. an Annapolis physician.

entertaining as I do opinions of a character very opposite to theirs. Our petitions have been slighted. and we have been spurned. are invincible by any force which our enemy can send against us. In vain. We have petitioned. or peace so sweet. I know of no way of judging of the future but by the past.. if we make a proper use of the means which the God of nature hath placed in our power. if. sir. from the foot of the throne. our remonstrances have produced additional violence and insult. the active. is not to the strong alone. we shall not fight our battles alone. 1997).. after these things. or give me death! Source: William Safire. For my own part I consider it as nothing less than a question of freedom or slavery. we have prostrated ourselves before the throne. And judging by the past. we have done everything that could be done to avert the storm which is now coming on. or the next year? Will it be when we are totally disarmed. but as for me. There is no longer any room for hope. and have implored its interposition to arrest the tyrannical hands of the ministry and Parliament. armed in the holy cause of liberty.No man thinks more highly than I do of the patriotism. the brave.. 89-91. with contempt. it is to the vigilant.we must fight! I repeat it.. I have but one lamp by which my feet are guided. I wish to know what there has been in the conduct of the British ministry for the last ten years. and. Besides. we have supplicated. I hope that it will not be thought disrespectful to those gentlemen. that we are weak—unable to cope with so formidable an adversary. to justify those hopes with which gentlemen have been pleased to solace themselves and the House? Sir.. Almighty God! I know not what course others may take. we must fight! An appeal to arms and to the God of Hosts is all that is left us! They tell us. sir. There is no retreat but in submission and slavery! Our chains are forged! Their clanking may be heard on the plains of Boston! The war is inevitable— and let it come! I repeat it. as well as abilities.. The battle.. sir. There is a just God who presides over the destinies of nations. If we wish to be free. ‘Peace! Peace!”—but there is no peace. sir. therefore. p. let it come! Gentlemen may cry.? Is life so dear.? Sir. give me liberty. The war is actually begun! The next gale that sweeps from the north will bring to our ears the clash of resounding arms! Our brethren are already in the field! Why stand we here idle. This is no time for ceremony. our supplications have been disregarded. and when a British guard shall be stationed in every house. and in proportion to the magnitude of the subject ought to be the freedom of the debate. as to be purchased at the price of chains and slavery? Forbid it.. of the very worthy gentlemen who have just addressed the House. and who will raise up to fight our battles for us. may we indulge the fond hope of peace and reconciliation. But when shall we be stronger? Will it be the next week. sir. we are not weak. and in such a country as that which we possess. .. I shall speak forth my sentiments freely and without reserve. we have remonstrated. and that is the lamp of experience.. The question before the House is one of awful moment to this country. But different men often see the same subject in different lights. Three millions of people. Lend Me Your Ears: Great Speeches in History (New York.

Loyalty to him is now treason to our country. on the morning of the nineteenth of April. not many years since.We have seen the humble petitions of these Colonies to the King of Great Britain repeatedly rejected with disdain. chains. 1979). We therefore think it absolutely impracticable for these Colonies to be ever again subject to or dependant upon Great Britain. without endangering the very existence of the state. THE "BATTLE" OF CONCORD The account below describes the first confrontation of American militia and British soldiers at Concord. In this statement they describe why a political reconciliation with Great Britain was now impossible. and Parliament of that Island. as to pass over the most pathetic and earnest appeals to their justice with an unfeeling indifference. Such statements at the local level paved the way for the Declaration of Independence. the people of Boston called on their representatives to make preparations for independence. We have seen his venal Parliament so basely prostituted to his designs. 1776. In short. The hopes we placed on their exertions have long since failed. to burn our houses. death. in support of whose Crown and dignity. it is not easy to appease.. Kutler. 1776 Between the hours of twelve and one. A reconciliation with them appears to us to be as dangerous as it is absurd. therefore. and for safety. Massachusetts Colony from the perspective of Charles Hudson. April 19.I. p. that they have never hesitated to enforce his arbitrary requisitions with the most sanguinary laws. which will stimulate to new impositions on the one side. from the Honorable Joseph Warren. Ministry. . for liberty. we are now constrained to consider as the worst of tyrants.. Esq.. he has tendered the sword. Looking for America: The People's History Vol. The Prince. A spirit of resentment once raised. to assist him in prosecuting these inhuman purposes. a patriot supporter. at . and that the people there have no disposition to oppose them. He has invited every barbarous nation whom he could hope to influence. Source: Stanley I.BOSTONIANS CALL FOR INDEPENDENCE On May 23. and to spill our blood. we would most cheerfully have extended life and fortune. we are convinced that it is the fixed and settled determination of the King. and the whole body-politick will be constantly subject to civil commotions. He has licensed the instruments of his hostile oppressions to rob us of our property.. 110. For the prayer of peace. We have seen the people of Great Britain so lost to every sense of virtue and honour. . Norton and Company.. (New York: W. The recollection of past injuries will perpetually keep alive the flame of jealousy. we received intelligence by express. and consequent resistance on the other.W. to conquer and subjugate the Colonies.

" Upon this intelligence. then deposited at Concord.. brandishing his sword and then pointing towards them. succeeded by a very heavy and close fire upon our party. Upon this. Major Pitcairn and another officer) advanced on horse back to the front of the body. "Damn them! We will have them!" Upon which the troops shouted aloud. (Boston. or possibly more. not having the most distant idea of such brutal barbarity and more than savage cruelty from the troops of a British king. one of them cried out. three officers (supposed to be Col. and the command was given to prime and load. were on the parade. about this time. disperse! Damn you. One of them (whether the same or not is not easily determined) said. and rushed furiously towards our men. and also to be ready for whatever service providence might call us out to. fire!"--which was instantly followed by a discharge of arms from the said troops. who commanded the militia company. Smith. Immediately upon their appearing so suddenly and so nigh. Eight were left dead upon the ground! Ten were wounded. but to consult what might be done for our own and the people's safety. the troops having thus stolen a march upon us and. in sight of our militia (collecting as aforesaid) who were about 12 or 13 rods distant. as they immediately experienced! For. supposed to be an officer of rank. disperse!"--or words to this effect. why don't you lay down your arms?" The second of these officers. "Fire! By God. ye Rebels.Boston.. The rest of the company. who was within a few yards of our men. and not to fire. alarm guns were fired.. and gone over to ]and on Lechmere's Point (so called) in Cambridge. which being done. in case overt acts of violence or open hostilities should be committed by this mercenary band of armed and blood-thirsty oppressors. History of The Town of Lexington. "Ye villains. dispersing. with a loud voice said to the troops. 1913). so long as any of them were within reach. no sooner did they come in sight of our company. Accordingly. our men dispersed-but many of them not so speedily as they might have done. "Lay down your arms! Damn you. "that a large body of the king's troops (supposed to be a brigade of about 12 or 1500) were embarked in boats from Boston. and the drums beat to arms. were (to a miracle) preserved unhurt in this murderous action! Source: Charles Hudson. about half an hour after four o'clock. Capt. they halted. fired a pistol towards the militia as they were dispersing. having seized and held prisoners several persons whom they met unarmed upon die road. 1: . huzza'd. to the number of about 50 or 60. ordered the men to disperse and take care of themselves. was heard to say to the troops. as also upon information of the conduct of the officers as above-mentioned. to prevent any intelligence of their approach.. others were coming towards it. through divine goodness. In the mean time. they marched on till they came up to the east end of said meeting-house.. not with any design of commencing hostilities upon the king's troops. and that it was shrewdly suspected that they were ordered to seize and destroy the stores belonging to the colony. The foremost. Parker... About the same time. the militia of this town were alarmed and ordered to meet on the usual place of parade. and coming within 5 or 6 rods of the militia. and the militia were collecting together. but one of them. Some. seemed to come determined for murder and bloodshed-and that whether provoked to it or not! When within about half a quarter of a mile of the meetinghouse. upon this alarming occasion.

To Dr. amongst whom are R. Samuel Curwen. Col. With great esteem. Those who bring property here may do well enough. I. 1979). though significant.526. etc. for he shall never be disappointed". The use of the property I left behind me I fear I shall never be the better for. they have been in full employ ever since the dispute arose. S. To beg is a meanness I wish never to be reduced to. Curwen . I find my finances so visibly lessening that I wish I could remove from this expensive country (being heartily tired of it) and. business and amusements so totally engross all ranks and orders here that Administration finds no difficulty on the score to pursue their plans. June 10. 1 (New York. Lechmere. Six vessels laden with refugees are arrived from Halifax. did not warrant an independence movement. ed.. old as I am. and beyond that their hopes are vain. Antigua London. THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION: A LOYALIST VIEW Loyalists deplored the American Revolution partly because they believed the political differences with Britain. Vassal. little did I expect from affluence to be reduced to such rigid economy as prudence now exacts. one comfort. stocks are not one jot lessened. who run riot against all the laws of justice. reprinted Stanley I. nor a more interesting truth was ever uttered. and am of opinion that the happiness of it depends on restraining the violences and outrages of profligate and unprincipled men. Oliver. but for those who expect reimbursement for losses. etc. Looking for America: The People’s History. would gladly enter into a business connection anywhere consistently with decency and integrity. Treasurer Gray. which I would fain preserve.530.. the latter may be kept from starving... or supply for present support. 97-99. The general disapprobation of that folly of independence which America now evidently aims at makes it a difficult part for her friends to act. 1776 Dear Sir: I congratulate you on your retreat from the land of oppression and tyranny. truth and religion. "Blessed is he (saith Pope) that expecteth nothing. p. Kutler. Charles Russell. will find to their cost the hand of charity very cold. a New York loyalist describes his bitterness at being forced to leave North America and take refuge in England. and partly because they feared the American political Revolution might evolve into a social revolution. the people in general little moved by it. It is surprising what little seeming effect the loss of American orders has on the manufactories. as I am fast declining into the vale of life: my miseries cannot probably be of long continuance. I sincerely wish well to my native country. vol. In the following letter. and to starve is stupid.

But your Letter was the first Intimation that another Tribe more numerous and powerful than all the rest were grown discontented. Read our Privateering Laws. Depend upon it. Norton and Company. Kutler. That your Sex are Naturally Tyrannical is a Truth so thoroughly established as to admit of no dispute. As to your extraordinary Code of Laws. and will not hold ourselves bound by any Laws in which we have no voice. you know they are little more than Theory. and softly. and our Commercial Laws. Why then. pp. We know better than to repeal our Masculine systems. and be more generous and favorable to them than your ancestors. We are obliged to go fair. not put it out of the power of the vicious and the Lawless to use us with cruelty and indignity with impunity. I wont blot it out. be patient. Do not put such unlimited power into the hands of the Husbands. Abigail and to John Adams. Looking For America: The People's History Vol. John to Abigail Adams: Ap. We have been told that our Struggle has loosened the bands of Government every where. 1776 As to Declarations of Independency. 1979). We dare not exert our Power in its full Latitude. March 31 1776 I long to hear that you have declared an independancy—and by the way in the new Code of Laws which I suppose it will be necessary for you to make I desire you would Remember the Ladies. What signifies a Word.Source: Stanley I. Altho they are in full Force. If particular care and attention is not paid to the Ladies we are determined to foment a Rebellion. 115-116. Men of Sense in all Ages abhor those customs which treat us only as the vassals of your Sex. and in Practice you know We are . or Representation.I. I cannot but laugh. fathers. That Children and Apprentices were disobedient—that schools and Colleges were grown turbulent—that Indians slighted their Guardians and Negroes grew insolent to their Masters. Abigail to John Adams Braintree. but such of you as wish to be happy willingly give up the harsh title of Master for the more tender and endearing one of Friend. (New York: W. brothers and sons. 14. ABIGAIL TO JOHN ADAMS: REMEMBER THE LADIES This remarkable exchange of letters between one of the most famous Revolutionary Era couples. —This is rather too coarse a Compliment but you are so saucy.W. Regard us then as Beings placed by providence under your protection and in imitation of the Supreme Being make use of that power only for our happiness. illustrates that the calls for political freedom from Great Britain prompted some women to consider the constraints on their freedom imposed by their husbands. Remember all Men would be tyrants if they could.

. Trimmers. But as this name is imposed upon us. May 7 1776 I can not say that I think you very generous to the Ladies. Negroes. H. 1989). I had neither cause nor wish to go to war against a foe who had done me no injury. Revolutionary soldiers attacked and killed over 200 members of the tribe during the infamous Harrisburg Massacre in 1782.. when he responded to British calls to attack frontier settlers who supported the American Revolution.. Aristocracy. Oligarchy. Major Problems in American Women’s History (Lexington: D. 127 reprinted in Mary Beth Norton. Hanoverians. Empire. p. Landjobbers. and then proceeded in a lower tone.the subjects. for whilst you are proclaiming peace and good will to Men. saying. 83-84. Canadians. Abigail to John: Braintree. or Ochlocracy.C. in L. 1975). Butterfield et al. Heath. at last they have stimulated the to demand new Privileges and threaten to rebell. Although the Delaware refused to be brought into the war. p.--"I have said father. Emancipating all Nations. as addressing them. turned round to the audience with a most sarcastic look. We have only the Name of Masters." Source: Abigail and John Adams.I have considered the English only as brothers. 'take this weapon and try it on the heads of my enemies. Russians. and without violence throw both your natural and legal authority at our feet— "Charm by accepting. CAPTAIN PIPE ADDRESSES THE BRITISH This vignette includes part of a 1781 speech made by Captain Pipe. and all our brave Heroes would fight. I begin to think the Ministry as deep as they are wicked. which would compleatly subject Us to the Despotism of the Peticoat. and he paused.—A fine Story indeed.. the Long-Knives [Revolutionaries].. 120-22. But you must remember that Arbitrary power is like most other things which are very hard. Bigots.in obedience to you I .. a leader of the Delaware Indians. letters 1776. Hessians. Scotch Renegades. I am sure every good Politician would plot. and let me know afterwards if it was sharp and good. and rather than give up this. Irish Roman Catholicks. The Book of Abigail and John (Cambridge: Harvard University Press. by submitting sway Yet have our Humour most when we obey. "Father!" he began. Monarchy. But. eds. After stirring up Tories. I shall make use of it and say-"Father"--fixing his eyes again on the Commandant--"Some time ago you put a war-hatchet into my hands. very liable to be broken—and notwithstanding all your wise Laws and Maxims we have it in our power not only to free our selves but to subdue our Masters.' Father--At the time when you gave me this weapon. you insist upon retaining an absolute power over Wives. Indians. I hope General Washington. though indeed I do not know why I should call him so. as long as he would against Despotism.

For it is your cause. Lord Dunmore. happen to look back to the place from whence you started me. conclude a peace with them. I knew that if I did not obey you. and his cabin is always empty. Father--Pay attention to what I am going to say. You. better than those who have a white skin. Father. Father--Many lives have already been lost on your account--The tribes have suffered. Source: Wayne Moquin.. you would withhold from me the necessaries of life. LORD DUNMORE'S PROCLAMATION In November. Father. A PROCLAMATION As I have ever entertained hopes that an accommodation might have taken place between Great Britain and this Colony. with the bloody destructive weapon you gave me.. perchance. and yet I am now risking my life at his command! Father. is always full. Father. 1775. While you. But. 127-128. without being compelled by my duty to this most disagreeable. while I am in the act of rushing on that enemy of yours. rendered so by a body of armed men. that you may have them at your service. have the means of preserving that which would perish with us from want. the Indians. and what shall I see? Perhaps I may see my father shaking hands with the Long-Knives. Father--You say you love your children. for risking my life at your bidding-and that in a cause in which I have no prospect of gaining any thing. and the formation of an Army. the Royal Governor of Virginia.. and been weakened--Children have lost parents and brothers--Wives have lost husbands--It is not known how many more may perish before your war will be at an end.received the hatchet. the Indians--This you have often told them. are setting me on your enemy. Father. I may then see him laugh at my folly for having obeyed his orders. Great Documents in American Indian History (New York. but now absolutely necessary step.although you now pretend to keep up a perpetual enmity to the LongKnives. Father--You may perhaps think me a fool. ed. Who of us can believe that you can love a people of a different colour from your own.. which I could procure nowhere but here. I may. before long. The warrior is poor. issued the following proclamation promising freedom to all slaves and servants who supported the Crown. after it became apparent that a reconciliation between the British and the rebellious colonists was impossible. 1973) pp. yes with the very people he now calls his enemies. Father. and not mine--you have raised a quarrel among yourselves--and you ought to fight it out--It is your concern to fight the Long-Knives--You should not compel your children. and destroy the .. much in the same manner as a hunter sets his dog on the game. like yourselves. but your house. you may. and indeed it is your interest to say so to them. to expose themselves to danger for your sake. and that Army now on the march to attack His Majesty's Troops. unlawfully assembled. firing on His Majesty's Tenders. keep what I have said in remembrance.

confiscation of lands. at present. I do. that are able and willing to bear arms. ser.. which the ordinary course of the civil law is unable to effect. on board the Ship William. Fought near Freehold on June 28. American Archives. 6 vols. or any other taxes due. And to the end that peace and good order may the sooner be restored. p.. or that may become due. Negroes. for the more speedily reducing this Colony to a proper sense of their duty to His Majesty's crown and dignity. Tye's title is noteworthy. most unhappy Country. or be looked upon as traitors to His Majesty's crown and Government.well-disposed subjects of this Colony: To defeat such treasonable purposes. or demanded of them for their former salutary purposes. by officers properly authorized to receive the same. in virtue of the power and authority to me given by His Majesty. &c. The most famous of these bands was led by a Monmouth County slave known as Titus but who became "Colonel Tye" during the revolutionary struggle. Although the British army did . ed. COLONEL TYE: BLACK LOYALIST LEADER Both the Loyalists and Patriot forces in New Jersey created guerrilla bands which included African Americans. III. capturing Elisha Shepard. and clause the same to be executed throughout this Colony. hereby declaring. 1385. and that all such traitors and their abettors may be brought to justice.) free. Given under my hand. I do require every person capable of bearing arms to resort to His Majesty's standard. The vignette below relates his activities.. &c. determine to execute martial law.. (appertaining to Rebels.at the beginning of 1778. I have thought fit to issue this my Proclamation. and thereby become liable to the penalty the law inflicts upon such offenses--such as forfeiture of life. 94th ser. off Norfolk. in the sixteenth year of His Majesty's reign. 1778. and that the peace and good order of this Colony may be again restored. a captain in the Monmouth militia. 1837-1853). and removing him to imprisonment at the Sugar House in New York City. Colonel Tye comported himself gallantly in his first know military venture. or others. as son as may be. Washington. formerly known in Monmouth County as John Corlies's slave Titus.. British strongholds protected raiders and offered safe refuse to escaping blacks. that until the aforesaid good purposes can be obtained.. DUNMORE GOD Save the King Source: Peter Force. the 7th day of November. 4. A Documentary History of the American Colonies. The British concentrated their military efforts on small but effective raids into New Jersey from Staten Island.. and I do hereby further declare all indented [sic] servants. will such time as peace may be again restored to this.. the Battle of Monmouth proved indecisive militarily but pivotal for New Jersey's black Loyalists in that it marked the first known appearance of an African American who would become one of the war's most feared Loyalists. white or black--Colonel Tye. they joining His Majesty's Troops. I do further order and require all His Majesty's liege subjects to retain their quit-rents. in their own custody.

who purchased his freed for "two half joes.Tory John Moody.. If before Tye had been seen in Monmouth County as a bandit in the service of the British. Combining banditry. a foe detested by local Tories. particularly in Jamaica and other West Indian islands.. enmities between slaves and masters could understandably become prolonged and intense. After a raid.. and carry off sliver. about 20 horses and a quantity of wearing apparel and household furniture. accompanied by... In the same raid Tye and his men looted and burned the home of John Russell. while the main body of British troops was attacking Washington's forces.. Tye's familiarity with Monmouth's swamps. The effects of Tye's incursions upon the general population of Monmouth County were exacerbated by reports. destroyed their cannon. he now had to be reckoned an important military force. and flaunted their ability to strike at will against a weakened Patriot population. Using a six-pound cannon to warn residents of the raid. Murray. a fierce Patriot associated with raids on Staten Island. In Monmouth County. had been personally responsible for several of their summary executions. and commissioned assistance to the British Army. Colonel Tye. Tye himself spiked Smock's cannon--a symbolically disheartening action for the Patriots--before spiriting the prisoners back to [New York] Tye's June incursions inspired great fear among New Jerseyans... This action established a pattern that was to be repeated over the next year. 1780. it often granted such titles out of respect. at times aided by white refugees known as "cow-boys.. often being aimed directly at former masters and their friends. Tye and his men captured a Captain Warner. Local . before killing him and wounding his young son. Three days later Tye led a large band of self-emancipated blacks and refugee whites in a daring attack on the home of Barnes Smock. Colonel Tye and "about fifty negroes and refugees landed at Shrewsbury and plundered the inhabitants of nearly 80 heard of cattle. After a stiff battle Tye and his men captured Smock and twelve other Patriots. For these accomplishments Tye and his men were paid handsomely. rivers and inlets allowed him to move undetected until it was too late. The transformation of the servant Titus into the warrior Tye was evidently overseen by soldiers who had served in the Caribbean.not formally commission black officers. two of the inhabitants.that black were planning massacres of whites in Elizabethtown and in Somerset County." would disappear again into nearby swamps. sometimes receiving five gold guineas." Less lucky were Captain James Green and Ensign John Morris. where slavery was a family affair and owners were not distant patricians. They also took off William Brindley and Elisha Cook. these raids served the aims of local black rebellion quite intentionally. In the space of one week he and his men carried off much of the officer corps of the Monmouth militia.. known to Patriots as a "motley crew. reprisal. New York City. In a raid on March 30. 1779.and his men murdered Private Joseph Murray of the Monmouth militia at his home in Colt's Neck. During the second week of June 1780. a leader of the Monmouth militia.. clothing and badly needed cattle for British troops in Staten Island and New York City. whom Tye took to.. kidnap soldiers and officers. Smock summoned a number of men around his house to fight Tye. On July 15. Tye and his interracial band." would surprise Patriots in their homes. In a typical raid Tye and his men.

. Tye died." There were more raids to come. Slavery and Freedom in the Rural North: African Americans in Monmouth County. as indeed all men are. New Jersey.. famed for his leadership in raids on British positions in Staten Island.. wrote a paragraph into one of the early drafts of the Declaration of Independence denouncing King George III for promoting slavery.. Source: Graham Russell Hodges... instead of Christian hair. plundered their homes and taken his captives to New York. than such as baron Montesquieu has humorously given. 1665-1865 (Madison.Patriots wrote anguished letters to Governor William Livingston... But a law is only as effective as its enforcement. and there were few able-bodied men to police. moving in and out of Monmouth County with impunity despite martial law and the presence of several militias--all without any reported casualties. begging for help against the ravages of Colonel Tye and his raiders.. help the argument? Can any logical inference in favor of .. The New Jersey Journal noted that "twenty-nine Negroes of both sexes deserted from Bergen County in early June 1780. second major in the Monmouth militia's second regiment [and] Captain James Johnson of the Hunterdon militia as well as several privates. as it is called by those whose hearts are as hard as the millstone. himself a slaveowner torn over the issue of slavery in a political revolution dedicated to liberty. 1780. The paragraph is reprinted below: ____________________________________________________________ ______________ Otis: The Colonist are by the law of nature free born... 1780. While the New Jersey Patriots were distracted by Tye and his men.and despised by Loyalists for his quick executions of captured Tories. Wi.. white or black.: Madison House Publishers. It was a stunning blow to the Patriots. "Tye with thirty blacks. as the foundation of that cruel slavery exercised over the poor Ethiopians. and lacking proper medical attention. which threatens one day to reduce both Europe and America to the ignorance and barbarity of the darkest ages. 96-104. During the battle Colonel Tye received a bullet in the wrist.. On June 22. Does it follow that it is right to enslave a man because he is black? Will short curled hair. In response the governor invoked martial law in the county. thirty-six Queen's Rangers and thirty refugees landed at Conascung.. other blacks were quick to take advantage. 1997). like wool. On September 1. a Boston attorney and later patriot leader in 1761 wrote an anti-British pamphlet which condemned slavery and warned his fellow colonists against denying liberty to anyone. New Jersey" The invaders. Fifteen years later Thomas Jefferson. In a singe day Tye had captured eight militiamen. James Otis.captured James Mott. No better reasons can be given. Tye attempted to capture Captain Josiah Huddy. for enslaving those of any colour. Within days lockjaw set in. JAMES OTIS AND THOMAS JEFFERSON ON SLAVERY Colonial era Americans were much more troubled by slavery than would be most of their 19th Century descendants.

and to purchase that liberty of which HE deprived them. Fear pervaded the stoutest heart. Determined to keep open a market were MEN should be bought and sold. and makes every dealer in it a tyrant. flight became general.400 fell victims to the tremendous malady. It is a clear truth. with crimes which he urges them to commit against the lives of another. it has destroyed the lives of many thousands-and many of those of the most distinguished worth. has a direct tendency to diminish the idea of the inestimable value of liberty. Benjamin Rush. Until the middle of October the mighty destroyer went on with increasing havoc. violating its most sacred rights of life and liberty in the persons of a distant people who never offended him. captivating and carrying them into slavery in another hemisphere. Sources: James Otis.. and for a few weeks seemed entirely confined to that vicinity. The contagion was still progressive and towards the end of the month 90 & 100 died daily. is the warfare of the Christian king of Great Britain. he has prostituted his negative for suppressing every legislative attempt to prohibit or restrain this execrable commerce. In this month 1. The Rights of the British Colonies Asserted and Proved (London. pp. who asserts that the contagion was generated from the stench of a cargo of damaged coffee. I. that is the most shocking violation of the law of nature. and terror was depicted on every countenance. Hence it was generally supposed to have been imported and not generated in the city. in a lodging house in North Water Street. will soon care little for their own. (Nashville.slavery. that those who every day barter away other men’s liberty. YELLOW FEVER IN PHILADELPHIA In the following account Philadelphia resident James Hardie describes the yellow fever epidemic that struck the city in 1794. During the month of August the funerals amounted to upwards of three hundred. It was however combated by Dr. the opprobrium of infidel powers. 71. In the whole month. be drawn from a flat nose. p. The disease had then reached the central streets of the city and began to spread on all sides with the greatest rapidity. From the 1st to the 17th upwards of 1. from the director of an Africa company to the petty chapman in needles and pins on the unhappy coast. This piratical warfare. Lerone Bennett. 1971).. or to incur miserable death in their transport thither. Jefferson: He [King George] has waged cruel war against human nature itself. he is now exciting those very people to rise in arms among us. plus paying off former crimes committed against the liberty of one people.. however. by murdering the people upon whom He also obtruded them. But from whatever fountain we trace this poisoned stream. In September its malignance increased amazingly. 1776).400 more were added to the list of mortality.. and that this assemblage of horror might want no face of distinguished die. 43-44. From the 17th to the 30th the mortality gradually decreased. This disorder made its first appearance toward the latter end of July. a long or short face? Nothing better can be said in favour of a trade. Cathrall and many others. Vol. Ebony Pictorial History of Black America. the dead amounted to . This was the opinion of Doctors Currie.

"On. it was stop'd after about half a pint was taken from him.. The garlic. camphor bags. W being... A mixture of Molasses.. he observed 'the orifice is not large enough. &c. and most of the others were sick at different times. but he could not swallow a drop. They also administered calomil & tarter but without any effect.. Mrs. Vinegar & butter was prepared... several doctors arrived. He had taken cold (undoubtedly from being so much exposed the day before) and complained of having a sore throat.000-a dreadful number. Becker. DEATH OF A FOUNDING FATHER The vignette below describes the death of former President George Washington in December... which prevented the General from riding out as usual.. it put him into great distress and almost produced suffocation. This. and the blood ran slowly.and did not produce any symptoms of fainting. eds. Decr.. observing that Rawlins appeared to be agitated. 111-112. A piece of flannel was then put round his neck. They put a blister of cantharides on the throat &.. They also gave him sage tea and Vinegar to be mixed for a Gargle. said..he desired that Mr Rawlins.. I proposed bathing the throat externally with Salvalaltita. The number of deaths in all amounted to 4041. The Philadelphia Directory and Register (Philadelphia. pp.] could be smelled at several yards distance. 1799. Soon after he went out.and had some Vinegar & hot water put into a Teapot. Discovering the American Past: A Look as the Evidence. if we consider that at this time near one half of the inhabitants had fled. Rawlins came in soon after sunrise and prepared to bleed him. A heavy fall of snow took place on Friday. general 'held back his head to let it run down [his throat]. 1 (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. Before the disorder became so terrible.. handkerchiefs dipped in vinegar. The General. he was bled again. which chewed as a preventative[. Mr.uneasy lest too much blood should be taken. During this melancholy period the city lost ten of her most valuable physicians.upwards of 2. 1999). 'don't be afraid. 12th. and had [fever].) reprinted in William Bruce Wheeler and Susan D.. About two or three o'clk Saturday Morning he awoke Mrs. might be sent for to bleed him before the doctors could arrive. She observed that he could scarcely speak.. as well as he could speak. gave no relief. . I found him breathing with difficulty-and hardly able to utter a word intelligibly. 1794. Washington & told her he was very unwell.. whilst other[s] hoped to avoid infection by a recourse to smelling bottles." In the meantime. vol.. His feet were also soaked in warm water.. Source: James Hardie. for the General to draw in steam from the nozel. As soon as the day appeared. In the afternoon. however.. Thursday. the weather became very bad. Finding that no relief was obtain'd. one of the overseers who was used to bleeding the people.' and after the incision was made. the appearance of Philadelphia must to a stranger have seemed very extraordinary. to try its effect in the throat. [1799] the General [George Washington] rode out to his farms.took more blood. but when the.

and do not let my body be put into the Vault in less than two days after I am dead. he expired without a struggle or a Sigh! Source: Tobias Lear's journal entry on the death of George Washington at Mount Vernon. with great difficulty. 1823 Lowell Girls Elizabeth Cady Stanton Sarah and Angelina Grimke Women's Rights Convention . 1 (New York.. 2003). 278. the doctors applied blisters to his legs. Have me decently buried. but went out without a ray of hope. "I feel myself going. Inventing America: A History of the United States. I cannot last long. let me go off quietly. A little while later. vol.Around 6 p. CHAPTER TWO: DEMOCRACY EXPANDED. 1799 reprinted in Pauline Maier. "I am just going.m. DEMOCRACY TESTED Terms for Week 2 prohibition Democratic racism Indian Removal Manifest Destiny Monroe Doctrine Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Magdalen Society Female Moral Reform Society Anti-Catholicism Boston Associates Lowell.. December 15. Washington said.. About 10." Two hours later. the general told his physicians. p. Massachusetts." I bowed assent.

Charles Finney Horace Mann Democratic Party Portland’s Chinatown Whig Party Andrew Jackson The Spoils System universal suffrage THE MONROE DOCTRINE The Monroe Doctrine. therefore. With the movements in this hemisphere we are of necessity more immediately connected. we could not view any interposition for the purpose of oppressing them. It is only when our rights are invaded or seriously menaced that we resent injuries or make preparation for our defense.. 1823. or controlling in any other manner their destiny. on great consideration and on just principles. 1823.Rev. December 2. to candor and to the amicable relations existing between the United States and those powers to declare that we should consider any attempt on their part to extend their system to any portion of this hemisphere as dangerous to our peace and safety. The political system of the allied powers is essentially different in this respect from that of America. and by causes which must be obvious to all enlightened and impartial observers.. THE EXTENSION OF VOTING RIGHTS . acknowledged. But with the governments who have declared their independence and maintained it. With the existing colonies or dependencies of any European power we have not interfered and shall not interfere. was the first major assertion of American foreign policy. Source: President James Monroe's Message to Congress. Part of the document is presented below: In the wars of the European powers in matters relating to themselves we have never taken any part. We owe it. and whose independence we have. by any European power in any other light than as the manifestation of an unfriendly disposition toward the United States. nor does it comport with our policy so to do. proposed in the President's annual message to Congress on December 2.

it has terminated disastrously. in the majority to tyrannize over the minority.155.0 56. and there is a tendency in ambitious and wicked men to inflame those combustible materials. By the report before us.5 1.9 50. in which it has been tried..in the poor to covet a share in the plunder of the rich. There is a constant tendency. The apprehended danger from the experiment of universal suffrage applied to the whole legislative department. and trample down their rights. in the debtor to relax or avoid the obligation of contracts. Two groups. That extreme democratic principle.. is no dream of the imagination. all those property distinctions and to bow before the idol of universal suffrage.9 50. 1824-1844 PERCENTAGE OF ELIGIBLE VOTERS WHO WHIG TOTAL VOTERS VOTE 356.The passages below reflect the transformation of the American political system as a consequence of the expansion of voting rights. PRESIDENTIAL VOTING. The .. The tendency of universal suffrage is to jeopardize the rights of property and the principles of liberty. we propose to annihilate.278 49. when applied to the legislative and executive departments of the government.3 CAST BALLOTS 27 58 55 58 80 79 DEMOCRATIC VOTE * 56.799 43.405 53. In the first vignette James Kent.505.350 44. It is too mighty an excitement for the moral constitution of men to endure. a conservative delegate to the 1821 New York state constitutional convention which extended voting rights to all white males.9 46. The chart shows the dramatic increase in the number and percentages of Americans voting in presidential elections between 1824 and 1844.038 * 1.700.250.402.1 2. in the indolent and profligate to cast the whole burdens of society upon the industrious and the virtuous. injustice. and been productive of corruption. led respectively by Andrew Jackson and by John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay emerged shortly after..7 1824 1828 1832 1836 1840 1844 *There were no political parties in 1824.861 49. by the wise men of every age.1 2. and tyranny. at one stroke. argues in vain for preserving property requirements. violence. has been regarded with terror.0 1. ancient and modern. because in every European republic.

Source: Richard Current. [the Whig Congressman from Tennessee] they pinned a coonskin cap on the wall.opposite. "Give him a barrel of hard cider. Within a week. The Whig managers openly presented Harrison to the rally as "The Log-Cabin Candidate.. 1839.. Borrowing from Davy Crockett." The reporter (himself a Democrat) printed this answer. heralded a new era in American politics with emphasis on symbols rather than substance. given to extravagant.Jackson partisans become the Democrats. [that] it would be difficult to say from his personal appearance whether he was a man or woman. the Whig candidate. 1961). (New York... rally took the next step in the transformation of the Whig campaign. effeminate dandy. 327.. a Harrisburg.. Vol.. The Whigs cloaked their champion in familiar heroic garb as an Indian fighter and victorious general in the War of 1812. The Whigs ridiculed the president as a foppish. Stephan Thernstrom.also meant recasting Van Buren as the. 1989). On December 11. such as women wear. Davy Crockett portrayed Van Buren as so "laced up in corsets.. Harrison is sneered at by the Eastern office-holders' pimps. and President Martin Van Buren. which has sometimes surprised folks. image manipulation. In early January 1840." On January 20. Now the Whigs could turn the tables. But almost immediately they grafted a new and very different kind of symbol onto the campaign. and settle a pension of two thousand a year on him. Recasting Harrison as a homespun farmer." They prepared a huge transparency of what was purportedly [Harrison's] log cabin (his original "cabin" had long since been expanded into an impressive sixteen room house) and placed it next to a barrel of cider and a woodpile. The anti-Jackson factions became the Whig party in 1834." Pennsylvania Congressman Charles Ogle described the Van Buren White House "as .the common man.question about how to "get rid of Harrison. The following vignette describes the campaign. (New York: Knopf. The Democrats had won elections by presenting themselves as the party of. p. THE LOG CABIN CANDIDATE The 1840 presidential contest between General William Henry Harrison. but for his large red and gray whiskers. 256. political slogans... other Whig papers joined in. p. and.. the Democratic standard bearer.. Illinois... I.. a newspaper correspondent printed his own facetious answer to a. told his readers that "Gen. while condemning the Whigs as aristocrats and friends of wealth and privilege.he will sit the remainder of his days in his log cabin. as the 'Log cabin' candidate. Pennsylvania. aristocratic tastes. the New York Daily Whig replied that only "pampered office-holders" who "sneer at the idea of making a poor man president" would consider "log cabin candidate" a term with which to "reproach" General Harrison. American History: A Survey. A History of the American People. The editor of the Whig paper in Galena." This was the opening the Whigs had been waiting for. the Log Cabin. and "negative campaign" ads." But those who live in log cabins "have a way of taking care of themselves when insulted.

probably. and peace. a period of rapid territorial expansion. Possessed of a domain. embraced the concept with religious zeal. in full court costume. pp. American nationalists spoke of the nation's divinely inspired mission to control most of the North American continent. impatient of the ordinary laws of progress.. union. mills and meeting houses. Mexico..splendid as that of the Caesars. A population will soon be in actual occupation of California. The Pursuit of Liberty. forgetting that. and as richly adorned as the proudest Asiatic mansion. over which it will be idle for Mexico to dream of dominion. we cannot advance without imminent peril to our institutions. 342-345. or were it disposed to profit by self-knowledge. 1990). The Anglo-Saxon foot is already on its borders. vast enough for the growth of ages.." Ogle ridiculed the four mirrors Van Buren purchased for the White House as a cost of $2. Already endangered by our greatness.. armed with the plough and the rifle and marking its trail with schools and colleges.. in an 1837 letter to Henry Clay.. Already the advance guard of the irresistible army of Anglo-Saxon emigration has begun to pour down upon it. California will. "What would frugal and honest Hoosiers think of a democratic peacock. Not surprisingly many Americans such as those writing in the Democratic Review. It was disintegrated from Mexico in the natural course of events. strutting by the hour before golden-framed mirrors. but the most natural. by a process perfectly legitimate on its own part.. [Its] incorporation into the Union was not only inevitable. prone to encroachment. it is time for us to stop in the career of acquisition and conquest. It is full time that we should lay on ourselves serious.. throughout nature. it would feel the necessity of laying an immediate curb on its passion for extended territory. . All this without agency of our government.. Channing: Did this country know itself. blameless on our. Imbecile and distracted.... We are a restless people. Mexico never can exert any real governmental authority over such a country. We boast of our rapid growth. Jackson Wilson. California. to denote the nipple..was designed to resemble an Amazon's bosom. next fall away from. and the adaptation of the tendencies and wants of the human race to the elemental circumstances in the midst of which they find themselves placed. courts and representative halls.400." "The landscaping...... noble growths are slow. the spontaneous working of principles. MANIFEST DESTINY: TWO VIEWS During the 1830s and 1840s.. however expressed the doubts of many Americans about the inevitability of American expansion. resolute restraint.. nine feet high and four feet wide? Source: R. prosperity. right and proper thing in the world.. with a miniature knoll on its apex. Democratic Review: Texas has been absorbed into the Union in the inevitable fulfillment of the general law which is rolling our population westward. William Ellery Channing. virtue. (Belmont. July 1845.. without responsibility of our people-in the natural flow of events.

So did the late conqueror of Europe [Napoleon]. any more than to justify gamblers and robbers. in Congress assembled. And be it further enacted. eds. if the Indians become extinct. And be it further enacted. Source: Theda Perdue and Michael D. The Indian Removal Act set the stage for the Trail of Tears. That such lands shall revert to the United States. Away with this vile sophistry! There is no necessity to crime. and for their removal west of the river Mississippi. 116-17. That in the making of any such exchange or exchanges. 1985). An Act to provide for an exchange of lands with the Indians residing in any of the states or territories. The National Experience.. and the mixed. it shall and may be lawful for the President solemnly to assure the tribe or nation with which the exchange is made.. and destiny consigned him to a lonely rock in the ocean. against all interruption or disturbance from any other tribe or nation of Indians. to be divided unto a suitable number of districts.. as he may judge necessary. or abandon the same. west of the river Mississippi. that they have their destinies.It is sometimes said. Green. that the United States will forever secure and guaranty to them. Source: John M. 255. disgraced race of Mexico must melt before the Anglo-Saxon. and if they prefer it. and their heirs or successors.. and to cause each of said districts to be so described by natural or artificial marks.. that. the country so exchanged with them. . We boast of the progress of society. that their character and position carry them forward irresistibly to their goal. not included in any state or organized territory. We talk of accomplishing our destiny. for the reception of such tribes or nations of Indians as may choose to exchange the lands where they now reside. p.. That it shall and may be lawful for the President to cause such tribe or nation to be protected. That it shall and may be lawful for the President of the United States to cause so much of any territory belonging to the United States. and this progress consists in the substitution of reason and moral principle for the sway of brute force. pp.. that nations are swayed by laws.. There is no fate to justify rapacious nations.the Indians have melted before the white man. Blum. in plunder.. that the United States will cause a patent or grant to be made and executed to them for the same: Provided always. the prey of an ambition which destroyed no peace but his own. THE INDIAN REMOVAL ACT The passage below is from the Indian Removal Act of 1830 which authorized President Andrew Jackson to move Indians residing east of the Mississippi to lands in the West. and remover there. as unfailing as those which govern matter.. at their new resident. as to be easily distinguished for every other. 1995). Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America.. and to which the Indian title has been extinguished.. (New York. The Cherokee Removal: A Brief History with Documents (Boston. or from any other person or persons whatever.

149-150. there is game. He said much. there is a pleasant country. Officials on Wednesday will formally pardon tow missionaries jailed when the fought the state's seizure of Cherokee Indian land. More than 160 years after Georgia officials ignored a direct order from the U. lest I should. and when the pale faces of the south made war on him. and they all begun and ended the same. "It shall be yours forever. and protected his head from the scalping knife. but said." He also said. go beyond the Oconee and the Okmulgee. 1973). Brothers! When he made us a talk on a former occasion." I have heard a great many talks from our great father. he became very large. He says he loves his red children. describes his response to the proposal to remove his people to Indian Territory. the state is admitting it made a mistake. Brothers! When the white man first came to these shores. Great Documents in American Indian History. His hands grasped the eastern and the western sea. THE TRAIL OF TEARS: ONE STATE'S APOLOGY The following vignette appeared as part of a 1992 Oregonian article on the apology of the state of Georgia for its role in Indian Removal 160 years earlier. their young men drew the tomahawk. there you may remain while the grass grows or the water runs. "You must move a little farther." Brothers! Will not our great father come there also? He loves his red children. "Get a little farther. spokeswoman for the state Board of Pardons and Paroles. He loved his red children. ed. he stopped not for the mountain tops. you are too near me. "It was a miscarriage of justice.S. Then he became our great father." The pardon says it "acts to remove a stain on the history of criminal justice in Georgia" land acknowledges the state usurped Cherokee sovereignty . and kindled him a fire to make him comfortable. and he soon made them another talk. (New York. he said.. and with the other he trampled down the graves of his fathers. But our great father still loved his red children.INDIAN REMOVAL: AN INDIAN VIEW In the brief passage below Speckled Snake." With one foot he pushed the red man over the Oconee. Source: Wayne Moquin. but it's something that we could do something about. and his tongue is not forked. but it all meant nothing. it is very kind. the Muscogees gave him land. by accident. and filled himself with the Indian's hominy. pp. Supreme Court to stop actions leading up to the infamous Trail of Tears." said Marsha Bailey. and his feet covered the plains and the valleys. go beyond the Mississippi. Brothers! We have heard the talk of our great father. a Cherokee. but "move a little farther. "This is one of many injustices done. But when the white man had warmed himself before the Indian's fire. "The land you live on is not yours. tread on you." Now he says.

who lived at the Cherokee capital of New Echota. you enterprising boys: Come travel west and settle on the plains of Illinois. Thousands died of cold and starvation during the march. attracted national attention to the American Indians' cause. THE ATTRACTIONS OF FRONTIER ILLINOIS Come all you good farmers that on your plow depend. They were released in time to join the Trail of Tears. . with its land off limits to settlers. To muzzle them. "It's been a sore place in the side of the Indian people for all these generations that these two wonderful Christian gentlemen were sent to prison because they believe in God and they believed in the Cherokee Nation. Worcester and Butler refused and were convicted of "high misdemeanor. a poem extolling the attractions of frontier Illinois in the 1820s. but until now never formally admitted the actions were wrong. gold was discovered in Dahlonega and Georgia seized much of the land and abolished Cherokee sovereignty. A law was enacted to try to stop the two from protesting the state's seizure of Cherokee land in northwest Georgia. "If we ever had political prisoners in this state or this nation. But Georgia ignored the ruling. Bill Dover. it is as fine country as ever has been seen. including seizing their land. these two were the best examples.000 Cherokees to move west." said state Rep. Samuel Austin Worcester and Elihu Butler were sentenced to four years in jail in 1831 for residing in the Cherokee Nation without a license. Worcester and Butler. said Dover. leave your fields of childhood. But in 1829. Illinois. Chief Justice John Marshall declared Georgia had no constitutional right to extend any state laws over the Cherokee. when Georgia forced up to 17. chief executive of the Georgia Tribe of Eastern Cherokee. the Cherokee Nation was considered a sovereign foreign country. Supreme Court. and a frontier farmer's description of community life at the edge of settlement in 1836. the state required all white men living on Cherokee land to obtain a state license. WESTWARD MIGRATION: SETTLEMENT ON THE FRONTIER The passages below. November 23. 1992. Source: The Portland Oregonian. Dover said. Until 1828." The missionaries appealed to the U." Dover said. A legislator and Cherokee descendant called the pardon a sign that Georgia finally realizes the scope of its mistreatment of the Cherokee. The missionaries spend 16 months doing hard labor as part of a chain gang. come listen to a friend: Oh. and must release the missionaries. but the missionaries made it to Oklahoma and continued their work among Cherokee there. explain the both the lure of the frontier and the impact of the migratory tendencies of Americans on attitudes toward the land and patterns of social organization.S.and ignored the Supreme Court. In 1832. Come listen to a story. The state repealed its Cherokee laws in 1979.

They offer their farm for sale. Act of 1800. 300.--some country that has become the rage. Your family is growing large. Vol. and the wonderful exuberance of Kentucky. Listed below are the most important land laws enacted between 1785 and 1820 which promoted westward expansion. Ordinance of 1785. Act of 1796. Scarcely has a family fixed itself. A History of the American People. leave your friends of childhood. There was nothing I could compare with the plains of Illinois. Made no provision for credit. 1989). that appertain to the most absolute necessity than the assembled family about the winter fire begin to talk about the prevailing events. Source: Stephan Thernstrom. They have a fatal effect upon their exertions. They have not motive. with a down payment of one fourth of the whole amount and three later installments. perhaps he would say the same. in short achieved the first rough improvements." They only make such improvements as they can leave without reluctance and without loss. "All in the garden of Eden. Indian wars. Come. and enclosed a plantation with the universal fence--split rails--reared a suitable number of log buildings.If old Adam had traveled over that. They talk of them. Allowed a minimum purchase of 640 acres and set a minimum price of $ 1 an acre. and unfortunately for the western country. 1785-1820 The various public land laws encouraged settlement of the American frontier and provided the major source of revenue to the United States treasury prior to the Civil War. Raised the minimum price to $2 an acre but allowed a year's credit on half of the amount due. it constitutes too great a proportion of the whole community. to build "for posterity and the immortal gods. you enterprising boys. Reduced the minimum purchase from 640 to 320 acres and extended credit to four years. They are attached to the associations connected with such conversations. when I was but a boy. pp. for them you must provide. 309. in consonance with these feelings. and move away. and where we expect to die. I have spoken of the moveable part of the community. I. the favorite topic is new countries. . PUBLIC LANDS: TERMS OF SALE. I have every where noted the operation of this impediment in the way of those permanent and noble improvements which grow out of a love for that appropriated spot where we are born. as a point of immigration. (New York. Next to hunting. Come travel west and settle on the plains of Illinois." Perhaps you have a few acres that near your friends' adjoin.

352 12.(New York: Knopf.183 590. p.267 . The date of admission to the Union is listed next to the state. to 80 acres. and from the entire dependence of the inhabitants upon their own resources. p.866 375.282 * 20. 1961). WESTERN MIGRATION TO 1840 The following table shows the growth of the population of the states between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River. It was a partial clearing in the very heart of the forest. 219.556 24. (New York.702 97.519.762 1840 1.756 383. The house was built on the side 230.) Act of 1820. although he would still owe $240 to be paid within four years.467 352. John M.520 40.845 1. Blum.411 685.25 an acre. but abolished the credit system. and the minimum price to $1.062 4. The National Experience: A History of the United States. Reduced the minimum purchase still further.760 76. American History: A Survey. A FRONTIER FARM This brief description of a frontier farm in southwest Ohio in 1830 by British writer Frances Trollope provides a glimpse into early 19th Century agricultural life and illustrates the independence and self-sufficiency that necessarily comes with settlement in isolated settings. 1989). *Note: Most public lands were sold at auctions and much of it sold for more than the minimum price. 1810 Ohio (1803) Louisiana (1812) Indiana (1816) Mississippi (1817) Illinois (1818) Alabama (1819) Missouri (1821) Arkansas (1836) Michigan (1837) *Part of Mississippi Sources: Richard Current.651 476. (Now a man with as little as $80 on hand could obtain a farm from the government. 189. “We visited the farm which interested us particularly from its wild and lonely situation. Harcourt Brace.Act of 1804 Further reduced the minimum purchase to 160 acres.574 212.

Domestic Manners of the Americans reprinted in Pauline Maier. We had one of the tents pitched at a short distance from the camp. and knit all the stockings. giving accommodation to cows. and said they had all had ague [fever] in 'the fall'. Even as wagon trains traveled west on Overland Trail to Oregon and California.. that was used as a kitchen. All she wanted with money. and she could 'get enough any day by sending a batch of butter and chicken to market. We . though it appeared a very large quantity. Both rooms were comfortably furnished with good beds.. 2003). We had previously invited Mr. ( New York. but she seemed contented and proud of her independence. was to buy coffee. was not more than they required to make their bread and cakes of various kinds. in which was placed a table with seats for the officers of the day and the orators. like thousands of others in 1849. she said. At twelve o'clock we formed a procession and walked to the stand to the tune of 'The Star Spangled Banner. and a few half-cleared acres. pigs. were spinning. whose bed had been deepened into a little reservoir. 1. travelers took time off to celebrate.of a hill. was headed to the California gold fields to strike it rich. Sexton of the Plymouth company. vol. horses. Our celebration of the day was very good. with a shed or two upon them. besides a little shanty or lean-to. a 27-year-old farmer from western New York who. and a young woman who looked like her sister. The following vignette comes from the diary of William Swain. made all the shoes. and consisted of two rooms. The table was spread with a blanket. and three little children were playing about. [At sunrise a salute of thirteen guns was fired.’ Source: Frances Trollope. THE FOURTH OF JULY ON THE OVERLAND TRAIL The Fourth of July in 19th Century America was a time of widespread celebration.' They used no wheat. though it was in somewhat mournful accent that she said: 'Tis strange to us to see company. though not a shoemaker by trade.] We lay in bed late this morning and after a late breakfast set about getting fuel for cooking our celebration dinner. set a hundred times. She manufactured all the soap and candies they used. July 4. her husband.' The President of the day called the meeting to order. Immediately before the house was a small potato-garden.to deliver an address. which. A noble field of Indian corn stretched away into the forest on one side. much better than I anticipated. Inventing America: A History of the United States. and prepared her sugar from the sugar-trees on their farm. and chickens innumerable. tea. The farmer's wife. so steep that a high ladder was necessary to enter the front door. p. The woman told me that they spun and wove all the cotton and woolen garments of the family. She did not look in health. nor sold any of their corn. etc. 377. and whiskey. Pratt to read the Declaration of Independence. occupied the other. The house was built of logs. I expect the sun may rise and before I shall see another human that does not belong to the family. while the back one opened against the hill side: at the foot of this sudden eminence ran a clear stream. and we had appointed Mr. and to feed all their live stock during the winter. just opposite the house. with a few peach and apple trees. drawers.

listened to a prayer by Rev. Mr. Hobart, then remarks and the reading of the Declaration of Independence by Mr. Pratt, and then the address by Mr. Sexton. We then listened to 'Hail Columbia.' This celebration was very pleasing, especially the address, which was well delivered and good enough for any assembly at home. We then marched to the 'hall,' which was formed by running the wagons in two rows close enough together for the wagon covers to reach from one to the other, thus forming a fine hall roofed by the covers and a comfortable place for the dinner table, which was set down the center. Dinner consisted of ham, beans, boiled and baked, biscuits, john cake, apple pie, sweet cake, rice pudding, pickles, vinegar, pepper sauce and mustard coffee, sugar, and milk. All enjoyed it well. After dinner the toasting commenced. The boys had raked and scraped together all the brandy they' could, and they toasted, hurrayed, and drank till reason was out and brandy was in. I stayed till the five regular toasts were drunk; and then, being disgusted with their conduct, I went to our tent in which I enjoyed myself better than those who were drinking, carousing, and hallooing all around the camp. Source: J. S. Holliday, The World Rushed In: The California Gold Rush Experience (New York, 1981), pp. 167-168. IMMIGRATION TO THE UNITED STATES, 1820-1860 Country of Origin Ireland German States Great Britain (excluding Ireland) British Canada China 1821- 1830 51,000 6,800 25,000 2,300 2 1831- 1840 207,000 152,000 76,000 14,000 8 1841- 1850 781,000 433,000 267,000 42,000 35 1851- 1860 914,000 952,000 424,000 59,000 41,000

Total Number of Immigrants 1820-1824..................................................38,689 1825-1829...................................................89,813 1830-1834................................................230,442 1835-1839.................................................307,939 1840-1844................................................400,031 1845-1849..............................................1,027,306 1850-1854...............................................1,917,527 1855-1859.................................................897,027 Total......................................................4,908,774 Percentage of Immigrants By Country of Origin

Ireland.........................................................38.9% Germany......................................................30.4% Great Britain.................................................15.6% France, Switzerland & Low Countries...........5.5% Canada...........................................................2.3% Other..............................................................7.3% Sources: Lewis Todd and Merle Curti, Rise of the American Nation, (New York, 1982), p. 286; John M. Blum, The National Experience, (New York, 1985), p. 313. EAST FROM CHINA: THE ORIGINS OF CHINESE AMERICA In the passage below historian Shih-shan Henry Tsai describes the push factors that prompted Chinese emigration to the United States beginning in the 1840s. Almost all of the Chinese who emigrated to the United States in the nineteenth century were natives of Kwangtung, a southern Chinese province of about eighty thousand square miles, approximately the area of the state of Oregon. In this hilly province only 16% of the land was cultivated as late as 1955, and, in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, much of this cultivated land was used to grow such commercial crops as fruit, sugarcane, indigo, and tobacco instead of rice, the staple food of the Chinese. Consequently, the common folk suffered from the ever-rising price of rice. This situation was further aggravated by the increase in population throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.... In 1787 the population of Kwangtung numbered 16 million; by 1850 it had increased to 28 million. But during the 1850s and 1860s Kwangtung was devastated by the Taipings and the Triad-led rebels. Fighting also broke out between Punti (Cantonese speaking) and Hakka (Guest Settlers) people in the region southwest of the Pearl River Delta. These conflicts resulted in political disorder, social chaos, and economic dislocations. The Hsin-ning hsien-chih (Gazetteer of the Hsin-ning district) graphically described the situation. "The fields in the four directions were choked with weeds. Small families found it difficult to make a living and often drowned their girl babies because of the impossibility of looking after them." Emigration was very much in evidence. The largest portion of the Chinese in America come from Kwangtung's most populous prefecture, Kwangchou, which contains the city of Canton, and from the colony of Macao. The Cantonese were more venturesome than most Chinese because of their early contact with foreigners, and because British Hong Kong served as a steppingstone for their adventures. Emigrant ships that carried Chinese to California seldom sailed directly from any other port in China. More than nine-tenths of the Chinese emigrants embarked from San Francisco at Hong Kong. The emigrants traveled in junks, lorchas, or rafts over the waterways of the Pearl River Delta from their native villages to Hong Kong. The officials at Canton normally did not interfere with their countrymen going to Hong Kong, nor did the British authorities try to detain them. Chinese emigrants obtained the money to pay their passage in various ways. Some had saved money, others sold their property, including land or hogs, to secure

passage. Some borrowed money from friends and relatives. Some pledged their families as security for the loan. They came at their own option, and when the arrived in California they were free to go where they pleased and to engage in any occupation they liked. Source: Shih-shan Henry Tsai, China and the Overseas Chinese in the United States, 1868-1911 (Fayetteville, 1983), pp. 14, 16. PORTLAND'S CHINATOWN The following is Nelson Chia-chi Ho's description of Portland's Chinese community in the late 19th Century. The Chinese have been in Portland almost since its beginning and have grown up with the city. Direct trade between Portland and China began in 1851, when the brig Emma Preston became the first vessel from Oregon to sail to Canton, China... In the spring of 1857 [additional] Chinese arrived on the steamer Columbia. They became cooks in restaurants, or private homes, obtained employment in laundries or worked as gardeners and servants for wealthy Portland residents... By the mid-1870s, the Chinese had become the largest ethnic group in Portland.... In 1890, with a population of 5,184 in a city of 46,385, Portland's Chinatown was a well-established part of the city. In the late 1880s Chinatown stretched along S.W. Second Avenue from Pine Street to Taylor Street and into some adjacent areas. The center of the community was at the intersection of Second Avenue and Alder Street. The buildings people occupied were mainly of solid brick, built by whites initially, but on long leases to the Chinese at enormous rates. The bottom story of each building usually served as a business of some sort. Store windows displayed a variety of foods, including dried shark's fins, aged eggs, geese and ducks (live or preserved in oil), fruits and confections. The drug stores carried an assortment of products; dried reptiles, preserved snakes, elk horn, ginseng, peppermint, licorice, and a large inventory of medicinal herbs. Others conducted business on the sidewalks with vegetables stalls, fruit stands, and chicken coops. Laundry vendors with poles and baskets squeezed through the maze of activities. Here pipes were smoked and the mother tongue was spoken. The upper floors frequently had wrought-iron balconies with moon-like windows. These were the crowded living quarters where some 20 persons could sleep in a 12-by-20 foot room in bunks stacked from floor to ceiling... The Chinese did not erect temples in Portland's Chinatown, but had a common meeting place known as the Chinese Joss House, which was in the upper floor of a building on Second Avenue. Many whites...resented the presence of the Chinese....on one occasion a [Chinese man] was once used to demonstrate the power of electricity. This drew a large crowd, which greatly enjoyed the sight of a Chinese being electrically shocked... Before 1906, in the absence of consular representatives, the residents of Portland's Chinatown enjoyed a measure of civil autonomy. The merchant class soon became the ruling elite. Because commercial success was so closely tied to social

acceptance in America, this elite enjoyed good relations with public officials. The president of the Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association was popularly deemed as the "Mayor of Chinatown," and was the semi-official representative of the Chinese government. Finally, on October 2, 1906, in recognition of Portland's large Chinese population and the importance of this city's trade with China, Moy Back Hin, a Chinese millionaire in Portland, was name the consul for...Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and Montana, with headquarters in Portland. The consul was the fourth to be appointed to represent the Chinese government in the United States. The other three were in San Francisco, Boston, and New York. Source: Nelson Chia-chi Ho, Portland's Chinatown: The History of An Urban Ethnic District, (Portland, 1981), pp. 9-17. REV. CHARLES FINNEY ON THE OBLIGATION OF THE CHURCH Rev. Charles Finney, a New York City Presbyterian minister who moved in the 1830s and later was President of Oberlin College from 1851 to 1866, was one of the nation's leading revivalists. He was also an advocate of reform and encouraged the Church to lead that effort. In this 1835 lecture he explains the relationship between revivalism and reform. There should be great and deep repentings on the part of ministers. We, my brethren, must humble ourselves before God. It will not do for us to suppose that it is enough to call on the people to repent. We must repent, we must take the lead in repentance, and then call on the church to follow. The church must take right ground in regard to politics. Do not suppose, now, that I am going to preach a political sermon, or that I wish to have you join and get up a Christian party in politics....But the time has come that Christians must vote for honest men, and take consistent ground in politics, or the Lord will curse them. ...And if [every man] will give his vote only for honest men, the country will be obliged to have upright rulers. All parties will be compelled to put up honest men as candidates...As on the subjects of slavery and temperance, so on this subject, the church must act right, or the country will be ruined... The church must take the right ground on the subject of slavery... Christians can no more take neutral ground on this subject...than they can take neutral ground on the subject of sanctification of the Sabbath. It is a great national sin... There are those in the churches who are standing aloof from the subject of moral reform, and who are as much afraid to have anything said in the pulpit against lewdness, as if a thousand devils had got up into the pulpit. On this subject, the church need not expect to be permitted to take neutral ground. In the providence of God, it is up for discussion. The evils have been exhibited; the call has been made for reform And what is to reform mankind but the truth? And who shall present the truth if not the church and the ministry? Away with the idea, that Christians can remain neutral, and yet enjoy the approbation and blessing of God. Source: Richard N. Current and John A. Garraty, ed., Words that Made American History, Vol. I, (Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1965), pp. 386- 387, 392.

HENRY DAVID THOREAU, "CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE" Henry David Thoreau wrote "Civil Disobedience" after spending a night in a Massachusetts jail for refusing to pay his taxes in protest of the Mexican War and slavery. He calls on others to resist governmental policies which they feel are unjust. Here are excerpts from his influential essay. I heartily accept the motto, "That government is best which governs least," and I should like to see it acted up to more rapidly and systematically. Carried out, it finally amounts to this, which also I believe: "That government is best which governs not at all:" and when men are prepared for it, that will be the kind of government which they will have. Government is at best but an expedient; but most governments are usually, and all governments are sometimes, inexpedient. The objections which have been brought against a standing army, and they are many and weighty, and deserve to prevail, may also at last be brought against a standing government. The standing army is only an arm of the standing government. The government itself, which is only the mode which the people have chosen to execute their will, is equally liable to be abused and perverted before the people can act through it. Witness the present Mexican war, the work of comparatively a few individuals using the standing government as their tool; for in the outset, the people would not have consented to this measure. This American government--what is it but a tradition, though a recent one, endeavoring to transmit itself unimpaired to posterity, but each instant losing some of its integrity? It has not the vitality and force of a single living man; for a single man can bend it to his will. It is a sort of wooden gun to the people themselves; and, if ever they should use it in earnest as a real one against each other, it will surely split. But it is not the less necessary for this; for the people must have some complicated machinery or other, and hear its din, to satisfy that idea of government which they have. Governments show thus how successfully men can be imposed on, even impose on themselves, for their own advantage. It is excellent, we must all allow yet this government never of itself furthered any enterprise, but by the alacrity with which it got out of its way. It does not keep the country free. It does not settle the West. It does not educate. The character inherent in the American people has done all that has been accomplished; and it would have done somewhat more, if the government had not sometimes got in its way. For government is an expedient by which men would fain succeed in letting one another alone... But, to speak practically and as a citizen, unlike those who call themselves nogovernment men, I ask for, not at once no government, but at once a better government. Let every man make known what kind of government would command his respect, and that will be one step toward obtaining it.... Source: Roger Babusci and others, Literature: The American Experience, (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: 1989), p. 290. HORACE MANN ON PUBLIC SCHOOLS

will be the servile dependents and subjects of the former. Knaves and robbers can obtain only what was before possessed by others. ANTI-CATHOLICISM IN AMERICA . increases. is the great equalizer of the conditions of men. The latter tends to equality of condition. Source: Massachusetts Board of Education. the former to the grossest inequalities. 307-308. and a wealthy nation. According to the European theory.. and contributions. will be sure to follow. Now. it will draw property after it. (Boston. p.—some to toil and earn. eds. It gives each man the independence and the means. If one class possesses all the wealth and the education. if I may so call it. It does better than to disarm the poor of their hostility towards the rich. Education. the latter. the balance-wheel of the social machinery. and equal security in the enjoyment of what they earn. But education creates or develops new treasures. all are to have an equal chance for earning. it matters not by what name the relation between them may be called... 57. nothing but Universal Education can counterwork this tendency to the domination of capital and the servility of labor. 1849). and never can happen. Problems in American History (Englewood Cliffs. and adds a thousand fold more to a nation's resources than the most successful conquests. 67-68. intelligence is the grand condition. it has the prerogative of creating new. then.... and of inestimable value. Beyond the power of diffusing old wealth. 42-43.never before possessed or dreamed of by any one. But if education be equably diffused. while the residue of society is ignorant and poor.. As the child is father to the man. But the beneficent power of education would not be exhausted. side by side..Horace Mann. numberless.. Arthur S.. as the intellectual constituency. others to seize and enjoy. For the creation of wealth. by which he can resist the selfishness of other men. It is a thousand times more lucrative than fraud. According to the Massachusetts theory. Leopold. was the nation's leading proponent of taxpayer. so may the training of the schoolroom expand into the institutions and fortunes of the State. for the existence of a wealthy people. by the strongest of all attractions. Link and Stanley Corbin.. as that an intelligent and practical body of men should be permanently poor. even though it should peaceably abolish all the miseries that spring from the coexistence. in fact and in truth. men are divided into classes. The number of improvers will increase. for such a thing never did happen. then. surely. of enormous wealth and squalid want.supported public schools. NJ: 1966). it prevents being poor. It has a higher function. 59-60. In his 1849 report of the Board of Education to the state legislature. 55. reprinted in Richard W. Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education for 12 years beginning in 1837.. Let this development precede. beyond all other devices of human origin.. Twelfth Annual Report. he describes why public education should be supported.

. and Bogus Democracy Popery is a system of mere human policy.... Here is a letter from "Susan" published in 1844 in the Lowell Offering which describes one woman's experiences in the mills. Massachusetts... Romanism. It is this aggressive policy and corrupting tendency of the Romish Church. their girls so pretty and neatly dressed. Pope. At first the hours seemed very long. a most baneful Foreign and anti-Republican influence.. but I have not got used to "looking two ways of a Sunday" yet.. Every Roman Catholic in the known world is under the absolute control of the Catholic Priesthood.of securing the Catholic vote. I could take care of two if I only had eyes in the back part of my head.Nothing) Party advanced his fears of Roman Catholicism in an 1856 election pamphlet. and tying weaver's knots. and the machines so brightly polished or nicely painted. and bad men. Americanism Contrasted with Foreignism. Associated with them for the purpose.. are the worst class of American politicians. this power of the Priesthood to control the Catholic community. and thus control the will of the American people.gave a pleasant aspect to things. Source: John M.Rev. altogether of Foreign origin. I went into the mill. They set me to threading shuttles. this political influence. The plants in the windows.. p. and cause a vast multitude of ignorant foreigners to vote as a unit. for the sake of profitable offices. designing demagogues. spacious. selfish office-seekers.. importing Foreign vassals and paupers by multiplied thousands. foreign by birth. the sound of the mill was in my ears. his Bishops and Priests..... and sending into every State and Territory in this Union. and clear. which have called forth the opposition.. 1985). the rooms were so light. Foreign in its support. I should be willing to be one myself if I could be as good as she is. . but I was so interested in learning that I endured it very well. inferior in intelligence and virtue to the American people. THE LOWELL GIRLS Lowell. as a system is in the hands of a Foreign despotism. and was put to learn with a very patient girl--a clever old maid.... Its. 313. if they may but rise to distinction on its ruins!. and when I went out at night. a leader of the American (Know. are politicians. was the first planned industrial city in the United States and was the center of the Textile industry. on the ancient and profligate altar of Rome. and they are willing to sacrifice the Protestant Religion. or on the overseer's bench. William G. It looked very pleasant at first.. I went into the mill to work a few days after I wrote you... and now I have improved so that I can take care of one loom. this organized and concentrated political power of a distinct class of men. But corrupt and ambitious politicians in this country... And it is this faculty of concentration. The National Experience. Brownlow. Blum... (New York. are willing to act the part of traitors to our laws and Constitution. Well. and such things. that had engendered this opposition to the Catholic Church. These politicians know that Popery. to the Catholic Church.. The first mill employees were primarily girls from the surrounding communities.

Source: Stanley I. I. but in other respects the factory is not detrimental to a young girl's appearance. They are to see that all those employed in their rooms. 260. and not absent unnecessarily during working hours. and you know nothing is easier. or because her beau has vexed her. becomes larger than the left. as the sternest opponents of the factory system do. we return to our work. and not otherwise. if you know of any one who is perfectly contented. if asked the question. You know that people learn to sleep with the thunder of Niagara in their ears.262.it is because she has heard bad news from home. Looking for America: The People's History. They may grant leave of absence to those employed under them. Norton. 1979). FACTORY REGULATIONS IN LOWELL Listed below are some of the regulation observed by employees of the Hamilton Manufacturing Company. all mingled together in strange discord. are to observe the regulations of the room where they are employed.. After that it seemed as though cotton-wool was in my ears. at seven we come out to breakfast. and there is no disadvantage in their situation which they do not perceive as quickly.W. which is more than some laboring girls can say. which is the one used in stopping and starting the loom.. pp. but they almost all say that when they have worked here a year or two they have to procure shores a size or tow larger than befog the came. (New York: W. are in their places in due season. and stay until seven at night. when they have spare hands to supply their places. If you see one of them with a very long face. Though the number of men is small in proportion there are many marriages here. or quarter-past one four months in the year.. Vol. and a great deal of courting. though you wonder that we do not have to hold our breath in such noise. except in cases of sickness. The girls here are not contented.past seven we return to our work.. Lowell. They are not to be absent from their work without the consent of the overseer. they are cheerful. withal. Kutler. and then they have to send him word of the cause of their absence..as of crickets. and a cotton mill is no worse.. . frogs. who think nothing is more tedious than a factory life. The overseers are to be always in their rooms at the starting of the mill. Massachusetts." Yet.. You ask if the girls are contented here: I ask you. at half. Then the evening is all our own.. The girls generally wear old shoes about their work.and love of "freedom and equality. for it would compromise their Yankee spirit.. I will tell you of this last sometime. It makes my feet ache and swell to stand so much. and stay until half-past twelve. The right hand. They would scorn to say they were contented.. and keep a correct account of their time and work. I never saw a happier set of beings.. We go in at five o'clock. All persons in the employ of the Hamilton Manufacturing Company.. At one. but now I do not mind at all. and lament as loudly. but I suppose I shall get accustomed to that too. except in cases of absolute necessity..

Payment will be made monthly. and those who leave sooner. Brooklyn. Source: Stanley I. NY 4. Baltimore. including board and wages. These regulations are considered part of the contract. All persons entering into the employment of the company. MA 6.840 46. Boston. NY 2. (New York: W. Those intending to leave the employment of the company. New Orleans.300 266.529 102. are to give at least two weeks' notice thereof to their overseer. free of expense. AMERICAN URBANIZATION TO 1860 20 Largest Cities: 1840 20 Largest Cities: 1860 1. cloth or other article belonging to the company. MD 5. and are to observe the regulations of their boarding house. Kutler. any yarn. Any one who shall take from the mills or yard. Vol. or do not comply with all these regulations. when they begin. to vaccinate all who may need it.190 212. OH 312. will not be entitled to a regular discharge. Cincinnati.380 177. Boston.266. Norton. The accounts will be made up to the last Saturday but one in every month. PA 3. MD 4. New York. pp.W. 1979). or. will be considered guilty of stealing and be liable to prosecution. I. LA 5. New Orleans. Baltimore. New York. whenever the change their boarding place.700 813.They are to board in one of the houses of the company and give information at the counting room.418 93. PA 3.338 1. are considered engaged for twelve months. A physician will attend once in every month at the counting-room. Philadelphia. LA . The company will not employ any one who is habitually absent from public worship on the Sabbath. NY 2. with which all persons entering into the employment of the Hamilton Manufacturing Company engage to comply.400 565. where they board. Looking for America: The People's History. or known to be guilty of immorality.660 102. and paid in the course of the following week. Philadelphia. 265.000 220. MA 6.

940 12. In the two passages below each sisters discuss the problem of discrimination and what activists must do. St. 15. MA 61. D. CA 16.619 20. how far they may go without overstepping the bounds of propriety.213 17. and the part which they [women] are bound to take in them. which separate male and female duties. Pittsburgh. Newark. KY 13. NY 56. NY 11. Detroit. Richmond. Milwaukee. Rochester.210 21. Buffalo.044 33.. instead of puzzling themselves with the harassing.334 18. because unnecessary inquiry. Brooklyn. Louis. THE GRIMKE SISTERS ON THE RIGHTS OF WOMEN Sarah and Angelina Grimke. NY 14.261 109. that God has made no distinction between men and women as moral beings.367 14.221 18.666 17. Pittsburgh. Rochester.. Providence. KY 68. Providence.230 161. NY 48. NY 49. began in the 1830s to compare the political disabilities of the slaves with the discrimination directed against women. RI 17.153 19.C.C.260 23. PA 18. OH 8. Chicago. Washington.675 36. NY 8. To me it is perfectly clear that whatsoever it is morally right for a man to do.. Charleston. it is morally . MO 9. NY 9. VA 50.7.218 7. Buffalo.130 11. Troy. RI 71. WI Cities not on the 1840 list are highlighted.122 15.802 16. 81. Louisville. Washington.290 15. Newark. MI 20.721 160. IL 10. "Lord what wilt thou have me do?" They will be enabled to see the simple truth.115 20. Lowell.204 19. D. San Francisco. two prominent Pennsylvania abolitionists. Cincinnati.364 23. S. NJ 45. they will only inquire. Sarah Grimke: In contemplating the great moral reformations of the day.191 20. Albany.796 20.033 13. Albany.246 168. NY 19. Louisville. PA 62. ME 45.773 29.171 21. Portland.C. 10. NJ 12.

THE SENECA FALLS CONVENTION Reprinted below is the Declaration of Principles which emerged from the first Women's Rights Convention at Seneca Falls. in common with man: but the woman who prays in sincerity for the regeneration of this guilty world. it becomes necessary for one portion of the family of man to assume among the people of the earth a position different from that they have hitherto occupied. even to the wages she earns. which he considers most honorable to himself. You may depend upon it.. New York. Why. p. Century of Struggle: The Woman's Rights Movement in the United States. and putting up my prayers for his deliverance from bondage.. He has monopolized nearly all the profitable employment... that it is not. when she herself is under the feet of man and shamed into silence? Source: Eleanor Flexner. I acknowledge. He closes against her all the avenues to wealth and distinction.. He has never permitted her to exercise her inalienable rights to the elective franchise.If we surrender the right to speak in public this year. IT IS NOT: we must meet it and meet it now. A friend of mine remarked: "I was sitting in my chamber.. we must surrender the right to petition next year.. What then can woman do for the slave. tho' to meet this question may appear to be turning out of our road. let facts be submitted to a candid world. . 1970). my dear brothers can you not see the deep laid scheme of the clergy against us lecturers? .. liberty and the pursuit of happiness. and so on. in 1848. To prove this... will accompany her prayers by her labors. unaided by effort. if married. could never melt the chain of the slave. having in direct object the establishment of an absolute tyranny over her. I must be up and doing.. and the right to write the year after. when in the midst of my meditations it occurred to me that my tears. woman has a mighty weapon in secret prayer. she receives but a scanty remuneration. 48.. He has compelled her to submit to laws..right for a woman to do. It is said. she has. and from those she is permitted to follow. The history of mankind is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations on the part of man toward woman.." She is now an active abolitionist--her prayers and her works go hand in hand.. in the formation of which she had no voice. (New York. He has made her. He has taken from her all right in property. in the course of human events. weeping over the miseries of the slave.. in the eyes of the law civilly dead. that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights: that among these are life. When. Angelina Grimke: We cannot push Abolitionism forward with all our might until we take up the stumbling block out of the road... We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men and women are created equal.

The National Experience. are not only tolerated but deemed of little account in man.. we anticipate no small amount of misconception. p. but we shall use every instrumentality within our power to effect our object. CHAPTER THREE: AMERICAN SLAVERY Terms for Week 3 Eli Whitney Haitian Revolution Toussaint L’Overture abolitionists Texas and Slavery John C. to lessen her self-respect. 260. by which moral delinquencies which exclude women from society. and to make her willing to lead a dependent and abject life. 1985).. He has endeavored. petition the State and national legislatures. Blum. circulate tracts. (New York...He has denied her the facilities for obtaining a thorough education-all colleges being closed against her. (New York. He has created a false public sentiment. misrepresentation and ridicule. We hope this Convention will be followed by a series of Conventions embracing every part of the country. We shall employ agents. Fremont William Lloyd Garrison Frederick Douglass Seminole Indian Wars Nat Turner The Republican Party . to destroy her confidence in her own power. Century of Struggle: The Woman's Rights Movement in the United States. Sources: Eleanor Flexner. John M. in every way that he could. In entering upon the great work before us. and endeavor to enlist the pulpit and the press on our behalf. by giving to the world different code of morals for men and women. 75. 1970).

703. 1854 "Bleeding Kansas" Dred Scott Decision.318 604.622 435.596. Douglas Kansas.708 791. Calhoun Harriet Beecher Stowe Bridget “Biddy” Mason personal liberty laws Stephen A.201 140.William Walker and Filibustering The American (Know-Nothing) Party Gag Bill of 1837 Compromise of 1850 John C.002 964. 1860 Whites and Blacks in the Total Southern Population State South Carolina Mississippi Louisiana Alabama Florida Georgia Virginia Texas North Carolina Arkansas Tennessee Maryland Total Pop.109.215 992.450 1.424 1. 1857 John Brown SLAVERY IN THE SOUTH.049 % White 42 45 50 55 55 56 56 64 70 74 74 75 % Black Slave 57 55 47 44 44 44 39 33 30 26 25 13 % Free Blacks 1 * 3 1 1 * 5 3 * * 1 12 .Nebraska Act.801 687.278 708.286 1.057.

however...012 90 10 * ___________________________________________________________ __________ UNITED STATES 31. would die of ennui. TWO VIEWS OF SLAVERY George Fitzhugh..The free laborer must work or starve. They enjoy liberty. have red pepper rubbed into their lacerated flesh.. not more than nine hours a day.Besides.. the freest people in the world. that they may be easily detected when they run away.216 81 2 17 Missouri 1. The negro men and stout boys work. and are protected from the despotism of their husbands by their masters.Kentucky 1. underfed. because the cares of life with him begin when its labors end.. and yet have all the comforts and necessaries [sic] of life provided for them. Theodore Weld. and quiet sleep is the greatest of human enjoyments. He is more of a slave than the negro.. and have insufficient sleep. Sex. Source: Eighth Census of the United States.321 86 13 1 Composition of Southern White Society: Nonslaveholders 78. in some sense. and has no holiday. was an uncompromising abolitionist who wanted to end slavery because it brutalized slaves and made their owners callous to human suffering. but negroes luxuriate in corporeal and mental repose. they can sleep at any hour. Their views are described below. because he works longer and harder for less allowance than the slave. on the average.155. made to wear gags in their mouths for hours or days. wretchedly clad and lodged. to drag heavy chains and weights at their feed while working in the field. Weld: The slaves in the United States are treated with barbarous inhumanity.. With their faces upturned to the sum.they are overworked. He has no liberty.684 80 20 * Delaware 112. and not a single right. White men.they are frequently flogged with terrible severity. have some of their front teeth torn out or broken off. The children and the aged and infirm work not at all... with so much of license and liberty. 1860. and hot . because they are oppressed neither by care nor labor.1% Slaveholders 21.. Race and Agriculture of the United States.9% * Free Blacks comprised less than 1% of the state's total population. in good weather.. The women do little hard work. and.they are often kept confined in the stocks day and night for weeks together.182.. Fitzhugh: The negro slaves of the South are the happiest. a 19th century defender of slavery argued that it was a positive good and in fact advocated the enslavement of white workers in the North to improve their condition. they have their Sabbaths and holidays.they are often made to wear round their necks iron collars armed with prongs.. Population by Age.443.

and to blight the first risings of anything like affection or respect. however unjustly they never answer. and a waiting servant. The worst form in which they are wronged. however small must have at least three.As to clothing. [But] the negroes are servants and others masters. Of their treatment as respect discipline.brine. their backs and limbs cut with knives. . performing a very important part in the interior economy of this mixed society. Theodore Dwight Weld. They must.. Their number is such as might entitle them to be regarded as the first portion of the population. It has the effect to harden them to the value of a good name.. The character and situation of the black population of this country is one of the most interesting subjects of observation to strangers who visit it. do twice or thrice the work of the same number here. Of house servants every family. many of them be whipped if they are to be servants. a chamber maid. even when a single word would completely do. A NORTHERNER'S ATTITUDE TOWARD SLAVERY While Abolitionist usually captured the public's attention with their denunciations of slavery... seamstress. I saw only house servants.. Little attention is however paid to their comfort in this particular. a 28 year.. I have seen the servants in a cold evening seated on mats in the hall before the door of the sitting room. In larger and wealthier families there must be a coachman. and terribly torn by the claws of cats. drawn over them by their tormentors. When they are blamed.. poured over the gashes to increase the torture. The .old professor of languages at Williams College in Massachusetts. visited Charleston. Slavery As It Is.. A great number from the black population belong to several churches here. South Carolina in 1817 and provided these impressions.. Every small child must have a nurse till it is several years old... and this is commonly true. a cook.. Yet they sometimes suffer from cold. the vast majority of Northerners were ambivalent toward the institution.. The domestics of a New Englandman.. Source: George Fitzhugh. They are obliged to spend hours there or in the back part of the room itself. where it would be unpardonable for them to sit down. etc.. Cannibals All.. (Boston. 1857). that does not in this climate very much affect their comfort. never attempt to justify themselves. of the field servants I can say little.. They seem more sensible to cold than we are. 1839). bruised and mangled by scores and hundreds of blows with the paddle. and those employed in the labours of the town.is when they are talked about in their own presence. I have never seen them whipped though I have heard their cries while under the lash. and the whites only as a kind of agents for them. I often heard them scolded without reason. You will readily believe that where so many are employed their labour cannot be very severe. They were frequently blamed when the justification was obvious to every bystander. Ebenezer Kellogg. I saw little. besides assistants in these departments.they are often stripped naked. They are usually decent for labouring people. (New York. but a part subservient rather than superior to the blacks. a laundress. spirits of turpentine.

(New York: W. One black man in kept on purpose to whip the others in the field.. they ride about inquiring for jobs of persons who keep no overseer. They sit on benches or stand along the aisles. The treatment of slaves is mildest near the border.. and thanking her for the correction. The blacks pay nothing toward the support of the churches. escape is made next to impossible.. before we tasted a morsel.. whether man or woman. it becomes more severe. described some of the measures... It is more severe in the west and south than where I lived. two of whom were killed. They may go to the places of worship used by the whites. pp.. till twelve o'clock..Episcopal churches are said to contain a great number of colored people. he is not allowed to leave his employment for a moment to get water. . but they like their own meetings better. The salt fish made us always thirsty.. men.. of which a piece was cut for each person. Our drink was the water in the ditches. Looking for America: The People's History.W.and the agonizing feelings they endure at being separated from the dearest connections. and the... A number of slaves went into a wood to hold meetings.. Often they are flogged if they are found singing or praying at home. he can only have it when the hands have reached the ditch. they were flogged. However thirsty a slave may be. At noon the cart appeared with our breakfast. or none at all.... Source: Stanley I. where the free and slave states join.' we had to rise and go to work again. .There are men who make a trade of whipping negroes. and does it immediately. Kutler... 1979).. Many mistresses will insist on the slave who has been flogged begging pardon for her fault on her knees.. there was small hominy boiled. By these regulations.saves their souls [sic] from the slavery of sin. even in long summer days. and children all being served alike.. or have part of the gallery. Three were shot. a fugitive slave.. and opens to them the glorious door of hope. if there is a negro to be whipped.. Vol.they were forbidden to meet even for worship. which is the highest blessing of the happiest portion of the world... The overseer stood with his watch in his hand to give us just an hour. his fee is half a dollar. having negroes.. The severe punishments... Widows and other females... women. and if he does not flog with sufficient severity. when they were found out. drive many of . the farther we go from the free states..but after the [Nat Turner] insurrection.for trifling offenses. when he said.. he is flogged himself.. no colored person can go over a ferry without a pass. Formerly slaves were allowed to have religious meetings. In this account Moses Grandy.We had to work..patrols. 'Rise. There was bread.and two herrings for each of the men and women. 327-329. On the frontier between the slave and free States there is a guard. and one for each of the children. at the end of the rows. Norton. get them whipped this way.. These unhappy people are brought to a land that while it enslaves their bodies. this man is employed when he calls. SLAVERY AND SOCIAL CONTROL The slave system included a variety of restrictions and punishments designed to maintain social control over the black population. I.

She labored in the fields beside he husband... She was believed to be not only emotionally callous but physically invulnerablestronger than white women and the physical equal of any man of her race. developed muscles in her arms. They hide themselves in the woods. As the function of the Southern white woman changed. SLAVERY'S IMPACT ON RACE AND GENDER ROLES Black feminist theorist Michelle Wallace suggests in the passage below the various ways in which slavery's racial and gender roles impacted on the attitudes toward black people and particularly on the dynamics of interaction between black women and men. After months of this torture. No one wished to admit that she felt as any woman would about the loss of her children. hideously intertwined. even though not so long before the colonial woman had not been much better off. pp. a neighboring white man. a slave assigned to her by her master. That white was . Gradually a network of lies developed to justify the continuance of the master/slave relationship.their backs pickled. the selling of children away from their mothers. bore the lash and the wrath of her master. She was stronger than white women in order to justify her performing a kind of labor most white women were now presumed to be incapable of.. The business of sexual and racial definition. the back is allowed to heal. She was the key to the labor supply. 16-17. It was at this point that the black woman gained her reputation for invulnerability. in some cases for years. the breeding of slaves like animals. or that she had any particularly deep attachment to her husband. and the slave is sold away.. Narrative of the Life of Moses Grandy. She had to be considered at least the physical equal of the black man so that he would not feel justified in attempting to protect her. since he might also have to be sold. Source: Moses Grandy. and. After the constitutional ban on slave importation. the market required that a brutal emphasis be placed upon the stud capabilities of the black man and upon the black woman's fertility. as well as the notion of the frivolity and vulnerability of white women. (Boston. Her first duty had to be to the master of the house. 1844). the overseer.. The father might be her master. where they remain for months. She was labeled sexually promiscuous because it was imperative that her womb supply the labor force. which took effect in 1808. had become a matter of balancing extremes. 34. Every tenet of the mythology about her was used to reinforce the notion of the spinelessness and unreliability of the black man. The theory of the inferiority of blacks began to be elaborated upon and take hold. her marriage was not recognized by law. When caught. Her labor and trials became inextricably associated with her skin color..them to desperation. they are flogged. [vinegar applied to the back] and the flogging repeated.41.. the life of the black woman continued just as if the country were in its first stages of growth. the separation of wives and husband.

Source: Michele Wallace. I wish you could have been here to have gone with me. I haven't had a letter from you in some time. Fanny Perry. and I hope it will be so with you. who at the time was serving with the 28th Texas Cavalry in Arkansas. Father. 137-138. I hope it will not be long before you can come home. But slavery produced further complications: black women had to be strong in ways that white women were not allowed to be. and I hope yours is to mine. I would be mighty glad to see you and I wish you would write back here and let me know how you are getting on. 1862. I haven't forgot you nor I never will forget you as long as the world stands. (New York. 1979) pp." Journal of Negro History 65:4(Fall 1980):361-364. Pickens.' A Texas Slave's Love Letter. Campbell and Donald K. 1862 Because most slaves could not read and write only rarely do we have the opportunity to read the thoughts expressed by someone in bondage. even if you forget me. a Harrison County. Master gave us three days Christmas. I know I would have enjoyed myself so much better. Norfleet Perry. SLAVE AND FREE BLACKS IN INDIAN TERRITORY . Here is Fanny's letter of December 28. That white men were omnipotent meant that white women had to be impotent. My heart and love is pinned to your breast. I wish you could have been here to enjoy it with me for I did not enjoy myself much because you were not here. We do not know if she and Norfleet were ever reunited during or after the Civil War. Brothers & Sisters say Howdy and they hope you will do well. Black Macho and the Myth of Superwoman. I am doing tolerable well and have enjoyed very good health since you left. Be sure to answer this soon for I am always glad to hear from you.powerful meant that black had to be powerless. A TEXAS SLAVE'S LETTER TO HER HUSBAND. There is not time night or day but what I am studying about you. Dec. Mother. I am very anxious to hear from you. Grandmama. 1862. "'My Dear Husband. Your Loving Wife Fanny Source: Randolph B. I went up to Miss Ock's to a candy stew last Friday night. If I never see you again. My love is just as great as it was the first night I married you. the personal servant of Theophilus Perry. black men had to be weak in ways that white men were not allowed to be. Spring Hill. I heard once that you were sick but I heard afterwards that you had got well. 28th 1862 My Dear Husband. I hope to meet you in Heaven. I hope your health will be good hereafter. Texas slave woman has provided one such opportunity with the letter she wrote to her husband.

Littlefield. and by the time the Civil War began some of them owned businesses such as boarding houses and stores.. [it] ordered all free blacks. The greatest population. not freed by Cherokee citizens. Jr.963 Choctaws and 512 slaves [and] eleven free blacks. guides.. the teaching of a slave to read or write without the owner's consent and the council's emancipating slaves without the owner's consent.regarded their slaves in the same manner as white owners. The Chickasaws. Decades before their removal to the West. and scouts. both slave and free. they brought slaves with them. The Seminoles had no laws restricting free blacks. Choctaw. County judges were authorized to order [free] blacks out of their respective counties.. By 1859 the number of slaves in the Cherokee Nation had reached 4.. among the Five Tribes.762 Creeks and 502 slaves with only a few Creeks owning more than ten slaves. to leave the nation by January 1.. the Creeks had written laws which provided for the manumission of slavery by individual owners. The Cherokee Council [governing legislature] prohibited the teaching of slaves and free blacks not of Cherokee blood to read and write. Cherokees Creeks and Seminoles all developed black slavery in their native homes stretching from North Carolina to Mississippi. nearly 500 blacks. Between 1838 and 1843. removed with them.. In 1835.592 slaves. In the late 1850s the Chickasaws forbade their council from emancipating slaves without the owner's consent.543 Cherokees and 1. All persons of "negro or mulatto parentage" were excluded from holding office. The free blacks were removed with the Creeks. Some.. and Mary Ann Littlefield. Many were freed by voluntary acts of their Seminole masters. by far.... 61:1 (January 1976). A number of free blacks also lived among the Creeks.." Journal of Negro History.000.. "The Beams Family: Free Blacks in Indian Territory... like the Seminole slaves. But at that time many Chickasaws sold their homes in invested in slaves whom they moved to the West [and] opened large plantations [using] their blacks in agricultural labor.The Five Civilized Tribes. was among the Seminoles. were allowed to own property and carry weapons. The Chickasaws did not hold large numbers of slaves before removal.as slaves. An 1831 census listed 17.. Those who refused to go were to be sold. Upon their removal to Indian Territory (Oklahoma) in the 1830s. Other laws prohibited intermarriage and persons of African descent from holding office. slave and free. In the account below Daniel and Mary Ann Littlefield describe the status and treatment of African Americans. In 1838 the Choctaws forbade cohabitation with a slave. the Chickasaw. . Source: Daniel F...and in the aftermath of a slave revolt in 1842.. on the eve of removal. 1843.were free by virtue of their assistance to the United States as informers. there were 16. Slavery among the Cherokees was little different from that in the white South and the status of slaves and free blacks declined as laws became more severe. Among the Creeks were several free blacks who were heads of households.. A census of 1832 showed 21. who.. Fewer slaves lived in the Choctaw Nation. Because they spoke English as well as the Indians' native tongue.. several of the free blacks served as interpreters. There were fewer free blacks among the Cherokees despite large numbers of slaves among them. pp.

which did not generally take them long. and the other negro. as I had previously been informed. in answer to inquiries. northward. or were killed on the way. At other points. As we turned a corner near the bank. however. and had been brought South by a trader and sold to a gentleman who had brought him to Texas. always did well. looking at us... but he could count forty. after they had learned the language. between the settlements and the river.17-21. Wages were low. and sometimes as a servant or muleteer. we came suddenly upon two negroes. Very few persons were moving in the streets. generally they gave it all away to the women. by his trade. He supposed a good many got lost and starved to death. but they had all they earned for their own. he said. I followed. that he would--if he could be free. or engaged in any kind of labor. to any part of Northern Mexico. and with being made so much of by these Mexican women. not knowing the language of the country. Once he had been beyond Durango.. and when they first got here they were so excited with being free. the night before.. if they chose to be industrious. He mentioned to me several negroes whom he had seen. and. as a guide. when I nodded to him. that he was born in Virginia. as they were crossing the street. and often they were very poor and miserable. The Mexican Government was very just to them. turned hesitantly back and walked away from us.to see old Virginia again. that he had known of. They had never been used to taking care of themselves. which they had earned and hoarded for the purpose. every day. sometimes on his own business. a great many more came than here. as if he hadn't meant to. or nearly to the Pacific. who were industrious and saving. One of them was startled. He could not guess how many came in a year. stepped up on one of the sand-bank caverns. He had joined the Catholic Church.. Runaways were constantly arriving here. and looking ashamed and confounded. whistling. and had traveled extensively in Mexico. or some small articles which they had stolen from their masters. wishing to have some conversation with him. two had got over. and positions of . He very civilly informed me. Thither. that they spent all they brought very soon. whereas some Mexican children laughed. and. in the last three months. they could live very comfortably. they wouldn't find any work to do. and then. and could earn a dollar very easily. and a man's living did not cost him much here. He could speak Spanish fluently. But. and he professed to be competent. and in a short time they had nothing to live upon. further down the river. and he was very well satisfied with the country. Colored men. in different parts of the country. they could always have their rights as fully protected as if they were Mexican-born. grinned impudently--expressing plainly enough--"I am not afraid of you.. RUNAWAY SLAVES IN MEXICO Hundreds of black Texas slaves made their way to freedom in Mexico in the years before the Civil War. He was a mechanic." He touched his hat. He would like. Most of them brought with them money. who had acquired wealth. putting his hands in his pockets. from whom he had run away four or five years ago. Here is a brief glimpse of the lives of fugitive slaves in Mexico written by Fredrick Law Olmstead following his famous journey across Texas in the mid-1850s. to Chihuahua.

priest-ridden heathen. that they are informed (certainly never with any reservation.honor. It is repeated as a standing joke--I suppose I have heard it fifty times in the Texas taverns. by every foreigner I saw. who probably wheedled him out of his earnings. It is those that remain near the frontier that suffer most. the irksomeness of slavery keenly irritating. Some of them had connected themselves. who thought as much of themselves as the best white people in Virginia. 1856) notices having seen at Fort Inge a powerful and manly-looking mulatto. he escaped from the field where his temporary holder had set him at work on the Leona. In revenge for this carelessness. with amusing extravagance) of the dangers and difficulties to be encountered by a runaway. These Texas folks were too rough to suit them. have settled together within a few days' walk of Eagle Pass. if he could behave himself decently. The people generally liked them better. in all essential particulars. and showed no feeling except a little resentment towards the women. and the captor had to run for it. or the longing for liberty much greater than is usually attributed to the African race. with rich old Spanish families. and a considerable number of men make a business of hunting them. and if you don't treat him civilly he will have you hauled up and fined by an alcalde. The impulse must be a strong one. the tyranny extremely cruel. Stillman (Letters to the Crayon. Once. a colored man. which. and restored. a suit was then pending for these temporary services. his cries awoke his Mexican neighbors. by marriage. the ideas on this subject put forth in that good old joke of our fathers--the Declaration of American Independence. actually hold. had rather an advantage over a white American. Dr. and when the claim to him had been sold for fifty dollars. to exaggerate the facts either way. The escape from the wretchedness of freedom is certainly much easier to the negro in Mexico than has been his previous flight from slavery. yet I did not hear of a single case of his availing himself of this advantage. that I could discover. he escaped with a horse and a six-shooter. to his old comfortable. also. The runaways are generally reported to be very poor and miserable. In fact. Yet there is something a little strange about this. and I have heard them spoken of as being in a more destitute and wretched condition than any others. There is a permanent reward offered by the state for their recovery. The poor yellow-faced. at once. they who have got far into the interior are said to be almost invariably doing passably well. careless life. Once. which induces a slave to attempt an escape to Mexico. as well as by Mexicans themselves. it must be as one to a thousand of those going the other way. Most of the frontier . they must be. as I have had personal evidence. he had no object. when seized. and he would be greedily snatched up by the first American that he would meet. If it ever occur. Once. again. The masters take care. when negroes are brought into Western Texas. with whom I was able to converse on the subject. he thought. in earnest. and always to the great amusement of the company--that a nigger in Mexico is just as good as a white man. Let any one of them present himself at Eagle Pass. who had been three times brought from beyond the Rio Grande. and sometimes. who had lived or traveled in this part of Mexico. who are not generally able to speak Spanish. A gang of runaways. I believe these statements to have been pretty nearly true. it is natural to suppose. in the hands of a returning party of last year's filibustering expedition. after having been captured. They were confirmed.

albeit brief. of drowning miserably at the last of the fords. THE MORMONS AND BLACK SLAVERY By 1852 Utah had become the only territory to legalize both black and Indian slavery. However.." The Mormons.. Elijah Abel. A Journey Through Texas--Or.W. He faces all that is terrible to man for the chance of liberty.. If they escape immediate capture by dogs or men. During those early months in New York and Ohio.rangers are ready at any time to make a couple of hundred dollars.. [the Church newspaper] was devoted to a rebuttal of abolitionism. 323-327. and preached to. far from professing divine insight the authors [including Joseph Smith] made it expressly clear that these were their personal views. by taking them up. there is then the great dry desert country to be crossed. "Black Pete. . in winter. Jr. continued to be charged with anti-slavery activity in Missouri. Lester Bush.... W. The following year another black. described the evolution of Mormon doctrines on blacks and slavery against the background of the antebellum slavery controversy. or of being bitten or stung by the numerous reptiles that abound in it. the next issue of the Messenger and Advocate. at all seasons." was among the first converts in Ohio. [Abel was later named a priest in the church and lived for a time in Prophet Joseph Smith's home.. Source: Frederick Law Olmsted...Negroes among his first audience. Bravo negro! Say I. Phelps opened a mission to Missouri in July.. pp. Missourians interpreted as an invitation "to free negroes from other states to become 'Mormon' and settle among us. There once was a time. W.W. though if they return voluntarily they are commonly pardoned.] This initial period was brought to an end by the influx of Mormons into the Missouri mission in late 1831 and early 1832." A Negro. In less than a year a rumor was afoot that [the Mormons] were "tampering" with the slaves. 1859). and. 1831. in spite of their repeated denials. of freezing in a norther. prominently featuring the anti-slavery issue.. In response Phelps issued an "Extra" explaining that he had been 'misunderstood'. I pity the man whose sympathies would not warm to a dog under these odds. was baptized in Maryland..and declared [no blacks] "will be admitted into the Church. (New York. when a "Negro problem" did not exist for the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. if they come in their way. or of being attacked by panthers or wolves.. In response....." The local citizenry immediately drafted a list of accusations against the Saints.. tongues and peoples. How can they be held back from the slave who is driven to assert his claim to manhood?..the Gospel was for "all nations. Phelps published an article. a member of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. In the summer of 1833.. kindreds. I fear I should myself suffer the last servile indignities before setting foot in such a net of concentrated torture. a Saddle-Trip on the Southwestern Frontier. they are severely punished. with the danger of falling in with savages. Part of his account is reprinted below... Mason Brothers. If so taken.. of famishing in the wilderness from the want of means to procure food. from hunger and thirst to every nasty form of four-footed and two-footed devil.

and [there are] those who are naturally designed to occupy the position of 'servant of servants'. and power. I am. the youthful queen of the Pacific.California... "Mormonism's Negro Doctrine: An Historical Overview..slavery in Utah. In his request for legislation on slavery Governor Brigham Young.nor elevate them.. It is well.. Seward. California." Source: Lester E.and anti-slavery interests.. gorgeously inlaid with gold--is doubly welcome. California is a state." Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought. Bush. thus rich and populous. Jr. Part of his address is reprinted below.. for the mixed consideration of liberty. in her robes of freedom. They were fully at liberty to leave their masters if they chose.." Though no law authorized. spoke against the Compromise.. The first group of Mormons to enter the Salt Lake valley were accompanied by three Negro "servants.. regarding not the humanity with attaches to the colored race. and finds us debating the dissolution of the Union itself. THE DEBATE OVER CALIFORNIA In 1850 the debate over the admission of California as a free state nearly prompted a civil war. in any and all the forms in which it has been proposed. who four years later became one of the founders of the Republican Party. approximately two-thirds of whom were slaves. then to surrender some portion of human freedom in the District of Columbia. However New York Senator William H. To-day.. there were slaves in the territory.to an equality with those whom Nature and Nature's God has indicated to be their masters.. What am I to receive in this compromise? Freedom in California. was unknown even to our usually immoderate desires.." By 1850 nearly 100 blacks had arrived.we should not. ..make them beasts of the field. is here asking admission into the Union. Four years ago...California brings gold and commerce as well as freedom. forbearance toward more stringent laws concerning the arrest of persons suspected of being slaves found in the free states. The "laissez-faire" approach to slavery came to an end in 1852. it is worth the sacrifice. pp. but were otherwise advised to "sell them" or let them go free. This same California. Let California come in.The Mormon exodus to the Salt Lake Valley did not free the Saints from the slavery controversy. forbearance from the proviso of freedom in the charters of new territories. 11-25. But what am I to give as an equivalent? A recognition of the claim to perpetuate slavery in the District of Columbia..declared "while servitude may and should exist.. 8:(1973).... on the Pacific coast. gold. more populous than the least and richer than several of the greatest of our thirty states. scarcely inhabited and quite unexplored. The constitution of Deseret was intentionally without reference to slavery and Brigham Young declared "as a people we are adverse to slavery but we do not wish to meddle in the subject..... Slaveowning converts were instructed to bring their slaves west if the slaves were willing to come.. The Compromise of 1850 was worked out to mollify both pro. for much of the national debate was focused on the West.. a Mexican province. and in New Mexico. But it is insisted that the admission of California shall be attended by a compromise of questions which have arisen out of slavery! I am opposed to any such compromise.

first. but. constitutional. In the passages below South Carolina Senator John C. embarrassments. Garraty. however splendid or numerous.in New Mexico. (Boston: Little.California ought to come in. How can the Union be saved? There is but one way by which it can with any certainty. I shall vote for the admission of California directly. 446-459. and to the ripening influences of humanity. for it can of itself do nothing--not even protect itself--but by the stronger. and let the States we both represent agree to separate and part in peace. To constitute a physical equilibrium between the slave states and the free states.. Vol. those who distrust the Union make compromises to save it. not by the weaker party. indulging no such apprehensions myself. What is proposed is a political equilibrium.. and well can talk of nothing but slavery... requires. I feel assured that slavery must give way.. and without compromise. an equality of territory. and to provide for the insertion of a provision in the Constitution. can save a patient lying dangerously ill. health. Brown and Co...I.... Words that Made American History.. And this is already lost. Calhoun: The Union cannot. Every political equilibrium requires a physical equilibrium to rest upon. and that is. then. If you who represent the stronger portion.. by an amendment. by a full and final settlement. which will restore to the South.. And now our difficulties. to secure even that end. the power she possessed of protecting herself before the equilibrium between the sections was destroyed by the action of this Government. Calhoun and Massachusetts Congressman Horace Mann offer opposing views on the issue of California and slavery in speeches before Congress. glorious health!" on the part of the physician.. cannot agree to settle them on the broad principle of justice and duty. I shall not impeach their wisdom. and dangers.. The cry of "Union. We hear nothing but slavery...but I will adopt none but lawful.... on the principle of justice of all the questions at issue between the two sections. The North has only to will it to accomplish it--to do justice by conceding to the South an equal right in the acquired territory.. that emancipation is inevitable.. in substance.. without conditions.... the glorious Union!" can no more prevent disunion than the cry of "Health. Union. say so... Let. and . as I certainly cannot their patriotism. be saved by eulogies on the Union. and peaceful means. 1965). easily.to the salutary instruction of economy. with qualifications. THE COMPROMISE OF 1850: TWO VIEWS The controversy over the admission of California to the Union in 1850 almost prompted the secession of several slaveholding states.and even whether slavery stand or fall in the slave states.from want of moral courage to meet this question of emancipation as we ought. arise..whether slavery stand or fall in the District of Columbia. and is near.. If you are unwilling we should part in peace. Source: Richard N. ed. Current and John A. tell us so.. pp. and to do her duty by causing the stipulations relative to fugitive slaves to be faithfully fulfilled--to cease the agitation of the slave question. But can this be done? Yes.

1989). I am in earnest--I will not equivocate--I will not excuse--I will not retreat a single inch--AND I WILL BE HEARD.." And do the gentlemen who make these threats soberly consider how deeply they are pledging themselves and their constituents by them? Threats of dissolution. I have only to add that such is my solemn and abiding conviction of the character of slavery that under a full sense of my responsibility to my country and my God.. The National Experience: A History of the United States (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.. A large majority of the Southern legislators have solemnly "resolved" that if Congress prohibits slavery in the new territories. ABOLITIONISTS-GARRISON AND DOUGLASS William Lloyd Garrison and Frederick Douglass were leaders of the abolitionist movement. Wherever this rebellion rears it crest. if executed. This struggle may be a moral one. Find out just what any people will quietly . In the passages below Garrison and Douglass outline their views.--but urge me not to use moderation in the cause like the present. or it may be a physical one. better disunion--better a civil or a servile war--better anything that God in His Providence shall send. and they tell us what they will proceed to do if we do not yield to their demands.. 268. and it may be both moral and physical. Source: John M. but is there not a cause for severity? I will be as harsh as truth. I deliberately say. The Garrison passage is from the first editorial of his anti. The Douglass passage is from speech he gave in Boston in 1857. they will resist the law "at any and at every hazard. No! No! Tell a man whose house is on fire. Those who profess to favor freedom and yet deprecate agitation. when you reduce the question to submission or resistance. are men who want rain without thunder and lightning. Power concedes nothing without a demand. It never did and it never will. and those found with hostile arms in their hands must prepare for the felon's doom. to give a moderate alarm. Douglass: The whole history of the progress of human liberty shows that all concessions yet made to her august claims. If there is no struggle there is no progress. pp. tell him to moderately rescue his wife from the hands of the ravisher. but it must be a struggle. martial law will be proclaimed.. they go further.. and as uncompromising as justice. Mann: Gentlemen of the South not only argue the question of right and of honor. tell the mother to gradually extricate her babe from the fire into which it has fallen. have been born of earnest struggle.slavery newspaper.. founded in 1831. They want the ocean without the awful roar of its many waters. The Liberator... or write with moderation.we shall know what to do. Blum. I do not wish to think or speak. Such forcible opposition to the government would be treason.269. than an extension of the bounds of slavery. Its agents and abettors would be traitors. On this subject. become rebellion and treason. Garrison: I am aware that many object to the severity of my language.

W. and to groan and die.. responded to his owner. p. Sources: Richard Current. Lougen. of Tennessee. Men may not get all they pay for in this world. Ebony Pictorial History of Black America. Shame on you! . 1971). "You know we raised you as we did our own children. The limits of tyrants are prescribed by the endurance of those whom they oppress. that you should be willing to crucify us all. either moral or physical. indeed. Do you say you did not do it? Then I reply. 1961).Y. a fugitive slave living in Syracuse. to say nothing of my mother. more. Lougen's reply reflects his sense of personal security in Syracuse. or in lieu thereof. In 1860 J. I am indignant beyond the power of words to express. I. and held and flogged at the South so long as they submit to those devilish outrages. and these will continue till they are resisted with either words or blows. Now you have the meanness to ask me to return and be your chattel. for you knew I was susceptible in that direction. Sarah Logue: Yours of the 20th of February is duly received. who had requested he return to her plantation or face the possibility of slave catchers. and in the same breath and almost in the same sentence. and if needs be. out of compassion for your poor foot or leg. and twelve acres of land. but they must certainly pay for all they get. If we ever get free from the oppressions and wrongs heaped upon us. (New York: Knopf. I do pity you from the bottom of my heart. We must do this by labor. and that you shall sell me if I do not send you $1. p. 221-222. Abe and Ann.314. did you raise your own children for the market? Did you raise them for the whipping-post? Did you raise them to be driven off. and I thank you for it. American History: A Survey. and whipped.. by sacrifice. than my own life. more than all of the lives of all the slaveholders and tyrants under heaven. In the light of these ideas." Woman. your husband did. Sarah Logue. Wretched woman! I value my freedom. send you $1. we must pay for their removal. or with both. brothers and sisters more than your whole body. You say you are a cripple.000. and not that you should get land.to stir my pity.000 to redeem the land but not to redeem my poor brother and sister! If I were to send you money. because I ran away. you say. by suffering.. Negroes will be hunted at the North.. you say. by our lives and the lives of others. to be kicked and cuffed. Nevertheless. that you should be so cruel as to tear the hearts I love so much all in pieces. (Nashville: Southwestern Company. N. Mrs. Mrs. You say you have offers to buy me. and you approved the deed--and the very letter you sent me shows that your heart approves it all. A FUGITIVE SLAVE RESPONDS TO HIS OWNER The Fugitive Slave Act proved unenforceable in the North because abolitionists refused to assist local authorities in capturing runaway slaves. Lerone Bennett. bound to a coffle in chains? Where are my poor bleeding brothers and sisters? Can you tell? Who was it that sent them off into sugar and cotton fields. and make no resistance. it would be to get my brother and sister.. You sold my brother and sister.submit to and you have found out the exact measure of injustice and wrong which will be imposed upon them.

shall be responsible for the conduct of such negro or mulatto. 2 That Masters and owners of vessels having negroes or mulattoes in their employ on board of vessel may bring them into Oregon Provided that in so doing such master.and shall be liable to any person aggrieved by such negro or mulatto.. and lay their hands on me to enslave me. Source: Stanley I. Looking for America: The People's History. 1 Be it enacted by the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Oregon that it shall not be lawful for any negro or mulatto to enter into.. OREGON TERRITORY BANS AFRICAN AMERICANS The Territorial Legislature in 1854 reenacted an earlier statute which banned the entry of African Americans into Oregon. Sect. Norton.. sympathize with my rights and the rights of mankind. or from some other vessel within forty days. or owner. Have you got to learn that I had a better right to the old mare than Mannasseth Logue had to me? Is it a greater sin for me to steal a horse. Kutler. nor shall it apply to the offspring of any such as are residents.W. pp.. Sect. . that I meet the proposition with unutterable scorn and contempt. 3 No negro or mulatto shall be permitted to leave the port where the vessel upon which they are or may be employed shall be lying without the written permission of such master or owner. I. 1979). you forfeit your own liberty and life? Before God and high heaven.. and if you take my liberty and life. or reside within the limits of this Territory. Sect... 342-343.. I stand among a free people. Did you think to terrify me by presenting the alternative to give my money to you.. OR RESIDING IN OREGON Sect. because I took the old mare along with me. who. The new measure is reprinted below. 4 That it shall be the duty of masters and owners of vessels having brought negroes or mulattoes into Oregon as aforesaid to cause such negro or mulatto to leave this territory with such vessel upon which the shall have been brought into the Territory. A BILL TO PREVENT NEGROES AND MULATTOES FROM COMING TO. Vol. shall not I infer that you forfeit all your rights to me? Have you got to learn that human rights are mutual and reciprocal.You say I am a thief.. is there a law for one man which is not a law for every other man? If you or any other speculator on my body and rights..apply to any negro or mulatto now resident in this Territory. (New York: W.. I thank God. than it was for him to rob my mother's cradle and steal me? If he and you infer that I forfeit all my rights to you... wish to know how I regard my rights. they need but come here. or give my body to slavery? Then let me say to you. Providing that nothing in this act shall .

But this is no ordinary parking garage. Sect. close to the USC campus.. Ten stories tall. the first black woman to own property in Los Angeles. one hundred and eighteen years old. it shall be the duty of any Judge or Justice of the Peace to.. except as hereinbefore provided and except such as may now be permanent residents..Sect. at 331 South Spring Street. 9 This act to take effect and be in force from and after its passage. .. the Broadway-Spring Center is a rather graceful pink-andgreen building with a Tony Sheets bas-relief on the front facade.to issue a warrant for the apprehension of such negro or mulatto. Source: Archives of the Oregon Historical Society BRIDGET "BIDDY" MASON IN SLAVERY AND FREEDOM Bridget "Biddy" Mason.to arrest. a fine art book has been printed by artist Susan E. The ground floor will be divided into shops with access to the small. as part of the same project. tranquil park that has been named after Mason and which provides a green. Sect. The First African Methodist Episcopal Church of Los Angeles.. directed to any sheriff or constable.such negro or mulatto.. shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor. born a slave in Georgia.. 8 The Governor of this Territory shall cause this act to be published in some one or more of the California newspapers and such other newspapers as he may think necessary in order to carry out the spirit of the same. is the new Broadway-Spring Center. is a testament to the complexity of Mason's life.. all to honor Mason and the site where her home once stood...000 inhabitants. Provided that the fine in no case shall be less than five hundred dollars.upon conviction be fined and imprisoned at the discretion of the court. Sect. 7 If any negro or mulatto shall be found a second time unlawfully remaining in this Territory he shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and shall.. work. Here is a partial account of the freedom Mason found in the Far West. became one of the first settlers of Los Angeles when the city had fewer than 1. primarily a parking structure.. More than a mile away..... Two public art pieces─one by Sheila Levrant de Bretteville. Today a memorial to her 19th urban homestead sits across the street from the Ronald Reagan Federal Building in downtown Los Angeles.. shall fail to remove and take the same with them when leaving the Territory.and on conviction. an old church that Mason founded still exists.. Sect. the other by Betye Saar─have recently been installed here.. and. 5 If any master or owners of a vessel having brought negroes or mulattoes as provided for in the second section of this act into this Territory.. well-planted walkway between Broadway and Spring Street. Nothing is left of the original homestead of Biddy Mason. King. In its place. 6 If any negro or mulatto shall be found in this Territory. shall be fined and imprisoned at the discretion of the court..

until eventually Biddy's party passed the valley of the Great Salt Lake in Utah─where others settled permanently─and went on to San Bernardino. Iowa. She was. who ran a flourishing stable on San Pedro Street. Biddy Mason bought her land and built her house in 1866 in a town then so raw and new that the streets were troughs of mud or dust. by a rider on horseback.. who owned Biddy and her sister and their children. arriving in 1851. Nebraska. Presiding over everything is the great motherly figure of Biddy Mason─Grandma Mason. Mason was born in 1818 in the state of Georgia and sold into slavery at eighteen. migration. "make a blue flame in the hearthfire by throwing a handful of salt". Mason possessed great skills in medicine and became a midwife. the energy of hope and belief and love. illuminating a scant few blocks of humble houses in the bottom of a dark. and points less charted to the west. however. she knew the lore of remedies and rituals. Africa.and impact on the city. an electric guitar. "Chip" Murray offers up sermons with titles such as "You Can't Beat the House. Gas lamps were individually lit. to celebrate a birth. Many black leaders in the community worship there. didn't realize that California was a free slave state: If you brought your slaves here. now the valley of a billion lights. In time she bought more land. taking his slaves along before anyone could stop him. Owens got up a posse of vaqueros to rescue Biddy and her kin. rows of crops and workers. Biddy sued for freedom in court. traveling with their slaves and stock and children in oxcarts loaded with everything they owned. at this time. and later she erected a two-story building. Like many Afro-American women. they could. A history is pictured there: pyramids. She's tending a flock of sheep. and she appears dignified and strong. in part because she gave them land to start a stable. one by one. She became known for her good . she eventually built her own house there─the house in which the First African Methodist Church was born. and clapping hands set a background beat for gospel-rocking songs that bring people to their feet and infuse the room with sudden. But this Mormon family. That's exactly what Biddy wanted. There's a very large mural at the front of the church. named Smith. but Smith was hoping to depart for Texas. had made friends with free blacks here. swooping down on the Mormon camp in the Santa Monica mountains in the middle of the night. slavery. sloping basin. to Council Bluffs. won her papers in 1856. including the baby she carried in her arms. and moved her family in with the Owens. and Lincoln. and his father. They walked from Mississippi to Paducah. seven continuous months of walking.. Biddy thus became a western pioneer. Kentucky. for a new baby. a black slave caught up in a white religious pilgrimage. Charles Owens." while a conga drum. every night. They were a homeless people slouching toward Zion. keep the patient walking as "long as she can drag". "string small pieces of poke root around a baby's neck to ease teething". She walked across America in 1848 with the family who owned her and her sister─a Mississippi family who'd converted to Mormonism and were trekking west in caravans of wagons. and they wanted to leave you.) Ten years after winning her freedom she had saved enough money to buy the Spring Street lot. Her grandsons were prosperous. Robert Owens. Biddy. thirty-eight years old. The dynamic Reverend Cecil L. lit with a golden light that also bathes the pulpit. including Elizabeth Flake Rowan. irresistible energy. She had three children at the time. (For childbirth.

I firmly believe that we would have whipped them. as we though that we would be better able to defend ourselves when altogether than if we were scattered over the country. as I feel pretty confident they have a majority here at this time.. did not feel as nervous as I am when I go to shoot a beef or a turkey.T. K. that coming here will do no good at last. Pioneer. Source: Judith Freeman.A..000 men. but the regular soldiers came and interfered. and we had orders not to fire until the word was given. We had about 400 men with two cannon--we marched out to meet him.T. Hoole. every man seemed keen to fight.. though we would have lost a good many men.works. We brought our families here. if it is put to the vote of the people. as I knew if I did. but not before our party had shot some dozen guns. [Anti-slavery leader James] Lane came against us last Friday. came to Kansas partly to insure its admission as a slave state while Northern settlers had the opposite intent. myself. a South Carolinian. though we were under the impression at the time that we had 1." Los Angeles Magazine. "Commemorating An L. like most Southerners. but did all that I could to restrain our men though I itched all over to shoot. Sister. Your Affectionate Son Douglas. I drew a bead a dozen times on a big Yankee about 150 yards from me. but I feel pretty certain. July the 5th. We had strict orders from our commanding officer (Gen'l Marshall) not to fire until they made the attack. the boys all around me would do the same. as I begin to think that this will be made a Free State at last.. by which it is reported that five of the Abolitionists were killed or wounded.. while the North is redoubling her exertions.. I was a rifleman and one of the skirmishers. though I have but little hopes of your getting this letter for some time past have been miscarried or stopped on the way--but I will make the venture. You perceive from the heading of this that I am now in Lecompton. Before her death in 1891. 1990. but some of our boys would not be restrained.. Sept. BLEEDING KANSAS--ONE SOUTHERNER'S VIEW Axalla John Hoole.. I for one. K. but did not fire. was one of thousands of Americans who participated in the settlement of Kansas Territory in the 1850s. These excerpts from his letters home describe "Bleeding Kansas. We nominated a . almost all of the Proslavery party between this place and Lawrence are here. pp. We came in gunshot of each other." Lecompton. 1857 Dear Sister: I fear. 1856 My Dear Mother I must write you a few lines to let you know how I am getting along. it will be rejected. 58-60. I did not see a pale face in our whole army. The South has ceased all efforts. 'Tis true we have elected Proslavery men to draft a state constitution.. April. she also became rich enough to know the joys of opening her hand and giving her wealth away.. 12.

S. but it was the best we could do. they would have deserved and received universal rebuke and reprobation. and how it would be understood by others. as understood in that day.The general words [of the Declaration of Independence] would seem to embrace the whole human family. . If we had nominated a Southern man. Sanford that a black slave was undeniably property and because no citizen could be deprived of his property without due process of law as guaranteed by the Fifth Amendment. that the enslaved African race were not intended to be included and formed no part of the people who framed and adopted this declaration. In the opinion of the court. 393-394. and they knew that it would not in any part of the civilized world be supposed to embrace the negro race. But is too clear for dispute. he would have been beaten. and I have heard him say that Negroes were a great deal better off with Masters. for if the language.slaves. pp. and privileges. which. Still.. and as such become entitled to all the rights. by common consent. I..They perfectly understood the meaning of the language they used. guarantied [sic] by that instrument to the citizen? One of which rights is the privilege of suing in a court of the United States. become a member of the political community formed and brought into existence by the Constitution of the United States..candidate for Congress last Friday--Ex-Gov. THE DRED SCOTT DECISION In 1857 the U. Part of that controversial decision is printed below. nor their descendants. the conduct of the distinguished men who framed the Declaration of Independence would have been utterly and flagrantly inconsistent with the principles they asserted.... and so far inferior that they had no rights which the white man was bound to respect. and altogether unfit to associate with the white race. They had for more than a century before been regarded as beings of an inferior order. Vol. either in social or political relations. the legislation and histories of the times. .. and instead of the sympathy of mankind. Supreme Court ruled in Dred Scott v. and I doubt whether we can even elect a Northerner who favors our side. Congress could not outlaw slavery in any territory under its jurisdiction. and the language used in the Declaration of Independence. whether they had become free or not. Source: Stanley I Kutler.... and immunities. were acknowledged as a part of the people. moreover. I must confess I have not much faith in him. 1979). would embrace them. tho he professes to hate the Abolitionists bitterly. (New York: W. The question is simply this: Can a negro. Looking for America: The People's History. whose ancestors were imported into this country. angered anti-slavery advocates throughout the country.W. Ransom of Michigan. The decision understandably sent shock waves through the black community and. and sold as slaves. and if they were used in a similar instrument at this day would be so understood. Norton. I fear him. had . to which they so confidently appealed. show that neither ...

I should do even so to them. I see a book kissed here which I suppose to be the Bible. I intended certainly to have made a clean thing of that matter. or in behalf of any of their friends.in behalf of the rich. when I went into Missouri and there took slaves without the snapping of a gun either side..in behalf of His despised poor. 1859 John Brown.. or the destruction of property. I have another objection: and that is. Source: Leslie H. The unhappy black race were separated from the white by indelible marks. I never did intend murder. or at least the New Testament. Had I interfered. the intelligent. I say. moved them through the country. JOHN BROWN'S LAST SPEECH. In the first place. was not wrong. It is the judgment of this court. Now. in the sense in which that word is used in the Constitution.--either father. to 'remember them that are in bonds. 1967). or to excite or incite slaves to rebellion. the so-called great. and every man in this court would have deemed it an act worthy of reward rather than punishment. may it please the Court. and unjust enactments. if it is deemed necessary that I should forfeit my life for the furtherance of the ends of justice.. or treason.. cruel. and when the claims of the owner or the profit of the trader were supposed to need protection.. and finally left them in Canada. I designed to have done the same thing again. This court acknowledges. and mingle my blood further with the blood of my children and with the blood of millions in this slave country whose rights are disregarded by wicked. That teaches me that all things whatsoever I would that men should do to me.. I am yet too young to understand that God is any respecter of persons. tried and convicted of attempting to seize the Federal Arsenal at Harper's Ferry to gather arms to support a large scale slave uprising in the South. as bound with them. and could give no judgment in it.. wife. pp. but right. It teaches me. That was all I intended.. or to make insurrection. and were never thought of or spoken of except as property. I deny everything but what I have all along admitted.--and suffered and sacrificed what I have in this interference. or children. the New York abolitionist who moved to Kansas in the 1850s and participated in the territory's civil war. I believe that to have interfered. the validity of the law of God.and that the Circuit Court of the United States had no jurisdiction in the case. as I suppose. as I did last winter. Fishel and Benjamin Quarles.. November 2. and doomed to slavery. Brown offered no defense at his trial other than his desire to end slavery.--I submit.' I endeavored to act up to that instruction. so let it be done! .been excluded from civilized Governments and the family of nations. a few words to say.that the plaintiff in error is not a citizen of Missouri. further.. The Negro American: A Documentary History. and laws long before established.. or any of that class. 205-207.. the powerful. it would have been all right. was arrested in 1859. on a larger scale... I have. sister.. (Glenview. mother. it is unjust that I should suffer such a penalty. brother.--the design on my part to free the slaves. Ill.

1860 Here is part of the platform of the Republican Party when it nominated Abraham Lincoln for President. As a nation we began by declaring that "all men are created equal. The Negro American: A Documentary History. I am not a Know-nothing. (Glenview.. 207. were despotism can be taken pure. during the last four years. except negroes. p. Much of that platform was unacceptable to the South and Lincoln's election precipitated the secession of a number of Southern States which later formed the Confederacy. . in 1852 offered the following explanation of his political views. (New York. You enquire where I now stand. p. but others say there are no whigs and that I am an abolitionist.. Lincoln's ambivalence about his political affiliation reflected the increasing political confusion brought on by the slavery question. and foreigners and Catholics. 2002)." Source: William E. How could I be? How can any one who abhors the oppression of negroes. the delegated representatives of the Republican electors of the United States. 37. demand its peaceful and constitutional triumph. unite in the following declarations: 1. Ill. That the history of the nation. Within two years Lincoln and thousands of other Americans would create the Republican Party to articulate their views and advocate the changes they felt were vital to the nation's interests. be in favor of degrading classes of white people? Our progress in degeneracy appears to me to be pretty rapid. This Fiery Trial: The Speeches and Writings of Abraham Lincoln. in Convention assembled. Resolved. more than ever before. Gienapp. Joshua Speed. THE REPUBLICAN PARTY PLATFORM.Source: Leslie H. That is certain. LINCOLN'S POLITICS Abraham Lincoln writing to his friend. That we. That is a disputed point. and without the base alloy of hyprocracy [sic]." We now practically read it "all men are created equal. in discharge of the duty we owe to our constituents and our country. except negroes. for instance. I think I am a whig. and that the causes which called it into existence are permanent in their nature. Fishel and Benjamin Quarles. it will read "all men are created equal. has fully established the propriety and necessity of the organization and perpetuation of the Republican party." When it comes to this I should prefer emigrating to some country where they make no pretense of living liberty--to Russia. and now." When the Know-Nothings get control.. 1967).

of right. and we deny the authority of Congress. in construing the personal relation between master and servant to involve an unqualified property in persons. is essential to that balance of powers on which the perfection and endurance of our political fabric depends.. as a crime against humanity and a burning shame to our country and age.. as among the gravest of crimes. That to the Union of the States this nation owes its unprecedented increase in population. 7. be immediately admitted as a State under the . 8. That the new dogma that the Constitution. That as our Republican fathers. in its attempted enforcement. to give legal existence to Slavery in any Territory of the United States. or property. the Rights of the States. come from whatever source they may. That the maintenance of the principles promulgated in the Declaration of Independence and embodied in the Federal Constitution. of its own force. and we denounce the lawless invasion by armed force of the soil of any State or Territory. 11. and the Union of the States. is a dangerous political heresy. in its measureless subserviency to the exactions of sectional interest. on land and sea.2. ordained that "no person should be deprived of life. that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights. and especially the right of each State in order and control its own domestic institutions according to its own judgment exclusively.. liberty and the pursuit of happiness.. of a territorial legislature. That the normal condition of all the territory of the United States is freedom. its rapid augmentation of wealth." it becomes our duty. 5. "That all men are created equal. liberty. and that the Federal Constitution. under the cover of our national flag. and subversive of the peace and harmony of the country. 3. must and shall be preserved. That the maintenance inviolate of the rights of the States.. without due process of law. its surprising development of material resources. no matter under what pretext.. as especially evinced in its desperate exertions to force the infamous Lecompton constitution upon the protesting people of Kansas. and we hold in abhorrence all schemes for Disunion.to maintain this provision of the Constitution against all attempts to violate it.. carries Slavery into any or all of the Territories of the United States. or of any individuals. 4. That the present Democratic Administration has far exceeded our worst apprehensions. and we call upon Congress to take prompt and efficient measures for the total and final suppression of the execrable traffic. that among these are life.. aided by perversions of judicial power. its happiness at home and its honor abroad. through the intervention of Congress and of the Federal Courts of the extreme pretensions of a purely local interest. everywhere.. and in its general and unvarying abuse of the power intrusted to it by a confiding people.is revolutionary in its tendency.. That Kansas should." is essential to the preservation of our Republican institutions. That we brand the recent re-opening of the African slave-trade. 9. when they had abolished slavery in all our national territory.

(Boston: Little.356 592.865. Vol. I. sound policy requires such as adjustment of these imposts as to encourage the development of the industrial interests of the whole country. 12.and in favor of giving a full and efficient protection to the rights of all classes of citizens.. That a Railroad to the Pacific Ocean is imperatively demanded by the interests of the whole country. whether native or naturalized.593 1. 14... Current and John A. ed. Douglas John Breckenridge John Bell Party Republican Northern Democrats Southern Democrats Constitutional Union Vote 1. Garraty. pp. and we demand the passage by Congress of the complete and satisfactory Homestead measure which has already passed the house..713 848. a daily Overland Mail should be promptly established. both at home and abroad.. 16. and against any view of the Homestead policy which regards the settlers as paupers or supplicants for public bounty. That we protest against any sale or alienation to others of the Public Lands held by actual settlers.382. 13.. THE PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION OF 1860 Popular Pop. That. and accepted by the House of Representatives. Brown and Co.Constitution recently formed and adopted by her people.. Source: Richard N. Candidate Abraham Lincoln Stephen A. 522-525. as preliminary thereto.. 1965).906 Electoral Vote 180 12 72 39 % Vote 40% 30% 18% 12% CHAPTER FOUR: THE CIVIL WAR AND RECONSTRUCTION Terms for Week 4 Fort Sumter Jefferson Davis . That the Republican Party is opposed to any change in our Naturalization Laws. while providing revenue for the support of the General Government by duties upon imports. that the Federal Government ought to render immediate and efficient aid in its construction. Words that Made American History. and that.

Massachusetts Congressman Thaddeus Stevens-Pennsylvania Andrew Johnson Reconstruction Amendments Thirteenth Amendment Fourteenth Amendment Fifteenth Amendment Freedmen's Bureau Black Codes Mississippi Vagrancy Act.New York City Draft Riot. Lee Ulysses S. 1863 Robert E. Grant Emancipation Proclamation. 1866 Ku Klux Klan Sunday School League Mississippi Plan . 1862 Battle of Vicksburg Battle of Gettysburg Sherman's March to the Sea Stand Watie Appomattox Court House Congressional Reconstruction Radical Republicans Radical Republican leaders: Senator Charles Sumner.

Patches of the woods take fire. and the foliage of the trees--yet there the battle raging. getting out. the Civil War's impact on the nation was far greater.S.000 American deaths in World War II. in this region of the field of strife. A long ridge of fresh gravel rose before us. all Nature so calm in itself. are consumed--quite large spaces are swept over. then. cartridges. Nearly 365. Whitman: The night was very pleasant.000 men. we met a party carrying picks and spades. mixed with the fresh scent of the night. I believe. and every minute amid the rattle of muskets and cannon the red life-blood oozing out from heads or trunks or limbs upon that green and dew-cool grass. However because the population of the U. There they lie. A board stuck up in front of it bore this inscription. We stopped the wagon. burning the dead also. scraps of paper. as some poor fellow poured his life out on the sod. In several places I noticed dark red patches where a pool of blood had curdled and caked. cap boxes.) in 1863. The first is a description of the 1862 Battle of Antietam by future Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes and the second is Walt Whitman's description of the Battle of Chancellorsville (Va. and several of the wounded. unable to move. women and children were killed between 1861 and 1865 compared to the 405. the odor of blood. from 200 to 300 poor fellows--the groans and screams. Then the camps of the wounded. the first part of which was. the early summer grass so rich. canteens. The whole ground was strewn with fragments of clothing. I saw two solders' caps that looked as though their owners had been shot through the head. at times the moon shining out full and clear. scores. Holmes: On coming near the brow of the hill. portions of bread and meat." The dead were nearly all buried. the trees--that slaughter-house! One man is shot . The vignettes below describe the carnage that became so typical of Civil War battles. and were guarded for the Government. Hard by was a large pile of muskets." Other smaller ridges were marked with the number of dead lying under them.Compromise of 1877 "Birth of A Nation" grandfather clause sharecropping Ben Tillman AMERICA'S BLOODIEST WAR The Civil War was second only to World War II as the bloodiest military contest in which Americans have been engaged. in 1860 was 31 million and in 1940 it was 132 million. if not hundreds. haversacks. "How many?" "Only one. began to look around us. and. the grass. which had been picked up. not correct: "The Rebel General Anderson and 80 Rebels are buried in this hole. and many good fellows lying helpless. bullets.

Source: Stephan Thernstrom. The condition of affairs at the North since the election of an Abolitionist for President makes it necessary for us to get away as quickly as possible. torn.. I. November 20. Vol. but you have nothing to loose by the Revolution that I suppose must ensue upon the present overthrow of our beautiful government. and about 3000 bshls of corn and one hundred Hogs now fattening for the negroes to eat and their winter clothes I will get in a few days. a South Carolina planter to his friend. 389. Southern fears of a Republican administration are explained.by a shell. or them will soon be numbered among the Nations which have been! You live among a manufacturing people and you know better than I what the conditions of things would be in case the operatives were all dismissed. all mutilated. and also to hear from a State which just now by her political position is somewhat the object of attraction in this country. In the following letter from Edward Barnell Heyward. I have plenty of Beef & mutton to feed my family upon and I think I and all around me could stand hard times better than some of the rich abolitionists of your part of the World. In January next we shall take leave of the Union and shall construct with our Sister Cotton States a government for ourselves. The Northern men must rouse themselves and shake off the Tyrants who now rule over them. pp. I have about 130 Bales of Cotton on my plantation to sell. If times get very hot you had better come on . Of course we shall declare free trade with the whole world and having no manufactures to protect we shall bring about such a competition with the manufactures of this Country and those of Europe that the profits in such business at the North will be seriously reduced. sickening. and what is most important our working population have masters to take care of them and will not feel any pressure such as will soon come upon the operatives in the manufacturing States at the North. A History of the American People. Some have their legs blown off--some bullets through the breast--some indescribably horrid wounds in the face or head.. 395. In the Country here the planters are all quiet and our crops going to market as usual. If you were a rich man Jim I should advise you to quit the North &and come here and live in quiet. If there is no money in the banks we can go without it till England and France and perhaps the North send the gold for the cotton which they must have or go all to ruin. or they will soon be numbered among the Nations which have over them.it might interest you to hear how I am living and what my occupations may be. 1989). or put on starvation prices for the next year. We have on hand about three million Bales of Cotton and plenty to eat & clothe ourselves with. (New York. James A. 1860 My Dear Jim: . This letter was written one month before South Carolina seceded from the Union. both in the arm and leg--both are amputated--there lie the rejected members. SECESSION--ONE PLANTER'S VIEW Lincoln's election in 1860 moved the nation toward division. Lord in Connecticut. Whether the other Slave States will join seem very uncertain at least for the present. gouged out--some mere boys.

the Lords Proprietors of the Land. 1861 January 10. Vol. S. My Dear Friend You must believe me when I say we did not break up the Union you so much love nor bring about the crisis you so much deplore. South Carolina Virginia Arkansas North Carolina Tennessee Date of Secession December 20.. When next I write I shall belong to another government for which I shall be thankful.. 1861 April 12. 1861 June 8.here. wrote her Philadelphia friend. Heyward Source: Stanley I Kutler. 1861 January 19. THE SECESSION CRISIS. I. on March 4. Charleston. 399. which is not found in Connecticut. a South Carolinian whose husband had participated in the state convention which voted to secede. Wm. What of that? Did you think the people of the South. would let this low fellow rule for them? No! His vulgar facetiousness may suit the race of clock makers and wooden nutmeg vendors--even Wall Street brokers may accept him. 1861 May 20. 1861 January 26. since they do not protest--but never will he receive the homage of southern gentlemen. 1860 January 9. p. 1861 A SOUTHERN WOMAN DEFENDS SECESSION Susanna Sparks Keitt. 'Tis true we have refused to accept Lincoln for a president. & try farming where there is a distinction between a white man and a black one. explaining why the Southern states left the Union. C. soon and tell me what is going on at home and about at the North. See the disgusting spectacle now presented to the . Yours most Affectionately. Frederick Brown. 1861 April 17. Do write me as before.B. 1861 May 6. Looking for America: The People's History. E. Bee and Co.W. Norton. 1979). Mrs.C. 1861 February 1. Alabama Confederate Bombardment of Federal Garrison at Fort Sumter. 1861 February 4. (New York: W.. 1861. 1861 January 11. 1860-1861 Seceding State South Carolina Mississippi Florida Alabama Georgia Louisiana Texas Confederate Government Organized in Montgomery. care of Messrs.

homes. And the Stars and Stripes will shame their ancient glories when the "Southern Cross" takes the field. With a rancor and hatred worthy of a foreign foe. Here they are: Hang all your. Greeleys. A vain hope unless our conditions be accepted. Yes..000.406. jests with [prize] fighters. unite your Sumners and Sewards to ebony spouses and send them as resident ministers. we women.. Source: Stanley I. Such crimes as murder.of their presence.000. incarcerate your Garret Smiths. Kutler.000.000 $ 155.W.. will we consider the question of reunion.. kissed bold women from promiscuous crowds. for they know as well as we do that thus only can they conquer us.000 $ 95.. fugitive slaves.000 $ 850. I.Yes. and the minds of our happy slaves poisoned of thought of murder and conflagration. arson.000. And if the fate of Carthagenia be ours. Norton. 403. perjury.370.500. and attach the death penalty to all future agitation of the slavery question. and Ward Beechers.000 $ 330.000.000. and theft find ready absolution if the record be accompanied by a stolen slave... 1979). like those of old. on his triumphal march to the Capitol.. shame.. See their bloody programme. and have the red seal of southern blood.world by the Federal government.. You still hope for reunion. Oh.000 .000 110.. bandies jokes with the populaces..000 Confederacy 11 8.to Timbuctoo and Ashantee [African kingdoms]. the Republicans prepare for a war of extermination. shame.000. Our relations have been so pleasant it would pain me to see them altered. What are. RESOURCES OF THE UNION AND THE CONFEDERACY. The matter of our continued friendship must now be decided by you.00.. Looking for America: The People's History.. and kindred are dear to us and cannot be sacrificed to a Memory. (New York: W. Vol. interspersed by Bloomer women.the doctrines they teach? Equity and justice? Peace and Good Will toward men? No. The President Elect of the American people.000 $ 1.700. but our lives.000. war let it be if war they desire. and amalgamists. and not till then. free lovers... then. How can you counsel submission to such a people? We loved the Union. but the Jesuitical dogma of the expediency of crime when a doubtful good may come. exhibits himself at railway depots. When these things are done.Garrisons. but I must candidly say that I can make no distinction between at-cost-of war Union Lovers and ultra Black Republicans.000. 1861 Union Number of States Population Real and Personal Property Banking Capital Capital Investment Manufacturing Establishments Value of Production (annual) 24 23.. Should we submit to such degradation? Who are these Black Republicans? A motley throng of.000 $ 27.infidels.000 18. Purge the halls of Congress and the White House. extermination.000* $ 5..000 $ 11. will cut our hair for bowstrings to plague the enemy as long as possible. pp. The dykes [sic] of the Mississippi must be cut.

I do order and declare that all persons held as slaves within said designated States and parts of States are and hence-forward shall be free.000 1. the following. sincerely believed to be an act of justice. the persons whereof shall then whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States. And upon this act. in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty two. and the Executive Government of the United States. or any of them.000 THE EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION The Emancipation Proclamation.. will be received into the armed services of the United States to garrison forts. the Confederacy. black Americans. And I hereby enjoin upon the people so declared to be free to abstain from all violence. issued by President Abraham Lincoln on September 22. containing. had a profound effect on the Union. including the military and naval authority thereof. and that the executive government of the United States.300. I invoke the considerate judgment and mankind and the gracious favor of Almighty God. all persons held as slaves within any state or designated part of a state. shall be then.000 22. that such persons of suitable condition. And I further declare and make known. And by virtue of the power and for the purpose aforesaid.000 110. and will do no act or acts to suppress such person.. and I recommend to them that in all cases when allowed they labor faithfully for reasonable wages. From Slavery to Freedom: A . henceforward. and other places and to man vessels of all sorts in said service. and of course. warranted by the Constitution upon military necessity.. By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Whereas. in any efforts they may make for their actual freedom. Source: John Hope Franklin and Alfred A. and forever free. will recognize and maintain the freedom of such persons. including the military and naval authorities thereof. will recognize and maintain the freedom of said persons. among other things. Jr.000 9.Industrial Workers Railroad Mileage * 40% were slaves. a proclamation was signed by the President of the United States. unless in necessary self-defense. to wit: That on the first day of January. 3. Moss. position. stations. in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three. 1862..500. the twenty-second day of September. Part of the document appears below.

They must have had some warning of what the rioters intended. shoot an Irish fireman. I found Jane & Maggie [his black servants] a little alarmed. A friend (Mr. They are very hostile to the Negroes. the whole structure was soon in a blaze. What has become of the 300 poor innocent orphans I could not learn. had his house smashed up yesterday. A person who called at our house this afternoon saw three of them hanging together. & came to our house--wishing to know if a republican lived there. 1972). 532-533. July 13th. (Boston: Allyn and Bacon. as he was rich.--or the Harlem R. for the wicked wretches who caused it would not permit the engines to be used.. pp. & is known to be an abolitionist. & what the College building was used for. 1863 New York. calling at houses. John Torrey Source: John Bracey and others. Gibbons) who visits us almost every week.. they [the rioters] were numerous. AN EYEWITNESS ACCOUNT In July. & and scarcely one of them is to be seen. THE NEW YORK DRAFT RIOT. The man had.. John Torrey in the following account describes the riot.. 230. 1988). A friend who rode with me had seen a poor Negro hung an hour or two before. They barely desisted when addressed by the Catholic priest. Thieves are going about in gangs. in a frenzy. The rioters were induced to go away by one or two Catholic priests.Toward the evening the mob. New York. as I was passing near the College. but not frightened. but I thought they were exaggerated.. In 49 st.. furious as demons. the northern sky was brilliantly illuminated. & I trust the children were removed in time to escape a cruel death. July 13th. King's house. & made. & is now a smoking ruin. 1863 a predominately Irish mob rioted against the newly enacted federal draft and vented their fury particularly on New York City blacks. The furious bareheaded & coatless men assembled under our windows & shouted aloud for Jeff Davis! .. & demanding money-threatening the torch if denied. went yelling over to the Colored-Orphan Asylum in 5th Avenue a little below where we live--& rolling a barrel of kerosine in lit. 1863 Dear Doctor-We have had great riots in New York to-day & they are still in progress... pp. They were reported to us at the Assay office about noon.. Before this fire was extinguished.. Many have been killed. probably by the burning of the Aged Colored-woman's Home in 65th St. . (New York: Alfred A. who made pacific speeches to them. The mob had been in the College Grounds. The worst mobs are on the 1st & 2nd and 7th Avenues. Dr. The Afro. Ever yours. Knopf.. & a decided republican. an attack upon one of a row of new houses in our street.Americans: Selected Documents . They were going to burn Pres.233. or rather burned out.. and they immediately strung up the unhappy African.History of Negro Americans... Road Bridge--both of which places were threatened by the rioters.

"Our government has broken faith with us. many northern soldiers donned the crusader's armor with strong misgivings or outright disgust. "a little black baby that could just walk got under my feet and it look so much like a big worm that I wanted to step on it and crush it. some Yankee soldiers thought it would only prolong the conflict." a Massachusetts soldier and amateur phrenologist observed. "the heads of the women indicate great ." a New England officer remarked." And if anything. "I would rather fight them." Rather than view emancipation as a way to end the war. Besides. some Yankees apparently concluded. not all Northerners embraced the idea that they were fighting to liberate the slaves. Although Union propagandists and abolitionists might exult in how a war for the Union had been transformed into a crusade for freedom. "We enlisted to fight for the Union. Yankees tended to share the popular racist notion of black women as naturally promiscuous and dissolute. after all. The evidence was to be seen everywhere. What mattered was how they manifested their feelings when they came into direct contact with the slaves." a young Massachusetts officer wrote from New Orleans. when combined with long-held and deeply felt attitudes toward black people. Now that the very survival of the southern labor system was at stake." a Union deserter told his captors. The following account by historian Leon Litwack describes the attitudes of some Northern soldiers toward the blacks they encountered in the South. had chosen to wage this kind of war. the nasty. the prospect of a negotiated peace seemed even more remote. additional exposure to blacks appeared to strengthen rather than allay racial antipathies. "My repugnance to them increases with the acquaintance. Not only did the invaders tend to view the Negro as a primary cause of the war but even more importantly as an inferior being with few if any legitimate human emotions-at least none that had to be considered with any degree of sensitivity. The evidence suggests one of the more tragic chapters in the history of this generally brutalizing and demoralizing war. "As I was going along this afternoon." Few Northerners. greasy little vermin was the best that could be said of it. and not to liberate the G-d d-d niggers. was a logical and convenient object on which disgruntled and war-weary Yankees could vent their frustrations and hatreds. That most Union soldiers should have failed to share the abolitionist commitment is hardly surprising." an Ohio private wrote. and southern whites could be expected to fight with even greater intensity and conviction. "Republican as I am. "I don't think enough of the Nigger to go and fight for them. and the attitudes and behavior he evinced did not always encourage the slaves to think of themselves as free men and women. not to mention the proper subordination of black people. was to partake of a widely practiced and well-accepted southern pastime. but true. were more than sufficient to turn some Union soldiers into the very "debils" the slaves had been warned by their masters to expect. "Singular. The typical Yankee was at best a reluctant liberator. then. keep me clear of the darkey in any relation." To debauch black women.RELUCTANT LIBERATORS: NORTHERN TROOPS IN THE SOUTH As the preceding vignettes on the New York Draft Riot indicates. The normal frustrations of military life and the usually sordid record of invading armies. Here.

" Most Union soldiers would have found these practices reprehensible. "The father and grandfather dared offer no resistance. Two of the Brownfields' former negroes have married Yankees-one. If such incidents were rare. lighted cigars & and sand into their behinds. "cause Mr. a black soldier noted that they usually mingled with "deluded freedwomen" only under the cover of darkness. Been in the Storm So Long: The Aftermath of Slavery. "Dis was new to us. the husband or children of the intended victim had to be forcibly restrained from coming to her assistance. a light colored mustee. men who have wives at home get entangled with these black things. "and Hoosiers and Suckers don't take readily to Southern habits. stopped five young black women and cut their arms." they "turned them upon their heads. even among those who deplored the excesses. and backs with razors. "though it is the case with many soldiers. In November 1865." a soldier wrote from South Carolina." Without explanation. the racial ideology that encouraged them had widespread acceptance. some Union soldiers in Hanover County Virginia. Union soldiers often shared the outrage of local whites at such liaisons." two witnesses reported from Virginia. Not only did some Union soldiers sexually assault any woman they found in a slave cabin but they had no compunctions about committing the act in the presence of her family. But they occurred with sufficient frequency to induce a northern journalist in South Carolina to write that Union troops had engaged in "some of the vilest and meanest exhibitions of human depravity" he had ever witnessed. After seizing two "niger wenches. but when they did occur southern whites made the most of them. and property left her by some white men whose mistress she had been-she says she passed herself off for a Spaniard and Mercier Green violated the sanctity of Grace Church by performing the ceremony--the other. chips." one of the victims recalled." Whatever the reputation of black women for promiscuity. black women could be subjected to further brutality and sadism." a Pennsylvania soldier assured his wife. stocks. Beyond the exploitation of sexual assault. went north and married a Jewess--the idea is too revolting. Not surprisingly." Although some Union officers made no secret of their slave concubines. Tinsley [her master] didn' ever beat or hurt us. moreover. a black newspaper in Charleston reported that an Illinois soldier had been tarred and feathered by his own comrades for having married a black woman. "While on picket guard I witnessed misdeeds that made me ashamed of America. The frequency with which common soldiers mixed with black women prompted some regimental commanders to order the ejection of such women from the camp because their presence had become "demoralizing. sexual submissions frequently had to be obtained by force. he had recently observed a group of his comrades rape a nine-year-old black girl." the newspaper said of the victim. as was most graphically illustrated in an incident involving some Connecticut soldiers stationed in Virginia." "I won't be unfaithful to you with a Negro wench.animal passions. In some such instances. Yes. sharing their quarters with them. Source: Leon Litwack. (New ." Marriages between Yankees and blacks were rare. a man. legs. "He was probably a Southern man by birth and education. while they openly consorted with white women during the day. & put tobacco.

Of course I don't want their souls to be lost. 1979) pp. 'Love your enemies. Dec. 397. They have but a quarter of a pound of meat per day. All the necessaries of life in the city are still going up higher in price. one dollar. reflects the intense hatred the war generated between Southerners and Northerners. I don't see how else they are going to get their deserts. 129-130. Sherman's famous March Through Georgia introduced the Confederacy to the concept of "total war. 399. I can't believe that when Christ said. for that would be wicked. three dollars per pound.--Some idea may be formed of the scarcity of food in this city from the fact that. The men were pale and haggard. American History: A Survey. Jones. an Georgia girl's entry in her journal following Sherman's March to the Sea. Here is a part of a letter from W. while my youngest daughter was in the kitchen today.' He meant Yankees. which it ate from her hand. describing the March. Her entry describes the rampant inflation which affected most Confederate cities by 1863. a clerk in the Confederate War Department. but as they are not being punished in this world. 18th. one dollar.. kept a diary which in 1863 details the privations of the people of Richmond during the Civil War. February 11th. Perhaps we shall have to eat them! February 18--One or two of the regiments of General Lee's army were in the city last night. Butter. 127-128." His military objective was not to destroy an opposing army as much as the South's morale and resolve to continue the war. bacon. A SOLDIER WITH SHERMAN'S ARMY General William T. Saylor. she held out some bread. pp. HARD TIMES IN THE CONFEDERACY J.York. 1864 . a Union soldier from Wisconsin. Now that they have invaded our country and killed so many of our men and desecrated so many homes. Source: Richard Current. and seemed grateful. (New York: Knopf.F. they could not tell how I hate Yankees. beef. I hope it is abundant there. 1961). If all the words of hatred in every language under heaven were lumped together into one huge epithet of detestation. sausage meat. Several others soon appeared and were as tame as kittens. In the field near Savannah Geo. a young rat came out of its hole and seemed to beg for something to eat. a dollar and a quarter.B. But meat has been ordered from Atlanta. The second account. and even liver is selling at fifty cents per pound..

Johnston's house about 5 to 7 miles from the road we were on. Sheep..My Dear Father: At 10 a. Norton.think of what the people that are left there are to live on.m. Gen. We have all their Cattle. We burnt all the Cotton we men which was millions of pounds. Mules. (New York: W. The main road was blocked up with teams so we were obliged to go round by an old ford road making us 5 miles extra travel. This is a very pretty place and contains some beautiful buildings. It comprised 73.. Sherman. But it wouldn't work. but had left some of his old darkies.. The Weather is now cold and cloudy. We travel fast and get to Camp in Milledgeville the Capitol of Geo. The Ex Gov of course had gone.found Ex-Gov.You can form no idea of the amount of property destroyed by us on this raid.. Hogs. Dec.. Nov 28.000 Infantry.W. with a few flakes of snow. Monday the 14th [Nov... Vol. And they did their work well.. having previously set fire to our comfortable winter quarters. The Army moved out on four different roads. I. A tornado 60 miles in width from Chattanooga to this place 290 miles could not have done half the damage we did. The boys unearthed the stuff. 10th.. W. having traveled 10 miles.T.m. burning everything but a few private dwellings and the Churches. Looking for America: The People's History. and 70 pieces of Artillery. The foragers got lots of stuff to eat here but not finding the usual amount of finery in the house they suspected that it was hid some where. The whole army intended for this Campaign was now in and around the City and ready to start the next morning.m..] we started on the march towards Atlanta. The right wing towards Macon. 22 Left Camp at 10 a. The Officer in charge persuaded an aged darkey by threatening to hang him (rather persuasive argument) to tell him where the stuff was. Nov. Horses. It was an awful looking place when we got through. the left wing towards Augusta. Source: Stanley I Kutler.000 men under the command of Major. The Ex Gov took up a bed of cabbages in his garden then dug holes and deposited his goods in boxes and barrels in said holes. I can't.. 5500 cavelry [sic]. and then set the cabbages out nicely again. 1979). We burned the State Prison and arsenal and other public buildings and pillaged an plundered the town generally. A small force was left behind to burn the city [Atlanta] after the troops got out. All the Roads in the state are torn up and the whole tract of country over which we passed is little better than wilderness. A CONFEDERATE SUPPORTER DESCRIBES THE FALL OF RICHMOND . The proud city of Atlanta is now a heap of Ashes. making nearly 80.. at 5 p. pp..432.. 15th. Sweet Potatoes and Molasses and nearly everything else. Tuesday morning Nov. 430. The Legislature had been in session but on hearing of our approach they adjourned and fled in confusion. without inhabitants or public communication.

.. the capital of the Confederacy and thus signaled the collapse of the rebellion... and I must say were treated with perfect courtesy and consideration. We saw many people we knew on the same errand as ourselves. describes the episode. For some days after. Norton. Along the middle of the streets smoldered a long pile... April 4.______ and the_____'s were there to ask for food.With the din of the enemy's wagon trains. Through all of this strain of anguish ran like a gleam of gold the mad vain hope that Lee would yet make a stand somewhere--that Lee's dear soldiers would give us back our liberty. We walked through the streets like lost spirits till nearly daybreak. Cary. Richmond. We went on to the head-quarters of the Yankee General in charge of Richmond. trampling horses. 1979). the kitchen and cabins of the better class of darkies displayed handsome oil paintings and mirrors. The ending of the first day of occupation was truly horrible. Mrs. because I can have no idea where Clarence is. we felt safe enough.. together with a mob of miserable poor whites..W. Hardly anybody went to bed. I can hardly write coherently. 1865 My Precious Mother and Brother: I write you this jointly. and my heart throbs to bursting night and day. but the experience was not pleasant. her face looked like a tragic mask carved out of stone. Virginia. Grace Street.of papers torn from the different departments' archives of our beloved Government. (New York: W. as their families were starving.. it was said. we have not fallen to that! Certainly. THE FALL OF RICHMOND: A BLACK SOLDIER'S PERSPECTIVE . from which soldiers in blue were picking out letters and documents that caught their fancy. The streets filled with smoke and flying fire were empty of the respectable class of inhabitants. Looking for America: The People's History.. bands. and Canal Streets. Some negroes of the lowest grade. Already the town wore the aspect of one in the Middle Ages smitten by pestilence. The War Department was sending up jets of flame. I. drank themselves mad with liquor scooped from the gutters.and cannon ever in my ears.. carrying loot from the burnt district. A courteous young lieutenant was sent to pilot us out of the confusion. pp.Looking down from the upper end of [Capitol Square] we saw a huge wall of fire blocking out the horizon..All through the evening the air was full of farewells as if to the dead.. Reinforced. the doors and shutters of every house tight closed.except tottering walls and smoldering ruins.. rare books and barrels of sugar and whiskey. Thank God..General Lee's house had a [Union] guard camped in the front yard. by convicts escaped from the penitentiary. their heads turned by the prospect of wealth and equality. Can't you imagine with what a heavy heart I begin it? The last two days have added long years to my life I have cried until no more tears will come.. We heard stately Mrs. Vol. In a few hours no trace was left of Main.. that day of doom... 438-441.. Thanks to our trim Yankee guard in the basement. they tore through the streets. Source: Stanley I Kutler.. .In April 1865 units of the Union Army entered Richmond. in this account from a letter to her relatives. Burton Harrison.

we captured 500 pieces of artillery. B. march. On our march to Richmond." and she shouted till her voice failed her. When Col. Hill. We remained on the outpost. In some way the colored people on the bank of the river ascertained that the tall man wearing the black hat was President Lincoln. and the brief visit there by President Abraham Lincoln in his book A Sketch of the 29th Regiment of Connecticut Colored Troops. A Sketch of the 29th Regiment of Connecticut Colored Troops. none of the army were injured by them. W. "Madam. Source: J. She gazed at him with clasped hands and said. . and said "Double quick. As he approached I said to a woman. came up the stream. During Sunday night the brigade was out in line of battle. W.C. some of the largest kind. and arrived in the city at 7 A. describes the capture of the Confederate capital in April 1865. the 9th U.. for they left work and crowded to see the President. Hill. J. pulled by twelve sailors. when all was in readiness. until we occupied the advance. commander of the 29th Connecticut Colored Infantry Regiment. The road was strewed with all kinds of obstacles.M the troops commenced to advance on the rebel works--the 29th taking the advance. he found himself alone. orderly for Col. Give Him praise for his goodness. [olored] troops next. and men were lying all along the distance of seven miles. there is the man that made you free. pp. but to the surprise of officers and men. J. and made them go before the regiment and dig up the torpedoes that were left in the ground to prevent the progress of the Union Army. Wooster passed them about. Very soon after the arrival of the white troops the colored troops were moved on the outskirts of the city. they went at double quick most of the way. he pointed his sword at the capitol. and as fast as the white troops came in the colored troops were ordered out. [On April] 3d President Lincoln visited the city." She exclaimed. Part of the description is reprinted below. All was quiet here until the 1st of April. The main body of the army went up the New Market road. At 5 A. The 29th skirmished all the way. They were very numerous. B.S." and the company charged through the main street to the capitol and halted in the square until the rest of the regiment came up. Soon refugees from the rebels came in by hundreds. Wooster.. and the prisoners I was not able to number. I was standing on the bank of the James river viewing the scene of desolation when a boat. 1867). and were the first infantry that entered the city. "Is that President Lincoln?" My reply was in the affirmative. (Baltimore. 6. Col. and the order was given to strike tents and move on to Richmond. "Glory to God. No triumphal march of a conqueror could have equalled in moral sublimity the humble manner in which he entered Richmond.. It contained President Lincoln and his son.J.M. Wooster came to Main St.000 small arms. 25-27. I was very much amused at the plight of one officer who had in charge fifty colored men to put to work on the ruined buildings. The white troops remained in the city as guards. There was a sudden shout and clapping of hands. and at three o'clock in the morning the rebels blew up three gun boats and commenced vacating their works in our front.

My father and me used to talk 'bout it. all of a sudden. but we didn't know what was to come with it. they had gone to find water 'long the San Antonio River and the Guadalupe. My father. JUNETEENTH: BIRTH OF AN AFRICAN AMERICAN HOLIDAY . and the whites didn't. They seemed to want to get closer to freedom. was everywhere--coming in bunches. all right. Everybody went wild. but it didn't make 'em rich. 11. We decided we was too soft and freedom wasn't going to be much to our good even if we had a education. They went right on giving us food just the same. If every mother's son of a black had thrown 'way his hoe and took up a gun to fight for his own freedom along with the Yankees. close as a lean tick to a sick kitten. Did you ever stop to think that thinking don't do any good when you do it too late? Well. but right off colored folks started on the move. Me and my father stuck. Then the whites gave me and my father some cattle for our own. Source: Robert D. the war'd been over before it began. We was all walking on golden clouds. p. we was free.7 B)--and we had a herd to start out with of seventy. either. hurrah! Although I may be poor. I'll never be a slave-Shouting the battle cry of freedom. 'cause we was stronger and knowed how to work. We felt like heroes. born a slave in Raleigh. Hallelujah! Union forever Hurrah. In this interview Haywood recalls the day of emancipation. We knowed freedom was on us. We couldn't no more shot 'em than we could fly. But it didn't turn out that way. that's how it was with us. They was cattle that they belonged to. But we didn't do it. he'd round up cattle--unbranded cattle--for the whites. Nobody took our homes away. North Carolina. so they'd know what it was--like it was a place or a city. My father had his own brand .FELIX HAYWOOD REMEMBERS THE DAY OF JUBLIO Felix Haywood. Just like that. The Gudlows started us out on a ranch. in the summer of 1865 when word finally reached Texas. and nobody had made us that way but ourselves. crossing and walking and riding. Texas. boys. Everyone was a-singing. 1989). gained his freedom in San Antonio. We thought we was going to be richer than the white folks. Soldiers. We soon found out that freedom could make folks proud. America Firsthand: From Reconstruction to the Present (New York: St. It didn't seem to make the whites mad. and they didn't have us to work for them any more. We couldn't help stick to our masters. Martin's Press. We was free. We thought we was going to get rich like the white folks. Marcus and David Burner.

Portland. Some fortunate black women and men were emancipated as early as 1861 onward when Union forces captured outlying areas of the Confederacy such as the Sea Islands of South Carolina... Isolated from both Union and Confederate forces. By 1900 the festivities had grown to include baseball games. Juneteenth simultaneously declined in Texas and grew in the emerging black communities of Los Angeles. Texas. which in some instances was as close as the nearest Union Army camp. Oakland. however was another matter. and part of June. barbecues. Part of that article is reprinted below. Other black slaves emancipated themselves by exploiting the disruption of war to run away to freedom. the Tidewater area of Virginia (Hampton and Norfolk) or New Orleans all before January 1863. and gave speeches in remembrance of their liberation. returned home while Texas freedpersons headed for Galveston.. Juneteenth had become so respectable that white politicians including various Texas governors addressed the largest gatherings (which sometimes included upwards of 5.In a brief article for the Eugene Register Guard I described the origins of the Juneteenth holiday. Many blacks brought from Arkansas... and San Diego. however. 1865.C. Indeed. Louisiana and Missouri during the War. And some communities east of Texas such as Washington. 1865.. These slaves did not have to run for their freedom. Texas. 1863. Alabama. freedom officially arrived when Federal troops landed at Galveston. Texas during the Civil War. By that time Juneteenth had officially become Texas Emancipation Day and was sponsored by black churches and civic organizations. . D.at Appomattox Court House in Virginia.000 people) in Houston and Dallas. had forgotten the holiday's origins and its significance in African American history. With that surrender the. picnics. But by the 1970s many blacks.. With the migration of African Americans from Texas to the West Coast particularly during World War II. Lee surrendered his army to Federal forces. and formal balls. News of Lee's surrender spread quickly through the former slave states east of the Mississippi River. Juneteenth had surpassed the Fourth of July as the biggest holiday of the year for Texas African Americans. and Birmingham. Freedom came in many guises to the four million African Americans who had been enslaved at the beginning of the Civil War. Beginning in 1866 they held parades. When the news came entire plantations were deserted. Houston and other cities where Federal troops were stationed. local blacks gradually settled on June 19 (Juneteenth) as their day of celebration. began celebrations as well. Finally on June 19. they did not.rebellion was over. horse races. they merely had to wait for Federal troops to arrive. including those in Texas. railroad excursions.. Although news of emancipation came at different times during that Texas summer of 1865. Word of emancipation gradually spread over the state despite the efforts of some slaveholders to maintain slavery.. Emancipation for the majority of African Americans. President Abraham Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation liberated all blacks residing in territory captured from the Confederates after January 1. had become a place of refuge for slaveholders seeking to insure that their "property" would not hear of freedom.. But African Americans would not be denied the liberty that had eluded them so long. came only in 1865 when Confederate commander Robert E. May. Through April. Seattle.

I served in the Army.. 1D. and now have a most lovely woman. has just reached me and you will be relieved by my answer. Our handsome Residence in the country was burnt. at this time. was sacked. the South Carolina planter wrote his Northern friend. and seek a little food. be exterminated themselves. and had given your life. before this once productive country will be able to support itself. my brother died in the Army. Some of my relatives were there. 22 Jan y 1866 My dear Jim Your letter of date July 1865. & baby eighteen months old at my elbow.. and all the valuable furniture stolen and the houses well riddled by shell & shot. Our losses have been frightful. pp. during the occupation by Sherman. Lord explaining why the South would declare its independence and offering reasons for its success if the Northern states attempted to block the secession. now. My daughter died during the war. for the cause. is now a howling wilderness. to find. I found time to get married again. The former kind treatment of the slaves. My Father and I. Our Residence in the city. but I do not suppose so by your letter. THE POST WAR SOUTH-A DEFEATED PLANTER LOOKS BACK Previously Edward Barnell Heyward. They look to the government. owned near seven hundred negroes and they are all now wandering about like lost sheep. and their docile and generous temper.. In 1866 Heyward again wrote his friend but now historical events mandated a far different letter. scarcely a support. will at last.. have made nothing. .. and the negroes. We live twenty miles from Columbia [the state capital]. in which your nation seems to much pride itself. makes them now disposed to be quiet & obedient: but the determination of your Northern people to give them a place in the councils of the Country and make they the equal of the white man. down there. leaving provisions. James A. and we have. and all the buildings were burnt. and in the end. I have. with no one to care for them. left to themselves. think that freedom means doing nothing. & have my family around me. They very naturally. mules & stock. and this they are determined to do. the whole country. and every family has lost members. to take care of them. that I am still alive. 4D. and extremely glad to hear from you. No one can know how reduced we are. All is now lost. and it will be many years." Eugene RegisterGuard. bear its fruit. and we may then expect. and my Son is now a tall fellow who would astonish you by his size. June 8. 1865-1992. The Enemy passed over all our property on the coast in the march from Savannah to Charleston. I am quite well. and the negroes. are roaming in a starving condition.Source: Quintard Taylor. and suffered the terrible anxieties & losses of that dreadful event. to rise against the whites.thought that you had been among those who had joined the Army. poor things. My Father had five plantations on the coast.. particularly the refined & educated. 1992. about the city. During the war. them. Our farm near Charleston was abandoned to the negroes. now left to themselves. "The Juneteenth Celebration.

(New York: W. smart man that will take care of you and the children. you know the Lord knows both of our hearts. I feel now I have no country. 463-465. my poor little son. Laura. You know my treatment to a wife and you know how I am about my children. Source: Herbert Gutman.. Will you please git married. and do it because you love me. I. You know I love my children. truly. 1979). My dear. The letter is reprinted below. Laura I do not think I have change any at all since I saw you last. Send me some of the children's hair in a separate paper with their names on the paper. as you ever did Laura. I would come and see you but I know you could not bear it. that I am. who remains anonymous except to Laura. I am married. I do not know which I love best. and not because I think more of the wife I have got then I do of you.W. and my wife have two children. You know it never was our wishes to be separated from each other. today or tomorrow. As I am.. and it will not do for you and I to meet. I obey like a subject.As soon as able. and if you and I meets it would make a very dissatisfied family. Norton. I love you just as well as I did the last day I saw you. pp. They wanted to reunite after emancipation but her husband had remarried. The woman is not born that feels as near to me as you do. is because your letters disturbed me so very much.. will be from England. and it never was our fault. and I do a good deal of it for you. I want to see and I don't want to see you. I am sorry to hear that Lewellyn. and I am very sorry. I have got another wife. have had such bad health. and leave others to stand the storm. Tell them they must remember they have a good father and one that cares for them and one that thinks about them every day-My very heart did ache when reading your very kind and interesting letter. Laura I do love you the same. You feel this day like myself. The husband. Vol. but I cannot love such a government. You feels and seems to me as much like my dear loving wife. as long as I am married. The Black Family in Slavery and Freedom 1750-1925 (New .. "SEND ME SOME OF THE CHILDREN'S HAIR" Sometime before the Civil War Laura Spicer and her children were sold from their husband and father. If I was to die. for every time I gits a letter from you it tears me all to pieces.. Perhaps the next letter. You know I am one man that do love my children.-I think of you and my children every day of my life. you get from me. I do not think I would die satisfied till you tell me you will try and marry some good. The reason why I have not written you before. you or Anna. My love to you never have failed. I shall quit the Country. in a long time. at any-time. Oh. Source: Stanley I Kutler. wrote a letter describing the pain of their separation and yet wishing Laura would find another husband to care for the family. I had rather anything to had happened to me most than ever to have been parted from you and the children. I would much rather you would get married to some good man. I treats them good as a Father can treat his children. I can see you so plain. Looking for America: The People's History.

'" De Forest." "impudent. George Downing and other black leaders met with President Andrew Johnson at the White House. President. her own truculence must be counterbalanced by the weakness of her husband. Mr. 70-71. as to your . the first meeting between an American president and black political spokesmen. 1866. brother. showed a curious lack of sympathy for this hardworking woman." male-female relationships." In the process of ridiculing these women. Part of the exchange is reprinted below. 1926) pp. Frederick Douglass. Work. Peter.. or father." and insisted there must be some mistake. Yankee planters. prone to accept the white man's point of view) than their vehement womenfolk.' she exhorted. and the Family from Slavery to the Present." "impertinent. professed abolitionists. Labor of Sorrow: Black Women. male relatives were often perceived to be much more "reasonable" (that is. 'Don' you give down to it. For example.York. (New York. This. But ironically in such cases. stubborn. "IMPUDENT" FREEDWOMEN In the account below historian Jacqueline Jones describes the attitudes of both Northerners and Southerners to what they described as the particular insolence of black women. PRESIDENT JOHNSON MEETS BLACK LEADERS On February 7. In other cases. His wife was not about to accept the situation so politely: "trembling with indignant suspicion [she] looked on grimly or broke out in fits of passion. northerners often indirectly revealed their ambivalent attitudes toward black men. The man remained "puzzled. we are not here to enlighten you. Defenders of the notion of early Victorian (white) womanhood could not help but be struck by black women who openly challenged conventional standards of female submissiveness. Source: Jacqueline Jones. pp. who elsewhere complained of black "female loaferism" prevalent in the area. Douglass advanced and addressed the President. showed the wide disparity between the President's views on voting rights for the ex-slaves and those of the assembled black activists. Apparently an aggressive woman existed outside the realm of "natural.. 'It ain't no how ris'ible that we should 'a' worked all the year and git nothing' to go upon. 1985). Labor of Love. with their "loud and boisterous talking. Fred." demanded fair treatment for "we people [left] way back." "vulgar" persons who "spoke up bold as brass" and. Freedwomen were described as "growling. sir. incredulous. 6-7. John De Forest [Freedman's Bureau officer] later recounted the respective reactions of an elderly couple who had used up in supplies any profit they might have earned from a full year's labor. saying: Mr. responded to the demands put forth by delegations of female field hands with contempt for their brashness.

and was ratified December 18. 1967). or property... and the feelings of my own heart. and subject to taxation. God forbid that I should be engaged in such a work! Source: Leslie H. 1865. and we do hope that you. shall exist within the United States. The Negro American: A Documentary History. and to that portion of it which constitutes the colored population. unpractical friendship amounts to but very little.Slavery Abolished 1) Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude. All that I possessed. and property. life. except as a punishment for crime. (Glenview. The fact that we are the subjects of Government... Ill. who never perilled life. I have no speech to make on this occasion. I do not want to adopt a policy [of voting rights for negroes] that I believe will end in a contest between the races. It was rejected by Delaware and . they have been for the colored man. I will say that if I have not given evidence in my course that I am a friend of humanity. Fishel and Benjamin Quarles.. but to show our respect. when I had every inducement held out to take the other course. subject to volunteer in the service of the country. to bless or blast us--I mean our whole race. I simply submit these observations as a limited expression of the views and feelings of the delegation with which I have come. In the order of Divine Providence you are placed in a position where you have the power to save or destroy us. 1866-1870 ARTICLE 13 . for it is always best to talk plainly and distinctly about such matters. RECONSTRUCTION AMENDMENTS. I am free to say to you that I do not like to be arraigned by someone who can get up handsomely-rounded periods and deal in rhetoric. This amendment was proposed to the State Legislatures by the 37th Congress on February 1. hollow. 135. or any place subject to their jurisdiction.duties as the Chief Magistrate of this Republic. We shall submit no argument on that point. liberty. 2) Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. I can give no evidence here. 1865. his able successor. will favorably regard the placing in our hands the ballot with which to save ourselves. subject to bear the burdens of the State.. whereof the party shall have been duly convicted. have been put up in connection with that question. which if persisted in will result in the extermination of one or the other. and talk about abstract ideas of liberty. not to make a speech about this thing. liberty. While I say that I am a friend of the colored man. p. subject to being drafted. Your noble and humane predecessor placed in our hands the sword to assist in saving the nation. This kind of theoretical. Response of the President: In reply to some of your inquiries. If I know myself. makes it not improper that should ask to share in the privileges of this condition. and to present in brief the claims of our race to your favorable consideration..

This amendment was proposed to the State Legislatures by the 39th Congress on June 16. that these amendments were unpopular with most . Kentucky. and subject to the jurisdiction thereof. It was later ratified by the 10 ex-Confederate states. It was supported by 30 states. Delaware. Kentucky. It was rejected by Delaware. No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States. 1868. nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. It was clear. This amendment was proposed to the State Legislatures by the 40th Congress on February 27. and was ratified on March 30.Equal Voting Rights 1) The right of the citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race. and Texas took no action. however. 2) The Congress shall have power to enforce the provisions of this Article by appropriate legislation. S. the legislature was required to consider ratification of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments. it was rejected by California. Constitution. 1869. or previous condition of servitude. Maryland and Oregon. Maryland and 10 ex-Confederate states.Citizenship Rights Not To Be Abridged 1) All persons born or naturalized in the United States. RECONSTRUCTION AMENDMENTS: OREGON'S RESPONSE In the following vignette historian Elizabeth McLagan describes the Oregon legislature's response to the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments to the U. ARTICLE 15 . or property without due process of law. ARTICLE 14 . 1870. but ratified it in 1871. color. with the exception of the ban on intermarriage passed in 1866. It was not acted on by Tennessee. nor shall any State deprive any person of life. During the Civil War the [Oregon] legislature passed the last anti-black state laws. Between 1866 and 1872.Kentucky. New York rescinded its ratification on January 5. California took no action. was conditionally ratified by Alabama and Mississippi. The amendment was supported by 23 Northern states. are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. which gave citizenship to black people and the right to vote to black men. New Jersey rejected the amendment in 1870. 1866. 1870. liberty. and was ratified July 23.

Then how long would we have peace and prosperity when four races separate.." the editorial concluded. or up to one year in jail. bullet pated.. Chinese or [Hawaiian] blood.... Japanese and other Asians).gaping.. Full suffrage would result in a "war of the races.. ... who had become the hero of the Democratic Party for his opposition to Reconstruction. in an editorial published [in 1865]... but against anyone with "one-fourth or more Negro. released from wholesome restraints of task masters and overseers. or any person having more than one half Indian blood. 8 opposed and 3 absent. The legislature was not deluded into thinking that its actions would make any difference. In 1868. still controlled by the [Republicans] but with a strong minority of Democrats. with an additional $1. The Oregon Statesman. The legislator's reluctance to endorse the Fourteenth Amendment was the subject of debate in the local press as well.. Williams was also active in the campaign to impeach President Andrew Johnson.these attempts failed. The Fifteenth Amendment was proposed.Oregonians. lousy. It was directed not only against white/black marriages. In 1867. ratified and declared in force by . distinct and antagonistic should be at the polls and contend for the control of government? The 1866 legislature. This time the repeal passed in both chambers by a combined vote of 39 to 27. Because of its rabid pro-South rhetoric.000 fine. dirty. this paper had been suppressed during the Civil War. another attempt was made to repeal ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment. The penalty for disobeying the law was a prison sentence of not less than three months. they drowsily look down upon the assembled wisdom of a dissevered Union. This legislature also passed another law prohibiting intermarriage. the dregs of broken up plantations. the Oregonian predicted that if copies of the resolutions ever reached Congress they would probably be used to light someone's cigar. thick lipped... Williams and Henry W. Greasy. idle and vicious blacks. predicted that giving the vote to blacks would have a revolutionary influence on society. wooly headed. we cannot deny the same right to the Indian or the Mongolian (the Chinese. The Democrats made two attempts to withdraw ratification but. This session also recalled Oregon Senators George H. It passed with little debate the combined vote was 47 in favor. If we make the African a citizen.. although the vote was close. the Eugene Weekly Democratic Review printed a vicious attack on black people. declared to be ratified nationally only six weeks previously. Any person authorized to conduct marriages who broke the law by marrying two people illegally was subject to the same penalty.. Sleepily listen to legislators who have given them their freedom and now propose to invest them with the highest privileges of American citizenship. criticized for their support of Reconstruction. This law was not repealed until 1951. Corbett. animal-jawed crowd of niggers. considered and ratified the Fourteenth Amendment.

H. but it would be many years before the legislature would begin to take an interest in passing laws that would allow black people to enjoy equal rights as citizens of the state. quiet. ran an editorial which admitted: There are but a few colored men in Oregon.. A Peculiar Paradise: A History of Blacks in Oregon. The paper's position is reprinted below. BLACK VOTING RIGHTS: OTHER VIEWS FROM THE FAR WEST In an 1870 editorial the Olympia (Washington Territory) Commercial Age outlined its position on black voting by publishing a long letter on the subject from one of its local readers..S. 41.500 in New . 1788-1940 (Portland. Although Oregon refused to ratify the Fifteenth Amendment. ____________________ Source: Elizabeth McLagan.. The legislative session of 1870. yet it will be a matter of much importance in both Oregon and California. But these here are. so Oregonians acquiesced. Of these 790. and C. as a rule. Olympia: Although the Fifteenth Amendment does not particularly affect us in this Territory.. and their political influence cannot be great. industrious and intelligent citizens..000 are in the South. 7. By 1870.Congress between Oregon's 1868 and 1870 legislative sessions.declared the Fifteenth Amendment was "an infringement on popular rights and a direct falsification of the pledges made to the state of Oregon by the federal government. if not endorsed. which five years earlier had opposed the Fifteen Amendment... The following from an exchange contains much truth and will prove of interest to many of our readers: "The number of colored men whose right to vote will be established by the Fifteenth Amendment is estimated at 850. as the colored folks have been voters among us for sometime already. without the endorsement of the state legislature. New Jersey. That same year the Oregonian. but because Oregonians realized that federal civil rights legislation had to be acknowledged. Resistance to accepting the black vote. and Indiana. We cannot doubt they will exercise intelligently the franchise with which they are newly invested. 68-74.000. two black men who had voted. The case involved the election of a county commissioner in Wasco County.." The Fifteenth Amendment was finally ratified by the centennial legislature of 1959. pp. a state Supreme Court decision rendered in 1870 affirmed the right of black men to vote. change was inevitable. The period of enacting racist legislation had ended.. Ohio. Ford. Pennsylvania.was overcome not by a change in attitude. Yates and W.000 in the states of New York. 1980). Blacks were granted civil rights under the terms imposed by the federal government. The second vignette from the English-language Honolulu Friend indicates that the debate over black voting rights extended beyond the boundaries of the United States when in 1865 the newspaper urged that suffrage be granted to the newly freed slaves. Oregon's black population was small and posed little threat to the established order.

nor all entirely exempt from the spirit of estate." It will be a happy day for the country when the people shall no more care to inquire whether a voter or a candidate for office is white or black than whether he is tall or short. be ready to fall into the snares which unscrupulous Democrats will be sure to lay in their path.000 black men may perhaps hold the balance of power between the two political parties in the next presidential election and for a long time to come. no doubt. On the contrary. New York. But. The Republicans. The tendency is towards that point in all lands. is surely as good a citizen as a rebel. will. Give the colored man a fair start. The negro has nobly fought for the country. Among these states we may mention Connecticut. while they have every reason for regarding the other party with aversion and distrust. some of the closely-divided states will in all probability be insured to the Republicans by the negro vote. moreover. and 8. In our opinion these men occupy the only consistent and correct ground. 1. or shall he not be admitted to all the civil and political rights of the white inhabitants? This is the question. Senator Sumner.500 in the remaining Western States. Sources: The (Olympia. October 13. the most prominent question of discussion appears to be the status of the negro. true to his country and the flag. and many of them. will. they will have a decided advantage over their opponents in this struggle--at least. reprinted in the San Francisco Elevator. so far as the more intelligent of the negroes are concerned. 1865. These 850. 1870. we expect to see that party making special efforts to win these voters--enough of them. at least. are by no means all saints. March 26. and assume that they are approximately accurate. that they owe their enfranchisement to the Republican party. Shall he. We believe most fully in the doctrine that all men should enjoy equal civil and political rights. But they cannot all be expected to take the highest view of their obligations as citizens. and Ohio. Mean men in this party. as in the other. But will the Democratic party be so stupid as to drive these new voters en masse into the Republican fold? We doubt it. p. These statistics we find in the [Baltimore] Sun. and a host of leading men of the Republican party. Washington Territory) Commercial Age. to divide their strength. New Jersey. The Honolulu Friend. of course. if the Republicans are true to themselves and their principles. Delaware. Pennsylvania. although he [the rebel] may have recently take the oath of allegiance. and let him try for himself. thus helping the Democrats to "divide that they may conquer. We hope Americans will start aright this time. The negroes know. A loyal negro. HELENA CITIZENS CELEBRATE THEIR NEW RIGHTS . continue to behave shabbily toward the new-made voters. no doubt. Revolutions go not backward. and now not to allow him all the rights and privileges enjoyed by his fellow soldiers would be wrong. Of course there is a great difference of opinion upon the subject. take the ground that the negro should now be permitted to vote and enjoy all the privileges of the white population. Such men as Chief Justice Chase. If the Democratic party persists in its long-time inveterate hostility to the negro.England." Honolulu: In glancing over the files of the American papers.

we. thank God. To-day. the colored citizens of Helena. 1870. Reprinted below are some of the 1866 black codes for a Louisiana parish. 1: Be it ordained by the police jury of the parish of St. that those rights which have been withheld from us. That no negro shall be allowed to pass within the limits of said parish without special permit in writing from his employer. conveyed and gave unto us.Helena. Sec. most of these laws nevertheless created repressive conditions that were strikingly similar to slavery. Secretary Source: Helena Daily Herald. do. on the 14th of April. the citizens of Helena. by these presents. President J. is written and heralded to the wide world that we are free men and citizens of the United States--shorn of all those stigmatizing qualifications which have made us beasts. Montana's African Americans. from the hill and to the south of the city. declare our intentions of celebrating the ratification of the 15th Amendment. as we do. Now. the Helena Daily Herald. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: We. and the Congress of the United States. announcing their celebration. like their counterparts throughout the United States acclaimed the passage of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments to the Constitution. A. in mass assembled. 1870. by the firing of thirty-two guns. are now submerged and numbered with the things of the past. April 15. The vignette suggests that Reconstruction mean a new birth of freedom for African American outside the South as well as in the Reconstruction states. JOHNSON. feeling desirous of showing our high appreciation of those God-like gifts granted to us by and through the passage of the 15th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States. in the Territory of Montana. that we. in His infinite wisdom. While these codes recognized the end of slavery. possess all those rights which God. the colored people of the United States.slaveholders generated a series of laws to regulate the behavior of the newly freed slaves. Whoever shall violate this provision shall pay a fine of two .R. Signed.D. THE BLACK CODES Immediately after the Civil War ex. and knowing. now thank God. on this 15th day of April. BENJAMIN STONE. Landry. In 1870 they wrote the local newspaper.

In 1867 Stevens makes an impassioned plea for black suffrage before the House of Representatives... This prohibition. or suffer corporal punishment as provided hereinafter. . however. or suffer corporal punishment as hereinafter provided. Sec. or any kind of weapons. 6: No negro shall be permitted to preach. Sec. or former owner. 3: No negro shall be permitted to rent or keep a house within said parish. conducted by white ministers and priests.. barter or traffic. 7: No negro who is not in the military service shall be allowed to carry firearms. 5: No public meetings or congregations of negroes shall be allowed within said parish after sunset. Sec. 2: Every negro who shall be found absent from the residence of his employer after ten o'clock at night. specifying the article of sale. Sec. 9: Any negro found drunk.. or in default thereof shall be forced to work four days on the public road. exhort. who shall be held responsible for the conduct of said negro. Sec. Source: Howard H.. 8: No negro shall sell.. 1987) p. Any negro violating this provision shall be immediately ejected and compelled to find an employer. shall pay a fine. Milton Cantor and Dean Albertson. within whose beat such meetings shall take place. or exchange any articles of merchandise or traffic within said parish without the special written permission of his employer. Main Problems in American History. without a written permit from his employer. is not to prevent negroes from attending the usual church services. or in default thereof work five days on the public road. Sec. by special permission in writing of the captain of patrol. barter. within the parish without special written permission of his employers. Sec.10.. or otherwise declaim to congregations of colored people. 9. Sec. approved and indorsed by the nearest and most convenient chief of patrol. but such public meetings and congregations may be held between the hours of sunrise and sunset.. Quint. 4: Every negro is required to be in the regular service of some white person. (Chicago: The Dorsey Press. without a special permission in writing from the president of the police jury.dollars and fifty cents. within the said parish shall pay a fine of five dollars. THADDEUS STEVENS DEMANDS BLACK SUFFRAGE Pennsylvania Representative Thaddeus Stevens was one of the leaders of the Radical Republicans in the Post Civil War Congress.

READMISSION OF EX-CONFEDERATE STATES Date Conservative State Military Dist. Kennedy.There are several good reasons for the passage of this bill [for reconstructing the South]. 1868 June 25. they deserve it. if it be necessary. For I believe. Source: Thomas A. 1866 June 22. II. Whole Slavery sat upon her defiant throne. with their kindred Copperheads of the North. and insulted and intimidated the trembling North.. They. and cast a solid rebel electoral vote. Now. you must divide them between loyalists. C. without regard to color. and it is believed that in each of said states. I am for Negro suffrage in every rebel state. except one. They must suffer constant persecution. that on the continued ascendancy of that party depends the safety of this great nation. Reestablished Tennessee 1869 Arkansas 10. would always elect the President and control Congress. the two united would form a majority. control the states and protect themselves. In the first place. or be exiled. 457-458. it would insure the ascendancy of the Union [Republican] Party. For these. 1984). With them the blacks would act in a body. 1869 Florida 1877 Louisiana 1877 North Carolina 1870 * 4 3 5 2 Date of Readmission July 24. Lexington. on my conscience. I am now confining my argument to Negro suffrage in the rebel states.. 1868 June 25. it is just. revengeful South. among other reasons. Have not loyal blacks quite as good a right to choose rulers and make laws as rebel whites? In the second place. it is a necessity in order to protect the loyal white men in the seceded states. pp. if it be a punishment to traitors. Heath and Company. November January 2. Another good reason is. it should be adopted. If impartial suffrage is excluded in the rebel states. then every one of them is sure to send a solid rebel representative delegation to Congress. it should not be denied. . Vol. Now they are the victims of daily murder. irritated.. I do. If it be just. 1868 June 25. The white Union men are in a great minority in each of those states. Mass: D. 1868 Government October 4. Bailey & David M. and disloyalists.. November 3. January 2. The American Spirit. or you will be the perpetual vassals of the free-trade. "Do you avow the party purpose?" exclaims some horror-stricken demagogue.

1870 February 23. 1870 November November October 5. 1870 March 30. 1874 Virginia 1869 Mississippi 1876 Texas 1873 Georgia 1871 2 3 1 4 5 3 June 25. (1870) South Carolina Mississippi Louisiana Florida Alabama Georgia Virginia North Carolina Texas Tennessee Arkansas Black Legislators 59 56 51 49 48 46 42 37 31 26 25 White Legislators 84 53 40 34 49 36 19 25 26 30 32 13 27 15 19 12 11 6 1 1 0 0 Black % of Legislators 73 75 88 57 58 214 154 135 156 94 87 SOUTH CAROLINA UNDER BLACK GOVERNMENT . 1868 July 14. FIRST RECONSTRUCTION LEGISLATURES Black % of State Pop. 1870 July 15. January 14. November 1.South Carolina 28. *Tennessee was readmitted to the Union before the other Ex-Confederate States were divided into military districts. 1876 Alabama 16. January 4. 1868 January 26.

he is correspondingly more irrepressible. even if the land-owners would sell. "This is the first time I have been here. It was said of him that he did not know what he was going to say when he got up.... He answers completely to the description of a stupid speaker in Parliament.. Brown and Co. a Maine Republican and former abolitionist. The old slave-holders still hold their lands.The Speaker is black. Source: Richard N.issued forth from the State House. A DEBATE OVER PUBLIC SCHOOLS .. Pike.... he did not know what he was saying while he was speaking. The free school comes right home to them.m. and putting that master under his feet. and the chaplain is coal-black. It is the slave rioting in the halls of his master.. They were of every hue... Will South Carolina be Africanized? That depends.but I never though it would come to this.. "My God. Some blacks are coming in from North Carolina and Virginia. too. He believes he can do any thing. He can copy like a parrot or a monkey.The body is almost literally a Black Parliament.. The pickaninnies die off from want of care. but others are going off farther South.James S.. The white young men who were growing into manhood did not seem inclined to leave their homes and migrate to foreign parts. about 4 p.When an appropriation bill is up to raise money to catch and punish the Ku-klux. The whites seem likely to hold their own while the blacks fall off. I knew the negro. gazing excitedly upon the body in session." In the place of this old aristocratic society stands the rude form of the most ignorant democracy that mankind ever saw.. Let me go. with educational measures. One of the things that first strike a casual observer in this negro assembly is the fluency of debate. clad in homespun.. About three-quarters of the crowd belonged to the African race.. It is barbarism overwhelming civilization by physical force. and.. ed.. the assembled wisdom of the State. The negroes were poor and unable to buy...61. toured South Carolina in 1873 and wrote a highly critical account of Reconstruction in that state. day in and day out. He is more vivacious than the white. (Boston: Little. pp. they know exactly what it means. .. Sambo can talk on these topics and their endless ramifications... and it is the only one on the face of the earth which is representative of a white constituency and the professed exponent of an advanced type of modern civilization.. and he did not know what he had said when he sat down. Here is part of his description of the state legislature. look at this!" was the unbidden ejaculation of a low-country planter. So. given by Lord Derby on one occasion. 57. being more volatile and good-natured. invested with the functions of government. The negro is imitative in the extreme.. 1965). Garraty.. Words that Made American History Since The Civil War.the chairman of the Ways and Means is black. Yesterday... They were such a body of men as might pour our of a market house at random in any Southern state. and never loses a chance to try. the Clerk is black. as he leaned over the rail inside the House. Current and John A.. I thought I knew what we were doing when we consented to emancipation. from the light octoroon to the deep black.

As to the particular mode of enforcing attendance at school. and urge that the word "compulsory" shall be stricken out. J. In the following account from the Proceedings of the Constitutional Convention of South Carolina in 1868. Now I propose to support this section fully. Is there any logic or reason in inserting in the Constitution a provision which cannot be enforced? What do we intend to give the legislature power to do? In one breath you propose to protect minor children. MR. and I am content to trust to the Legislature to carry out the measures to which it necessarily leads. R. is not to enjoy unlimited license. This section proposes to open these schools to all persons. To be free. Vice and degradation go hand in hand with ignorance. or my friend himself might desire to enslave again his fellow men. to open every seminary of learning to all. under proper provisions in the Constitution. is an exceedingly wise provision. MR. The schools may be opened to all. If parents are disposed to clog this progress by neglecting the education of their children. Here is part of the debate. A. Upon the success of republicanism depends the progress which our people are destined to make. Believing this. My friend does not like it. and in the next to punish their parents by fine and imprisonment if they do not send their children to school. Heartily do I endorse the object. I believe that the Committee have properly provided for the compulsory education of all the children in this State between the ages named in the section. going to a step beyond the bounds of prudence. however. we leave that an open question. I contend that in proportion to the education of the people so is their progress in civilization. irrespective of color. I do not propose to enact in this report a section that may be used by our enemies to appeal to the worst passions of a class of people in this State. For these reasons I am opposed to the section. I will not aid and abet them. and the Legislature will provide for its application. because he says it is contrary to the spirit of republicanism. but the manner in which it is to be enforced meets my most earnest disapproval. and speak only from my historic knowledge of that people. the greater will be the desire that every parent shall. there is a seeming objection to the word "compulsory. but to declare that parents "shall" send their children to them whether they are willing or not is. At present we are only asserting the general principle. The historical record clearly shows otherwise. Hence. be compelled to educate his children and fit them for the responsibilities of life. I recognize the importance of this measure. we see the spirited discussion among black politicians over compulsory education. C. and if education . Civilization and enlightenment follow fast upon the footsteps of the schoolmaster. and believe that the more it is considered in all its bearings upon the welfare of our people." but I do not think it of grave importance. this. in my judgment. DE LARGE: I am not well acquainted with all the clauses in the constitution of Massachusetts. for one. RANSIER: I am sorry to differ with my colleague from Charleston on this question. in my opinion. by some means.Until the 1960s most historians of Reconstruction assumed that black politicians made virtually no contribution to the post Civil War debates surrounding land redistribution and the public school system.

R. nevertheless. and we would not have been called upon to mourn the loss of the flower of the youth of our country. there is no doubt that many of the evils which at present exist would have been avoided. I hope we shall answer that question. C. and it might be just as consistently urged that it is contrary to republican principles to organize the militia. MR. I shall give this measure my vote. It has also been tested in several States of . DUNCAN: Does the gentleman propose to educate children at the point of the bayonet. and the people would have been advanced to a higher stage of civilization and morals. I do not think it will militate against the cause of republicanism. but. DE LARGE: Can you name any State where the provisions exists in its Constitution? MR. MR. be of benefit both to it and to the people whom we represent. Now. C. B. we may call out the militia to enforce the law. O. MR. R. as I do. F. F. RANDOLPH: It exists in Massachusetts. I favor this section as it stands. Now this is a question which does not concern republicanism at all. If there is any one thing to which we may attribute the sufferings endured by this people. While we propose to avoid all difficulties which may be fraught with evil to the community. compulsory attendance at school. MR. RANSIER: When that question arises in the Legislature. It seems to have been the fashion on this floor to question a man's republicanism because he chooses to differ with others on general principles. Feeling that everything depends on the education of the rising generation. C. as to urge that this provision is anti-republican because it compels parents to see to the education of their children. on the contrary. we shall. had there been such a provision as this in the Constitution of South Carolina heretofore. L. B. F. through the militia? MR. B. In conclusion. R. B. I say let the compulsory process go on. RANDOLPH: If necessary. J. MR. the gentlemen on the other side have given no reasons why the word "compulsory" should be stricken out.must be enforced to secure these grand results. A. It is simply a matter of justice which is due to a people. DE LARGE: Can the gentleman demonstrate how the Legislature is to enforce the education of children without punishment of their parents by fine or imprisonment. DE LARGE: That is not so. CARDOZO: This system has been tested in Germany. MR. it is the gross ignorance of the masses. and I defy the gentlemen from Charleston to deny the fact. I cannot for the life of me see in what manner republicanism is at stake. insist upon our right to provide for the exercise of the great moral agencies which education always brings to bear upon public opinion. and use all my exertions to secure its adoption into this Constitution. MR. RANDOLPH: In favoring. F.

take the land. It may be asked what is the object of law? It is not only for the purpose of restraining men from doing wrong. This is what they said: "The President [Grant] is our friend. robbery. and the promotion of the general welfare. pp. let drop talk among themselves where the white children might hear. namely. he explained why the violence was necessary. Source: Proceedings of the Constitutional Convention of South Carolina (Charleston. Blackstone lays it down as one of the objects. but also one of its grand objects to build up civilization. Afro-American History: Primary Sources. Tillman participated in anti. . thirty years ago.the Union. It was lawful. I suppose. 1868). They used to drum up and down the roads with their fifes and their gleaming bayonets.. There was a condition bordering upon anarchy. equipped with new Springfield rifles and dressed in the regulation uniform.(Chicago. and this is the grand object of this provision in the report of the Committee on Education.. marry the white women. The North is with us. F. WRIGHT: Will you inform us what State in the Union compels parents to send their children to school? MR. B.. and then these white children will wait on us. It is one of the objects of law. The Negro militia grew unbearable and more and more insolent. It proposes to further civilization and I look upon it as one of the most important results which will follow the defeat of the rebel armies. and I defy the gentleman to show that is has not been a success.. Reprinted in Thomas R.000 Negro militia organized by carpetbaggers. a law which will compel parents to send their children to school. J. MR. the furthering. It was in 1876. in a 1907 speech on the floor of Senate. the establishment among the people who have long been deprived of the privilege of education. We reorganized the Democratic Party [of South Carolina] with one plank. as far as it can consistently be done of the general welfare of the people.. not to restrain wrong by punishing man for violating the right.Life ceased to be worth having on the terms under which we were living. and white men must govern it. Years later. We intend to kill all the white men. and only one plank. to show that where it has been applied it has failed to produce the result desired. and murder were holding high carnival. J." Under that banner we went to battle. 138-142. but these Negro soldiers--or this Negro militia. 1988)pp. Frazier. 686-94. BEN TILLMAN JUSTIFIES RECONSTRUCTION VIOLENCE South Carolina Senator Benjamin R." Clashes came. as far as practicable. that "this is a white man's country. but for the protection of all citizens of a State.black violence in the 1870s.. Misrule. and in desperation we determined to take the government away from the Negroes. It becomes the duty of the opposition if they want this section stricken from the report. We had 8. and the people of South Carolina had been living under Negro rule for eight years. for they were never soldiers--growing more and more bold. 705-08. RANDOLPH: The State of New Hampshire is one.

." we had decided to take the government away from men so debased as were the Negro. We had clashes with these Negro militiamen.. A month later we had the Ellerton riot. I want to say now that we have not shot any Negroes in South Carolina on account of politics since 1876. Heath and Company. There were two militia companies in my township and a regiment in my county. I am speaking of what I know. it was then that "we killed them". CHAPTER FIVE: INDUSTRIALIZING AMERICA Terms for Week 5 standard time zones “robber barons” political machines John D. He merely obeyed the law. 1984). of what I saw. Lexington. C. [President] Grant sent troops to maintain the carpetbag government in power and to protect the Negroes in the right to vote.. between the African and the Caucasian. "You must stop this rioting. Mass: D." After the [federal] troops came and told us. Morgan "Taylorism" . 462-463.. II.. Eighteen hundred and seventy-six happened to be the hundredth anniversary of the Declaration of Independence. Bailey & David M. It was a fight between barbarism and civilization. P. and the action of the white men of South Carolina in taking the state away from the Negroes we regard as a second declaration of independence by the Caucasian from African barbarism. we hesitated at nothing. it was then that "we stuffed ballot boxes. pp.. for mastery. It was then that "we shot them".I am not speaking of what I have read. Kennedy. The American Spirit. Rockefeller railroad rebates Standard Oil Trust J. We have not found it necessary. Then it was that "we stuffed ballot boxes. in which no one ever knew how many Negroes were killed. The Hamburg riot was one clash. but there were [at least] forty or fifty or a hundred. in which seven Negroes and one white man were killed. and having resolved to take the state away. Vol." because desperate diseases require desperate remedies. Source: Thomas A.

Yet some railroads demanded additional concessions from cities. to and through said city. WHEREAS. The Southern Pacific Railroad Company has proposed to citizens of the city of San Luis Obispo and vicinity. counties. the right of way for its railroad from the west side of the Cuesta mountains in San Luis Obispo county. eager to get produce or livestock to market. and private citizens before they would construct lines into cities and towns. anxious to see a rail line stimulate population growth and commercial development. often willingly gave valuable lands to the railroads. Local farmers and ranchers. 1883 RAILROADS AND WESTERN LANDS: San Luis Obispo The federal government and various states granted Railroad Corporations thousands of acres of prime public lands to encourage them to extend rail lines into the West. and town boosters. after the federal government. and also such lands within the corporate limits of said city as may be necessary for the machine shops. and side tracks of said railroad. The 1889 resolution reprinted below. These donations often made railroads. describes how San Luis Obispo citizens purchased land at the request of the Southern Pacific Railroad.National Women’s Party Interstate Commerce Commission Sherman Anti-Trust Act. the largest landholders in most western states. California. that if said citizens will purchase and donate to said railroad company. The Gospel of Wealth Carlisle Indian School Dawes Act American Protective Association Chinese Exclusion Act. the said railroad company will . 1890 Ellis Island pogrom Tammany Hall Women's Christian Temperance Union Social Darwinism Andrew Carnegie. depot grounds.

so far as my knowledge extends. They are hereby made our agents to make said purchases and to donate said lands to said railroad company when purchased. had the advantage of different carrying lines.P. Jack. The Standard gave advantages to the railroads for the purpose of reducing the cost of transportation of freight. Random Reminiscences of Men and Events.E.. Taking advantage of those facilities. so that a railroad could conduct its transportation to the best advantage and use its equipment to the full extent of its hauling capacity without waiting for the refiner's convenience. the matter of rebate from railroads has perhaps been uppermost. but. The Standard Oil Company of Ohio. Kaiser. it made the best bargains possible for its freights. Source: San Luis Obispo Tribune and Daily Republic. of which I was president. being situated at Cleveland. It provided regular traffic. R. the early construction of said railroad of said city will be of great benefit to us and each of us. as well as of water transportation in the summer. Rockefeller in his 1909 autobiography. and WHEREAS. carloads and trainloads. Each shipper made the best bargain that he could. Unangst. It exempted railroads from liability for fire and carried its own insurance.. McBride. . have been duly appointed a committee. May 1. It offered freights in large quantity. Other companies sought to do the same. ROCKEFELLER JUSTIFIES RAILROAD REBATES John D. and WHEREAS. was seldom retained in full.without delay. details his reasons for promoting railroad rebates to the Standard Oil Company. but whether he was doing better than his competitor was only a matter of conjecture. Of all the subjects which seem to have attracted the attention of the public to the affairs of the Standard Oil Company. the amount being a mater of bargain with the carrying company. It provided at its own expense terminal facilities which permitted economies in handling. L.H.E.M. did receive rebates from the railroads prior to 1880. Much depended upon whether the shipper had the advantage of competition of carriers. H. build and construct its railroad from Santa Margarita in said county to said city of San Luis Obispo. but received no advantages for which it did not give full compensation. 1889. Warden and E. By this method of real rate of freight which any shipper paid was not known by his competitors nor by other railroad companies. It furnished loading facilities and discharging facilities at great cost.M. The reason for rebates was that such was the railroads' method of business. L. A public rate was made and collected by the railroad companies. a portion of it was repaid to the shippers as a rebate. J. For these services it obtained contracts for special allowances on freights. and are duly authorized to act for said citizens. The Standard Oil Company of Ohio. Levi Rackliffe. Maddux.

He was an old and experienced merchant. Standard Oil prices generally were so high that I could sell my goods 2 to 3 cents a gallon below their prices and make a nice profit. and ruinous experience for me to endure. 107-109. from one railway line to another.. so as to be able to run my refinery at anything approaching a profit. 1909) pp. for twenty years.plainly showed. ROCKEFELLER BREAKS A COMPETITOR George Rice. nine-tenths.The profits of the Standard Oil Company did not come from advantages given by railroads. he describes how the Standard Oil Trust bankrupted his refining company. and he delivered himself of this conviction: "I am opposed on principle to the whole system of rebates and drawbacks-unless I am in it. but I have endeavored to the best of my circumstances and ability to combat it the utmost I could for many a long waiting year. In testimony before the United States Industrial Commission in 1899.. wholly by and through unlawful freight discriminations. uncut. which have [has] as yet. Random Reminiscences of Men and Events. owing to the powerful and allprevailing machinations of the Standard Oil Trust. a Pennsylvania oil refiner. This they can easily do without any appreciable harm to their general trade. I have had to consequently shut down. and a refiner of same for twenty years. however. But I am still living in hopes. in criminal collusion and conspiracy with the railroads to destroy my business of twenty years of patient industry. and below cost. Rockefeller's consolidation efforts.. because of their unlawfully acquired monopoly.. But my refinery has been shut down during the past three years. I am a citizen of the United States. and thus effectually wipe out all competition. (New York: Doubleday. Rockefeller. leaving the balance of the town. were the ones who profited by the traffic of the Standard Oil Company. toil. and looked after his affairs with a cautious and watchful eye.. The railroads. and whatever advantage it received in its constant efforts to reduce rates of freight was only one of the many elements of lessening cost to the consumer which enabled us to increase our volume of business the world over because we could reduce the selling price. never come. but which I have been utterly unable to do. born in the state of Vermont. Producer of petroleum for more than thirty years.. was a victim of John D. Outside of rebates or freight discriminations. This has been a very sad. I had no show with the Standard Oil Trust. I have been driven from pillar to post. and money in building up. by which they could temporarily cut only my customers' prices. though I may die in despair. I well remember a bright man from Boston who had much to say about rebates and drawbacks." Source: John D. in the absolutely vain endeavor to get equal and just freight rates with the Standard Oil Trust.their power for evil. but these savage attacks and [price] cuts upon my customers' goods. He feared that some of his competitors were doing better than he in bargaining for rates. with my business absolutely ruined and my refinery idle. bitter. as fully set forth. rather. and the uselessness to contend . expecting relief through the honest and proper execution of our laws.

Sumner. His argument reflects the basic beliefs of the Social Darwinists. Question: Is there any way to help it? Sumner: Not at all.. WILLIAM GRAHAM SUMNER ON TRADE UNIONS In 1878. professor of political and social science at Yale College. try another way. William Graham Sumner. a loss of income and a loss of comfort. testified before a congressional committee investigating the conditions of employment at various industrial plants around the country.... I cannot imagine his failing--that is. 704. make the best of circumstances. He has got to fight the battle with nature as every other man has... . The only things that the government can do are generally things such as are in the province of a government.. There is no way on earth to help it... I do not know of anything that the government can do that is at all specific to assist labor--to assist non-capitalists.S. and if he fights it with the same energy and enterprise and skill and industry as any other man... I do not see any other result. The only way is to meet it bravely. and the second is to give him the greatest possible security in the possession and use of the products of his own industry.. Question: Do you admit that there is what you call distress among the laboring classes of this country? Sumner: No sir: I do not admit any such thing. of course. I cannot get evidence of it. I (1899).. it has turned out that society paid--in the State prison. Industrial Commission. Source: Report of the U. and still another until you work yourself out as an individual. go ahead. an outspoken opponent of labor unions used this forum to criticize attempts by government to regulate industrial working conditions.against such odds. Society does not owe any man a living... The general things that a government can do to assist the non-capitalist in the accumulation of capital (for that is what he wants) are two things. and if you cannot go on in the way you were going. Question: What is the effect of machinery on those laborers whom for the time being it turns out of employment? Sumner: For the time being they suffer. I do not see any more than that a government can do. In all cases that I have ever known of young men who claimed that society owed them a living. misfortune apart. The fact that a man is here is no demand upon other people that they shall keep him alive and sustain him. The first thing is to give him the greatest possible liberty in the directing of his own energies for his own development. 687..

Each caste is without sympathy with the other. What were the luxuries have become the necessaries [sic] of life. Why should men leave great fortunes to their children? If this is done from affection. 1987) p. the concentration of business. The price we pay for this salutary change is. The price which society pays for the law of competition. Today the world obtains commodities of excellent quality at prices which even the preceding generation would have deemed incredible.. 50. is also great. mutual ignorance breeds mutual distrust... published in 1901. and in the mine. whether the law be benign or not. Under the law of competition the employer of thousands is forced into the strictest economies. But...for great sums bequeathed often work more for the injury than the good of the recipients. as being not only beneficial but essential to the future progress of the race. like the price it pays for cheap comforts and luxuries. Quint. We assemble thousands of operatives in the factory. and the law of competition between these. it is best for the race because it insures the survival of the fittest in every department.. in the hands of a few.and while the law may be sometimes hard for the individual. Beyond providing for the wife and daughters moderate sources of income.. He arrived in the United States.. great. and very moderate allowances indeed. Neither is it well for the State. The Gospel of Wealth. and often there is friction between the employer and the employed. We accept and welcome. as usual. Main Problems in American History. In the passages below he describes the price of economic progress. we cannot evade it..it is here...great inequality of environment. Carnegie was also an articulate spokesman of the new cult of success and promoted it through his most famous book.. no doubt. an impoverished immigrant and later became one of the nation's leading industrialists.. men may well hesitate. The State of . Objections to the foundations upon which society is based are not in order. if any. of whom the employer can know little or nothing.. The growing disposition to tax more and more heavily large estates left at death is a cheering indication of the growth of a salutary change in public opinion.. is it not misguided affection? Observation teaches that.. because the condition of the race is better with these than it has been with any other which has been tried. All intercourse between them is at an end.... He also discusses the need to redistribute the accumulated incomes of the wealthy. Milton Cantor and Dean Albertson. Rigid castes are formed and. THE ROAD TO BUSINESS SUCCESS Andrew Carnegie's life was the epitome of upward mobility. The poor enjoy what the rich could not before afford.. and ready to credit anything disparaging in regard to it. industrial and commercial. (Chicago: The Dorsey Press.. but the advantages of this law are also greater still than its cost--for it is to this law that we owe our wonderful material development. generally speaking. it is not well for the children that they should be so burdened. among with the rates paid to labor figure prominently.Source: Howard H. In the commercial world similar causes have produced similar results and the race is benefited thereby. for the sons..

1901) pp.. shook hands on the deal and stated. only one policy open.. Morgan in the weeks before the testimonial dinner. "Mr.. At that time Carnegie handed him a slip of paper with his asking price of $480 million written in pencil.." . It was a cold winter's night in December 1900. nail mills. Few doubted Federal Steel president Elbert Gary's assertion that Carnegie could "have driven entirely out of business every steel company in the United States. This future was to be ushered in by a scientifically integrated firm which would supplant numerous companies--many of which produced more stock certificates than steel.. Andrew Carnegie's company was the largest supplier of raw steel to such companies.. seventy-five of the richest. victory certain. Capitalized at $1..in his speech rhapsodized over low prices and stability for steel. The overcapitalized. The Gospel of Wealth. Steel..Pennsylvania now takes--subject to some exceptions--one tenth of the property left by its citizens. Rather than surrender. When Schwab gave Morgan the offer. Morgan and his cohorts soon realized that depending on Carnegie for raw steel would doom their consolidation schemes.. In the early hours of the next day Morgan finally said. Charles Schwab.." Carnegie know he could produce superior products at cheaper prices.P. After the dinner Morgan fired dozens of questions at Schwab. They met for a testimonial dinner in honor of Charles Schwab. Morgan did not miss the point. the powerful investment banker and consolidator of industry.. CARNEGIE AND MORGAN: A CONVERSATION ABOUT STEEL In 1900 J... By taxing estates heavily at death the State marks its condemnation of the selfish millionaire’s unworthy life. 3-5. president of Carnegie Steel Company.4 billion (America's first billion dollar corporation) a figure three times larger than the annual budget of the United States. They were going to produce their own steel or but it from others--and put Carnegie out of business. not a war." Schwab approached Carnegie on the golf course. wanted to retire. Go find his price. Panicked promoters scurried to J.P. Carnegie listened and asked Schwab to return the next day for an answer. I want to congratulate you on being the richest man in the world. if Andy wants to sell. and Schwab's speech was aimed at producing a bargain. I'll buy. wire. 11. where he might be more inclined to cooperate. I accept the price. Of all forms of taxation this seems the wisest. "Well.. and scattered plants of his competitors would have been no match for Carnegie's new ones. 9. Here is part of the conversation between the two men which finalized the deal. Morgan bought out Carnegie Steel and created U. the largest corporation in America at the time. Carnegie. Later they held an all-night session at Morgan's house.. (New York." A few days later Morgan stopped by Carnegie's office. Carnegie telegraphed instructions to his company's officers: "Crisis has arrived.. antiquated. he glanced at it and replied.Have no fear as to result. Source: Andrew Carnegie. Morgan. however.S. Seated to the honoree's right was J... For several years he and others had been busily creating trusts [which] they hoped to unite or eliminate competition in order to raise prices. and he hated trusts." Carnegie. most influential American businessmen gathered at the New York University Club..P. start at once hoop.

191 4. America and its People.852 355.272.369.053.1 Trillion 1.246 $ 1.191 Number of Employees Value of Products 1.813.834. Illinois.861.759 9. Martin.354 2. 1860-1900 Date 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 Number of Factories 140.Source: James K.4 Trillion 552 Billion 4.433 252. 1989).567.1 Trillion Mexico 1.732.715 1.378.405 512.790.140 253.860.606 6.050.676 2.0 Trillion 743 Billion Spain India Manufacturing in the United States.372.595 5. 512.579.3 Trillion 1. 1860-1980 Leading Industrial Nations 1860 Great Britain France United States Germany 1900 2000 United States United States Germany Japan Great Britain Germany France Great Britain 1980 United States Soviet Union Japan West Germany Nations in 2000 with the Largest GDP (in Trillions of Dollars) United States Japan Germany Great Britain 8.390 .996 3.143 Capitalization $ 1.694.385. Vol.885.306.251.4 Trillion France Italy China 429 Billion Brazil 1.1 Trillion 442 Billion 2.015 2. (Glenview.311.855. 2.843 5. CHANGING WORLD INDUSTRIAL BALANCE.009.535 9.525.

Sec. 1 Every contract.000.700.000 24.000 37.600.000 Per Capita Income $ 223 254 327 374 388 424 434 496 Steel Production in the United States.000 20.100. or conspiracy.159 Gross National Product and Total Per Capita Income 1870-1901 Date 1873 1876 1881 1886 1891 1893 1896 1901 Gross National Product $ 9.000 THE SHERMAN ANTI-TRUST ACT.000 9.000 27. in the discretion of the court. Its language on this question was clear but it was not enforced by American presidents until Theodore Roosevelt used the measure to breakup the Northern Securities Trust. was intended to halt the proliferation of business trusts.000. 1870-1905 Average Production (in Tons) Per Establishment 1870 1880 1890 1900 1905 5.000. 2 Every person who shall monopolize. on conviction thereof. is hereby declared to be illegal.000.000 16. or by both said punishments.000.300. reprinted below.000. shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor.000 59.000.000. shall be punished by fine not exceeding five thousand dollars. Sec. or with foreign nations. or with foreign nations. or combine or conspire with any other person or persons. to monopolize any part of the trade or commerce among the several States. Every person who shall make any such contract or engage in any such combination or conspiracy. shall be deemed guilty of a .000.000.000 11. in restraint of trade or commerce among the several States. or by imprisonment not exceeding one year. or attempt to monopolize.000 29.200. and. 1890 The Sherman Anti-Trust Act.000 43.000 23. combination in the form of trust or otherwise.

000.000 502.misdemeanor.000.000 201. and on conviction thereof. 1891-1903 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 4 8 9 3 8 1896 1897 1898 1899 10 7 12 88 1900 1901 1902 1903 33 71 88 25 Date Leading Company* Standard Oil Trust MAJOR INDUSTRIAL TRUSTS.. in the discretion of the court.550.500. NUMBER OF TRUSTS FORMED..000 American Sugar Refining Amalgamated Copper Trust American Smelting Trust Consolidated Tobacco United States Steel *Dominant Corporation in the Trust J. Pierpont Morgan denied claims that he and other bank directors attempted to control major American corporations.There have been spread before your Committee elaborate tables of so-called interlocking directorates.915.000.370.000 175. J. and it is implied that this vast aggregate of the country's wealth is at the disposal of these 180 men.000 1.000 145.000. from which exceedingly mistaken inferences have been publicly drawn. MORGAN DENIES A MONEY TRUST In testimony before a Congressional Committee in 1913. or by imprisonment not exceeding one year. .000. 1904 % of Formed Plants Capitalization Industry 1882 97% 1891 100 1899 100 1899 98 1901 100 1901 76 400 55 11 121 150 785 97. . P. shall be punished by fine not exceeding five thousand dollars.000. In these tables it is shown that 180 bankers and bank directors serve upon the boards of corporations having resources aggregating $25. or by both said punishments.

1900. Yet. subject to the will of a small minority of their boards. which was highly critical of the business consolidation movement. however. before your Committee. has been frequent. these directors represent only one quarter of the memberships of their boards. no such policy exist. on the average. I believe that all these things are minor considerations. delivered an address at the Chicago Conference on Trusts.whether the financial system of the country will be endangered-whether we can better compete for the world's trade with large combinations or trusts. The testimony failed to establish any concerted policy or harmony of action binding these 180 men together. not only is it natural.But such an implication rests solely upon the untenable theory that these men. as matter of fact. this natural and eminently desirable relationship was made to appear almost sinister. It is preposterous to suppose that every "interlocking" director has full control in every organization with which he is connected. Vol. and that the majority of directors who are not "interlocking" are mere figureheads. in many cases personally unacquainted with each other. As our cities double and treble in size and importance. THE TRUSTS: A CRITICAL VIEW Hazen Pingree. Such growth in the size of banks in New York and Chicago has frequently been erroneously designated before your Committee as "concentration. I think that it is of far greater importance to inquire whether the control of the world's trade. but it is necessary.: D. Source: Thomas A. Kennedy. Perhaps it is not known as well as it should be that in New York City the largest banks are far inferior in size to banks in the commercial capitals of other and much smaller countries. 1908. the reform mayor of Detroit. His argument is summarized below. Everybody has been asking whether more money can be made by trusts than by small corporations and individuals-whether cost of production will be increased or decreased-whether investors will be benefited or injured. 636-637. and in most cases associated only in occasional transactions." whereas we have hitherto pointed out [that] the growth of banking resources in New York City has been less rapid than that of the rest of the country. Mass. (Lexington. and merger of two or more banks into one institution (with the same as the aggregate of the banks merging into it). as railroads extend and industrial plants expand.. Heath and Company. The absurdity of the assumption of such control becomes more apparent when one considers that. and.C. These mergers.. especially since January 1. that our banking institutions should grow in order to care for the increased demands put upon them. But increase of capital. or any of the . II. living in different parts of the country... and no testimony whatever was adduced to show the actual working of such relationships. pp. are a development due simply to the demand for larger banking facilities to care for the growth of the country's business. Bailey and David M. The American Spirit. 1984). vote always for the same policies and control with united purpose the directorates of the 132 corporations on which they serve.

His trusted foremen and his employees must follow him. 159. Part of his book is excerpted below. They may perhaps become larger cogs or larger wheels. The master is the trust manager or director. The trust is therefore the forerunner. the skilled employee has held close and sympathetic relations with his employer. Many of those ideas were articulated by Francis Wayland. He has been something more than a mere machine. Close to them as a strong element of our people are the skilled mechanics and artisans. WORK AND POVERTY Those who criticized industrialization by linking it to the apparent rise in poverty faced deeply held views about the responsibility of society to assist the poor..-with due regard for property rights. They become cogs and little wheels in a great complicated machine. They are the sinew and strength of the nation. jobbers. I favor complete and prompt annihilation of the trust. He has felt the stimulus and ambition which goes with equality of opportunity. The slave is the former merchant and business man. Their personal identity is lost. are worth the price we pay for them. As it is unnatural to labor without receiving benefit from it. yet he has not designed them to labor without reward.other commercial advantages claimed for the trust. men will .. It tends to concentrate the ownership and management of all lines of business activity into the hands of a very few. The strength of our republic has always been in what is called our middle class. of course. It is his duty to serve the soulless and nameless being called the stockholder. This being so. The Elements of Political Economy in 1837. Milton Cantor and Dean Albertson. who one cherished the hope that they might sometime reach the happy position of independent ownership of a business. This is made up of manufacturers. Although God has designed men to labor.160. and the artisan and mechanic. a professor at Yale University who in 1837 published a widely read book. (Chicago: The Dorsey Press. individual business man. It would be little short of calamity to encourage any industrial development that would affect unfavorably this important class of our citizen. While the business of the country has been conducted by persons and firms. Source: Howard Quint. To the latter the dividend is more important than the happiness or prosperity of any one. retail and wholesale merchants. or rather the creator of industrial slavery. No one denies this. but they can never look forward to a life of business freedom. Selfpreservation compels it. Main Problems in American History. 1987) p. it follows that the independent. commercial travelers and business men generally. There is no real advance for them. How does the trust affect them? It is admitted by the apologist for the trust that it makes it impossible for the individual or firm to do business on a small scale. must enter the employment of the trust. middle men.

Hence. 2. such a system must tend greatly to increase the number of paupers. most frequently. Hence. both against individual and social spoliation. They remove from men the fear of want. as by cheating.. Hence. that he who is able to labor...we suppose to be injurious. And.The support of the poor. For. 2d. Property should be universally appropriated... the greater will be the liability to collision between the two classes.. will be prevented by the strict and impartial administration of just and equitable laws. the more provision there is of this kind. we see..that.. after a family has once applied for assistance. the greater this benefit. A man may possess himself.. destructive to the right of property. simply because he is poor. and secondly. because they must proceed upon the concession that the rich are under obligation to support the poor. 1. It is in evidence…that.not labor continuously nor productively. In order that every man may enjoy.. by securing to the industrious the righteous reward of their labor. Hence. 3.. 2. one of the most natural and universal stimulants to labor. that in order to accomplish the designs of our Creator in this respect. 6. less production created. They are. It is a discouragement to industry. for a larger and larger measure of assistance. they destroy the healthful feeling of independence. for several reasons. so that nothing is left in common. and of provision to supply his wants. and thus present the strongest inducement to industry. The dishonest acquisition of property. first.. that is. why not to support them as well as themselves. 1.. why not to support them better.. if the rich are under obligation to support the poor. 4. 5. If this be so. of the property for which he has not labored.. either dishonestly or by begging.. they tend to insubordination.it rarely ceases to apply regularly. without requiring the previous exertion of his labor. shall enjoy only that for which he has labored.. They encourage industry. . The right of property should be perfectly protected. hence. That having gained all that he can. the advantages of his labor.. he be allowed to use it as he will. or robbery. by inflicting upon the indolent the just punishment of their idleness. in the greatest degree. unless they receive such benefit. we see that the benefit of such laws is two fold. and a bounty upon indolence. and. stealing. there will be in a given community less labor done. the more active and spontaneous will be their exertion. in principle. in just so far as this stimulus is removed.. in progress of time. . nay.. By teaching a man to depend upon others. and. rather than upon himself. hence. he be allowed to gain all that he can. They are at variance with the fundamental law of government.

. but the man who cannot live on bread and water is not fit to live. 51. left her middle class home to work as a maid. When a man is educated away from the power of self-denial. cooks. it is true. discussed his views of the workingmen's plight during the national railroad strikes of 1877. 1837).maids.It is true that $1 a day is not enough to support a man and five children. HENRY WARD BEECHER: THE WORKER'S STANDARD OF LIVING Rev. laundresses. eds. and a great and constantly increasing burden is removed from the community. DOMESTIC SERVICE--ONE WOMAN'S ACCOUNT Although most 19th and early 20th Century women did not work outside the home.. In the passage below she outlines her duties . only. and good water and bread at night. Henry Ward Beecher. That if a man be reduced. Link and Stanley Corbin.3. Arthur S. . 134—127 reprinted in Richard W.. be provided for. they are happier themselves. Such may be called the bread of affliction. the vast majority who did were domestic servants-. 4. Is not a dollar a day enough to buy bread? Water costs nothing. Source: Howard Quint. Main Problems in American History. She was soon employed as a domestic servant for $2. Men cannot live by bread. By so directing our benevolent energies. 1987) p. p. the poor are better provided for. The Elements of Political Economy (New York. and be remunerated with the proceeds.. Leopold. There should be no common funds for the support of those who are not willing to labor. to such extreme penury that he is in danger of perishing. but it is fit that man should eat the bread of affliction. 111. And hence that all our provisions for the relief of the poor be so devised as not to interfere with this law of our nature. if the man insists on smoking and drinking beer.75 a week doing general housework and cooking. In 1901 Inez A Godman. Problems in American History (Englewood Cliffs.. A family may live on good bread and water in the morning. to the amount of that deficiency.J.. that he be furnished with work. and one of the nation's most prominent religious leaders. That those who are enabled only in part to earn their subsistence. water and bread at midday. minister of Brooklyn's Plymouth Church. 317-319. 5. curious about the life and work of servants. The great laws of political economy cannot be set at defiance.. Milton Cantor and Dean Albertson. 1966). Source: Francis Wayland. by indolence or prodigality. N. (Chicago: The Dorsey Press. he is falsely educated.

since the paths of shame are always open to her. By half-past nine the downstairs work was finished. and tidied myself up a bit. It meant another trip and had not been asked for. I finished soon after twelve. then I went to my room. In my own housekeeping I had taken frequent opportunities for short rests. the Working Women’s Society reported: “It is a known fact that men’s wages cannot fall below a limit upon which they can exist. New York: Oxford University Press. 1978. this I served at one. Source: David A. I was thankful for a chance to sit. everything was in order and I was preparing to go to my room when my lady appeared saying that the kitchen floor ought to be wiped.” It was . It was astonishing how soon four o'clock came. and by the time the dishes were washed up my whole being was in a state of rebellion. Dinner was a complex meal. The kitchen was large. 32. to be sure that nothing burned or curdled while I was waiting on the table.33. I was very tired. and dawdled over my lunch for half an hour. Nevertheless I took it up and my lady smiled again. It was half-past two. and coming at night when I was tired was always something of a worry. There was a roast for dinner and I hastened down to heat the oven. but not surprisedly this time. describes working women in New York City in 1900. "Thursdays you will clean the sitting room. To have the different courses ready at just the right moment. She was right. Then came three hard hours.. I rose at six and served breakfast promptly at seven.. I had been on my feet steadily for seven hours and they began to complain. I wish you always to put your own room in order before noon. 1900 In the following account Jacob Riis.during her first day as a maid. Seven Days A Week: Women and Domestic Service in Industrializing America. but woman’s wages have no limit. and it took me half an hour. I could not finish in less time. here the strain had been steady. WOMEN'S WORK AND WORKING WOMEN. I had started upstairs with a pail of hot water for my tired feet when I remembered the ice water [for the mistress]. did a little mending. Six months have not passed since at a great public meeting in this city. without depriving herself of real necessities. pp. but I rocked and rested. Katzman." So I spent ten minutes in my room and two hours in the sitting room.. "but you must tidy your own room first. to think quickly and act calmly. For a moment I hesitated. I was too much heated to dare a bath. Five times during the two hours I was called off by the door bell and twice I went down to look after my bread. It is simply impossible for any woman to live without assistance on the low salary a saleswoman earns. a pioneer in investigative journalism. It is inevitable that they must in many instances resort to evil.. all this meant weariness." said my lady. The floor was covered with oilcloth and it was getting dingy. It did not seem possible that I had been upstairs forty minutes. I assured you that I did not dally an hour with my toilet but was in bed and heavily asleep in twenty minutes. and hurried down to prepare luncheon.

” that serves as such a convenient gag for public indignation. drenched and starving. vol. but the girls were fined when found using them. The law requiring seats for saleswomen. while contributing by it to the family’s earnings. preferring death to dishonor.only a few brief weeks before that verdict was uttered. was obeyed faithfully in this establishment. but there is reason to believe that this estimate falls far short of the truth when sufficient account is taken of the large number who are not wholly dependent upon their own labor. and “the superintendent was heard to charge the time-keeper with not being strict enough in his duties. I think. before a 1896 Congressional Committee on child labor. left in direst poverty to earn her own living alone among strangers. Q. threw herself from her attic window. “the employers placing a value upon time lost that is not given to services rendered. How the Other Half Lives (1905) reprinted in Robert D.” she wrote. CHILD LABOR IN 19TH CENTURY AMERICA The passage below. She had tramped the streets for weeks on her weary errand and the only living wages that were offered her were the wages of sin….2 (New York: 1989). has to do with it. It is estimated that at least one hundred and fifty thousand women and girls earn their own living in New York. These alone constitute a large class of the women wage-earners. generally ignored. while the receipts of a fifteen-dollar male clerk in the same department footed up only $125. Q. after a vain search for work in a driving storm. and it is characteristic of the situation that the very fact that some need not starve on their wages condemns the rest to that fate. that the community was shocked by the story of a gentle and refined woman who. p. Marcus and David Burner.” A little girl. one learns from observation all along the road of inquiry into these real woman’s wrongs. who received two dollars a week. yet for some trivial mistake the girl was fined sixty cents out of her two dollars. about one-seventh. In one instance they amounted to $3. The practice prevailed in some stores of dividing the fines between the superintendent and the time-keeper at the end of the year.000. the mill owner. I suppose? . What the “everlasting law of supply and demand.50 a week were reduced by excessive fines. 485 on our pay-roll. The seats were there.” One of the causes for fine in a certain large store was sitting down. How many of those are men? I cannot answer that exactly. is part of testimony by Otis Lynch. Riis. A. 151-52. Q. Source: Jacob A. The pay they are willing to accept all have to take. A. ed. made cash-sales amounting to $167 in a single day. I would have done any honest work. To take the case of the saleswomen for illustration: The investigation of the Working Women’s Society disclosed the fact that wages averaging from $2 to $4. America Firsthand. How much help do you employ? We have. even to scrubbing. a description of the workforce in a Massachusetts textile mill. The rest are women and children.

How many of them would you class as women and how many as children? A. Q. (New York. or in that neighborhood. I don't know that I can answer that question satisfactorily. A. How as to their chance of getting some education in your free schools? A. Q. Well. Philadelphia. pp. That is about the proportion. I don't know whether they should be compelled to work at all in the factory unless the circumstances made it necessary. No. Q.673 3. Q. New York. What do the women make a day? A.698. in individual cases they sometimes quit the mill and go to school--some of them do.Y. II. Some of the parents take their children out when they feel that they can do without them for a while and send them to school. Do you think it well that children between the ages of say ten and fourteen years should be required to work more than about half the time in a factory? A. and afterwards when it becomes necessary they send them back to the mill again. America Firsthand. 1989). PA 1. Q.Y. I think about one-third of the remainder would be children and two-thirds women. Yes. And the men? A. 1860-1900 20 Largest Cities: 1880 1. IL 20 Largest Cities: 1900 1. N. Yes. 2. yes. You employ children of ten years and upward? A. Q. There is no rule about it. Q.86. About from 35 to 75 cents a day. . Well. Source: Robert D. Eighty-two cents a day for the last six months. Do the children remain in the mill during the whole eleven hours as the older operatives do? A.575 2. I suppose. Oh. sir. What is the average wages that you pay? A. Chicago.202 874. Marcus and David Burner. Q. Vol. Do you employ any below the age of ten? A.164.A. About $1 a day. AMERICAN URBANIZATION. What do the children make on an average? A. sir. 84. For how long periods? A. But most of them remain in the mill one year after another. Q.. Yes. N.. About $1 Q. New York. Q.170 1. Indefinite periods. but they change a good deal out and in. Q.437.

CA 11. Providence. KY 19. MO 5. N.387 233.J.293.959 342. N. Louis. 16.433 116.313 451. 16. who was detained at Ellis Island on July 4. PA 10.518 508. Jersey City.587 202. Buffalo. Baltimore. San Francisco.Y. Detroit. MD 7. Pittsburgh. OH 9.071 352. written by Russian immigrant and former Petersburg University student Alexander Rudnev. Louisville. St.146 285. 15.758 246.C. of the suffering that many of the newcomers initially encountered upon arrival.722 206. OH 14. Cincinnati. A LETTER FROM ELLIS ISLAND Today millions of Americans visit Ellis Island to commemorate and celebrate the arrival of their 19th and early 20th Century ancestors to the United States unaware.697 4. Chicago.624 287. OH 12.070 120. KY 17.J. R. Washington. Providence.512 255. D. MO 7. 599. Brooklyn. Philadelphia. MN 20. Boston. This vignette.090 325. San Francisco. Cleveland. Washington. OH 9.238 362. LA 13. MI 19. MA 6. PA 1. Louisville. CA 11. Milwaukee. 17. New Orleans.104 160. Newark. 4.718 104.J. for the most part. N. Pittsburgh. N. WI 15.315 136. Boston. Jersey City. 1909.508 278.859 175. Newark. 10.495 503.597 3.839 560. Louis. Cleveland.718 123.902 177. St.782 216. LA 12. MI 14.I. N. IL 5. 18. 18.I. D. Detroit. .739 381.C. Baltimore. appeared originally in the Jewish Daily Forward. Milwaukee.768 235.Y. N. MA 6.340 204.J. Minneapolis. MD 8.134 285. WI 20. New Orleans. 13.704 155.Y.892 350. R. PA 8.957 332.731 115. Buffalo.3.185 575. N. Cincinnati.

they didn't send anyone back. Then follow the torment on the ship where every sailor considers a steerage passenger a dog. And God know how many Jewish lives this will cost. the fifth. When a man wants to ask his wife something. they don't let him. most of them are Russian Jews. 2 (New York. Marcus and David Burner. What nonsense this is! We must have money on arrival. he has endured all this. America Firsthand: From Reconstruction to the Present Vol. We. Children get sick. First he has a hard enough time at the borders. we would have provided for it somehow back at home. After this he goes through a lot till they send him.. The people here are from various countries. and if often happens that they never come back. We are packed into a room where there is space for two hundred people. with the help of their children. These Jews are deserters from the Russian army and political escapees. 1870-1900 . FOREIGN-BORN POPULATION OF THE U. and are being detained. the unfortunate who are imprisoned on Ellis Island. whom the Czar would like to have returned to Russia.' that is. Many of the families sold everything they owned to scrape together enough for passage to America. But where can we get it? Who ever heard of such an outrage. All our hope is that you. the Fourth of July. and he is at last in America. then with the agents. because more than one mind dwells on the though of jumping into the water when the take him to the boat. Women with little babies. You know full well how much the Jewish immigrant suffers till he gets to America. who have come to their husbands. Everyone goes around dejected and cries and wails. The don't let us out into the yard for a little fresh air. so that our brothers in America may know how we suffer. Mr. S. because we don't have our baggage with us. to the boat. on the train to a port. And when. or when a father wants to see his child. but they have crammed in about a thousand. 128-129. Alexander Rudnev Source: Robert D. They haven't a cent but they figured that. There he lies around in the immigrant sheds till the ship finally leaves. they are taken to a hospital. because they don't let us get to them. not a few hours later (when relatives come) it's too late. life baggage. But Tuesday. We're wearing the same shirts for three or four weeks. For this kind on nonsense they ruin so many people and send them back to the place they escaped from It is impossible to describe all that is taking place here. many of who can never return to Russia. will not refuse us. Who can stand this suffering? Men are separated from their wives and children and only when they take us out to eat can they see them. The women have not signed. Editor. they could find means of livelihood. Because today is a holiday. and print our letter which is signed by many immigrants. treating people so? If we had known before. with God's help. he is give for 'dissert' an order that he must show that he possesses twenty-five dollars. 1989) pp. beg you to have pity on us and print our letter in your worthy newspaper. We like about on the floor in the spittle and filth. brothers and friends. sisters. but we want to convey at least a little of it. the begin again to lead us to the 'slaughter.Dear Editor.

293. N. 19. N.400 723.731 202.Y. Irish Germans. 16. Louisville.000 635.238 560. St.200 153.500 Other Foreign Born 81.902 287.200 6.400 Ireland 1. OH.300 137.667.512 381. Italians Germans.437. LA. 2. Irish Germans. WI.663.700 2.249. Milwaukee. 20.251. 3.200 Scandinavia 498. Buffalo. English . Norwegians Irish.433 204.179.600 1.473.500 1. Newark.315 278. N.I. Washington.966. MN. PA.900 9. Russians Germans. PA. MA.Y. Louis. 7. 14.341. 17. Minneapolis.900 89. IL. 10.768 352. 13.200 980. Irish Germans. OH. Irish Irish.200 917. Poles Germans. Philadelphia.575 1. MI.700 1.600 1. San Francisco. Providence. 1900 City 1.698.300 Foreign-Born as a Percentage of the Total Population 14% 13% 15% 18% ____________________________________________________________ ______ FOREIGN-BORN IN THE TWENTY LARGEST CITIES.800 1.400 ___________________________________________________________ Total Foreign Born 5.500 Eastern Europe 93.784.800 1. 8. Germans Germans.000 1.070 206.202 1. Jersey City. Population 3.000 Mexico & Latin America 57. D.300 206. Irish Germans.387 342.900 58.257. MO.679. Pittsburgh.419.854. 6. New Orleans. 18. 9. Baltimore. CA. Detroit.782 325.900 2. Cleveland.300 154.690.600 Canada 493.892 508.597 % ForeignBorn 37% 35 23 19 35 14 26 33 30 34 18 11 35 31 6 29 31 8 30 32 Largest Nationalities Germans.600 10.697 575. Irish Germans. MD.104 285. Cincinnati. Irish Germans.J.600 530.500 1.500 717. Irish Irish. Chicago.871. Boston. Irish Germans.COUNTRY OF ORIGIN 1870 1880 1890 1900 Germany 1.J. 12. Poles Germans.500 107.855. KY.900 1.704 285.900 Great Britain (excluding Ireland) 770. 11. 5.C. 4.718 246.900 221. Irish Germans. N.600 Southern Europe 25.000 132.718 175. Canadians Germans. Irish Swedes.615. New York. R.957 451.167.400 1. 15. Irish Germans.

longer but not as wide as this room--it extends back. Who it is who owns these houses I do not know. while from the depths of the abyss came up the noise of hundreds of steam-hammers. from out of which the hidden chimneys sent forth tongues of flame. The second passage is from a Senate Committee investigation of living conditions on Baxter Street. and the whole black expanse would be dimly lighted with dull wreaths of fire. "Pittsburgh. Q. it is a basement. a reporter for the Atlantic Monthly. too much crowded. Well. composed altogether of forty-two people. near the level of the rivers.. It is an unprofitable business. there is a street along the edge of a bluff. but if any one would enjoy a spectacle as striking as Niagara. It is a large room--a whole basement. but soon the wind would force the smoky curtains aside. I have been told that some of these tenements--places of the lowest order--are owned by people like the Astors. Do you say that there are eight families in one room? A. when the tide comes in the water is eight inches deep on the floor. I refer to the tenements for the masses. mainly.. or sleep peacefully at night while they permit their tenants to have such dwellings. Q. The entire space lying between the hills was filled with blackest smoke. It is. What is the size of the room? A. I think they are rag pickers.hunting. is it above ground or under ground? A. and three-quarters of them are so destitute of clothing that they cannot go into the street even to beg.. and looked over the iron railing upon the most striking spectacle we ever beheld. One small stove is all that can be found in that enormous room to warm a whole crowd of people in the cold weather. we were conducted to the edge of the abyss. Barton: There is one evening scene in Pittsburgh which no visitor should miss. and hence are too vile to live in.. Owing to the abruptness of the hill behind the town. and. I cannot understand. sir. too damp. from which you can look directly down upon all that part of the city which lies low. Yes. and dress in silk and velvets. Q. a half-cellar. he may do so by simply walking up a long hill to Cliff Street in Pittsburgh. perhaps. January 1868. a slum area in New York City in 1883. How they can ride in their carriages. view. Where is this room. Q. On the evening of this dark day.. they have to put scantlings and slabs across to put their clothes on. too poorly ventilated. and looking over into--hell with the lid taken off. Committee: In Baxter Street in one room there are eight families. The first is an account of the rapidly growing industrial city of Pittsburgh in January 1868 by James Barton. and have altogether insufficient water." The Atlantic Monthly. I say that the houses for the poor in this city are too dark. Do you know how the people who live here employ themselves? A. Source: James Barton. Report of ..TWO VIEWS OF URBAN AMERICA The two passages below provide a glimpse into urban life in the post Civil War era. There would be moments when no flames were visible.

author Jacob Riis describes tenement life among the working poor. for none of the children is old enough to help. by lengthening the day at both ends. What of dinner? One of the children brings it from the cook. and the family under the doctor's orders has moved away from the smell of tobacco. the little woman says with a brave. How the Other Half Lives: Studies Among the Tenements of New York reprinted in Pauline Maier. meat. and until his health gave out two years ago they were able to make from $17 to $25 a week. Oh! it is a good dinner. Would you have them naturalized. vol. soup.. patient smile. at twenty cents for the whole eight... TENEMENT LIFE IN NEW YORK CITY. The question: A bite of what? seems as merciless as the surgeon's knife. The invalid is listening. She was a very good hand. and have them invested with all the rights of American citizenship? I would. By trade a shoemaker. p. . 1885. but---. I answer I would. but gets a bite at her bench. It is the principal family meal. or black bread. FREDERICK DOUGLAS DESCRIBES THE "COMPOSITE NATION" In an 1869 speech in Boston. the rent is cheaper: seven dollars for two bright rooms on the top floor. No housekeeping is attempted. it is all there is. and this must go round. Inventing America: A History of the United States. She has work in the shop at eight dollars a week. Breakfast of coffee and hard-tack. and the sentence remains unfinished. then. Does she come home for dinner? No... For ten cents they eat all they want. and she winces under it as one shrinks from physical pain. all for thirty cents. mostly immigrant families by illustrating the experience of one working woman's family. 1890 In the vignette below. 613." Source: Jacob Riis. she cannot leave the shop. A woman in Seventy-second Street supplies their meals. if I favor such immigration. Now that he can work no more. this being a tenement for revenue only. But at night they all have supper together--sausage and bread. and there is seldom anything to spare. Do you ask. In a house around the corner that is not a factory-tenement. greens and bread. Bread. Would you allow them to vote? I would. a good many. Six children sit at his table. I have said that the Chinese will come. Perhaps the lack of healthy exercise had as much to do with it. 2 (New York 2003). Happily. Part of his argument is presented below. which the wife and mother fetches in a basket. unmixed with cigars.the Committee of the Senate on the Relations between Labor and Capital. the burden of its support has fallen upon her alone. lives now the cigar maker I spoke of as suffering from consumption which the doctor said was due to the tobacco-fumes. her husband being too weak. Frederick Douglass challenged most social observers and politicians (including most African Americans) by advocating the acceptance of Chinese immigration. for thirteen years he helped his wife make cigars in the manufacturer's tenement.

If respect is had to majorities.. it is safe to go to the side of humanity.Would you allow them to hold office? I would. is the right of. We are at home. though I cannot promise that it will be so to you. and can only be resuscitated by assistance from without. ought to have some weight and influence in disposing of this and similar questions.. universal.and with all the advantages of organization. I know of no rights of race superior to the rights of humanity. and your fathers asserted by coming here. They rest upon no conventional foundation. are a standing confirmation of the folly of isolation.migration. indigenous. are as nothing compared with the points of human agreement. . and feel at home here. we shall meet them in our strength. the mulatto and the Latin races.. Thought they come as the waves come. together satisfactory to me.. nations and races.. the fact that only one fifth of the population of the globe is white. They will find here a deeply rooted.? Should not a superior race protect itself from contact with inferior ones? Are not the white people the owners of this continent. the right which belongs to no particular race... Such contact would remove mountains of prejudice. I submit that this question of Chinese immigration should be settled upon higher principles than those of a cold and selfish expediency. upon first sight. But are there not reasons against all this? Is there not such a law or principle as that of self-preservation? Does not every race owe something to itself. The voice of civilization speaks an unmistakable language against the isolation of families. The very soil of the national mind becomes in such cases barren... not we to them.. None of our children are in Chinese schools.. but are external. now and forever. but I want the Asiatic to find a home here in the United States. and which would make them the owners of this great continent to the exclusion of all other races of men.. It is the right you assert by staying here..and thus have all the world to itself.. Contact with these yellow children. If the white race may exclude all other races from this continent... Those races of men which have.would convince us that the points of human difference. or any other essential human rights to themselves.. There are such things in the world as human rights...? Is it best to take on board more passengers than the ship will carry? To all of this and more I have one among many answers.does not seem entitled to much respect. seem.. augmented by an ever-increasing stream of immigration from Europe. They will come in their weakness. we shall be stronger if we receive them as friends and give them a reason for loving our country and our institutions. great as they. and pleads for composite nationality as essential to her triumphs. They will come to us. Among these... Chinese children are in American schools in San Francisco. and for all other varieties of men equally with yourselves. and indestructible. I reject the arrogant and scornful theory by which they would limit migratory rights. the other four fifths are colored.. I want a home here not only for the negro. It is this great right that I assert for the Chinese and Japanese. growing civilization. and probably never will be.... They will come as strangers.. had the least intercourse with other races of men.. and when there is a conflict between human and national rights. but belongs alike to all and to all alike. it may rightfully do the same in respect to all other lands. The apprehension that we shall be swamped or swallowed up by Mongolian civilization. both for his sake and for ours.

Mass: D. in any caucus or convention. C. or counsel others to vote for. in this country or any other. II. that I will not employ a Roman Catholic in any capacity. that I will use my influence to promote the interest of all Protestants everywhere in the world that I may be. and that I will not vote for. anti-Catholic organization.A.. I do most solemnly promise and swear that I will always. Bailey & David M.510. Conn. 1984). any Roman Catholic church or institution of their sect or creed whatsoever. The American Spirit. but will do all in my power to retard and break down the power of the Pope. 223-226. 1993). Vol. if I can procure the services of a Protestant. plead and wage a continuous warfare against ignorance and fanaticism. pp. a member of the Roman Catholic Church. Racism. Reprinted below is the oath of membership of the A. and the mandate of the Pope. by my resources. Heath and Company. I will erase the name on the ticket I vote). a secretive. Dissent. that I will use my utmost power to strike the shackles and chains of blind obedience to the Roman Catholic Church from the hampered and bound consciences of a priest-ridden and church-oppressed people. eds. In the West it was primarily anti-Asian. of the members thereof. Amen. so far as may lie in my power (should there be two Roman Catholics in opposite tickets. any Roman Catholic. pp. labor.Source: Philip S. Foner and Daniel Rosenberg. (Lexington. that I will not enter into any controversy with a Roman Catholic upon the subject of this order. to become a member of this order. and Asian Americans from 1850 to the Present: A Documentary History (Westport.P. To all of which I do most solemnly promise and swear. so help me God. I furthermore promise and swear that I will not aid in building or maintaining. to the utmost of my ability. but will vote only for a Protestant. that I will at all times endeavor to place the political positions of this government in the hands of Protestants. 509. that I will never allow anyone. I furthermore promise and swear that I will not countenance the nomination. By 1896 it claimed one million members. that in all grievances I will seek only Protestants. A DISCONTENTED WIFE . Source: Thomas A. to the entire exclusion of the Roman Catholic Church. emerged in the 1880s in response to European immigration and the rise of immigrant-supported big city machines in the East. OATH OF THE AMERICAN PROTECTIVE ASSOCIATION The American Protective Association. Kennedy.. nor will I enter into any agreement with a Roman Catholic to strike or create a disturbance whereby the Catholic employees may undermine and substitute their Protestant co-workers. and will not make known to them anything of any nature matured at such conferences. of a Roman Catholic for any office in the gift of the American people. I knowing him to be such. and counsel with them to the exclusion of all Roman Catholics.

ed. but I go to evening high school twice a week. he lets me stand outside a long time intentionally. The fact that he is intelligent makes me more annoyed with him. provided advice to his readers in a column titled "A Bintel Brief" [bundle of letters]. And when I have to do the work myself there won’t be any time left for such “foolishness” as going to school. Since I do not want my conscience to bother me. Marcus and David Burner. 1971). My husband thinks I have no right to do this. In the following passage we see a letter from a "Discontented Wife" and Cahan's response. A Bintel Brief: Sixty Years of Letters from the Lower East Side to the Jewish Daily Forward (New York. My children and my house are not neglected. Reprinted in Robert D. CHAPTER SIX: INDUSTRIALIZATION'S CRITICS . 130. I feel I may not be right.Long before "Ann Landers" and "Dear Abby" Abraham Cahan. 2 (New York: 1989). Perhaps I should not go to school. even enough to go to school. Also the opinion is expressed that the wife absolutely has the right to go to school two evenings a week. America Firsthand Vol. he is scolded severely in the answer for wanting to keep his wife so enslaved. When I am alone with my thoughts. So from now on he will count out every penny for anything I have to buy for the house. I remain. editor of the Jewish Daily Forward. yet in real life he acts contrary to his beliefs. I told him that I’m willing to do my own washing but that I would still be able to find time for study. Awaiting your opinion on this. I admit that I cannot be satisfied to be just a wife and mother. Because I send out the laundry to be done. Source: Isaac Metzker. and doesn’t hurry to open the door. My husband is not pleased and when I come home at night and ring the bell. Dear Editor. I am still young and I want to learn and enjoy life. p. Now he has announced a new decision. Your reader. a Yiddish-language newspaper for Jewish immigrants in late 19th and early 20th Century New York. He is in favor of the emancipation of women. it seems to him that I have too much time for myself. The Discontented Wife ANSWER: Since this man is intelligent and an adherent of the women’s emancipation movement. so I will not be able to send out the laundry any more. I want to say that my husband is an intelligent man and he wanted to marry a woman who was educated. I ask you to decide whether a married woman has the right to go to school two evenings a week.

recall. Mitchell Palmer .Terms for Week 6 Populist Party William Jennings Bryan Knights of Labor-Terence Powderly American Federation of Labor (AFL)--Samuel Gompers Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) eight-hour day Gentleman's Agreement Hull House Muckrakers-Ida Tarbell Upton Sinclair Lincoln Steffens Progressive Reformers: Jane Addams Jacob Riis Progressive Organizations: Sierra Club General Federation of Women’s' Clubs National Civic Federation U. Chamber of Commerce National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) Socialist Party of America Disfranchisement The Oregon System: initiative. referendum The Square Deal National American Woman Suffrage Association The Conservation Movement A.S.

he can’t stand to loan at such low rates. No I can’t wait.2 (New York: 1989). Source: W. We have witnessed for more than a quarter of a century the struggles of the two great political parties for power and plunder. I give my note and second mortgage of 3 per cent of the $1. or even 10 per cent. about five times the value of the note. Nebraska Historical Society. Taylor to editor..000. 1891. leaving the farmer moneyless and homeless. some going still farther and charging 50 per cent per annum. p. The hot winds burned up the entire crop. America Firsthand. We charge that the controlling influence dominating both these parties have permitted the existing dreadful conditions to develop with serious effort to prevent or restrain them. vol. a month. but the unlawful and inhuman country destroying rate of 3 per cent. This season is without a parallel in this part of the country. Nebraska). Part of the Party platform adopted at the Omaha Convention in 1892 is reprinted below. I ask for a few days. I have borrowed for example $1. secured by chattel of two horses. Then I pay 7 per cent on the $1. many of whom might have been able to run through this crisis had it not been for the galling yoke put on them by the money loaners and sharks—not by charging 7 per cent per annum.as rapidly and as far as the good sense of an intelligent people and the . The time comes to pay. my note is made payable in thirty or sixty days for $35. harness and wagon. which is $30 more. while grievous wrongs have been inflicted upon the suffering people. must have the money. I must have $50 to save myself. Then besides all this I pay for appraising the land. which is the lawful rate of interest. I pay $25 besides to the commission man. etc. in a letter dated January 10. Marcus and David Burner. THE POPULIST PARTY PLATFORM In 1892 the Populist Party mounted its first campaign for the Presidency.. so when I have secured my loan I am out the first year $150. reprinted in Robert D. beyond redemption. We believe that the power of government--in other words. many of us financially. M. I have the extreme pleasure of seeing my property taken and sold by this iron handed money loaner while my family and I suffer.A FARMER'S GRIEVANCE Nebraska farmer W.. If I can’t get the money. M. abstract. 99. ed. This is on the farm. 1891.000. We are cursed.. describes the hardship he and other farmers faced. recording. but now comes the chattel loan. January 10. of the people--should be expanded.. attributing it mostly to man-made conditions rather than more typically weather or insects. leaving thousands of families wholly destitute. Taylor.. Yet I am told by the agent who loans me the money. who have taken the money and now are after the property.000 to the actual loaner.. Farmer's Alliance (Lincoln. I get the money. not by the hot winds so much as by the swindling games of the bankers and money loaners.

1965).227.. 6. We condemn the fallacy of protecting American labor. 3. Words that Made American History Since The Civil War. 223. and poverty shall eventually cease in the land.through the adoption by the States of the Australian or secret ballot system. and we denounce the present ineffective laws against contract labor.. We oppose any subsidy or national aid to any private corporation for any purpose.earners. 9. 1. We wiped out slavery and by our tariff laws and national banks began a system of white . 4. We cordially sympathize with the efforts of organized workingmen to shorten the hours of labor. 226. and ask that a penalty clause be added to the said law..which opens our ports to the pauper and criminal classes of the world and crowds our wage. MARY ELLEN LEASE RALLIES KANSAS In the early 1890s Mary Ellen Lease became one of the leading Populist Party spokespersons. In this speech in 1890 she explains the plight of the farmers. injustice. We favor a constitutional provision limiting the office of President and Vice-President to one term. and demand the further restriction of undesirable emigration.. (Boston: Little. We pledge our support to fair and liberal pensions to ex-Union soldiers and sailors... known as the Pinkerton system. pp. We commend. The Puritans fleeing from oppression became oppressors. 8. to the end that oppression.teachings of experience shall justify. Garraty.the legislative system known as the initiative and referendum.. The revenue derived from a graduated income tax should be applied to the reduction of the burdens of taxation now levied upon the domestic industries of this country. We fought England for our liberty and put chains on four million of blacks. We regard the maintenance of a large standing army of mercenaries. Brown and Co. 7. and providing for the election of Senators of the United States by a direct vote of the people.. This is a nation of inconsistencies. and pledge ourselves to secure it to every legal voter. 5. Source: Richard N. Current and John A. We demand a free ballot and a fair count in all elections. ed. and demand a rigid enforcement of the existing eight-hour law on Government work. and we demand its abolition. 2.. as a menace to our liberties. This Kansas housewife was best known for her demand that farmers "raise less corn and more hell" to address their grievances..

The people are at bay. is stronger than all the hosts of error. the Santa Fe Railroad and the loan companies. We want the accursed foreclosure system wiped out. the rains fell. The next day Bryan was nominated for President on the Democratic Party ticket.000 people in the Convention hall. nature smiled. Our war is not a war of conquest. Bailey and David M. We went to work and plowed and planted. pp.. and what came of it? Eight-cent corn. Money rules. We will stand by our homes and stay by our fireside by force if necessary. But this is not a contest between persons.. and no price at all for butter and eggs--that's what came of it. and our Vice-President is a London banker. 547. two-cent beef. We . Massachusetts. We want the abolition of the national banks. a 36 year old Congressman from Nebraska. The common people are robbed to enrich their masters. 1984). land. It is no longer a government of the people. and we want the power to make loans direct from the government. We [silverites] do not come as aggressors. The West and South are bound and prostrate before the manufacturing East. II (Lexington.000 shop girls in New York are forced to sell their virtue for the bread their niggardly wages deny them. the sun shone. indeed.. Then the politicians said we suffered from overproduction. Source: Thomas A. by the people. and we raised the big crop that they told us to. ten-cent oats. We want money. Our laws are the output of a system which clothes rascals in robes and honesty in rags. starve to death every year in the United States. Kennedy. I would be presumptuous.. and for Wall Street. when 10. Vol.. and will not pay our debts to the loan-shark companies until the government pays its debts to us. WILLIAM JENNINGS BRYAN'S CROSS OF GOLD SPEECH William Jennings Bryan. Overproduction. electrified the Democratic Party Convention in Chicago in 1896 with his "Cross of Gold Speech in which he advanced the position of the Free Silver advocates before the 15. to present myself against the distinguished gentlemen to whom you have listened if this were a mere measuring of abilities. Land equal to a tract thirty miles wide and ninety miles long has been foreclosed and bought in by loan companies of Kansas in a year. The great common people of this country are slaves. The parties lie to us and the political speakers mislead us.548. and over 100. I come to speak to you in defense of a cause as holy as the cause of liberty--the cause of humanity. and monopoly is the master. so statistics tell us. and for the people. Part of his speech is reprinted below.. We were told two years ago to go to work and raise a big crop.. Tariff is not the paramount question.wage slavery worse than the first. The American Spirit. and transportation.000 little children. The humblest citizen in all the land. let the bloodhounds of money who have dogged us thus far beware. but a government of Wall Street. that was all we needed. when clad in the armor of a righteous cause. by Wall Street. Wall Street owns the country. The main question is the money question. Kansas suffers from two great robbers.

and they have mocked when our calamity came. pp. Massachusetts.. who produce the wealth and pay the taxes of the country". Carlisle [John G. But destroy our farms. and. II (Lexington. 1984). We defy them!. Carlisle of Kentucky. We have begged. Kennedy. our families. We beg no longer. The American Spirit. we entreat no more. and posterity. their prosperity will leak through on those below.. supported by the commercial interests. their prosperity will find its way up through every class which rests upon them. the question we are to decide is: upon which side will the Democratic Party fight--upon the side of "the idle holders of idle capital" or upon the side of "the struggling masses"? That is the question which the party must answer first. We have petitioned. Mr. and by some farmers . WHAT FARM PROBLEM? In the vignette below J. Sterling Morton of Nebraska. There are those who believe that if you will only legislate to make the well-to-do prosperous. has been that if you legislate to make the masses prosperous.are fighting in the defense of our homes. We reply that the great cities rest upon our broad and fertile prairies. we petition no more. Bailey and David M. Here is an excerpt from his report on farm conditions in 1896. There are two ideas of government. And the prevalent idea that the West and the South are more heavily burdened with farm mortgages than the East and Northeast sections of the United States is entirely erroneous.565. are on the side of the struggling masses who have ever been the foundation of the Democratic Party. you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold. and our entreaties have been disregarded. however. and three-fourths of the money represented by the mortgages upon the 282 farms was for the purchase of those farms or for money borrowed to improve those farms. formerly a distinguished member of Congress. Burn down your cities and leave our farms. The constant complaint by the alleged friends of farmers. challenged Populist arguments by asserting that there was no farm problem. The Democratic idea. and then it must be answered by each individual hereafter. We have entreated. Out of each thousand farms in the United States only 282 are mortgaged. and the grass will grow in the streets of every city in the country. was Cleveland's Secretary of Treasury in 1896] said in 1878 that this was a struggle between "the idle holders of idle capital" and "the struggling masses. Vol.. 563. who served as Secretary of Agriculture under President Grover Cleveland between 1893 and 1897. The sympathies of the Democratic Party. we will answer their demand for a gold standard by saying to them: You shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns. and the toilers everywhere. the laboring interests.. and our petitions have been scorned. and your cities will spring up again as if by magic. Having behind us the producing masses of this nation and the world. You come to us and tell us that the great cities are in favor of the gold standard. my friends. as shown by the platform. Source: Thomas A.

and indolent farmer deserves none. mutual forbearance. It will be to the interest of both that each should have justice... is that the Government does nothing for agriculture. amend. They are representatives of the oldest.. no matter how essential the calling may be to the needs and comforts of civilization. And on these broad lines of mutual interest. They will become political allies. Largely these declarations are without foundation..black attacks after 1900. and successful farmer needs no aid form the Government. or revise the laws of production and distribution. and mutual support the present will be made the stepping-stone to future peace and prosperity. Booker Washington or Prof. Source: The Report of Secretary of Agriculture. DuBois.themselves. They will see a similarity of cause and a similarity of remedy. 1909: How silly it is to judge the negro race by a few mulattoes like Dr. in stone or upon canvas. You are deceived and blinded that you may not see how this race antagonism perpetuates a monetary system which beggars you both.. The free and independent farmers of this country are not impoverished. practical. In the early 1890s when the party first emerged. xlvxlvi. the Georgia Populist leader. Their utterance is a belittlement of agriculture and an indignity to every intelligent and practical farmer of the United States. It is a beneficent arrangement of the order of thing and the conditions of human life that legislators are not permitted to repeal. It is not the business of Government to legislate in behalf of any class of citizens because they are engaged in any specific calling. impractical. then. seems to me to be this: the crushing burdens which now oppress both races in the South will cause each to make an effort to cast them off. The intelligent. D. symbolized the transformation of the Populist Party on the issue of black voting. Legislation can neither plow nor plant. most honorable.C. 1896. like Indians upon reservations. pp...they are not wards of the Government to be treated to annuities. Lawmakers cannot erase natural laws nor restrict or efface the operation of economic laws. and neither can injure the other without weakening both. Reprinted below is his appeal to black voters in 1892 and an example of his vitriolic anti. however. Creative intellect was not given to him. THOMAS WATSON AND BLACK VOTERS Thomas Watson. By 1900. The conclusion. In all the long reach of the ages he [the negro] has not contributed one ray of light to civilization. Upon it all other vocations depend for subsistence and prosperity. They will recognize that each should help the other in the work of repealing bad laws and enacting good ones. and most essential occupation of the human race. in written bork or . The ignorant. 1892: Now the People's Party says to these two men. You are made to hate each other because upon that hatred is rested the keystone of the arch of financial despotism which enslaves you both. No original idea of his lives in poetry or song. 1896 (Washington. Watson called for black disfranchisement. "You are kept apart that you may be separately fleeced of your earnings. Watson and other Populist leaders welcomed black voters as political allies.

empires rise and fall. making no advance." North American Review. it is a question whether. and dreaming of none. The laboring man in this bounteous and hospitable country has no ground for complaint. century after century.. Opposing Viewpoints in American History (San Diego. they can wrest. He remains. and therefore this is the land of refuge for the oppressed.. 3. "The Folly of Organized Labor. reprinted in Bruno Leone. ed. To the employer. powers and control which. his opposition to labor organization in an principle and specifically to the Knights of Labor. in future. therefore. even as it did at the feet of our ancestors. Powderly.. The National Experience. the ocean roared at his feet. The Almighty has made this country for the oppressed of other nations. 58. the effort is to elevate the standard of the human race and not to degrade it.--the negro undergoes no chance. he stands in the way of the elevation of his race and of mankind. 102. The Knights of Labor have undertaken to test. by the force of coercion.hieroglyphic. . became a machinist and later joined the secret order of the Knights of Labor..p. No. He ultimately became Grand Master of the . Watson's Jeffersonian Magazine Vol. His vote is potential and he is elevated thereby to the position of man. as Celt and Teuton. the son of Irish immigrants.. in every civilized community are secured as the most sacred and inalienable rights of the employer. to their own profit. Sources: John Blum. POWDERLY AND THE KNIGHTS OF LABOR Terence V. 1985). June 1886. Brace Jovanovich. The point to be determined is whether capital or labor shall. it is a question whether his individual rights as to the control of his property’ shall be so far overborne as to not only deprive him of his freedom but also expose him to interferences seriously impairing the value of his capital. which is that of abject depression. What. 514. 93.Leave the negro to himself... Commerce owes him nothing. upon a large scale. but he never dared to build ship and brave the deep. has the laborer to complain of in America? By inciting strikes and encouraging discontent. TERENCE V. In all other nations it is the reverse. 1996). Saxon and Angle did. and cycles sweep by. Source: Henry Clews. races appear and disappear. Elsewhere he is a creature of circumstance. 1909). the application of compulsion as a means of enforcing their demands. making no more effort at civilization than they make. 2 (February. HENRY CLEWS OPPOSES THE ORGANIZATION OF LABOR In the vignettes below Henry Clews outlines. in an 1886 article. Part 2 (New York: Harcourt. p. To the employees. pp. determine the terms upon which the invested resources of the nation are to be employed. and the hand of the laboring man should not be raised against it. the neighbor of the gorilla and chimpanzee. Under the government of this nation.

I have endeavored to direct the eyes of our members to the principal parts of the preamble of our Order--government ownership of land. (New York. so he does not . 401. Powderly. 1940). All of this time I have opposed strikes and boycotts. or some demand of the trade element in our Order. yet the trade element in our Order has always kept me but at the base of the breastworks throwing up earth which they trample down. 1893. SAMUEL GOMPERS DESCRIBES TRADE UNIONS Samuel Gompers. obliged to work long hours myself. reprinted by Columbia University Press. The Knights welcomed virtually all workers and worked for a variety of reforms such as regulation of trusts and monopolies. and money. In the vignette below Gompers explains the need for organization among workers. to gain their objectives. If you wish to improve a people you must improve their habits and customs. to the exclusion of the very work that I have constantly advocated and which the General Assembly of the Order commanded me to advocate. Gompers called for trade or craft unions of skilled workers. battling for short hours for others. and makes of him what has been too long neglected-a consumer instead of a mere producer. of railroads. and government ownership of railroads. Just think of it! Opposing strikes and always striking. and fighting with might and main for the little things. Powderly's organization was attacked by conservatives who accused it of advocating communism.. The reduction of the hours of labor reaches the very root of society. I have contended that the wage question was of secondary consideration. telegraphs.000 in the early 1880s. lacking time to devote to anything else.. I have held a most anomalous position before the public for the last twenty years. he is afraid his friend will see him. cofounded the American Federation of Labor in 1886. but is content to go in an old overall or anything that will cover his members. or regulation of railroads. despite the organization's prohibition of such action. p.organization when it reached its maximum strength of 700. But Powderly was also criticized by trade union advocates within the Knights of Labor who wanted wage increases and shorter hours and who often went on strike. Unlike the Knights which sought to be one large union. I have contended that the short-hour question was not the end but merely the means to an end. But all of this time I have been fighting for a raise in wages. The Path I Trod. a London-born New York cigar maker. Our Order has held me in my present position because of the reputation I have won in the nation at large by taking high ground on important national questions. served as the AFL's first president almost until his death in 1924. a reduction in the hours of labor. Source: Terence V. A man who goes to his work before the dawn of the day requires no clean shirt to go to work in. Powderly explains his views in his autobiography published in 1893. but a man who goes to work at 8 o'clock in the morning wants a clean shirt. It gives the workingmen better conditions and better opportunities. Battling with my pen in the leading journals and magazines of the day for the great things we are educating the people on.

as individuals. a better husband. a better man in general. Wherever trades unions have organized and are most firmly organized. THE "REAL" JUNGLE Upton Sinclair's novel. but a man could run his hand over these piles of meat and sweep off handfuls of the dried dung of rats. The Jungle. The trade unions are not what too many men have been led to believe they are. but has held in check the more radical elements in society. in the dirt and sawdust. it would make him a better citizen. requiring all the time he has to recuperate his strength sufficiently to get ready for his next day's work. First Session. and made over again for home consumption.. There would be meat stored in great piles in rooms. (Chicago: The Dorsey Press.. for he has no time to read. 1987) p. and meat would go into the hoppers together. Modern industry evolves these organizations out of the existing conditions where there are two classes in society.. The general reduction of the hours per day.. Source: Congressional Record.. However this report of a 1906 Congressional Committee on conditions in the industry was as telling as the novel. Milton Cantor and Dean Albertson.. importations from Europe.... p.. 1906). and the water from leaky roofs would drip over it. while a man who goes to work early in the morning and stays at it late at night does not need a newspaper. more especially where the unionists are better organized. set in the immigrant neighborhoods of Chicago.53.. 59th Congress. and then rats. was intended as a call for socialism among the working classes but instead became popular because of its exposure of the abuses of the meat packing industry. one incessantly striving to obtain the labor of the other class for a little as possible. and the members of the other class being.. I believe that the existence of the trades-union movement.would create a greater spirit in the working man. they would die. has evoked a spirit and a demand for reform. and thousands of rats would race about on it. and dumped into the hoppers.. utterly helpless in a contest with their employers. there are the rights of the people respected. It was too dark in these storage places to see well.. Main Problems in American History. bread. Source: Howard H. and the packers would put poisoned bread out for them. 52. These rats were nuisances. There would be meat that had tumbled out on the floor. Quint. where the workers had trampled and spit uncounted billions of [tuberculosis] germs.want to be dirty.. naturally resort to combinations to improve their conditions which surround them to organize for self-protection. and that was mouldy and white--it would be doused with borax and glycerine. a better father. He also requires a newspaper. Hence trade unions. there would come all the way back from Europe old sausage that had been rejected. There was never the least attention paid to what was cut up for sausage. 7801 (June 4.. .

Cox 1885-1911 Harvey Wheeler 1899-1910 Kansas City James Pendergast 1881-1892 Democratic Org. 1894-1936 Jersey City Abraham Ruef 1892-1910 Tom Dennison 1901-1929 Frank J. 1895-1948 San Francisco Omaha Club. 1900William Thompson 1916-31 Patrick A. Nash 1931-1936 Edward Kelley 1936-1951 Richard J.BOSSES AND POLITICAL MACHINES City New York 1790 Boss William Tweed 1865-1871 (Honest)John Kelley 1871-88 Richard Crocker 1888-1894 Charles Murphy 1902-1904 Chicago Michael Kenna 1900-1910 Democratic Organization. Democratic Tammany Democratic Democratic Democratic Democratic Cook Republican Democratic Democratic Democratic Co. 1888-1934 George B. Hague 1917-1947 Republican Philadelphia Democratic Democratic Union-Labor Democratic Omaha Democratic Democratic Democratic Shelby Republican Democratic Treaton Democratic Democratic West End County Memphis Edward Crump 1911-1948 Democratic Org. 1881-1949 Tom Pendergast 1892-1932 .1860-1932 New Orleans Martin Behrman 1900-1920 Choctaw Club. Daley 1953-1976 Political Party Political Organization Hall. 1800-1954 James Michael Curley 1890-1920 Democratic Philadelphia James McManes 1868-1881 Republican Club. 1898-1965 Cincinnati Baltimore Club.. Boston Martin Lomasney 1880-1890 Democratic Southend Democratic Club..

he closed his highest flight of eloquence with the statement that "these men. had emerged as one of the leading muckrakers in the country with the publication of his book. is the most American of our greater cities.BOSS RULE IN PHILADELPHIA In 1904 Lincoln Steffens." Source: Lincoln Steffens. The Philadelphians do not vote. and practices fraud at every stage.." The machine controls the whole process of voting. Every city and town in the country can learn something from the typical political experience of this great representative city. I don't know just who to measure the intelligence of a community. and I doubt if it would stand in New York or Chicago. Philadelphia is. no matter how bad their own condition may be. indeed. he will look startled. a California-born journalist. but a Pennsylvania college professor who declared to me his belief in education for the masses as a way out of political corruption. and non-existent person. "And. 1904). New York is excused for many of its ills because it is the metropolis.. The Shame of the Cities.. then say." reminds his hearers that was the word of Independence Hall. Philadelphia is our third largest city and its growth has been gradual and natural." he added with a catching grin. and their disfranchisement is one anchor of the foundation of the Philadelphia organization. A [machine politician] in a speech resenting sneers at his ward as "low down. "they vote here yet. therefore. children. but it is not without significance. In this passage he explains the operation of the Philadelphia political machine. It is good. You can arouse their Republican ire by talking about the black Republican votes lost in the Southern states by white Democratic intimidation. because of its forced development. naming the signers of the Declaration of Independence. but if you remind the average Philadelphian that he is in the same position. The honest citizens of Philadelphia have no more rights at the polls than the Negroes down South. (New York: Macmillan. "That's so... One newspaper printed the picture of a dog. down on such a list. too. himself justified the "rake-off" of preferred contractors on public works on the ground of a "fair business profit. voted down here once. Other American cities. pp. another that of a little four-year-old Negro boy. What has happened in Philadelphia may happen in any American city "after the reform is over. and the assessor is the machine's man. . corrupt." Philadelphia is a city that has had its reforms.. and." . Chicago.. that's literally true. the fathers of American liberty. Philadelphia with 47 percent of its population native-born or native-born parents." This is not fair. all point with scorn to Philadelphia as worse--"the worst-governed city in the country. The present condition of Philadelphia.. and intelligent.. It isn't sound. The New Yorkers vote for Tammany Hall. The assessor pads the list with the names of dead dogs. they are disfranchised.. Nor do they fight very hard for this basic privilege.. The Shame of the Cities.. only I never thought of it in just that way. The [tax] assessor's list is the voting list.The Philadelphia machine isn't the best. is not that which precedes but that which follows reform. Immigration has been blamed for our municipal conditions.

they don't find them.. and there is a rush to get my land... disorderly people. Yes. . I'm tipped off. which nobody cared particular for before.193-194. saloonkeepers. BOSS PLUNKITT DEFENDS HONEST GRAFT In 1905 New York City political boss. many of our men have grown rich in politics. and supposed they and been robbin' the city treasury or levyin' blackmail on disorderly houses. All they can show is that the Tammany heads of departments looked after their friends. within the law..--and neither has any of the men who have made big fortunes in politics.I go to that place and I buy up all the land I can in the neighborhood. Every good man looks after his friends. The money in the city treasury is all right. that they're goin' to lay out a new park at a certain place. Then the board of this or that makes it plan public. I've made a big fortune out of the game. That is why. Now. when a reform administration comes in and spends a half million dollars in tryin' to find the public robberies they talked about in the campaign. They just seen their opportunities and took them. Everything is all right." Just let me explain by examples. They didn't steal a dollar from the city treasury. that's honest graft. why should the Tammany leaders go into such dirty business when there is so much honest graft lyin' around when they are in power? Did you ever consider that? . but nobody thinks of drawin' the distinction between honest graft and dishonest graft. but they saw that some Tammany men grew rich. Tammany was beat in 1901 because the people were deceived into believin' that it worked dishonest graft.millionaire while controlling the Tammany Hall political machine. say. but I've not gone in for dishonest graft--blackmailin' gamblers. Everybody is talkin' these days about Tammany men growin' rich on graft. Well. As a matter of policy. explained the process by which he became a multi. There's an honest graft. They didn't draw a distinction between dishonest and honest graft. and any man who doesn't isn't likely to be popular. My party's in power in the city. In the process Plunkitt explained the distinction between "honest" graft and "dishonest" graft.. and I'm an example of how it works. George Washington Plunkitt. if nothing else. let me tell you that most politicians who are accused of robbin' the city get rich the same way.I've told you how I got rich by honest graft. and gave them what opportunities they could to make honest graft. let me tell you that's never goin' to hurt Tammany with the people. and I'm gettin' richer every day. The books are always all right. Now. I have myself. Well. etc. . There's all the difference in the world between the two. Ain't it perfectly honest to charge a good price and make a profit on my investment and foresight? Of course it is. and it's goin' to undertake a lot of public improvements. or workin' in with the gamblers and lawbreakers. I might sum up the whole thing by saying': "I seen my opportunities and I took 'em..

Source: William A. Riordan, Plunkitt of Tammany Hall, (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1948), pp. 3-4. MAJOR PROGRESSIVE ACHIEVEMENTS, 1900-1920 1901 Acting under the Forest Reserve Act, President Theodore Roosevelt withdrew 150,000,000 acres of public timber land for sale in six western states and created the first National Forests. 1902 Maryland passed the first workmen's compensation law. It made the employer liable for injuries suffered by employees. 1903 The Elkins Act declared railroad rebates illegal. Oregon adopted the Initiative, Recall, and Referendum. Wisconsin adopted the direct primary. 1904 U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Northern Securities Company v. United States that the Northern Securities Trust is a combination in restraint of trade. President Theodore Roosevelt initiated the suit, the first under the provisions of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act. New York limited child labor and enacted the first statues to limit hours and insure safe working conditions for women. 1906 The Hepburn Act enlarged the Interstate Commerce Commission and gave it the power to reduce unreasonable or discriminatory railroad rates. The Meat Inspection Act passed. The Pure Food and Drug Act passed, creating the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 1910 The Mann-Elkins Act abolished long and short haul railroad rates. 1911 President William Howard Taft brought suit against the Standard Oil Trust and the American Tobacco Trust. Both were declared illegal by the U.S. Supreme Court.

1913 Sixteenth Amendment authorized a federal income tax. Seventeenth Amendment allowed the direct election of U.S. Senators by popular vote. Federal Reserve Act created the Federal Reserve Banking System.

1914 The Clayton Act established a Federal Trade Commission to prevent unfair methods of competition including interlocking directorates, price fixing, and pooling arrangements. It also made corporate officers liable for illegal acts. 1920 Nineteenth Amendment gave women the right to vote. LOUIS BRANDEIS INDICTS INTERLOCKING DIRECTORATES Louis D. Brandeis, who in 1914 was an attorney for the Pujo Committee which investigated the "money trust" and who would later become a U.S. Supreme Court Justice, describes the interlocking banking directorates which controlled the largest American corporations. The practice of interlocking directorates is the root of many evils. It offends laws human and divine. Applied to rival corporations, it tends to the suppression of competition and to violation of the Sherman [anti-trust] laws. Applied to corporations which deal with each other, it tends to disloyalty and to violation of the fundamental law that no man can serve two masters. In either event it tends to inefficiency; for it removes incentive and destroys soundness of judgment. It is undemocratic, for rejects the platform: "A fair field and no favors," substituting the pull of privilege for the push of manhood. It is the most potent instrument bankers over railroads, public-service and industrial corporations, over banks, life- insurance and trust companies, and long step will have been taken toward attainment of the New Freedom. A single example will illustrate the vicious circle of control-the endless chain-through which our financial oligarchy now operates: J. P. Morgan (or a partner), a director of the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, causes that company to sell to J. P. Morgan & Co. an issue of bonds. J. P. Morgan & Co. borrow the money with which to pay for the bonds from the Guaranty Trust Company, of which Mr. Morgan (or a partner) is director. J.P. Morgan & Co. sell the bonds to the Penn Mutual Life Insurance Company, of which Mr. Morgan (or a partner) is director. The New Haven spends the proceeds of the bonds in purchasing steel rails from the United States Steel Corporation, of which Mr. Morgan (or a partner) is a director. The United States Steel Corporation spends the proceeds of the rails in purchasing electrical supplies from the General Electric Company, of which Mr. Morgan (or a partner) is a director. The General Electric sells supplies to the Western Union Telegraph Company, a subsidiary of the American Telephone and Telegraph Company; and in both Mr. Morgan (or a partner) is a director. Source: Louis D. Brandeis, Other People's Money, (New York: Harper and Row, 1914), pp. 51-53. MAJOR U.S. CORPORATIONS, 1917, 2002 1917 2002

Rank 1. U.S. Steel 2. Standard Oil of N.J. 3. Bethlehem Steel 4. Armour and Company 5. Swift and Company 6. Midvale Steel 7. International Harvester 8. E.I. du Pont 9. U.S. Rubber 10. Phelps Dodge 11. General Electric 12. Anaconda Copper 13. Am. Smelting 14. Standard Oil of N.Y. 15. Singer Manufacturing 16. Ford Motor 17. Westinghouse Electric 18. American Tobacco 19. Jones & Laughlin Steel 20. Union Carbide

Assets in Assets in Millions of Dollars Millions of Dollars 2,449 326,500 574 301,000 382 286,300 314 256,500 306 233,800 270 233,300 265 201,800 263 194,300 258 182,100 232 151,500 232 137,400 226 128,600 222 116,900 204 115,200 193 114,400 170 113,700 165 111,800 162 109,100 160 108,600 156 108,000

Rank 1. General 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. Verizon Phillip Proctor Royal & Johnson American and Int. Electric Microsoft ExxonMobil Wal-Mart Citigroup Pfizer Intel Johnson Group IBM Coca-Cola Merck Morris Gamble Petroleum Depot of America Cisco Communications Hathaway

Dutch Home




It has been suggested that World War I destroyed the Progressive Movement by diverting the nation's attention from political and economic reform to winning the conflict with Germany. Certainly the intense anti-German wartime propaganda convinced many Americans that the Kaiser was to be feared far more than the trusts. The passage below is an example of that propaganda. Let us set down sternly that we are at war with the Germans, not the Junkers [German aristocrats], not autocracy, not Prussianism, not the Kaiser...The German people is what we war with. The German people is committing the unspeakable horrors which set the whole world aghast. The German people is not and has not been conducting war. It is and has been conducting murder. Hold fast to that. The Supreme Court of New York declared the sinking of the Lusitania an act of piracy. Piracy is not war. All decencies, honors, humanities, international agreements, and laws have been smashed by them day and night from the first rape of Belgium to now. The new atrocity which appeared this week was spraying prisoners with burning oil. This is Germany's most recent jest. It makes them laugh so! They have violated every treaty with the United States; they have lied from start to finish and to everybody. A treaty was a scrap of paper.... Germany has ravished the women of Belgium, Serbia, Romania, Poland, Armenia. Germany murdered the passengers of the Lusitania and struck a medal to celebrate that German triumph, dating it two days before the horrible occurrence. Germany has ruined cathedrals and cities in sheer wanton fury, in such fashion as has not been done in all the wars wages in Europe since the days of the building of the cathedrals. Germany has poisoned wells, crucified inhabitants and soldiers, burned people in the houses, and this by system. Germany has denatured men and boys, has wantonly defaced the living and the dying and the dead. An eye-witness tells of seeing women dead at a table with their tongues nailed to the table and left to die. Germany has disclosed neither decency nor honor from the day it started war, nor has a single voice in Germany to date been lifted up against the orgies of ruthlessness which turn the soul sick and which constitute the chief barbarity of history. Germany remains unblushing and unconscious of its indecency. Germany's egotism still struts like a Kaiser. And to climax its horrid crimes, Germany has inflicted compulsory polygamy on the virgins of its own land. Source: Thomas A. Bailey and David M. Kennedy, The American Spirit, Vol. II, Boston, Mass.: D. C. Heath and Company, 1984), pp. 663-665. THE FIRST RED SCARE, 1919-1920 The following vignette describes the role of Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer in orchestrating the first Red Scare in 1919 and 1920. ...The spotlight suddenly shifted to Attorney-General A. Mitchell Palmer. A Quaker with a long record of support for progressive legislation, Palmer had been [President Woodrow] Wilson's floor manager in 1912. Regarded by many as the father of

women's suffrage and the child labor law a strong advocate of the League of Nations, Palmer was the prototype of the Wilsonian liberal. The Democratic party's contact man with labor in the 1916 campaign, Palmer was appointed Attorney-General partly because of his popularity with labor and the foreign-born. Yet no sooner had he been sworn into office in March, 1919, he started a campaign against enemy aliens. After the June 2 [Wall Street] bombings he hired William J. Flynn, reputedly an expert on anarchism, and asked for and received a $500,000 increase in his budget in order to combat radicalism. In August he set up an antiradical division in the Department of Justice under J. Edgar Hoover. On November 7 the first of the Palmer raids began, with the arrest of 250 members of the Union of Russian Workers in a dozen cities; many were roughly handled, particularly in New York City, where they were beaten by the police. Most of the prisoners were released with "blackened eyes and lacerated scalps," the New York Times reported. Only 39 men were recommended for deportation. On December 21, 1919, 249 aliens, most of whom had no criminal record and had committed no criminal offense, were deported to Russia on an army transport, the "Buford." Although the country was worried about a Bolshevik conspiracy, few of the people deported were Communists; most of them were anarchists, including Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman...who had no intention of ever using violence. Palmer turned next to the Communists. Working with an agent in the Labor Department, which had authority over deportations, Palmer in the last week of 1919 secured warrants for the arrest of more than 3,000 aliens who were members either of the Communist party or the Communist Labor party. On a single night in January, 1920, more than 4,000 alleged Communists were arrested in a dramatic coast-to-coast raid in 33 cities. If the persons arrested were citizens they were turned over to state authorities for prosecution under antisyndicalist laws; if they were aliens, they were held for deportation. Palmer invaded private homes, union headquarters, and meeting halls. People were held incommunicado, denied counsel, and subjected to kangaroo trials. In one city, prisoners were handcuffed, chained together, and marched through the streets. In New England, hundreds of people were arrested who had no connection with radicalism of any kind. In Detroit, 300 people were arrested on false charges, held for a week in jail, forced to sleep on the bare floor of a corridor, and denied food for 24 hours, only to be found innocent of any involvement in a revolutionary movement. Not for at least half a century, perhaps at no time in our history, had there been such a wholesale violation of civil liberties. The raids yielded almost nothing in the way of arms and small results in the way of dangerous revolutionaries. Although a few individuals (the steel baron Charles M. Schwab was one) protested against the raids, Palmer emerged from the episode a national hero. The Red Scare ended almost as quickly as it began. The beginning of the end came in New York State. Directed by the irresponsible Lusk Committee, the antiradical campaign in New York reached its climax when the state legislature expelled five Socialist members of the Assembly, although the Socialist party was a legally recognized party and the members were innocent of any offense. Throughout the country, newspapers and public figures, including the Chicago Tribune and Senator Warren G. Harding of Ohio, denounced the action of the legislature. Most effective was Charles Evans Hughes, who not only reproached the legislature but offered the Socialists legal

seeking the 1920 presidential nomination. against dozens of aliens and by spring released nearly half of the men arrested in Palmer's January raids. public leaders were given police protection. Although members of the legislature condemned Hughes as "disloyal" and "pro-German. only a few more than 600 aliens were actually deported. he made such an excellent presentation of his case that his critics were forced to back down. Buildings were placed under guard. 7780.000 men was put on 24-hour duty. let his attempts to capitalize on the Red Scare get out of hand. Palmer demanded that Post be fired for his "tender solicitude for social revolution. CHAPTER SEVEN: THE GREAT DEPRESSION AND THE NEW DEAL Terms for Week 7 Stock Market Crash. government. 1920. turned deportation proceedings in a saner direction. vexed at Palmer. Aided by court decisions which held that men could not be deported on evidence illegally obtained.000 arrest warrants had been sworn out in late 1919. state militias were called to the colors. the country. Finally. but the idea that the New York legislature felt threatened by five Socialists made the Red Scare appear more than a little ridiculous. 1914-32 (Chicago. Post insisted on giving aliens proper counsel and the right to fair hearings. Source: William E. 1929 "bank holiday" relief anti-chain store movement "pump priming" Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) Works Progress Administration (WPA) . as a step toward overthrowing the U. May Day passed without a single outbreak of any kind. led by Secretary of Labor Wilson and Assistant Secretary Louis Post.S. Not a shot was fired. Early in 1920 an insurrection against Palmer in the Labor Department. and in New York City the entire police force of 11. Not a bomb exploded. As a result. The Perils of Prosperity. In the end. Convinced that Palmer had been violating civil liberties. In April he issued a series of warnings of a revolutionary plot which would be launched on May 1. 1973). Palmer. Not only had a firm stand been taken on democratic principle.counsel. Leuchtenburg." but when Post was hauled before a congressional committee. Congress now turned to an investigation not of the radicals but of Palmer. Post cancelled action. although 5. concluded he had cried wolf once too often." the campaign against the radicals was dealt a heavy blow.

1935 Glass-Steagall Act. mother used to buy a bar of Castile soap half a yard long and four inches square and saw it up into cakes an inch thick. 1935 Eleanor Roosevelt Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) Dr. It took weeks of use to wear it down so that it comfortably fitted the hand. Calkins's passage aptly describes what historians call the rise of consumer society which emerged in the 1920s just before the Great Depression.Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA) Wagner Act. author of the 1928 bestseller. He credits business and particularly advertising for this revolution. Business. describes how in two generations (1880-1920) manufactured goods and labor-saving devices revolutionized and modernized American households. 1933 Social Security Act. The cake was hard as Stonehenge. about fifty years ago more or less. Long-Share Our Wealth Society welfare state Cannery Workers and Farm Laborers Union (CWFLU) Republic Steel. the corners sharper than a serpent’s tooth. the Civilizer. Francis Townsend-Old Age Pension Union Senator Huey P. 1937 Gone With the Wind War of the Worlds Mein Kampf Anne Morrow Lindbergh ADVERTISING AND CONSUMER SOCIETY In the following vignette Earnest Elmo Calkins. When I was a boy. .

.—there are such even to-day. dishes washed by hand. in short. scouring mops. dumped on a sheet of paper laid on the scales. We have seen the evolution of shaving creams.. ed. no device to alleviate the frightful labor—no rubber scrapers. oatmeal an overnight operation. spices. baked beans an eighteen-hour job. aluminum cooking utensils. no wire brushes. “How to Furnish the Ideal Kitchen. by drawing the illuminating parallel. An iron. lard. and it came to the kitchen almost in a state of nature. crackers. vol. not the delicatessen and can-opener type. except among the newly arrived foreign-born. safety razors. scooped out of open boxes or barrels. She could not do in a week what my mother did every day of her toil-bound life. and tooth pastes. The housemother became a miniature manufacturing plant before the food was ready for the family to eat. the green-painted iron pump in the wooden corner sink for cold drinking water from the pump outside. that constitutes the difference between our mothers’ kitchens and our wives’. a reservoir at the back the only source of hot-water supply. and there it is. who keeps her house and takes pride in it. proving the adage that molasses attracts more flies than vinegar. coffee. self-rising flours. reasonable in price. to say nothing of the coalhod. 1929. butter and milk hung down the well by a string to keep them cold. America Firsthand. To keep house with what was available half a century ago was an art handed down from generation to generation. Marcus and David Burner. sugar. And not only toilet soap. or cleansing powders. scented if we like. as well as soap powders. there was no sponsor for its quality. and a turkey wing. 223-224. Put such a kitchen beside the one pictured in most advertisements selling kitchen equipment. vacuum cleaners. refrigerators. bought in bulk. just as pure as Castile. or drying racks. kitchen cabinets—everything. and between whiles the gallon measures standing around. heavy iron pots and skillets to be lifted. laundry chips.—and put her in an oldfashioned kitchen like that described above. and when we want another cake we go to the nearest grocery or drug store. soft-coal cook-stove. pickles.. hot-water taps. hog lard instead of vegetable shortening. Food was unclean. Clothes were washed with a rub-rub-rub that wore the zinc from the washboard. or those complete ones shown in the housekeeping departments of the women’s magazines. And the preparation of meals was but a small portion of the housewife’s burden. reprinted in Robert D. pepper. electric irons. 2 (New York: 1989). washing machines. Source: Ernest Elmo Calkins. take a modern housewife. The amount of sheer drudgery that has been taken out of housekeeping in fifty years can be realized only by comparison.Today we have a cake of toilet soap—a great many of them. which happily has been lost. tinted to match the bathroom decorations if we prefer. rice. vegetable shortenings.” Better still. There was cleaning with no other implements but a rag. salt. dried fruit. Business the Civilizer (Boston. THE STOCK MARKET CRASH The following vignette provides a description of the Stock Market Crash in October. Molasses and vinegar drawn from the wood. a broom. saleratus instead of baking powder.exposed until sold. in fact— just the right shape to fit the hand. but a real housekeeper. metal-ring dishrags. pp. 1928).

But the stock market was up. It had been a glorious year. a lack of vision with respect to the defects in our social organization. A new school of economists argued that when you buy common stocks. with only here and there a note of skepticism. he had informed the American people that they could expect two chickens in every pot and two cars in every garage as part of the normal standard of living for every family. Most people thought it was up permanently. who was then President. Since in the long run real wealth consists only in ability to produce goods and services. And when Hoover rolled in by twenty-one million votes to Al Smith's fifteen million. As a result. During the 1928 election campaign. all of them rosy. Real wages had more than doubled since 1914. There were a few stories and comments of an uneasy nature. Output per man-hour in manufacturing industries had doubled in the twenty years between 1909 and 1929. including our best economists. Wall Street was fully in accord with such sentiments. It was a penalty put on good bankers for the benefit of poor ones. 1928.. In coal mining and railroads the increase in output per manhour had not been so great but it was nevertheless large. not the present. During the period from 1920 to 1929 the increase was 93 per cent. this new year may well be one of felicitation and hopefulness. we appeared to the casual observer on New Year's Day of 1929 to be richer by many times than ever before in our history. But he saw better than most old-fashioned businessmen and bankers the technical possibilities of an industrial revolution in methods of production which had begun in the nineteenth century and was moving toward fruition in the twentieth. but only a few. It was the end of a ten-year period which had shown the greatest increase in national income this country had ever known. For example. During May and June. It was an assault on free enterprise. The "New Era" had arrived. If there is any way of judging the future by the past. We had practically doubled our national production of goods and services. We had become more efficient industrially than any other country in the world.993. of wonderful prosperity--in this country at least." The note of hope was sounded everywhere in that New Year edition of the Times. one article told of the disappointing year which England had just gone through. but as Election Day approached. There were many reasons for optimism so far as the real wealth of the country was concerned.385. the Dow-Jones industrials soared to 300. The New York Times wrote in its New Year's editorial of January I.733. the market advanced. Big businessmen made their usual yearly forecasts. Between 1910 and 1919 the increase in the national income in terms of physical goods was about 10 per cent. . Hoover. on New Year's Day of 1929 both weekly cash wages and real wages were at the highest point in our economic history. In the beginning of 1929 national income was still going up in terms of the production of physical goods. was an engineer with an engineering mind. And the curve of increased production was going up at a more rapid pace than ever before. He shared with everyone else. you buy the future. Mr. stocks wavered.In 1928 no one dreamed we were on the verge of a catastrophic depression. There was a story that the state guarantee of bank deposits in Nebraska was inadequate to meet the pressure of mounting bank failures. And anyway sensible conservative people did not believe in guaranteeing bank deposits.. It has been twelve months of unprecedented advance. Stocks had made a gain of $11. 1929: "But it will go hard to get people to think of 1928 as merely a 'dead past' which we must make haste to bury.

but stocks thrashed about getting nowhere. Source: Thurman Arnold. five and ten years ahead. They. New York Central from 256 to 160.000 shares changed hands. then vicepresident of the Exchange and subsequently its president. There was a mid-month recovery. bid 205 for Steel. Toward 2:00 P. Steel. RUMBLES OF REVOLUTION Oscar Ameringer. known as the Morgan broker. The Dow-Jones average dropped to 198. He was one of these double-fisted gentlemen. United States Steel from 261 to 150. S.7. The Dow Jones industrials were up another 20 points. William Potter. October 28. flourished. Koister Radio--names you no longer hear of--flashed across the ticker tape. So did Albert H. formed a consortium to shore up the market." And so it proved for a few months. Brokers' clerks worked long hours sending out margin calls. with the gallon hat and all. Steel. which only a few weeks before sold above 400. reached alltime highs. A record 16. Richard Whitney. 1929. ed. The climax came November 13.. head of the Guaranty Trust.. There was in that rally no hint that Whitney. General Motors from 72 to 36.M. describes to a Congressional committee the anger of farmers and ranchers over their economic plight in 1932. Charles E. Buy and sell orders piled into the Stock Exchange faster than human beings could handle them. Came Thursday. and Seward Prosser. Pools worked valiantly. Some time ago a cowman came into my office in Oklahoma City. and Eastman Kodak. "The Crash—and What it Meant (1929)" reprinted in Isabel Leighton. Names like Auburn. crashed through 200. with Thomas Lamont. Mitchell. When stocks faltered in April. but it was the last gasp. head of the Bankers Trust. was split five for one. The first week in September stocks climbed to 381. "You do not know me from Adam's ox. Wall Street seers regarded it as a "buying opportunity. Wiggin. The ticker ticked long after trading closed. and George F. Baker. The Big Bull Market was dead. General Electric. Panic. dropped to 283. 1929. American Telegraph and Telephone (AT&T) from 304 to 97. Inauguration Day. And CoolidgeHoover Prosperity was dead with it. U. of Morgan. Blue chips. American Telephone. Morgan and Company. But somehow. The Aspirin Age. but. like U. About noon. Liquidation increased. 1919-1941 (New York. somewhere. an Oklahoma City newspaper editor.410. Came Black Tuesday. October 24. He said. I came to this country without a cent. of the First National Bank. And how the high and mighty had fallen! American Can was down from 181 to 86. which had been as high as 261. March 4. head of the National City Bank. 215-217. slipped into the offices of J.Imaginative projections of earnings. By August the Dow Jones industrials hit 380. and . and soon was down to 93. knowing my onions. opened at 315. p. Radio Corporation of America (RCA) went up to 500. Grigsby-Grunow. The market rallied. head of the Chase National. would ultimately go to Sing Sing [Prison] for speculations as head of the firm of Richard Whitney and Company--a depression casualty. 1949). the old zip was lacking. found Wall Street even more ebullient. The break came early in September. S. P. opened at 205.

I hear such remarks every day. and I was feeding them corn." Then I asked. and he said. THE UNEMPLOYMENT CRISIS Each of the two statements below reflect the gravity of the unemployment situation in 1932. C. II. I know I can get in with twenty of my boys.by tending strictly to business. "Who is going to make the revolution?" He said. Bailey and David Kennedy. and then to Oklahoma. "because I know the inside and outside of it. (Lexington. the East has nothing but mortgages on our places." I asked him what he was going to do about it. I finally accumulated two sections of land and a fine herd of white-faced Hereford cattle. I am not going to stand for it. The Fortune Magazine article is perhaps most striking because it recognizes the grave threat to the social order if the millions of . the cattle. "We will have 400 machine guns. They say the only thing you do in Washington is to take money from the pockets of the poor and put it into the pockets of the rich." Continuing. I hope we may not have such. We have got the granaries. but he is in dead earnest. "What then?" He said. was not enough to even pay my expenses. "If there are enough fellows with guts in this country to do like us. I have met these people virtually every day all over the country. and to-day I am cleaned out. cattle began to drop. I do not say we are going to have a revolution on hand within the next year of two." I finally asked him." I asked what his share was and he said. We will cut the East off from the West. 739-740. Mass. by God. 1984). but just a plain American cattleman whose ancestors went from Carolina to Tennessee. so many batteries of artillery.. then to Arkansas. and everything else needed to supply a pretty good army. we will march eastward and we will cut East off. he is hard-shelled Baptist and a hard-shelled Democrat. Source: Thomas A. not a Socialist or a Communist. the corn. ed. and by the time I got them to Chicago the price of cattle. "I mortgaged my two sections of land. "I just want to tell you I am going to be one of them. but the danger is here. The first is from Fortune Magazine and the second is an excerpt from Franklin Roosevelt's campaign speech at Boston." meaning his cowboys. I was independent. tractors." That man may be very foolish.: D. he said. The American Spirit. we have the hogs. "Then what?" He said. and munitions and rifles. perhaps never. He said. Heath and Company. considering the price of corn I had fed them. pp. and I am going to do my share in it. We will show them what we can do. I could not pay anything. They say that this Government is a conspiracy against the common people to enrich the already rich." I remarked that anybody could do that if he worked hard and did not gamble and used good management. "I will capture a certain fort. Vol. I have heard much of this talk from serious-minded prosperous men of other days. "After the war. "We have got to have a revolution here like they had in Russia and clean them up. and I think he is. and I [will] capture that with my men." I rejoined.

000 or better than a quarter of the entire population.615. the Italians. 1989).000. 614. Third. to build up on a basis of permanent employment. From Franklin D. Taking account of the number of workers on part time. This percentage is higher than the percentage of unemployed British workers… and higher than the French. .. second. the Federal Government should expedite the actual construction of public works already authorized. since the beginning of the depression. Unemployment has steadily increased in the U. the advance planning of public works.jobless become angry and violent. Campaign Address in Boston.. Roosevelt. Finally.one man of every four employable workers. In addition to providing emergency relief. and on the development of waterway projects that have already been authorized and planned but not yet executed... the Federal Government should and must provide temporary work whenever that is possible. As to "immediate relief.next winter will. illustrates the creative ways they responded to economic adversity. tens of thousands..000. and the Canadian percentages. And it is not necessary to appeal.... It is conservative to estimate that the problem of next winter's relief is a problem of caring for approximately 25.. pp.. You and I know that in the national forests...S.000.. September 1932 We have two problems: first. and even hundreds of thousands of our unemployed citizens can be given at least temporary employment. the total of those without adequate income becomes 34..000 souls.000. owes a positive duty that no citizen shall be permitted to starve.. in that larger field that looks ahead... this national Government. we call for a coordinated system of employment exchanges. From Fortune Magazine.. The National Experience: A History of the United States (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.000..000 whose regular source of livelihood has been cut off.000.to class fear in order to point out that there is a limit beyond which hunger and misery become violent..... Blum. COLLEGE STUDENTS AND THE GREAT DEPRESSION While few could argue that college and university students were among those who suffered most during the Great Depression. the economic crisis reached into their lives as well. on flood prevention. The number of persons totally unemployed is not at least 10.500. but lower than the German.. to meet the immediate distress.." the first principle is that this nation. The number.be 11. if you like.. This account from a 1933 article.. October 1932 Source: John M. Eleven million unemployed means 27.. and unemployment reserves.

N. take him to their "plant" and return him all nicely bathed.J. janitors. For instance: Two male students at Ohio State University have started a "dog laundry." They call for Fido. The machinery of American capitalism had broken down. Shannon. collegians are now acting as night watchmen. Using their wits to earn money or cooking their own meals and living in shacks to save it. quit a $100 a month job because it was keeping him from his studies. ed. pp. Eight boys at the University of Washington are getting their meals at very small cost by cooking them in a basement and "taking in" several other students as boarders. combed and manicured. 1933. They are so numerous that they serve a meal to their 2. technicians and clerks.. said to his friends as the .: 1960).000 fellow students in 20 minutes. the great depression had reached its symbolic climax. in Illinois. THE NEW DEAL: THE FIRST HUNDRED DAYS In the account below historian Arthur Schlesinger describes both the transition of the presidency from Herbert Hoover to Franklin Roosevelt on March 4. Source: Gilbert Love's "College Students Are Beating the Depression. mail carriers. When the economic depression is finally over and commendations for valor are being passed around. with only enough money to last until June if he spent but 35 cents a day for food. has been able to hold a comparatively lucrative position right through the depression because he is accustomed to hold-ups. Cleveland. Joe College and Betty Co-ed are getting educated in spite of technological unemployment. let a miner pay his daughter's tuition in coal this past winter.." School and Society XXXVII (June 10. The University of Pennsylvania took action at the start of the present school year to turn over as many campus jobs as possible to students. switchboard operators. midnight. impoverishment of agriculture and a general scarcity of cash.. At Notre Dame 300 students are earning their board by waiting on tables in the dormitory dining halls. and FDR's legislative agenda which was implement immediately after he took office.. bank moratoria. The White House. locker room attendants. Across the country banks had shuttered their windows and closed their doors.” the retiring President. weary and red-eyed. secretaries. A couple of husky freshmen at West Virginia University who probably didn't know the difference between a casserole and a wash tub when they left home. March 3. As a result. Bruno or Towser. reprinted in David A. 1933. “We are at the end of our string. A student at Western Reserve University. some sort of special recognition should be given to the student who. 1933). Officials of Carthage College.College students have probably developed more ingenious ways of betting the depression than any other group in America.. have been going to school on less than $1. 104-105. The large gasoline station at which he is a night attendant has been robbed three times by gunmen. Friday. The Great Depression (Englewood Cliffs.60 a week apiece by renting a back bedroom with a small stove in it and cooking cheap but nourishing foods.

climbed on trees and rooftops in front of the Capitol. for all the audacity of his long-range plans. could not conceal his bitterness. The crowd began to break up. curiously excited as it had not been an hour earlier. "is the warning of a dictatorship. quiet. But the people as a whole welcomed the promise of action —action to exorcise the dark spell that lay over the nation's economy." he laughed.” The crowd stirred as if with hope. “The people of the United States have not failed. We must act. They have made me the present instrument of their wishes. Franklin Roosevelt.. They have asked for discipline and direction under leadership. On the drive to the Capitol the President-to-be was sociable and talkative. “This nation asks for action. his face heavy and sullen. vigorous action. late in the evening. Winter clouds hung over the Capitol. When . erect in the chilly gusts of wind. Herbert Hoover.” Saturday dawned gray and bleak.. down from New York to report the occasion for the New Republic. unjustified terror which paralyzes needed efforts to convert retreat into advance. It may be that an unprecedented demand and need for undelayed action may call for temporary departure from that normal balance of public procedure. The colorless light of the granite skies merged with the emotionless faces of the people who stood in huddled groups. “What are those things that look like little cages?” asked someone in the waiting crowd." wrote Edmund Wilson. "we'll go back an wait some more. “There is nothing more we can do. somber. started down the corridor toward the Senate ten minutes before noon. Some saw dismal portents in the eloquent but ambiguous phrases. We must act and act quickly.striking clock announced the day of his retirement. His advisers were intent on restoring business confidence. quickly dying away. resonant tone itself brought a measure of confidence." The bugle blew at noon. "All right. walked down a special maroon-carpeted ramp to the plat~ form. .” replied a woman with a giggle." That night the new cabinet was sworn in quietly at the White House. "The thing that emerges most clearly. to break through the magic circle which be-numbed the powers of government. The new President. Then the new President turned to the crowd. “In every dark hour of our national life a leadership of frankness and vigor has met with that understanding and support of the people themselves which is essential to victory.” The firm. where a huge crowd. it was too early. There was a diffused roar of applause. and act quickly. unreasoning. Charles Evans Hughes. and microphones carried his words to millions across the land. administered the oath on a Dutch Bible which had been in the Roosevelt family for three hundred years. proclaimed a four-day bank holiday. “Machine guns. . The next day the President convened a special session for March 9 and. the President's intentions toward the banks were strictly conservative. “We do not distrust the future of essential democracy. Yet. drawn almost by curiosity rather than by hope. waiting nervously in the Military Affairs Committee Room. “Let me assert my firm belief that the only thing we have to fear is fear itself—nameless." "This NATION asks for action and action now. Roosevelt himself had been impressed by the deathbed repentances. sat on benches. . leaning on the arm of his son James. and action now.” he said in summation. gathered to watch the new President. He was stopped. . . In their need they have registered a mandate that they want direct.” Herbert Hoover stared glumly at the ground. They separated inside the Capitol.

You know my name is Bill. The Aspirin Age. frightened and panicky. aimed at reducing government expenses and cutting veterans’ compensation. was to reopen the banks as quickly as possible. Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)--Responsible for providing electricity to the Tennessee Valley. On March 15 the Stock Exchange resumed.2 beer on March 16. By now the banks were reopening. who moved through turbulence in his own serene way. Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA)--Assists farmers with commodity price supports and regulates farm production. Schlesinger. shaved. In the evening the President signed the act in the Oval Room. 1919-1941 (New York. most of the Representatives had only the sketchiest idea what it was all about. Source: Arthur M. and I'm finished too. "Yes. "Both bills are finished. Home Owner's Loan Corporation (HOLC)--Grants low-interest loans to home owners in financial difficulty. Woodin left the White House with the emergency banking bill. As day was breaking on Thursday. it's finished. who seemed to be exhilarated by crisis. Four days of tense. remained calm. Later that same evening Roosevelt handed party leaders his economy bill. weary. 3. . converged on Washington. MAJOR NEW DEAL AGENCIES 1933 Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)--Insures deposits in the nation's banks. Jr.. With Republican support and progressive opposition. a surge of deposits showed that the people were regaining their faith in the banking system. In the prevailing nearhysteria. and turned to the frantic twenty-four-hour task of deciding what banks should reopen. p.Senator LaFollette gave him a plan of drastic reform. as he saw it. and Secretary of the Treasury Woodin. Farm Credit Administration--Provides long and short term credit for farmers. 275-277. The First Hundred Days of the New Deal (1933) reprinted in Isabel Leighton. strumming his guitar in moments of perplexity. ed. Leading bankers. March 8. only the President." he told newspapermen. Congress passed the economy bill on March 15. On March 12 he called for the legalization of beer.." Congress met. Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)--Provides work for unemployed youth in National Parks and National Forests. The tired men at the Treasury took showers." The problem. The Republican holdovers at the Treasury stood by. 284-285. The Senate took three hours. and endless conferences began. Phones rang incessantly with calls from distant cities. 1949). Roosevelt declared it wasn't necessary at all: "I've just had every assurance of co-operation from the bankers. The House passed the bill in thirty-eight minutes.

" For newspapermen. as he slopped up great tablespoonfuls of cereal with a sidewinding sweep or tore broiled chicken to pieces with his fingers. One of those on the left was Huey Long. if only because the slugging of newspapermen didn’t seem justifiable even for vote getting. You were chased by militiamen across the parade grounds of Jackson Barracks in New Orleans and held a prisoner after you had sneaked in to discover whether the Governor was calling out the troops on the eve of the Senatorial election—in which the Governor was a candidate. You stood beside his hotel dining table... Reprinted below is an account of this "American dictator. National Labor Relations Board (NLRB)--Settles disputes between unions and management. . and especially when the strong-arming became personal.memorable days.1934 Federal Communications Commission (FCC)--Regulates radio. those were. Works Progress Administration (WPA)--Provides work for needy persons on public works projects. while the bodyguards glowered protectively near by. 1935 Social Security Board (SSB)--Oversees the Social Security system. television. 1940 Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB)--Regulates private and commercial aircraft. You didn’t like him. and the battered enemy politicians.S. 1937 Farm Security Administration (FSA)--Helps farmers purchase equipment. 1938 Federal Crop Insurance Corporation (FCIC)--Provides insurance protection against unavoidable loss of crops. That the scheme was impractical did little to diminish its popularity among many people impoverished by the Great Depression. HUEY LONG: AMERICAN DICTATOR President Franklin Roosevelt had challengers on the left and right. and you jotted down the incessant harangues against the lying newspapers. the city machine. telephone and other communications systems. Federal Housing Administration (FHA)--Insures private lending agencies against loss on home mortgage and home improvement loans. the popular governor (and simultaneously U. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)--Regulates stock market practices. Senator) of Louisiana who proposed a plan to "Share the Wealth" of the United States by excessively taxing the fortunes of American millionaires. National Youth Administration (NYA)--Provides job training for unemployed youth and part-time work for needy students.

And the administration could count on at least five votes for each employee. and the Governor had struck back. You interviewed him after he had precipitated a silly international incident by receiving a German admiral in disheveled green pajamas. thrust before a microphone.. but only after his bodyguards had pinioned his attacker. you marveled at his exoneration of the Governor. brawls… Such goings-on made of Louisiana a reportorial heaven…. also absolving the Governor and purportedly coming from the mother of another kidnapping victim—the secretary’s ex-husband—was signed with the name she had borne before her second marriage. staffed it principally with skillful. State employees found it good insurance to subscribe to the Progress. and with the opposition organizing against the program. endlessly. He established a weekly newspaper. conscienceless young newspapermen. and put in the president pro tempore of the Senate as .former shoe clerk who was now his paymaster and treasurer. who had been kidnapped by state police on the eve of an election because he had threatened to tell what he knew about his daughter and the Governor.. The first program was followed by a second and more ambitious one: a sixtyeight-million-dollar highway construction project... Huey decided to run for the United States Senate with the state program as his platform.. vengeful Governor surrounded himself with a half-dozen gun-ready. the Louisiana Progress.The reporter had struck the Governor in retaliation for being cursed. Afterwards. managed by a. Counterfeit. The public-works program went into high gear. And after Irby had told who he was. Public works meant needed jobs.Lieutenant Governor claimed the Governorship because of Long’s election to the Senate. through brawling campaigns.. who employed her as his secretary. You heard a pale-faced man. a five-million-dollar skyscraper capitol. With a year and a half yet to serve as Governor. and another twenty million dollars in assorted projects. in the corridor.In a corridor of the garish Roosevelt Hotel. And then you testified in United States District Court that a telegram. . Irby was being whisked away. all to be financed by an additional three-cent hike in the gasoline tax. And so. identify himself as Sam Irby.was this telegram which you had seen and read on a speaker’s stand in New Orleans on one of the last heated nights before election. Huey called out the state police and the National Guard. slugging bodyguards. in front of the microphone in the hotel headquarters. The voters of the nation’s most illiterate state could understand its cartoon obscenities even when they couldn’t spell out the text.. and when his. but with a minimum of ten to be sold. a fellow reporter was to have a gun thrust into his stomach as he sought to enter the elevator on which the mysterious Mr. brawling legislative sessions. The depression was rocking Louisiana. you watched a fellow reporter being hustled out of the Governor’s suite. and speculated upon the reasons therefore. or used as wallpaper. Huey won hands down. and you laughed in spite of yourself at his shrewdly appealing account of his gaucherie. the votes of the aunts and uncles and cousins and wives and children of job holders who made it clear to their relatives that their fifteen to thirty dollars a week was secure only so long as they could prove their loyalty with political performance. No opponent big enough to be worthy of notice escaped its libeling. read the Lieutenant Governor out of office.. the number of subscriptions depending upon the size of their salaries. eaten. and sicked it on his enemies. Louisiana’s frightened.

and took other unusual precautions to insure his personal safety. old-age pensions. a public utilities receipts tax.. automobiles. It is perhaps a corollary that in the last year of his life Long became obsessed with a fear of assassination. sole custody over the ballot boxes themselves.000. radios. free education from kindergarten through college. he charged on the floor . An ironically designated civil service board was created. and a school budget committee with the right to review the appointments of every school teacher and school employee. The Share Our Wealth members had their own catchy song. But these are sufficient to indicate what had happened to self-government in Louisiana.000.500 and a maximum of $1. no matter how great the material rewards for its complaisant majority. his legislature reduced Louisianans almost literally to the status of Indian wards. bonuses for veterans. degenerative series of special sessions in 1934 and 1935. The Governor could—and did—expand the state police force into a swarm of private agents.acting Governor…. In a spectacular. In 1934 Long formalized the program which he hoped would eventually win him the Presidency. and new taxes—an income tax.[where] Huey had once been rotten-egged.000 for every family. an attempted “two cents a lie” tax on the advertising receipts of the larger newspapers. There were other repressive measures.. and the privilege of designating as many “special deputies” as might be necessary to guard the polls. the mudslinging Louisiana Progress.000. presented fifteen years before by the obscure state Senator from Winn Parish. As the Share Our Wealth chorus swelled. theoretically up to two thousand dollars. The Governor was even enabled to replace the entire city administration of Alexandria.. The hazy concept of a national redistribution of wealth. a homestead grant of $6. Perhaps it seems inconceivable that any legislature. Huey. an abundance of cheap food through governmental purchase and storage of surpluses. "Every Man a King. Together with this final elimination of.democratic self-government—to the unconcern of a majority of the unconsulted electorate—came new benefits: homestead tax exemption." their own newspaper. took care to protect his rear. The State Attorney General was empowered to supersede any district attorney in any trial. could have so completely surrendered a people’s political powers and economic and personal safety to one man.. an annual income minimum of $2. so that a misbehaving corporation or individual might know just who held the economic stranglehold. No dues were necessary. like a wise military tactician. He increased his armed bodyguard. a debt moratorium act. many others. expanded now to the American Progress. But Louisiana’s legislature did.800. which the United States Supreme Court pronounced unconstitutional. some uniformed and some not. It was believable: a limitation of fortunes to $5. their number and the identity of the uninformed alike a secret. Administration-designated election supervisors were given the sole right of selecting voting commissioners.000 to $2.. No matter that the Share Our Wealth program was demonstrably impracticable as presented. with appointive control over all fire and police chiefs.. took definable shape in a national “Share Our Wealth” organization. The State Tax Commission was given the right to change any city or county tax assessment. 1935. abolition of the one-dollar poll tax... In July.

and high waters come on in the late fall. what the drought didn't git the high waters did. Then me and the bride went back to the farm. Source: Hodding Carter.. the man in the white suit. perhaps a second. and with the promise of a Presidential pardon as the slayer’s reward.. a slender. I got married in 1922. Carl Austin Weiss. hurried to the Governor’s office. 353-56. 1919-1941 (New York. 339-40. Lonnie Nelson and Flossie Haggard. concealed in the meeting room. I was overflowed five times in two months. p. Come out durin' the big strike. Huey Long staggered away with one bullet wound. I was at that meeting. The only think to do was to go back to the farm and stayed there one year.. It was a caucus of die-hard oppositionists. and stayed on the farm till '24. In other words. I went to railroadin' when I was 22. I wish somebody would kill the son of a bitch. This plot. for one year buildin' and such like as that. After that was over I picked up odd jobs till January of '35 and went back to farmin'. in his stomach. On the night of September 8.... Huey Long: American Dictator (1935) reprinted in Isabel Leighton." And somebody did. Seconds later... In '34 I got a job with the Government killin' cattle.. Nelson: I've live in Oklahoma since I was eight years old. "The Grapes of Wrath.000 Oklahomans. stayed on the farm till I was sixteen. and which was immortalized by the film. accompanied by his closest aides and bodyguard. had recorded the murderous conversation. The Aspirin Age. It lasted seven week and I killed form 26 to 135 head a day. CALIFORNIA DREAMING IN THE DEPRESSION University of Washington historian James Gregory. Arkansans and Missourians along Route 66 to California between 1935 and 1940. American Exodus. 351-52. in '33. A farmer can't stand the like of that. describes the so-called "Dust Bowl" migration which brought 250. my wife was operated on fer thyroid goiter.. About this time.laid off fer good. drew a small pistol and fired once.of the Senate that enemies had planned his death with “one man. 1949).. and one bullet” as the medium. mother of country music singer Merle Haggard. was hatched in a New Orleans hotel at a gathering of his enemies. ed. I went back to the railroads in '26. in his book. the assassin lay dead." In the following vignette Gregory shares the personal account of two of those migrants. Dr. A dictograph. one gun. Then I worked on C. 12th of July--six o'clock in the evening. The "plotting" was limited to such hopefully expressed comments as "Good God. he said. From that I taken up ginnin' and concrete work 'cause the drought hit and wasn't makin' nothing'.. Texans. I really believe in the Union.A. Thirty hours later he died. The second day of January '32 I got. So there was nothin' to do but throw up my tail and go back on relief...trying to decide what to do for the next state campaign. bespectacled man in a white suit stepped from behind a marble pillar in the capitol as Long.. The drought struck again in '35.W. his body and head riddled by sixty-one shots. with a different outfit and worked there till '32. We all got hit and hit .

hard. That was from '36 to '39, by gosh... So the 15th of January, 1940 we loaded up and come out here, leavin a snow storm to our back, sunny California to our belly and here we are. The good Lord is just lettin' me sit around the see what the hell will happen next. Haggard: In July, 1935, we loaded some necessary supplies onto a two wheel trailer and our 1926 model Chevrolet which Jim had overhauled. We headed for California on Route 66, as many friends and relatives had already done. We had our groceries with us--home sugar-cured bacon in a lard can, potatoes, canned vegetables, and fruit. We camped at night and I cooked in a dutch oven. The only place we didn't sleep out was in Albuquerque where we took a cabin and where I can remember bathing. [Things went well until the reached the desert and their car broke down] We were out of water, and just when I thought we weren't going to make it, I saw this boy coming down the highway on a bicycle. He was going all the way from Kentucky to Fresno. He shared a quart of water with us and helped us fix the car. Everybody'd been treating us like trash, and I told this boy, "I'm glad to see there's still some decent folks left in this world. Source: James Gregory, American Exodus: The Dust Bowl Migration and Okie Culture in California (New York, 1989), pp. 31, 34. PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT'S SECOND INAUGURAL ADDRESS The worst of the crisis of the Great Depression had passed by the end of Roosevelt's first term. His second term was then devoted to developing permanent reforms that would prevent future depressions. In this excerpt from his Second Inaugural Address on January 20, 1937, Roosevelt discusses the remaining challenges facing the nation. I see a great nation, upon a great continent, blessed with a great wealth of natural resources... I see a United States which can demonstrate that, under democratic methods of government, national wealth can be translated into a spreading volume of human comforts heretofore unknown, and the lowest standard of living can be raised far above the level of mere subsistence. But here is the challenge to our democracy: In this nation I see tens of millions of its citizens--a substantial part of its whole population--who at this very moment are denied the greater part of what the lowest standards of today call the necessities of life. I see millions of families trying to live on incomes so meager that the pall of family disaster hangs over them day by day. I see millions whose daily lives in city and on farm continue under conditions labeled indecent by a so-called polite society half a century ago. I see millions denied education, recreation, and the opportunity to better their lot and the lot of their children. I see millions lacking the means to buy the products of farm and factory and by their poverty denying work and productiveness to many other millions. I see one-third of a nation ill-housed, ill-clad, ill-nourished.

Source: Richard Current, American History: A Survey, (New York: Knopf, 1961), p. 747. THE NEW DEAL: OPPOSING VIEWS The New Deal program of Franklin Roosevelt dramatically increased government involvement in a wide range of economic and social activity. That heightened involvement prompted a debate, which continues to this day, concerning the aims of the New Deal and its impact on the citizens and institutions of the United States. I have reprinted below two views of the New Deal. Organized enterprise is obtaining an increasingly large proportion not only of national income, but of all savings and of all wealth... Within the corporate structure itself the concentration is progressing... This amazing concentration of the corporate ownership of wealth has been accompanied by a similar concentration of dividend distribution. The great and powerful business organizations which dominate the economic scene are owned by a numerically insignificant proportion of the total population... Less than 1% of all American corporate stockholders are the beneficiaries of one-half of all the dividends paid in this country... As the concentration proceeds, the flow turns away from organized business to government... The inevitable and inescapable result of continued concentration in big business is the final triumph of big government... If we are agreed...that we want to preserve free enterprise...it must be perfectly clear that any remedy that does not stop the steady progress of concentration will be utterly futile and will end only in an all-powerful government... The only remedy to save a democratic economy is to be found in making the economy democratic. From the Final Report... of the Temporary National Economic Committee, 1941. The New Deal is nothing more or less than an effort sponsored by inexperienced sentimentalists and demagogues to take away from the thrifty what the thrifty or their ancestors have accumulated, or may accumulate, and to give it to others who have not earned it...and who never would have earned it and never will earn it, and thus indirectly to destroy the incentive for all future accumulation. Such a purpose is in defiance of everything that history teaches and of the tenets upon which our civilization has been founded. Nothing could threaten the race as seriously as this [the New Deal]. It is begging the unfit to be more unfit. Even such a measure as old-age insurance...removes one of the points of pressure which has kept many persons up to the strife and struggle of life. Quoted in George Wolfskill, The Revolt of the Conservatives, 1962.

Source: John M. Blum, The National Experience: A History of the United States (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1989), p. 629, 633. EIGHT DEAD AT REPUBLIC STEEL The following vignette describes the violent confrontation between Chicago police and striking steelworkers at Republic Steel in 1937. Republic Steel stood abrupt out of the flat prairie. Snakelike, the line of pickets crossed the meadowland, singing at first: Solidarity forever! The union makes us strong, but then the song died, as the sun-drenched plain turned ominous, as five hundred blue-coated policemen took up stations between the strikers and the plant. The strikers' march slowed, but they came on. The police ranks closed and tightened. It brought to mind how other Americans had faced the uniformed force of so-called law and order so long ago on Lexington Green in 1775; but whereas then the redcoat leader had said, "Disperse, you rebel bastards!" to armed minutemen, now it was to unarmed men and women and children that a police captain said, "You dirty sons of bitches, this is as far as you go!" Once there was an illusion somewhere that the police were gentle souls who helped lost children, but a striker put it afterwards: "A cop is a cop, that's all. He's got no soul and no heart for a guy who works for a living. They learned us good. About two hundred and fifty yards from the plant, the police closed in on the strikers. Billies and clubs were out already, prodding, striking, nightsticks edging into women's breasts and groins. But the cops were also somewhat afraid, and they began to jerk guns out of holsters. "Stand fast! Stand fast!" the line leaders cried. "We got our rights! We got our legal rights to picket!" The cops said, "You got no rights. You red bastards, you got no rights." Even if a modern man's a steelworker, with muscles as close to iron bands as human flesh gets, a pistol equalizes him with a fat-bellied weakling... Grenades began to sail now; tear gas settled like an ugly cloud. Children suddenly cried with panic, and the whole picket line gave back, men stumbling, cursing, gasping for breath. Here and there a cop tore out his pistol and began to fire; it was pop, pop, pop at first, like toy favors at some horrible party, and then, as the strikers broke under the gunfire and began to run, the contagion of killing ran like fire through the police. They began to shoot in volleys at these unarmed men and women and children who could not strike back or fight back. The cops squealed with excitement. They ran after fleeing pickets, pressed revolvers to their backs, shot them down, and then continued to shoot as the victims lay on their faces, retching blood. When a woman tripped and fell, four cops gathered above her, smashing her flesh and bones and face. And so it went, on and on, until seven were dead and more than a hundred wounded. Source: Howard Fast, "An Occurrence At Republic Steel (1937)" reprinted in Isabel Leighton, ed., The Aspirin Age, 1919-1941 (New York, 1949), pp. 386-387.

ORGANIZING A FILIPINO UNION In contrast to other Asian Americans who looked to entrepreneurship for economic development, many Filipino Americans believed that working-class organizations such as unions would provide economic security. One of the most effective of these unions was the Cannery Workers and Farm Laborers Union (CWFLU), Local 18257, a predominately Filipino Union organized in Seattle in 1933. A brief account of the union appears below. Not until the winter of 1932 did efforts at unionization among Filipino salmoncannery hands in the Pacific Northwest begin. Pence Torres recalled that only "a few people (met) to plan something to improve ourselves." They congregated in secret for fear of reprisals by contractors and canners. Torres explained that they could not "possibly get many people at one time...We have to do it between school days." Planning around school schedules indicated the central role played by students in the effort. More than Filipinos, students felt the constraints on their expectations for social mobility during the depression, which explains their interest in changing the labor recruitment and management practices in the industry. Nonetheless, this early cabal barely included a dozen members. The small group of planners concluded that "the only solution to the problem is to be organized," and in June 1933 they held a special public meeting of the Filipino Laborers' Association to discuss affiliation with the American federation of Labor (AFL). The "big crowd" of seven Filipino union officers and nineteen others listed to C.W. Doyle of Seattle's Central Labor Council, carefully discussed the issue, and voted in favor of affiliation. On June 19, 1933, the Filipinos entered the AFL as the Cannery Workers and Farm Laborers Union (CWFLU), Local 18257. Although the reasons for AFL endorsement of the local are unclear, CAWIU successes in organizing California field laborers may have jolted the AFL into action to head off what it perceived as a communist-led insurgency. The newly affiliated local stressed goals that revealed the barriers to be overcome if the workers were to improve their condition. The union pledged to foster the attainment of higher skills and efficiency among its members. Although unions invariably used such language, Filipinos did need to cultivate their canning expertise in order to make possible their movement into the specialized tasks monopolized by Chinese and Japanese. The local also proposed shorter working hours, which would either bring greater overtime pay in rush periods or force the hiring of larger crews and thus provide more jobs for unemployed Filipinos. To achieve its goals, the local also had to unite a divided Filipino community. This proved no easy task. In Seattle, for example, most Filipino immigrants were Ilocanos, but the community also had Tagalogs, Pangasinans, and Visayans--each group with its own dialect--as well as other ethnic associations. In 1923 Tagalogs in Seattle had founded a branch of the Caballeros Dimas Alang (its title originating from revolutionary Jose Rizal's pen name). In that political, nationalistic, and self-help organization, members conducted rituals and secret meetings in Tagalog to the exclusion of other groups. Not every Filipino association was based on ethnicity, however. In the late 1920s, students at the University of Washington had formed a Filipino Club that fostered

their academic pursuits, helped with their social lives, and provided economic assistance. Contractors helped raised money to run the club, and they used that connection as an avenue to a labor supply. Small-group activity was symptomatic of the factions among Filipino immigrants. The manner in which Filipinos entered and worked in the industry further heightened their reliance on such groups. Before the depression, the use of family, friendship, and ethnic networks to gain employment had its advantages for Filipinos, who faced a Chinese and Japanese oligarchy over labor recruitment and management in the industry. That strategy also helped at the plants where Filipinos worked in the small groups characteristic of their immigration. Sylvestre A. Tangalan explained that at the cannery where he worked: "We were happy, mostly Bauanganians," fellow villagers from La Union. Segregation at the cannery reinforced, rather than destroyed, Filipino ethnic and immigrant ties... To compete with the contractors and aspirant agents even more successfully, the CWFLU adopted a series of social welfare programs for members. It gave $50 to a Filipino-owned cafe in exchange for the restaurateur's providing meals to "indigent active members." The local also loaned money to members. In 1935, for example, it approved a $50 loan to a Filipino who a year earlier had supported the local's efforts in a farm workers' strike near Seattle. Such actions helped members avoid indebtedness to contractors and encouraged nonunion Filipinos to think seriously about joining. Allocation of the local's financial resources, for any purpose other than supporting cannery organization, however, led to charges of favoritism and misuse of union funds. In spite of the charges, the local's efforts to provide meals and money for some of its members reveal that some money was returned to the rank and file. As the union's membership grew to several hundred in the first few years, it created its own job ladder, separate from that of the existing hierarchy of cannery tasks. At first, titles were awarded as recognition of service to the union and carried status only. Financial stability soon allowed the local to pay its officers for their contributions. The salaries for 1935 reveal the significance of income from a union position relative to the average cannery worker's $25-$50 a month during the canning season. The CWFLU monthly salary scale for officers was: president, $80; vice-president, $40; secretary, $60; treasurer, $40; trustees, $40; guard, $20; guide, $20. Their salaries also touched off resentment, especially when they voted raises for themselves. The local also became politically active in an attempt to achieve recognition as the voice of the Filipino community. Its appearance at the NRA code hearings marked it as an early advocate for the Filipino community. Elsewhere, the local's records indicate no activity concerning the Tydings-McDuffie Act (1934), which proposed eventual independence for the Philippines but also convinced stringent immigration restrictions. The CWFLU did get involved in at least two other legislative actions at he state level. In 1935 the local sent a three-person delegation to Olympia to fight against antimiscegenation bills in the Washington state legislature. Also, in 1937, the local protested a Washington state bill that would prevent Filipino immigrants from owning or leasing lands because of their newly acquired "alien" status under the Tydings-McDuffie Act. Such highly visible political lobbying enhanced the local's status in the Filipino community. Among contractors, only Pio De Cano took up broader community concerns, challenging in state courts the application of anti-alien land laws to Filipino immigrants between 1937 and 1941. The local also cultivated community support through its public relations efforts. It

. for Europeans. (Boston. The more familiar I became. 1971). Mein Kampf. AND THE MASTER RACE Hitler in Mein Kampf. Terror at the place of employment. but from life. principally with the methods of physical terror. 44. lays forth his ideas on terror and about a `Master Race. lined up against the local and the Chronicle and was backed by Ayamo's Filipino Protective Labor Association. the Chronicle became for all practical purposes the local’s official organ. Anyone who dares to lay hands on the highest image of the Lord commits sacrilege against the benevolent creator of this miracle and contributes to the expulsion from paradise. the CWFLU asked for a regular labor column in the paper. in the factory.' Those ideas would take tragic form for Germans. While the local's involvement with the Chronicle gave it a wider voice within the community. the defeated adversary in most cases despairs of the success of any further resistance.gave to the Philippine American Chronicle a 4 percent interest loan as well as gifts of cash. in the meeting hall. Virgil Dunyungan and Cornelio Mislang. 383-384. were the publishers. the more indulgent I grew toward all the hundreds of thousands who succumbed to it. We all sense that in the distant future humanity must be faced by problems which only a highest race. HITLER AND THE JEWS . If he dies out or declines. The impression made by such a success on the minds of the great masses of supporters as well as opponents can only be measured by those who know the soul of a people. The undermining of the existence of human culture by the destruction of its bearer seems in the eyes of a folkish philosophy the most execrable crime.. pp. not from books. it also fostered deeper divisions because the other major newspaper. Source: Chris Friday. This was no great concession for the paper because two officials of the local. Here.. become master people and supported by the means and possibilities of an entire globe. the psychological effect can be calculated with precision. Human culture and civilization on this continent are inseparably bound up with the presence of the Aryan. For while in the ranks of their supporters the victory achieved seems a triumph of the justice of their own cause. I achieved an.understanding of the importance of physical terror toward the individual and the masses. will be equipped to overcome. In return. Thereafter. 136-137. 144-145. 1870-1942. too. for the rest of the world nearly twenty years later. the Philippine Advocate. HITLER'S VIEWS: TERROR. (Philadelphia 1994). pp. Organizing Asian American Labor--The Pacific Coast CannedSalmon Industry. and on the occasion of mass demonstrations will always be successful unless opposed by equal terror. the dark veils of an age without culture will again descend on this globe.. Source: Adolf Hitler.

since conditions were exactly the same in the other papers. I had at last come to the conclusion that the Jew was no German.. 51-61. Yet one fact seem conspicuous: there was not one paper with Jews working on it which could have been regarded as truly national.' whether they were representatives in the Reichsrat or trade-union secretaries. for. and the more I saw. Source: Adolf Hitler. I gradually became aware that the Social Democratic press was directed predominately by Jews.. to my deep and joyful satisfaction. Once. if not impossible.. Today it is difficult.. Then I came to Vienna. 1971). and theatrical idiocy can be set to the account of a people. constituting hardly one hundredth of all the country's inhabitants. Was there any form of filth or profligacy. Is this a Jew?. the scales dropped from my eyes. Particularly the Inner City and the districts north of the Danube Canal swarmed with a people which even outwardly had lost all resemblance to Germans... In the course of the centuries their outward appearance had become Europeanized and had taken on a human look. particularly in cultural life.' with any frequency. an American correspondent assigned to cover Germany and central ... I began to see Jews.. I even took them for Germans. almost exclusively in the hands of a foreign people. as I was strolling through the Inner City. I suddenly encountered an apparition in a black caftan and black hair locks. In a short time I was made more thoughtful than ever by my slowly rising insight into the type of activity carried on by the Jews in certain fields. I took all the Social Democratic pamphlets I could lay hands on and sought the names of their authors: Jews. as to leadership. the heads of organizations or street agitators.. I noted the names of the leaders. GERMANY UNDER THE NAZIS William L. Is this a German? Wherever I went. without at least one Jew involved in it? The fact that nine tenths of all literary filth. by far the greatest part were likewise members of the `chosen people. Shirer.. could simply not be talked away. A long soul struggle had reached its conclusion. pp. Not until my fourteenth year did I begin to come across the word `Jew. in fact. When I recognized the Jew as the leader of the Social Democracy. From the publisher down. Mein Kampf.Adolf Hitler's racial attitudes reflected longstanding European prejudices but they also helped determine the specially horrendous character of the Nazi state.. (Boston. it was the plain truth. was my first thought. yet I did not attribute any special significance to this circumstance.One thing had grown clear to me: the party with whose petty representatives I had been carrying on the most violent struggle for months was. for me to say when the word `Jew' first gave me ground for special thoughts. they were all Jews. artistic trash. the more sharply they became distinguished in my eyes from the rest of humanity.. There were few Jews in Linz. according to my education and way of thinking. In Mein Kampf he describes his evolving anti-Semitism. partly in connection with political discussions.

Europe for CBS News during the 1930s, has provided a revealing glimpse of life in Germany under the Nazi Party. Here are excerpts of his Berlin Diary. Paris, June 30, 1934 Berlin was cut off for several hours today, but late this afternoon telephone communication was reestablished. And what a story! Hitler and Goring have purged the S.A., shooting many of its leaders. Rohm, arrested by Hitler himself, was allowed to commit suicide in a Munich jail... The French are pleased. They think this is the beginning of the end for the Nazis. Paris, August 3 Hitler did what no one expected. He made himself both President and Chancellor.... Hitler had the army swear an oath of unconditional obedience to him personally. Nuremburg, September 4 Like a Roman emperor Hitler rode into this medieval town at sundown today past solid phalanxes of wildly cheering Nazis... Tens of thousands of Swastika flags blot out the Gothic beauties of the place... The streets are a sea of brown and black uniforms. Nuremburg, September 5 I'm beginning to comprehend some of the reasons for Hitler's astounding success. Borrowing a chapter from the Roman church, he is restoring pageantry and color to the drab lives of 20th Century Germans. This morning's opening meeting in the Luitpold Hall was more than a gorgeous show; it also had something of the mysticism of an Easter Mass in a great Gothic cathedral. Even Hitler's arrival was made dramatic. The band stopped playing. There was a hush over the 30,000 people packed in the hall. Hitler appeared in the back of the auditorium and followed by his aides, he strode slowly down the long center aisle while thirty thousand hands were raised in salute. Nuremburg, September 6 Hitler sprang his Arbeitsdienst, his Labor Service Corps, on the public for the first time today and it turned out to be a highly trained, semi-military group of fanatical Nazi youths. Standing there in the early morning sunlight, fifty thousand of them, with the first thousand bared above the waist, suddenly made the German spectators go mad with joy when without warning, they broke into perfect goose-step. The boys formed an immense chanting chorus─and with one voice intoned─"We want one Leader! Nothing for us! Everything for Germany! Heil Hitler! Bad Saarow, April 21, 1935 The hotel mainly filled with Jews and we are a little surprised to see so many of them still prospering and apparently unafraid. I think they are unduly optimistic. Berlin, April 20, 1937 Hitler's birthday. He gets more and more like a Caesar. Today a public holiday with sickening adulation from all the party hacks, delegations from all over the Reich bearing gifts, and a great military parade. The Army revealed a little of what it has:

heavy artillery, tanks, and magnificently trained men. Hitler stood on the reviewing stand as happy as a child with tin soldiers, saluting every tank and gun. The military attaches of France, Britain, and Russia, I hear, were impressed. So were ours. Berlin, June 15 Five more Protestant pastors arrested yesterday. Hardly keep up with the church war any more since they arrested my informant, a young pastor; have no wish to endanger the life of another one. Berlin, September 27 The strain on the life of the [German] people and on the economic structure of the state is tremendous. Both may well crack. But the youth, led by the S.S., is fanatic. So are the middle class "old fighters" who brawled in the streets for Hitler in the early days and now have been awarded with good jobs, authority, power, money. The bankers and industrialists, not so enthusiastic now as when I arrived in Germany, go along. They must, It is either that or the concentration camp. I leave Germany in this autumn of 1937 with the words of a Nazi marching song in my ears: Today we own Germany Tomorrow the whole world Vienna, March 22, 1938 On the streets today gangs of Jews, with jeering storm troopers standing over them and taunting crowds around them, on their hands and knees scrubbing the Schuschnigg [former Austrian Prime Minister] signs offs the sidewalks. Many Jews killing themselves. Jewish men and women made to clean latrines. Hundreds of them just picked at random off the streets to clean the toilets of the Nazi boys. The wife of a diplomat, a Jewess, told me today she dared not leave her home for fear of being picked up and put to "scrubbing things." Rome, May 3 The town full of [detectives]─fifty thousand of them, they say, German and Italian, to protect the two great men [Hitler and Mussolini]. All the foreign Jews here have been jailed or banished for the duration of the visit. The Italians hardly hide their hostility to the Germans. They watch them walk by, and then spit contemptuously. __________________ Source: William L. Shirer, Berlin Diary, (New York, 1941), pp. 11-192. JAPANESE FASCISM: ONE INSIDER'S VIEW Saburo Ienaga, a political dissident in Japan during the 1930s and 1940s, provided this description of Japanese fascism just before the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor which brought the United States into World War II. Japanese fascism differed from its German and Italian counterparts. They were broad movements from below. Charismatic leaders established dictatorial systems based

on mass organizations, the Nazi party and Fascist party. In Japan fascism was imposed from above by the military and the bureaucrats, aided by their junior partners, the civilian rightists (whose money came from secret army funds and similar covert sources). A "new political structure movement" was planned and the Imperial Rule Assistance Association (IRAA) was established in October 1940. It was not comparable to the mass parties of Germany or Italy and was not very effective in organizing or mobilizing the populace. The IRAA used local organizations such as the hamlet and village associations, neighborhood associations, civil defense associations, and the reservist associations to constantly interfere in the people's lives through ration distribution, air raid drills, official sendoffs for draftees, and memorial services for war dead. These organizations got into the act by forcing women to stop wearing long-sleeved kimonos and getting permanent waves, and insisted that citizens put on the prescribed air raid "uniforms" of puttees and khaki caps for men and monpe (women's work pants gathered at the ankle) for women. The Nazis destroyed the Weimar Republic and established a dictatorship. No such clear break with the past occurred in Japan. The Meiji Constitution was never revised or suspended. The Diet was rendered impotent but it continued to exist. About the only major legal shift was the 1938 enactment of the National Mobilization Law. Although probably unconstitutional, its sweeping provisions broadened the state's administrative authority, imposed new duties on the citizenry, and curtailed civil rights. In January 1934 Army Minister Araki Sadao presented a study to Premier Saito which shows the hawks' attitude toward civil liberties. Among Araki's recommendations and proposals were the following about "controls on journalism and publication": "Direct publishing activities so that they contribute to state prosperity, social order, the smooth functioning of national life and to wholesome public entertainment; "Ban views which would impair fundamental national policies"; "Tighten controls over rumors, gossip, speech, and publications that would harm the state." On the "Purification of thoughts," Araki recommended: "Tighten controls over subversive organizations. The most severe methods should be carried out by legal groups which disseminate anti-imperialist ideas... Strengthen public unity for national mobilization by making participation in the Reservists' Association and youth training mandatory and encouraging organizations such as the...Boy Scouts, Patriotic Women's Association, National Defense Women's Association, Red Cross Society..." Source: Saburo Ienaga, The Pacific War: World War II and the Japanese, 1931-1945, (New York, 1978), pp. 97, 112-113. "THE WAVE OF THE FUTURE": AN AMERICAN SUPPORTS ISOLATION In 1940 Anne Morrow Lindbergh, wife of the aviator Charles Lindbergh, wrote a book titled, The Wave of the Future which called for continued American isolationism as World War II spread across Europe. But she also reflected the views of millions of Americans when she expressed her admiration for the major European dictatorships. Lindbergh urged her countrymen to understand rather than oppose the dictatorships because they were, in her words, "the wave of the future." Part of her comments are reprinted below:

What was pushing behind Communism? What behind Fascism in Italy? What behind Naziism? Is it nothing but a "return to barbarism," to be crushed at all costs by a "crusade"? Or is some new, and perhaps even ultimately good, conception of humanity trying to come to birth, often through evil and horrible forms and abortive attempts?... I cannot see this war, then, simply and purely as a struggle between the "Forces of Good" and the "Forces of Evil." If I could simplify it into a phrase at all, it would seem truer to say that the "Forces of the Past" are fighting against the "Forces of the Future..." Somehow the leaders in Germany, Italy and Russia have discovered how to use new social and economic forces... They have felt the wave of the future and they have leapt upon it. The evils we deplore in these systems are not in themselves the future; they are scum on the wave of the future... There is no fighting the wave of the future, any more than as a child you could fight against the gigantic roller that loomed up ahead of you. Source: John M. Blum, The National Experience: A History of the United States, (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1989) p. 656. ROOSEVELT ON THE THREAT OF WAR In 1940, after World War II had already broken out in Europe, President Franklin Roosevelt began to psychologically prepare the United States for what he and a number of Americans thought would be the inevitable clash with the Axis powers. Here is part of his radio address on December 29, 1940. My Friends: This is not a fireside chat on war. It is a talk on national security... There is danger ahead-danger against which we must prepare. But we well know that we cannot escape danger, or the fear of danger, by crawling into bed and pulling the covers over our heads. Some nations of Europe were bound by solemn non-intervention pacts with Germany. Other nations were assured by Germany that they need never fear invasion... As an exiled leader of one these nations said to me the other day-"The notice was given to my Government two hours after German troops had poured into my country in a hundred places." There are those who say that the Axis powers would never have any desire to attack the Western Hemisphere. The plain facts are that the Nazis have proclaimed, time and again, that all other races are their inferiors and therefore subject to their orders. And most important of all, the vast resources and wealth of this American Hemisphere constitute the most tempting loot in all the round world. The American appeasers ignore the warning to be found in the fate of Austria, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Norway, Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark, and France. They tell you that the Axis powers are going to win anyway; that all this bloodshed in the world could be saved; that the United States might just as well throw its influence into the scale of a dictated peace, and get the best out of it that we can. They call it a "negotiated peace." Nonsense! Is it a negotiated peace if a gang of outlaws surrounds your community and on threat of extermination makes you pay tribute to save your own skins?

With all their vaunted efficiency, with all their parade of pious purpose in this war, there are still in their background the concentration camp and the servants of God in chains. The history of recent years proves that shootings and chains and concentration camps are not simply the transient tools but the very altars of modern dictatorships. They may talk of a "new order" in the world, but what they have in mind is only a revival of the oldest and the worst tyranny. In that there is no liberty, no religion, no hope. The proposed "new order" is the very opposite of a United States of Europe of a United States of Asia. It is not a Government based upon the consent of the governed. It is not a union of ordinary, self-respecting men and women to protect themselves and their freedom and their dignity from oppression. It is an unholy alliance of power and greed to dominate and enslave the human race. We must be the great arsenal of democracy. For us this is an emergency as serious as war itself. We must apply ourselves to our task with same resolution, the same sense of urgency, the same spirit of patriotism and sacrifice as we would show were we at war. Source: Howard Quint, Milton Cantor and Dean Albertson, Main Problems in American History, (Chicago: The Dorsey Press, 1987) p. 262- 266. MARTIAN INVASION, 1938 On October 2, 1938, Orson Wells, operating from a CBS studio called the Mercury Theater of the Air, broadcast a simulated invasion of the earth by Martians based on the H.G. Wells science fiction novel, War of the Worlds. The broadcast was so realistic that millions of listeners believed it was an actual event. In the vignette, Charles Jackson, an executive with CBS Radio, describes the radio broadcast and its impact. Historians have suggested that the panic over the broadcast reflected actual fears of an impending Second World War. At Moments of crisis or disaster people are fond of telling where they were at the time, how they happened to hear the news, or what they were doing when they heard it, as if their personal reaction were more important than the event itself. Thus, on Monday morning, October 3, 1938, while everybody in the radio business collected in excited knots to discuss the panic the country had been thrown into on the previous evening by the medium they worked in, my own story went something like this: My wife and I had returned from dinner in Greenwich Village. I went into the bedroom, lay down on my bed, and dialed WABC to see how the Orson Welles show was going. As usual, Orson was presenting a dramatization of a book. The opening announcement said: The Columbia Broadcasting System and its affiliated stations present Orson Welles and the Mercury Theater of the Air in The War of the Worlds, by H. G. Wells. But strangely, no dramatic program seemed to ensue. A prosaic weather report was given instead. Then an announcer remarked that the program would be continued from a New York hotel, with dance tunes. For a few moments, one heard the music of a swing band. Then came a sudden break-in with a "flash" which declared dramatically that a professor had just noted from his observatory a series of gas explosions on the

The Reverend Thomas attempted to quiet his congregation by leading them in prayer for deliverance from the catastrophe. In San Francisco.planet Mars." In Harlem. chairman of the department of geology. he got into an automobile and "disappeared. "I'd rather die this way than like that!" Another man. New Jersey. (indeed. professor of geology. New Jersey. killing fifteen hundred persons—and then the discovery that it was no meteor at all but a metal cylinder containing Martian creatures armed with death rays. Nor was credulity confined to the susceptible citizenry alone. the dramatization had little connection with H. it seemed to me. to flee from what they believed to be a gas raid. families fled their apartments in panic. had been listening to the broadcast and when he heard the report. in a single block. in a state of terror. a hopeless invalid. One man insisted he had heard "the President's voice" over the radio. a bottle of poison in her hand. and Dr." roared one man into a phone. Arthur F. Throughout New York City. Vernon." These reported brilliantly. In Newark. more than twenty families rushed out of their homes with wet handkerchiefs and towels over their heads and faces. called police to tell them that his brother. interspersed with "remotes": on-the-spot broadcasts of actual "scenes. One could hardly blame him. I was dumfounded—and somewhat ashamed for my fellow Americans—to discover that a national panic had been generated by the broadcast. the very grotesqueness of the broadcast soon caused me to lose interest—it outraged all my sense of belief. New Jersey. and that North Jersey was threatened with annihilation. Princeton University. I switched off the dial and took a nap. and by eight-fifteen or so. Buddington. G. for at a dramatic point in the broadcast the President's voice was exactly imitated by a Mercury Theater actor telling the listeners to do just that. Men of science were not immune. screaming. "My God. many to seek verification of the horrendous report. Sunday night's wave of mass hysteria took strange forms. A man in Pittsburgh returned home in the midst of the broadcast and found his wife in the bathroom. Dr. I could not but admire Orson for the marvelous reality he was able to bring to such a fantastic story. advising all citizens to leave the city. "where can I volunteer my services? We've got to stop this awful thing!" In Caldwell. New York was in the process of being destroyed. with the extraordinary technique which radio had long since perfected for news events. extreme panic was created. G. the general impression of listeners was that an overwhelming force had invaded the United States from the sky. some to near-by parks.'s original at any point)—was up to one of his tricks. he succeeded too well. to find out how they could follow the broadcast’s advice and flee from the city. but after a few moments. in Mt. Arriving at the office the next morning. Harry Hess. New York. Thirty men and women rushed into the West 123rd Street Police Station and twelve into the West 135th Street Station saying they had their household goods packed and were ready to quit Harlem if the police would tell them where to go to be evacuated. the landing of a meteor near Princeton. a terror-stricken parishioner rushed into the First Baptist Church during the evening service and shouted that a meteor had fallen. hundreds of others. Simulated news bulletins followed in rapid succession. come to open hostilities against the inhabitants of the earth. received the first alarming . The clever Welles—not H. showering death and destruction. and the frightful Martians were even now moving westward.

1949). Just as soon as we were convinced that this thing was real. It was a lesson in more than one thing to us. CHAPTER EIGHT: WORLD WAR TWO AND THE COLD WAR .reports in a form indicating that a meteor had fallen near Dutch Neck. like themselves. It's a wonder my heart didn't fail me because I'm nervous anyway. But I didn't know just what it was. got more excited than anyone. as usual. began to pray with Uncle Henry. p.. Dad was hard to convince. a good Catholic. and when the balloon landed--that's when they announced the explosion--the Germans landed. So I ran out of the house. My mother went out and looked for Mars. but even he got to believing it. searching. We took blankets and my granddaughter wanted to take the cat and the canary.. "Get gas masks!" That was the part that got me. I've always heard that when the world would come to an end. The Germans are so smart they were in something like a balloon. I wanted to be together with my husband and nephew so we could all die together. I guess I didn’t know what I was doing. I couldn't make myself believe it was the end of the world. Brother George wasn't home. the family decided to go out. 1919-1941 (New York. it would come so fast nobody would know--so why should God get in touch with this announcer? When they told us what road to take and getup over the hills and the children began to cry.. I stood on the corner waiting for a bus and I thought every car that came along was a bus and I ran out to get it.. getting more and more excited." A man in a Midwest town: "That Halloween show had our family on its knees before the program was half over. God knows but we prayed to him last Sunday. operating on a grant of the Rockefeller Foundation to Princeton University." A high-school girl in Pennsylvania: ". I felt if the gas was on. for the meteor.. We felt it was terrible we should die so young. a detailed study of the entire panic and its effects was made by the Princeton Radio Project. some five miles away. and skeptical. I don't know what I did exactly. Later. We were outside the garage when the neighbor’s boy came back and told us it was only a play. We all felt the world was coming to an end. While the United States thought everything was settled. Brother Joe. and how soon we put our trust in God!" Source: Charles Jackson." A Negro housewife in Newark: "We listened. 431-436. Then we heard. ed. My two girl friends and I were crying and holding each other and everything seemed so unimportant in the face of death. they came down unexpected. Aunt Grace. Some of the comments recorded by interviewers for the Project were as follows: A New Jersey housewife: "I knew it was something terrible and I was frightened. They armed themselves with "the necessary equipment" and set out to find the specimen. The Aspirin Age. "The Night the Martians Came (1938)" printed in Isabel Leighton. I thought I was going crazy. What they found was a group of excited natives.I was really hysterical. but I know I prayed harder and more earnest than ever before. Lillie got sick to her stomach. how petty all things on earth seemed. I kept saying over and over again to everybody I met: "New Jersey is destroyed by the Germans--it's on the radio! I was all excited and I knew that Hitler didn't appreciate President Roosevelt's telegram a couple of weeks ago.

Canwell Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) Truman Doctrine North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Warsaw Pact "containment" proxy wars Korean War.Terms for Week 8 The Axis Powers Executive Order 9066 Camp Harmony. 1950-1953 . Washington Navajo "code talkers" Rosie the Riveter Zoot Suit Riot Hanford. Washington War Manpower Commission Inez Sauer Hiroshima Japanese American Citizen's League (JACL) League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC) Josef Stalin House UnAmerican Activities Committee (HUAC) Albert F.

and national defense utilities. Bill Cuban Missile Crisis Gulf of Tonkin Resolution Ethiopian-Somali War. and the Military Commanders whom he may from time to time designate.1976 Hungarian Revolution. 1961-1989 Tiananmen Square Boris Yeltsin THE INTERNMENT OF THE JAPANESE President Roosevelt's Executive Order 9066 is reprinted below.. in the judgment of the Secretary of War or the said Military Commander..I. 1956 Berlin Wall. national-defense premises. to prescribe military areas in such places and of such extent as he or the appropriate Military Commander may determine. 1975. the right of any person to enter. 1941. food. and other accommodations as may be necessary. THEREFORE. whenever he or any designated Commander deems such action necessary or desirable. and Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy. The designation of military areas in any region or locality shall supersede designations of prohibited and restricted areas by the Attorney General under the Proclamations of December 7 and 8. by virtue of the authority vested in me as President of the United States. or leave shall be subject to whatever restrictions the Secretary of War or the appropriate Military Commander may impose in his discretion. and with respect to which. shelter. to accomplish the purpose of this order. 1977-1978 Angolan Civil War.Strom Thurmond\The Dixicrats The Baby Boom Levittown G. and until other arrangements are made. from which any or all persons may be excluded. such transportation.: NOW. remain in. and shall supersede the responsibility and . The Secretary of War is hereby authorized to provide for residents of any such area who are excluded there from. I hereby authorize and direct the Secretary of War. WHEREAS the successful prosecution of the war requires every possible protection against espionage and against sabotage to national-defense material.

. They will leave next week in three groups. I hereby further authorize and direct the Secretary of War and the said Military Commanders to take such other steps as he or the appropriate Military Commander may deem advisable to enforce compliance with the restrictions applicable to each Military area hereinabove authorized to be designated. equipment. Everyone must be registered Saturday and Sunday between 8 a. Source: Roger Daniels and Harry Kitano.. shelter. including the use of Federal troops and other Federal Agencies... Our last Sunday. We drove through bustling Chinatown. We climbed into the truck. to assist the Secretary of War or the said Military Commanders in carrying out this Executive Order. and carefully tied the white pasteboard tag. describes the evacuation of her family from Seattle in the Spring of 1942. use of land. Monday evening we received friends in our empty house where our voices echoed loudly and footsteps clattered woodenly on the bare floor.. This order shall not be construed as modifying or limiting in any way the authority heretofore granted under Executive Order No.and slept on the bare floor.. and Friday. pp. "Must you sound so cheerful about it?" "What do you expect me to do... bawl?" On this sour note we got up. Father and Henry [Sone's brother] moved all our furniture and household goods down to the hotel and stored them in one room... facilities. labeled Japanese..[General] DeWitt gave us the shattering news.m. with authority to accept assistance of state and local agencies. The next morning Henry rudely shouted us back into consciousness. MONICA SONE DESCRIBES THE EVACUATION Monica Sone in her autobiography. As we coasted down Beacon Hill bridge for the last time. with respect to the investigation of alleged acts of sabotage or the duty and responsibility of the Attorney General and the Department of Justice under the Proclamations of December 7 and 8.authority of the Attorney General under the said Proclamations in respect of such prohibited and restricted areas.. Nisei Daughter.. 135-136. I hereby further authorize and direct all Executive Departments. food. On the 21st of April. today's the day!" I screamed.m.suitcases. American Racism: Exploration of the Nature of Prejudice (Englewood Cliffs.... on Tuesday. 1941. including the furnishing of medical aid. independent establishments and other Federal Agencies. dated December 12. on our coat lapels. prescribing regulations for the conduct and control of alien enemies.. utilities. clothing.. standing self-consciously among their. transportation. we fell silent.. except as such duty and responsibility is superseded by the designation of military areas hereunder.. 8972..jammed our blankets into the long narrow seabag..around the corner of Eight and Lane.That night we rolled ourselves into army blankets. and other supplies. "Six-thirty! Everybody wake up. . nor shall it be construed as limiting or modifying the duty and responsibility of the Federal Bureau of Investigation.. 10710.. 1970). hospitalization. and 5 p. and services. "All Seattle Japanese will be moved to Puyallup by May 1. and. Thursday.. 1941. This area was ordinarily lonely and deserted but now it was filling up with silent..

One of them rushed up to our bus. I suddenly turned maternal and hovered over Mother and Father to see that they were comfortably settled." a temporary holding area on the Puyallup fairgrounds. I never asked them what they thought. a soldier with rife in hand stepped out and stood stiffly at attention by the door.. WASHINGTON In the following passage Seattle resident Ben Yorita. and I was startled to see that he was but a young man. one of 110. "Japs good-natured about evacuation. but not political matters. and asked a young couple and their little boy to step out and stand by the door for a shot. stepped briskly up front and started reading off family numbers to fill the first bus. That was a rough time for my brother. 165-171. one of the leaders of the Japanese-American Citizens' League. So we were expecting something and the evacuation was no great surprise.. baths. Students weren’t as aware of national politics then as they are now. but toward the end of December we started hearing rumors and talk of the evacuation started. Newspaper photographers with flash-bulb cameras pushed busily through the crowd. CAMP HARMONY.parked themselves neatly along the curb. and discrimination forced us together. Jim Shigeno. I felt riotous emotion mounting in my breast. We communicated on other things. and JapaneseAmericans were actually apolitical then. "Step right in. There were two reasons we were living in the ghettos: Birds of a feather flock together. Our number came up and we pushed our way out of the crowd. We saw the picture in the newspaper shortly after and the caption underneath it read. The dominant society prevented us from going elsewhere. Our parents couldn’t vote." We bumped into each other with nervous haste. (Seattle. They were silent. Once the evacuation was decided. we were told we had about a month to get rid of our property or do whatever we wanted to with it. I glanced nervously at the soldier and his rifle. Right after Pearl Harbor we had no idea what was going to happen. pink-cheeked. Nisei Daughter." Source: Monica Sone.. who said he hated all Japs and that we should be rounded up. so we simply weren’t interested in politics because there was nothing we could do about it if we were.. describes his experience in the Summer of 1942 in "Camp Harmony. I can’t really say what my parents thought about everything because we didn’t communicate that well. and so forth. . but the photographers were persistent and at length they got out of the bus and posed. a vanguard of Greyhound busses. and we had all the traditional aspects of Japanese life—Japanese restaurants. It was the first time I had seen a rifle at such close range and I felt uncomfortable.Finally at ten o'clock. before being transferred to the Minidoka Internment Camp in Idaho. but contrarily.000 persons of Japanese ancestry interned during World War II. gave us the idea of how strong feelings were against us. pp. his clear gray eyes staring impassively ahead. We could tell from what we read in the newspapers and the propaganda they were printing—guys like Henry McLemore. 1953). The bus doors opened and from each. Jim said. grinning widely to cover their embarrassment. The murmuring died. The crowd stirred and murmured. This rifle was presumably to quell riots. They were reluctant.

rifles. We could take only what we could carry. By the way. and eventually they opened a school where I helped teach a little. which was one of my personal losses. and everything had been thrown together in haste. There was no fraternization. the whole works was sold. so we had two rooms. We didn’t know where we were going and we were just doing what we were told. We sold the equipment through newspaper classified ads: "Evacuating: Household goods for sale. and since nobody would buy the Japanese type. From Camp Harmony on. Source: Archie Satterfield. But it was like buffalo in cages or behind barbed wire. ed. we had to sell it as junk lead at 500 a pound. and I had a whole bunch of books I sold for $5. I wasn’t a qualified teacher. We could eat in any mess hall we wanted. We were still in debt on it and we didn’t know what to do with all the equipment. We had no duties in the sense that we were required to work. Finally. If you get an order. and I got about $13 a month. They had jobs open in the kitchen and stock room. They took all of us down to the Puyallup fairgrounds. thieves had broken in and stolen almost everything of value from the church. and parents lost their authority. you go ahead and do it. the family structure was broken down. so it was pretty tight for some families. They had converted some of the display and exhibit areas into rooms and had put up some barracks on the parking lot. and searchlights. but people who had their money in the Japanese bank in Seattle had their assets frozen from Pearl Harbor until the late 1960s. The machines were old but still workable." Secondhand dealers and everybody else came in and bought our refrigerator. It wasn’t so bad for the men because they were accustomed to open latrines and showers. when the funds were finally released. and the whole thing was very sad. It was terrifying because we didn’t know what was going to happen to us. the piano. No questions asked. and most of us were carrying two suitcases or duffel bags. We weren’t given an allowance while we were in Camp Harmony waiting for the camp at Minidoka to be finished. but you can’t expect a camp to manage itself. Japanese characters had to be set by hand and were very hard to replace. The rest of our stuff that we couldn’t sell was stored in the Buddhist church my mother belonged to. There was no privacy whatsoever in the latrines and showers. I had a savings account that was left intact. We had been in Camp Harmony from May until September. Our family was large. But the treatment in Camp Harmony was fairly loose in the sense that we were free to roam around in the camp. We had to sell our car. When we came back. They received no interest. no contact with the military or any Caucasian except when we were processed into the camp. The Home Front: An Oral History Of the War Years in . it was the first time we had ever had a refrigerator and it had to be sold after only a few months.who was running a printshop my parents owned. Children ran everywhere they wanted to in the camp. and it was humiliating for the women because they were much more modest then than today. They had also built barbed-wire fences around the camp with a tower on each corner with military personnel and machine guns. and we had English type and Japanese type. Eventually they boarded us on army trucks and took us to trains to be transported to the camps inland. Camp Harmony. The walls in the barracks were about eight feet high with open space above and with big knotholes in the boards of the partitions. and kids began ignoring their parents and wandering wherever they pleased.

in the name of national security. or as they called them. Every time they saw a Mexican American boy in a zoot suit they would stop and beat him up. Ind. but who were thought to be Mexican Americans. 1943. Julian Samora and Patricia Vandel Simon. In the early 1940s many Mexican American teenagers wore "drapes. The Los Angeles zoot suit riots touched off similar disturbances across the country in the summer of 1943. eleven sailors on shore leave walked into one of Los Angeles's worst Mexican American slums and became involved in a fight with persons unknown." On the evening of June 3. Source: Julian Samora and Patricia Vandel Simon. all the Japanese Americans on the west coast had been taken from their homes and interred in camps." On June seventh. as well as that of the many members of the armed forces who were stationed in Los Angeles. The next evening two hundred sailors hired a fleet of taxicabs and drove through the heart of the city to the Mexican American communities on the east side. The following two nights the sailors were joined by other servicemen as the wandered freely through the city harassing Mexican Americans. 1977). Detroit. Indiana. and was sometimes used as a signal that the wearer belonged to a club or gang. In 1942. 330-338. NISEI SOLDIERS IN EUROPE . 1981) pp. "zoot suiters.America: 1941-45 (Chicago. Texas. The city police did nothing to stop them. thousands of civilians joined in the riot. The newspapers featured headlines such as "44 Zooters Jailed in Attacks on Sailors. With this group of scapegoats safely out of the way. Los Angeles newspapers began to blame crime in the city on the Mexican Americans. Evansville. At midnight military authorities decided the local police could not handle the situation and declared downtown Los Angeles off limits to military personnel. in San Diego." This popular style of clothing resembled the zoot suits worn in Harlem. 157. The rioting spread to the suburbs for two more days before it finally subsided. p. They began to give prominence to incidents involving Mexican Americans. Philadelphia and Harlem. Beaumont. THE ZOOT SUIT RIOT The worst example of anti-Chicano violence in the 20th Century history of the United States is described below by historians. Los Angeles police arrested several severely beaten Mexican American boys on charges of rioting. (Notre Dame. This incident stirred up the anger of the citizenry. A History of the Mexican American People. It was designed to be comfortable to dance in. Most Anglos called the outfit a zoot suit and assumed that only hoodlums wore them.. even though no resistance had been offered by the Mexican Americans. Filipinos and Negroes as well as Mexican Americans were attacked.

he wanted us to be as free of it as we could. As I cocked my arm to throw.. replied drily. 1967). But fewer men still missed a battle as long as they could stand up and hold an M1.. he fired and his rifle grenade smashed into my right elbow and exploded and all but tore my arm off.. And as I drew my arm back. the useless right arm slapping red and wet against my side. Later we learned that some of the men had slipped and bounced as much as 100 feet down the steep slopes-one fell to his death--but not one of them cried out and the soundless advance went on. 150-152.. to which the 442nd was now attached.. Since there was no way we could change a rotten situation.. fought in against the Germans in the Italian theater and became one of the most decorated American units during the war...our C." We jumped off at midnight of April 5. "I think you can count on it. (Englewood Cliffs. a system of rock and concrete fortifications high in the mountains of northern Italy... A brief account of their heroism is detailed below by one of their officers. One of the first things our regimental C.... When the commanding general.. and the inevitable caption: "Is this your wife?" And the taunting questions: "What are you fighting for? To go back to slavery to your white masters?" Our side didn't help much. We moved up that slope and almost at once three machine guns opened up on us.asked whether the 442nd could take Mt..... and we kept very much to ourselves. Lt. 141-142..aiming a rifle grenade at my face from a range of ten yards.. did was send word through the 442nd that we were to steer clear of both the white and colored clubs..J. Folgorito [part of the Gothic Line] in a week's time. the 442nd Regimental Combat Team. two battalions moving through an unreconnoitered gorge and scaling the cliffs on the enemy's right. We took the Germans by complete surprise. The had fought hard and lost many men and the Germans seemed to take a fiendish delight in bombarding them with propaganda leaflets--a white man making love to a Negro girl. N. pp.. I lobbed two grenades.. My grenade blew up in his face and I stumbled to my feet.. The division officers' clubs were segregated--this in the heart of a war zone--as was every other recreational facility. We were pinned down and now the moment was critical.O. Senator from Hawaii. Few men fought in all of the 442nd's campaign and battles.. The 92nd was one of only two outfits in the army made up of Negro troops. Journey to Washington. .. The mission of the 92nd was to breach the western anchor of the Gothic Line. Daniel Inouye who later became the U. Inouye. But this time I beat him.Despite the internment of the vast majority of Japanese during World War II. I turned to throw as the German was reloading his rifle. Elaborate bunkers and fortified machine gun nests made it seem impenetrable.... Source: Senator Daniel K.000 men to fill the original 4. a Japanese-American Army unit.. The outfit has the lowest AWOL rate in the European theater of operations and the only men I ever heard about going over the hill had very special reasons.O.500 places in the regiment. I looked down to where my right hand was clutching my stomach.S. Our casualty rate was so high that eventually it took 12. Blood oozed between my fingers. firing my tommy gun lefthanded.I saw a German soldier. When we reached Leghorn [the site of a battle with German troops] we were trucked north to an area in the sector of the 92nd Division.

All this time we were waking. I kept tellin' them that I was an Indian. About that time. But that place was torn to pieces. We finally walked down to Odessa and. boy.. And from Lodz we went across to Kiev. So the captain talked to the battalion commander.30 caliber machine guns. While those patrols were keeping us busy. All at once there were two Germans standin' right behind me and I was captured. and we didn't want to be caught in the middle of the fighting. . and while this was going on I got arrested about twelve times. They didn't even know that I was an American and that I was born over here. They left all their stuff behind. a buck sergeant. and I was the odd one.ONE SOLDIER'S STORY: WALTER HIGGANS IN EUROPE The vignette below is an account of Walter Higgans. and he said to go back up and hold the line. By that time three of us. and you can't fight tanks with that. When I was in jail. They finally turned me loose one place and then I'd get arrested at the next town. and one of these was a cousin of mine from Blue Notch. So we started to fall back slowly and we had been doin' this for about three hours. There were twelve of them. so then we headed down to Warsaw and then from there to Lodz. Army who was captured by the Germans in World War II only to escape to the Soviet Union. a Navajo soldier in the U. Then everything cut loose. because we had heard that it was an open city. They had only . because I was walking with these white boys and the Russians wanted to know who I was. We got through the Russian lines and into Poland to Danzig. So two of us were sent up in the direction of the tanks to fix the telephone wire. and there was firing back and forth. the others were good enough to wait for me. They'd throw me in jail and put me through interrogation by somebody who could speak English. We escaped because they were going to move us into Berlin. After the twelfth time. But the Germans kept sending out patrols. I was a squad leader.. their tanks had moved up practically right on top of us and they were so close you could hear the recoil from their guns when they fired. We went into this heavy thick forest area where everything was so thick that you couldn't see far at all.S. I never seen such an awful lookin' bunch of people in my life. We had been tradin' our clothes for food. I asked them to give me a pass. when we got down there. in patches like.. The Germans had taken all our identification from us. but they would just laugh and say that there were no Indians over here and I had to convince them.. This was toward the end of March 1945. we had already gone up there and brought back most of the rifles and grenades that they had left there. but we were still half starved and almost naked on top of that. the thirteenth. There was lots of cover--something like ferns growin' about shoulder high--and this other guy got separated from me. but nobody would go because the tanks were too close. I talked to the platoon leader and he talked to a lieutenant and the captain of the company. Then the telephone line got knocked out with all the firing. and all of a sudden the platoon on our left ran through us and they were yellin' that the tanks had moved in and were coming this way fast. and they said to go get all the equipment that was left back up there. We went down into this big arroyo where they had been. The Germans were tryin' to come down this mountain road and we were supposed to try to stop them.

according to one estimate by the territorial government.. Writing home in private letters to family and friends.000 people of African descent--soldiers. Most people on Hawaii did not bring the racist ways of the mainland into there daily lives. 373-375. pp.." He concluded: Hawaii "will make anybody change their minds about living down there. in Hawaii with her husband .. Well over a million service personnel and civilian employees of the military.. All newcomers were surprised. eds." White men and women from the mainland also saw the possible implications of Hawaii's racial landscape: "They have come as near to solving the race problem as any place in the world.. sailors.. The American Indian in Urban Society." A teacher found it world shaking: "I have gained here at least the impulse to fight racial bigotry and boogeyism. "I shall never go back. approximately 200 "Negroes of American birth" lived on the islands.Source: Jack O. "white" ness was not the natural condition. A shipyard worker wrote: "I thank God often for letting me experience the occasion to spend a part of my life in a part of the world were one can be respected and live as a free man should. sailors and war workers in Hawaii. before World War II." "Down there" was the Jim Crow South. On the streets of Honolulu or in small towns on the Big Island.S. One hardened soul. Each ethnic group had its suspicions of the others and definite hierarchies existed.. WHITES. They came to a place that. The Chinese looked down on the Filipinos. It helped that no one group held a majority. The men and women who came to Hawaii from the mainland were uniformly shocked by what they found. Hawaii was much more progressive on the issue of race than the rest of the U. taken from a 1993 article authored by Beth Bailey and David Farber. describes the complex racial order that African Americans found themselves in when they served as soldiers.. BLACKS. (Boston 1971). wives and sweethearts.. black men who had come to Hawaii as servicemen or war workers discussed the possibilities of Hawaii's wartime racial liminality." Another young man tried to explain to his girlfriend: "Honey. but reactions varied. The lines were less absolute. But such prejudices were not the white heat of the mainland's rigid caste society.. ASIANS IN WORLD WAR II HAWAII The following vignette. Round and round it went.were brought to Hawaii by reason of war. blacks and Asians on both the islands and the mainland. In 1940. Michael Watson. had no "Negro Problem.others were mightily upset by it.. They did stereotype one another: many Americans of Japanese ancestry looked down on the Chinese. its just as much difference between over here and down there as it is between night and day. still others just confused. war workers." Not everyone was so inspired.. Among those men and women were approximately 30. Their experience profoundly reshaped thinking about race among whites. My soul has been stretched here and my notion of civilization and Americanism broadened." wrote a nurse. and often upon the haoles [whites].. Some praised what they saw." in part because few people on the islands recognized that "Negroes" lived in Hawaii. the place about which a third man wrote. "I'm a little mystified by it as yet but it doesn't bother anyone who had lived here awhile. Waddell and O.

.but you know Mother.'" Another Japanese woman was a little more reflective about her feelings. Over here they're on the equal with everyone. They make my skin shrivel and myself afraid to go near them.. "As you know.. They are going to overstep their bounds a little too far one of these days and those boys from the South are going to have a little necktie party. rapers. .. "most sailors are from Texas and the South.and children.." wrote a Chinese girl." Others made it clear they did not believe the trouble would keep: "Boy the niggers are sure in their glory over here.. They're in paradise and no fooling. One young woman of Japanese ancestry. there is not even any race distinction. too.. and they have surely poisoned everyone against the Negro.... One would be that way after hearing lots of nasty things about them. I sure would like to have gone to it. Imagine us here talking about color equality and when it come to those thing not enough cooperation. I don't want to expose our children too long to these conditions. Seeing them around while I'm alone gives me the 'gooseflesh. "The 'Double-V' Campaign in World War II Hawaii: African Americans.. murderers and downright no good.. This is not to say that the propaganda of African American inferiority had no effect. Funny isn't it how I am about them." Some local women recognized the unfairness of local fears... black servicemen fumed about the spread of racial hatred. being thieves. and troublemakers.. Local women wrote frequently of their fears. criticized her peers: "They are going to have a dance for colored boys....." * * * In letters back home. A young Japanese woman wrote in almost identical terms: "They are so big and dark. I was very frightened.. They are most[ly] Navy men here. "I am very scared of these Negro soldiers here in Honolulu." Source: Beth Bailey and David Farber.. evil.. there does not seem to be any race hatred.only 18 girls are willing to go--such cooperation. 825-827.in fact local men often lent their support to blacks against whites." one man wrote back to the mainland.they almost expect white people to step off the streets and let them walk by." Journal of Social History 26:4 (Summer 1993:818-821. wrote the folks: "Down here they have let down the standards. "They preach to the natives a nasty..with tales of Negroes carrying dreadful diseases.. They tell the native that we are ignorant dumb. and Federal Power..there was a snake in this paradise. poisonous doctrine that we must fight like hell to overcome.. After sharing a perfectly uneventful bus ride with four black soldiers she wrote a friend: "Gee. Although some sociologists at the time speculated that the local population would not accept negroes." The responses of the local people to the black malihini (newcomers) were complex and somewhat unpredictable." If Hawaii was "paradise". Racial Ideology. writing in a private letter. They have the native women to a point they are afraid to even speak to our Negro boys." A white man wrote back home: "Imagine that the South will have some trouble ahead when these black bastards return.

000 in September. Seattle's wartime contracts totaling 5. As orders came in. After fighting broke out in Europe. Chief Clerk in the Tool Room at Boeing in World War II. Boeing began production of the Super Fortress a larger. Shipyards in the Puget Sound area including the Navy's facility at Bremerton and twenty-nine yards in Seattle. other companies also experienced spectacular growth during World War II. Source: Quintard Taylor. a process which transformed both the city and the region. By 1944. 160-161. twelve and thirteen. Although no other Seattle firm could rival Boeing in employment or production. Boeing's work force grew accordingly to nearly 10. now produced Sherman tanks and employed nearly 4.000 when the United States officially entered the war on December 8. 1941. in a large home in which we could fit about 200 people playing bridge. Pacific Car and Foundry Company in Renton.WORLD WAR II: SEATTLE'S ECONOMY TRANSFORMED In the following vignette I describe how Seattle emerged as a major site of war production.6 billion dollars. furnished vessels for the Navy.000 workers making military planes for the Army Air Corps and some commercial aircraft such as the Clipper airships which crossed the Pacific. and 30. We were living in Norwalk. describes how here work experience changed her life. longer-range B-29 bomber from its facility in Renton.000 by June 1941. ranked it among the nation's top three cities (after Detroit and Los Angeles) in per capita war orders. sharply contrasting with the $70 million value of all Seattle manufacturing in 1939. the British Royal Air Force purchased the company's B-17 Flying Fortress bombers for use against Nazi Germany. I had a six-year-old daughter and two boys. which manufactured logging trucks before 1941. The Puget Sound area soon became a major center for ship and aircraft construction. and Merchant Marine. which in turn stimulated other sectors of the economy. a Seattle suburb. In 1943. prompting historian Carlos Schwantes to describe the years 1941-45 as the beginning of the modern era for the region.000 workers by 1944. The Boeing Airplane Company in September 1939 employed 4. Seattle's aircraft industry also came of age during World War II although the process of growth and transformation had begun long before the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. as eighty-eight shipyards. Boeing employed nearly 50. BOEING AND THE LIBERATION OF INEZ SAUER In this account Inez Sauer. The Forging of A Black Community: Seattle's Central District from 1870 through the Civil Rights Era (Seattle. .000 workers in 1944. The Second World War generated profound changes in economic and social conditions in the Pacific Northwest. employed 150. Coast Guard. The region's shipbuilding industry was revived in 1941 after its virtual collapse following World War I. Ohio. 20. twentynine in Seattle alone. pp.000 workers in the Seattle area and amassed total sales of more than $600 million annually. Boeing workers soon produced one B-29 bomber every five days and one B-17 every twenty-four hours. 1994). I was thirty-one when the war started and I have never worked in my life before. at the peak of wartime production.

I think that put a little iron in my spine too. I remember my husband saying to me. They were all of the same ilk--all college people and all golfing and bridge-playing companions. I was prudish and had never been with people that used coarse language." We were all thrilled to think the President could take time out of the war effort to visit us factory workers. but he was wrong. you won't get any service here. That was a hard thing to do. I didn't know there was such a thing as the typical male ego. "Don't you know what a bastard file is? It's the name of a very coarse file. I had never been around uneducated people before. I suppose you'd call it a life of ease. and I could see there was no way I could possibly live the way I was accustomed to doing. but Thanksgiving we had to work. So I took my children home to my parents in Seattle. My contact with my first supervisor was ." He went over and took one out and showed me. Some man come in and asked for a bastard file. "Do your part. "You've lived through a depression and you weren't even aware it was here. but I wanted to do something that I thought was really vital.. "If you don't control your language. and he went through in a big. but I worked. They cleared out the aisle of the main plant." It was true. I did something that was against my grain. I knew that people were without work and having a hard time. She said no one in our family had ever worked in a factory...and once in a while we filled it. my husband's rubber-matting business in Ohio had to close due to the war restrictions on rubber. Oh. My husband thought it was utterly ridiculous. as he put it. Because I was working late one night I had a chance to see President Roosevelt.." My father was horrified too. so he didn't think I would last very long at the job. "Hello there. I said to him.. "You don't know what kind of people you're going to be associated with. They said he was coming on the swing shift.. I won't tolerate that kind of language. I was nineteen when I was married. We always kept a live-in maid. They did allow us Christmas off. [Daughters of the American Revolution]. Boeing was a real education for me. I had never handled a tool in my life outside of a hammer.. but it never seemed to affect us or our friends. I really wanted to help the war effort. so I waited to see him. The children didn't understand.R. Building bombers was.. When the war broke out. people that worked with their hands. after four o'clock. and I think we worked harder. It taught me a different way of life." I went to my supervisor and said. The Seattle papers were full of ads for women workers needed to help the war effort. and we never had to go without anything. We also lost our live-in maid. They started me as a clerk in this huge tool room.A. and he always made me feel like a child." He laughed and said. how are you? Keep up the war effort. and he was very. very pleasant. He smiled and he had his long cigarette holder. My husband was ten years older. you women are doing a wonderful job. I had never worked. I didn't know how to handle money. I worked seven days a week. The first year. It gave us a lift. Before the war my life was bridge and golf and clubs and children. so I answered an ad for Boeing. "You'll have to correct this man. My mother and father didn't understand. but I did it and I'm glad. We didn't have any time off.. open limousine." Being a D. free a man for service.. I could have worked for the Red Cross and rolled bandages. My mother was horrified.

"You will never want to go back to being a housewife. deckhouses. But she was right. My mother happened to be down there seeing the president of the Seattle First National Bank at the time.. 1999). Before I worked at Boeing I also had no exposure to unions. I had always been in a shell. I had no contact with Negroes except as maids or gardeners. I had always been protected.. got companysponsored health care. The job really broadened me. pp. How could you do that to the family?" But I could see that it was a new world.. at thirty-one I finally grew up.and I waved and said. I joined the machinists union." I didn't understand that kind of resentment.. And we came down the middle of the street--there were probably five thousand of us. Three shipyards built by industrialist Henry Kaiser in the Portland-Vancouver area employed over 100." At the time I didn't think it would change a thing. California. After I was there for a while. I saw my mother. eds.000. I guess you could say. being a club woman and listening to a lot of inanities when I knew there were things you could use your mind for. but it was prevalent throughout the plant... and receive their paychecks (with . After the war.. Since workers performed specific. My mother warned me.. preassembled elsewhere and lifted into place by huge cranes. We went on this march through the financial district in downtown Seattle.one of animosity. reported to timekeepers. boilers. I could never go back to playing bridge again. I fact.. The Robert E.walked outside to see what was happening. For the first time in their lives they used security badges. Source: David E. The vignette below describes the Kaiser shipyard in Richmond.. This technique allowed these yards to assemble vessels in record time. I found that some of the black people I got to know there were very superior--and certainly equal to me--equal to anyone I ever knew. in which he stated.. Shi and Holly Mayer.. She said. training went rapidly. I thought she was never going to honor my name again." That night when I got home. We had a contract dispute. mother.. But these workers faced a bureaucratized environment. "Hello. repetitive tasks. But at Boeing I found a freedom and an independence that I had never known. west coast shipbuilders assembled whole sections of a ship's structure. Using techniques developed in building Boulder Dam. The war changed my life completely. For the Record: A Documentary History of America (New York. I learned differently at Boeing. "To think my daughter was marching in that labor demonstration. 254-257 WEST COAST SHIPYARDS World War II generated the growth of major shipyards from Seattle to San Diego which employed thousands of workers. Peary was built in four days [at the Kaiser Shipyard in Richmond] in November 1942.. So my mother. and we were bought up to think that colored people were not of the same economic or social level. My mother was a Virginian. and we had a one-day walkout to show Boeing our strength. All shipyard workers had to adjust to the regimen of prefabricated shipbuilding... double bottoms. "The happiest duty of my life will be when I say goodbye to each of you to the door.

report to Colonel Hickman immediately." and they said. and I had a flame about six to seven feet out in front of me. I was working down in the hold of the ship and there were about six Filipino men. About that time the intercom on board the ship started to announce." So I said.scraped the rust off the bottom of the boat where they had to paint.. and behind me came all these men. so in the end I turned my torch off and I sat down on the steps with him.because it was pitch dark. and the noise." That was my exact words. "You'll see all of us. while black women were relegated to scaling (cleaning). and there lined up behind me. One worker described the 900 acres of shipyards: "It was such a huge place." When we got to the office [Colonel Hickman] said. I didn't know what I was doing. And I sat there and was getting madder and madder by the minute. because we were all down there. The whole atmosphere was overwhelming to me. I was so mad with him. The Chinese performed detail-oriented electrical work considered suitable for their skills. and I was frightened. I felt sorry for him. turned on my torch. "We're going with you. "You so-in-so.. He was frightened. We all did not have the guts enough to do what she did. I sprang to my feet.. 1998) p.. (New York.. really crying. If you go lift one more foot. "Come into this office. We. Portland shipyard worker Beatrice Marshall described her job as a painter's helper: "We had to crawl on our hands and knees and carry our light on an extension cord." Source: Quintard Taylor. I'll cut your guts out. We had to wear masks. LYN CHILDS CONFRONTS A RACIST ACT In the following vignette. Her account also discusses the reaction from her supervisor. The Richmond yards were laid out in a grid system of numbered and lettered streets.income tax withheld) from pay windows. sweeping and painting ship hulls.and this big white guy went over and started to kick this poor Filipino and none of the Black men that was working down there in the hold with him said one word to this guy." ..." Colonel Hickman said. and I said. So he started to cry. [but] we're with her. "Where are you guys going?" They said. considered the easiest position on the yards. "I guess this is it. all coming and going and working." So I went up to Colonel Hickman's office. In Search of the Racial Frontier: African Americans in the American West. there [was] so much rust in there. Then he started to tell me that he had been trained in boot camp that any national group who was darkskinned was beneath all White People. People from all walks of life. because he was crying. 257. and I walked up to him and I said (you want me to say the real language?) I said to him." West Coast shipyards pioneered new production techniques and labormanagement relations but they also embraced old stereotypes. "I just wanted to see Lyn Childs.you could hardly breathe.... White women held welding jobs. black San Francisco shipyard worker Lyn Childs.. describes how she came to the defense of a Filipino employee on the ship she was repairing. 1528-1990. "Lyn Childs..

your February [1943] message which mentioned extensive measures preparatory to the invasion of Western Europe in August or September 1943. and he said. Josef Stalin. and to come to their rescue.. Spickard." I said." I said. envisaged an operation. You're a communist. Soviet Armies absorbed the brunt of the Axis onslaught with relatively little assistance from Britain and the United States. By the summer of 1943 Soviet dictator. From June. I'm saying I'm a. you called me Why did you call me?" "Never mind what I called you for. not by a hundred thousand men. I am a communist. apparently. 1941. you asked me was I a communist. revoking your .. measures on which the complete success of the operation should hinge? I shall not enlarge on the fact that this responsible decision.." Then he said. not by a hundred thousand..He had one of the guards take me into the office real fast and closed the door real fast and kept them out. That is great." Source: Paul R." all I can do is remind you of the following: First. in which you declared that preparations were under way for an invasion." is it not cleat that a statement of this kind in relation to the Soviet Union is utterly groundless and directly contradicts your previous and responsible decisions. "Shh! Shh! Shh! Hush! Don't say that so loud." "Well.about extensive and vigorous measures by the British and Americans to organise the invasion this year. So when you now declare: "I cannot see how a great British defeat and slaughter would aid the Soviet armies. "I think you ought to get back to work. but by an Anglo-American force exceeding one million men at the very start of the operation. You're saying I am. which. your own Aide-Memoire of June 1942. "Don't say that so loud." he said. . STALIN CALLS FOR A SECOND FRONT The origins of the Cold War can be found in the tension between the United States and Britain and the Soviet Union while allies in World War II. "What kind of communist activity are you carrying on down there?" I said. 1944.. but by an adequate force.When you write that "it would be no help to Russia if we threw away a hundred thousand men in a disastrous cross-Channel attack. "You know what I am talking about. "A communist! What is that?" He said. "Well. "Work and Hope: African American Women in Southern California During World War II." He said. "Go back to work. "A communist! Forget you! The kind of treatment that man was putting on the Filipinos. sent a secret note to Winston Churchill demanding a second front after learning of Churchill's remark that the British and Americans were not yet prepared for an invasion of Europe... to June." Journal of the West 32:3 (July 1993):74-75. Second. Then I am the biggest communist you ever seen in your life.

1945. Deane.S. he held a press conference at which he stated that after January 1945 he was kept fully informed at all times of the essentials of the Red Army's plans. insofar as possible to play a lone hand was proved by undeniable evidence.. SOVIET-AMERICAN TENSION IN WORLD WAR II General John R.A. and then a visa was granted only after an exhaustive study of the background of the individual involved. 75-76. (Moscow: 1957). When General Eisenhower visited Moscow after the war. All the information Eisenhower had concerning the Red Army's plans was the result of our initiative in seeking to obtain it. . You say that you "quite understand" my disappointment.R.S. Under these circumstances it was clear that nothing much could come of a partnership in which one of the principals was not only reluctant.S. Correspondence Between the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the U. This was true.S.R.S. the fact that Russia desired. the chief U. but the preservation if its confidence in its Allies. and of reducing the enormous sacrifices of the Soviet armies. No single American was allowed to enter the Soviet Union without pressure from the Ambassador or me. military liaison officer in Moscow during World War II..S. Whatever the reasons. was reached by you and the President [Roosevelt] without Soviet participation and without inviting its representatives to the Washington conference.. In her darkest days she refused to allow a group of Allied bombers to base in the Caucasus in order to assist her at Stalingrad. and the direction of their main efforts. particularly the timing of their offensives. a confidence which is being subjected to severe stress. but proficient in sabotaging its effectiveness. and then it was only obtained after continuous pressure at the highest levels. and the Presidents of the U. their objectives. found the Soviets reluctant allies who wanted American military hardware but who feared American personnel would spy on Soviet defenses and promote dissent among Soviet citizens. compared with which the sacrifices of the Anglo-American armies are insignificant. and the Prime Ministers of Great Britain during the Great Patriotic War of 1941. I must tell you that the point here is not just the disappointment of the Soviet Government. One should not forget that it is a question of saving million of lives in the occupied areas of Western Europe and Russia. Vol. Here he provides an account of Soviet suspicion of American efforts at cooperation. There is no need to say that the Soviet Government cannot become reconciled to this disregard of vital Soviet interests in the war against the common enemy. Our well-meant voluntary efforts to support her advance in the Balkans with our Air Force operating from Italy brought forth protests rather than gratitude. Source: Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the U. pp. although you cannot but be aware that the Soviet Union's role in the war against Germany and its interest in the problems of the second front are great enough. II.previous decisions on the invasion of Western Europe. but his possession of such information was a far cry from the co-operative action that might normally be expected between allies.

Six years of global conflict was only the beginning. poverty-stricken and often insignificant nations frequently went far beyond the point of diminishing returns. THE WORLD THE SECOND WORLD WAR CREATED In a special report on the 50th anniversary of the beginning of World War II U.796. but it was difficult to believe it. Kennedy. The post war period ushered in a type of international conflict not seen since the Crusades. It openly and deliberately tested the potential and performance of opposing economic and political systems. Stalin. it was a conflict of ideologies that recognized no borders and achieved the zealousness of religious wars.. Mass: D. perhaps we were among friends... 1939. Vol. What followed was a competition between Communism and capitalism. (Lexington. and between Soviets and Americans.-Soviet competition. The cost of competing for influence in so many unstable. 795. In the past. we might have brought Germany to her knees quicker had we been allowed to establish radar triangulation stations in Russia as navigational aids to our bomber formations in eastern Germany. It was either the President or the Prime Minister [Churchill] who proposed [conferences at] Teheran. and Potsdam. News and World Report. The post-war era saw the decline and collapse of the traditional colonial empires. we might have-on and on. especially for the Soviets. Bailey & David M. the cold war remained a conflict of . We might have defeated Germany more quickly had we shared our operational experience by having observers on each other's fronts. in order to go halfway around the world as the only possible means of meeting J. Well. No single event of the war irritated me more than seeing the President of the United States lifted from wheel chair to automobile.S. We might have learned something of immeasurable value in defeating the German submarines had we been allowed to see Gdynia [naval base] as soon as it was taken. The cold war was not just a battle for survival between two states. pp. The American Spirit. who could ill-afford the cost. But because nuclear weapons promised Armageddon. in the fifth decade since. There were innumerable little ways in which our joint war effort could have been made more effective.S. to ship to shore and to aircraft. We might have. No! In Soviet Russia each such venture would have meant a closer association with capitalistic foreigners. to fill the vacuum the old European powers had left. Source: Thomas A. 1. The Third World became the principal theater for U.V. but the convulsions of that moment are still reverberating. any conflict of such intensity would assuredly have ended in a world war. do we seem to be emerging from the postwar era and entering a new one. Yalta. 1984). describes the manner in which the Second World War shaped the post-War world. II. Heath and Company. both of which proclaimed their universality. Only now.Not once during the war did Stalin or his subordinates seek a meeting with British or American authorities in order to present proposals for improving our co-operative effort.C. It was the work of a moment for a handful of German soldiers to snap the frail barrier at the frontier with Poland on Sept.

. 1945. They had clung to the side of the tank and plunged their heads in to drink and there in that position they had died. but the cold wars of politics.500 feet died instantly or later on that day. He was between house calls in the suburbs. 4. and I was so happy to see some people again that without thinking I left my parents' side and went toward them. but its owner. Eighty-eight percent of the people within a radius of 1.. News and World Report. 6872. HIROSHIMA: DAY ONE OF THE NUCLEAR AGE The following accounts describe the atomic bomb blast in Hiroshima August 6.A new era is opening with the prospect of a counterrevolution as momentous at the end of the 20th century as the Russian Revolution was at the beginning. The first is a discussion of the "hypocenter" of the blast by Peter Wyden and the second is a description of the city by Iwao Nakamura a 5th grader at a local school.wills rather than of weapons--not the hot wars of tanks and artillery." U. the place from which all life and death was measured. Most others within the circle perished in the following weeks or months. as Soviet aggressiveness abroad appears to be declining.000 of Hiroshima's 350. I was very thirsty too.There was no one in sight.. Wyden: The hypocenter was in the courtyard of the Shima Hospital... The streets were blocked with the fire and smoke of the ruined houses. during the first hour after the explosion. and only the five of use were left behind in an uncanny world of the dead.In less than half a second..000 people would die. propaganda.. Source: "The World War Created. the captive nations and regimes of Eastern Europe are groping for ways to escape Soviet domination. It was ground zero. Nakamura: We were…surrounded by a sea of fire. I had the feeling that all the human beings on the face of the earth had been killed off. "Oh!" out loud and instinctively drew back. the point on the ground directly underneath the explosion.. When I was close enough to see inside the tank I said. subversion and espionage. The Shima hospital and all its patients were vaporized. Today. the hub of the nuclear death wheel. heat rays with temperatures of more than 3000 degrees Celsius caused primary burn injuries within two miles of the hypocenter.. smaller states see a diminishing logic in their own participation in the cold war. About 130. kept pedaling unscathed on his bicycle. the fatalistic Dr.. From their burned and tattered middy blouses I could tell that they were high school girls. pp.As we passed the Nakajima School and came to Sumiyoshi Bridge.. 1989. Shima. All who where in Hiroshima on August 6 would come to know precisely how far fate had placed them from the hypocenter at 8:15. and only once in a while we heard a moaning voice like that of a wild beast coming out of nowhere. I saw several people plunging their heads into a half-broken water tank and drinking the water.. What I had seen in the tank were the faces of monsters reflected from the water dyed red with blood. On the Soviet side. Sept. And everyone would learn at least one new English word: hypocenter.S. America's allies now see little danger from the Soviet Union and are uninterested in the global vision of the United States. but there .

EQUIVALENT OF 20. as American airmen rocked a portion of Japan with the tremendous explosive. and how a new model government city was constructed at Richland.. made known how workers who did not know what the were making. the production area is divided into three principal subareas to insure that individual workers learn as little as possible about . To impress the necessity of the secrecy which surrounded the project. saying: "It will shorten the war and bring victory to the Allies. Day One: Before Hiroshima and After.thousands of workers and others knew of the development but only a few high-ranking military officers and scientists knew the exact nature. President Truman's announcement cleared the way for revelation of how at feverish speed the huge sprawling project of towering smokestacks was built on what had been farm and sagebrush-covered lands extending into three Washington counties.. pp. HANFORD AND THE BOMB On Monday." And after Germany was beaten the remark was: "It will finish off Japan... youngsters crying for help. the Seattle Times announced to the world that the first atomic bomb had been dropped on Hiroshima with the following headline: ATOMIC BOMB. the broken skin of their burned faces was stained bright with blood.00-acre Hanford Project in South Central Washington. Arata Osada. their skin was rust-colored with burns and blood. 1945. Sources: Peter Wyden. I could hardly believe that these were human faces." The vignette below includes the first paragraphs following the second headline.As we... pp.000 TONS. New York. 1984. delirious students calling the names of their fathers and mothers.. Richland.. TNT. No. New York. 165-166.Among them we saw old people begging for water. Benton. HITS JAPAN..Yet we who were not even sure of our own lives could do nothing for them. rather than humans of this world it might be more correct to say we met humans of that other world.of the project--the adaptation of the basic force of the universe in a terrific weapon of war. August 6. a few miles north of Pasco. Necessarily on a project of such magnitude.. The secrecy of the Hanford Engineer Works--one of the America's best-kept secrets of the Second World War--was swept aside today as a new atomic bomb of catastrophic destructive force was dropped on the Japanese homeland and President Truman announced that the materials for it were produced in the 400.. They were all stark naked. produced the ingredients for the explosive by operating complicated machinery from behind thick concrete safety walls. Yakima and Grant. 17. Under that banner headline appeared another. officials have from time to time let drop quiet remarks which gave a hint of what they were working on.000 Workers Making Fantastic Explosive.was not a hair left on their heads. 1959. for the first time we met some living people of this world. their whole bodies were swollen like balloons. of Hell. Situated about 30 miles north of Richland. "Hanford--War's Greatest Mystery--Cleared. Benton County.. Children of the A-Bomb: The Testament of the Boys and Girls of Hiroshima.crossed Sumiyoshi Bridge. 253-255. officials at the project headquarters." But today.....

. The project employs 17.. Her type of land reform. Western Europe and the United States. But the government has been silent on its future. We cannot permit the door to be closed against our trade in Eastern Europe any more than we can in China.. We may not like what Russia does in Eastern Europe. SOVIET-AMERICAN RELATIONS: A DISSENTING VIEW As the Cold War rapidly developed Henry A. There is a series of plants [sic]. and one of the big problems was to design manufacturing processes which would permit the fantastically powerful explosives to be made safely.... pp.000 persons at present. . But at the same time we have to recognize that the Balkans are closer to Russia than to us--and that Russia cannot permit either England or the United States to dominate the politics of that area. On our part. and the third area contains three large plants where the explosive material is produced. The Russians will be forced to grant more and more of the personal freedoms. It is looked upon generally as a potential industrial center. industrial expropriation. Separate passes are required to move from one area to another. the second. 1945. In the speech below he explains why the United States should seek accommodation with the Soviets. guarded.the overall project. a former Secretary of Agriculture and Vice. I believe that we can get cooperation once Russia understands that our primary objective is neither saving the British Empire nor purchasing oil in the Near East with the lives of American soldiers. We are reckoning with a force which cannot be handled successfully be a `Get tough with Russia' policy. three huge chemical plants.President of the United States. Source: Seattle Times. indicating that it will be put in a reserve status. became a rare political voice who urged the United States to refrain from confrontations with the Soviet Union and to reduce the tension between these former allies who were now fast becoming implacable enemies.. we should recognize that we have no more business in the political affairs of Eastern Europe than Russia has in the political affairs of Latin America. But whether we like it or not the Russians will try to socialize their sphere of influence just as we try to democratize our sphere of influence. The tougher we get. Wallace. August 6. and suppression of basic liberties offends the great majority of the people of the United States. and kept available for future emergencies. officials said... producing fertilizer and synthetics such as nylon and plastics. `Getting tough' never bought anything real and lasting--whether for schoolyard bullies or businessmen or world powers. Under friendly peaceful competition the Russian world and the American world will gradually become more alike.. each behind high wire fences and each removed several miles from its nearest neighbor. One of the areas contains raw materials. the tougher the Russians will get. and we shall become more and more absorbed with the problems of social-economic justice. Postwar use of the huge Hanford project has been the source of much optimistic speculation. 1. 2.

" Part of the Senator's speech appears below. 1987) p. Five years after a world war has been won. men's hearts should anticipate a long peace. Milton Cantor and Dean Albertson. asked the following questions among others: "Have you ever read Karl Marx?" "What do you think of Henry Wallace's third-party effort?" "Have you ever had Negroes in your home?" "There is a suspicion in the record that you are in sympathy with the underprivileged. September 12. Is this true?" "Did you ever write a letter to the Red Cross about segregation of "Have you ever read Thomas Paine? Upton Sinclair?" "When you were in ________'s home. did ________'s wife dress conventionally when she received her guests?" Source: Howard H. Speech at Madison Square Garden. and men's minds should be free from the heavy weight that comes with war. when he declared the United States was losing the Cold War because the Truman administration was filled with Communists. (Chicago: The Dorsey Press. eventually used both inside the federal government and by state governmental agencies and by private organizations. But this is not such a period--for this blood?" . West Virginia. Nonetheless his sensational charges gave a new name to hysteria and political scapegoating--"McCarthyism.. Quint. the chips are down--they are truly down.. and ladies and gentleman. The test. Main Problems in American History.Source: Henry A. generated a loyalty oath to test American patriotism and to ferret out potentially "disloyal" citizens. McCARTHYISM Wisconsin Senator Joseph McCarthy burst into national prominence in 1950 following a speech he delivered to a Republican women's club in Wheeling. 278. THE RED SCARE: THE TRUMAN ADMINISTRATION LOYALTY OATH In 1948 the Truman Administration prompted by rising concern over Communist infiltration into the federal government and by Republican attacks on its foreign policy as passive in the face of Soviet expansionism. 1946. Today we are engaged in a final all-out battle between communistic atheism and Christianity. The modern champions of communism have selected this as the time. McCarthy claimed to have the names of 205 Communists in the government but never produced the list. Wallace.

but who nevertheless are still helping to shape our foreign policy. I think that it is high time for the United States Senate and its Members to do some real soul searching. which is one of the most important government departments. pp." This is a time when all the world is split into two vast. The right to hold unpopular beliefs. The right of independent thought. This is a time of the "cold war.. This is glaringly true in the State Department.. The right to protest. the finest college education. Senate she outlines her objections to his tactics. I have in my hand 205 cases of individuals who would appear to be either card carrying members of or certainly loyal to the Communist party. Source: Congressional Record. 81st Cong.. we have failed miserably and tragically to arise to the opportunity. Unfortunately. Our could have bee the honor of being a beacon in the desert of destruction. by our own words and acts. and the finest jobs in Government we can give. The exercise of these rights should not cost one single American citizen his reputation or his right to a livelihood..is not a period of peace. The reason we find ourselves in a position of impotency is not because our only powerful potential enemy has sent men to invade our shores. There the bright young men who are born with silver spoons in their mouths are the ones who have been the worst. 12 February 1950. ignore some of the basic principles of AmericanismThe right to criticize. 1954-7 A SENATOR SPEAKS UP (1950) Maine Senator Margaret Chase Smith was in 1950 one of the few public officials willing to openly criticize Senator McCarthy. At war's end we were physically the strongest nation on earth.. but rather because of the traitorous actions of those who have been treated so well by this nation. Those of us who shout the loudest about Americanism in making character assassinations are all too frequently those who. We are dealing with a far more sinister type of activity because it permits the enemy to guide and shape our policy. but rather those that have had all the benefits that the wealthiest nation on earth has had to offer--the finest homes. and the manner in which we are using or abusing our individual powers and privileges. One thing to remember in discussing the Communists in our Government is that we are dealing with spies who got 30 pieces of silver to steal the blueprints of a new weapon. It has not been the less fortunate or members of minority groups who have been selling this Nation out. nor should he be in danger of losing his reputation . is thoroughly infested with Communists. In my opinion the State Department. and to weigh our consciences as to the manner in which we are performing our duty to the people of America. a shining living proof that civilization was not yet ready to destroy itself. 2nd sess. increasingly hostile camps. In a speech before the U.S...

In the passage below local historian Jane Sanders describes the political climate in the state that led to the Canwell Hearings. suspect everything" attitudes.95 (June 1. Today our country is being psychologically divided by the confusion and the suspicions that are bred in the United States Senate to spread like cancerous tentacles of "knowing nothing. Source: Congressional Record. Ralph Gundlach (Psychology). for selfish political gain at the sacrifice of individual reputations and national unity. two years before "McCarthyism" became a household word nationally. I am not proud of the obviously staged. I am not proud of the way we smear outsiders from the floor of the Senate and hide behind the cloak of congressional immunity. As a United States Senator. Joseph Butterworth (English). held week-long hearings on campus to investigate whether there were "no less than 150 Communists or Communist sympathizers on the faculty" as charged by state senator Thomas Bienz. In the State of Washington.or livelihood merely because he happens to know someone who holds unpopular beliefs. a special state legislative committee led by Spokane Republican Albert F. The American people are sick and tired of being afraid to speak their minds lest they be politically smeared as Communists or Fascists by their opponents. I condemn a Democratic Fascist just as much as I condemn a Republican Communist. I condemn a Republican Fascist just as much as I condemn a Democratic Communist. I am not proud of the reckless abandon in which unproved charges have been hurled from this [Republican] side of the aisle.. The WCF was .” The focus of this effort was a clique of Democratic legislators who had espoused “United Front” politics during the 1930s.. 2nd Session. Herbert Phillips (Philosophy) Harold Eby (English).. I do not like the way the Senate has been made a rendezvous for vilification.. Canwell. Ethel (English) and Melville Jacobs (Anthropology) were assumed to be members of the Communist Party and consequently fired by the university in 1949. Garland O. The American people are sick and tired of seeing innocent people smeared and guilty people whitewashed. As a American. Otherwise thought control would have set in. I want to see our Nation recapture the strength and unity it once had when we fought the enemy instead of ourselves. However six faculty who refused to cooperate with the committee. Numerous faculty and administrators were called to testify. 7894. 1950) RED SCARE AT THE UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON In 1948.. Who of us does not? Otherwise none of us could call our souls our own. As an American. and were members of the Washington Commonwealth Federation. the 1946 elections featured a campaign by Republicans against “Communist-controlled Democrats. undignified countercharges which have been attempted in retaliation from the other [Democratic] side of the aisle.. I am not proud of the way in which the Senate has been made a publicly platform for irresponsible sensationalism. pp. They are equally dangerous to you and me and to our country. and still place ourselves beyond criticism on the floor of the Senate. 81st Congress.

Populism at the turn of the century.. in turn. [the Red Scare] in Washington State resembled a family feud. In the eyes of some Washingtonians.. With regard to one of those institutions. [Just before] he died in 1924. farming. In his stead. the Post-Intelligencer reported the demands of leading Democrats for a purge of their party. politicians. such as Harry Bridges’ CIO-backed Longshoremen and Warehouse-men’s Union. Powell (1882-87). appointed Beck to the Board of Regents in l946…. in the course of his battles with more radical labor groups. and in some ways anticipating it. “There are forty-seven states and the Soviet of Washington.and leader of the WCF. the Red Scare and union battles of the 1920s and 1930s. both embarrassed and delighted the citizenry. the University of Washington had contributed to the state’s reputation for radicalism.an alliance of unemployed and/or disaffected liberals. Allen Smith’s crusade for public ownership of utilities caused powerful men to call for his dismissal.. The political and economic fortunes of the state were historically tied to the basic industries of forestry.. Wallgren in 1944. conservative Democratic leaders resolved to rid themselves of the alleged Communists in their ranks. Over the years its faculty members were involved in controversial movements. The 1947 legislature had not yet convened when a coalition of Democrats and Republicans held a caucus to discuss the possibility of a legislative investigation into Communist infiltration of the Democratic party and state institutions. laborers.. Among these were University of Washington regents State Senator Joseph Drumheller and Teamster Union leader Dave Beck. the state was considered progressive in labor and welfare legislation.” a remark widely attributed to Postmaster General James Farley. Some thought matters had gone too far. and the disorders of the Depression left scars on the memories of Washingtonians. Wallgren. In his campaign for reelection. Washingtonians elected a former state commander of the American Legion. was the head of a Spokane chemical firm.. a one-time University of Washington English instructor.” In succeeding days. Drumheller. Within those industries there had always been pockets of right and left radicals who asserted themselves in times of stress. the University of Washington. they also chose a Republican senator and a Republican-controlled legislature.. and the Hearst-owned Post-Intelligencer. the activities of the Industrial Workers of the World. he brought his own type of peace to the city’s unions and gained the respect of businessmen. and fishing. J. Beck had been active in Seattle labor politics since 1918.. wide publicity was given to the fact that DeLacy had been cited twice by the House Un-American Activities Committee for membership in Communist “front” organizations. After the elections. Despite the fact that state government was generally in the hands of conservatives. Smith was still urging his students to disdain the excesses of the government exemplified . A special subject of Republican attack was Hugh DeLacy. Beck had helped elect Democratic Governor Mon C. and farmers which supported candidates favorable to an expansion of the New Deal locally and nationally. the caucus report stated: “It is common knowledge in many quarters that the Communists have infiltrated the University of Washington campus and that their supporters have found important places on the faculty.the Communists are trying everything in the book to reach American youth through the schools. Attempts by workers to organize often involved violence. Aside from conforming to the national pattern. the Seattle General Strike of 1919. a member of a pioneer Washington family and grandson of University of Washington President Leonard J. shipping. who had won election to Congress [from Seattle] in 1944.

Then came more trucks. nor was the reservoir of suspicion of professors peculiar to Washingtonians. In the 1930s faculty members continued to outrage citizens.. the threatening gestures of the 1947 legislature revived questions that had lain dormant since the 1930s. Long Island.200 flat acres of potato farmland near Hicksville.000 people. pipes. giant machines with an endless chain of buckets ate into the earth. radiant heating in the floor. After the machines came the men. and the American Federation of Teachers. then hurried on to the next site.. The following vignette." and by the enforcement of prohibition. an army of trucks sped over new-laid roads. Its creator. Inc.990. Now there were 10. Source: Jane Sanders. shingles. N. political activism among professors was not unique to the University of Washington. Levittown is known largely for one reason: it epitomizes the revolution which has brought mass production to the housing industry. has become the biggest builder of houses in the U. rectangle. excerpted from a 1950 Time Magazine article. 12 by 16 foot living room. 15-16. the trucks stopped and dumped identical bundles of lumber.000] cannot be mistaken for castles. little potatoes had sprouted from these fields. pp.. Bellamy Clubs. Of course... and laid a four-inch foundation for a house in the rectangle. Near the bundles. four-foot trench around a 25-32 ft. bricks. Cold War On Campus: Academic Freedom at the University of Washington. shingling. bath. Colleagues wondered again whether activist faculty members were endangering the willingness of the public to support university programs. N. which sell for a uniform price of $7. nailing lath. On 1.by Attorney General Palmer’s campaign against "Bolsheviks. new houses rose faster than Jack ever built them. two bedrooms on the first floor. kitchen. raising studs. Each crew did its special job. 17-18. the Washington Commonwealth Federation.000 to $700. Long Island's Levitt & Sons. Levittown a New York City suburb on Long Island which was created by homebuilders William Levitt who is often credited with being the founder of modern suburbia. stove and . The kitchen has a refrigerator. and an "expansion attic" which can be converted into two more bedrooms and bath. sheathing. a community almost as big as 96year-old Poughkeepsie. Its name: Levittown. a new one was finished every 15 minutes. LEVITTOWN: UP FROM THE POTATO FIELDS Today the vast majority of Americans live in suburbs rather than central cities or rural areas. painting. The houses in Levittown. Every 100 feet. 1946-64. loaded with cement. 1979). (Seattle. the Technocrats. describes one of the first of these post-war communities. [ed. and copper tubing--nearly as neatly packaged as loaves from a bakery. These houses now sell for $500. laying bricks. they worked in crews of two and three.Y. Each has a sharp-angled roof and a picture window. Plainfield. or Chelsea.S. They sought solutions to the problems of the Depression and the dangers of Fascism through organizations such as the Communist party. But as the university poised for an era of unprecedented growth and national recognition. On nearby slabs already dry. Under the skilled combination of men & machines.600 houses inhabited by more than 40. Mass. taking just 13 minutes to dig a narrow. Three years ago.J.

from teaching to preaching. the Federal Housing Administration made it easy for a builder to borrow the money with which to build lowcost homes. 1999). all walks of life. all activity stops from 12 to 2 in the afternoon. Like its counterparts across the land.Bendix washer. Mayer. Levittown has also developed its own unique way of keeping up with the Joneses. range from baking to banking. could buy a Levitt house with no down payment and installments of $56 a month. In front of almost every house along Levittown's 100 miles of winding streets sits a tricycle or a baby carriage... saving for the distant day when they can buy a house. Laid one Levittowner last week. Levittown is an entirely new kind of community. citizens.000 children. The Government made it just as easy for the buyer by liberally insuring his mortgage. Their jobs...000 residents are past 35.. For the Record: A Documentary History of the United States (New York. The new terms: 5% down (nothing down for veterans) and 30 years to pay.000 car on the installment plan. And Levittown has very few old people. p. The countless new housing projects made possible by this financial easy street are changing the way of life of millions of U.. Source: "Up from the Potato Fields. Now they can do it more easily than they can buy a $2.800). scarcely 900 are more than seven years old. Levittowners come from all classes.. No longer must young married couples plan to start living in an apartment.. Some Levittowners buy a new house every year. Thus an ex-G. "Everyone is so young that sometimes it's hard to remember how to get along with old people. Shi and Holly A.. reprinted in David E. It has no movies. that is nap time. Government-guaranteed mortgages were so liberalized that in many cases buying a house is now as easy as renting it. 288." Though most of the incomes are about the same (average: about $3. "Twenty-six percent believe that the police should be allowed to search a person or his home without a warrant. A national survey of teenagers in 1958 revealed scant tolerance for diversity or dissenting opinion.. who are realizing for the first time the great American dream of owning their own home. as in any other big community. By insuring loans up to 95% of the value of a house. no nightclubs and only three bars (all in the community shopping centers).I.S. . many sharing their transportation costs through car pools. In Levittown.. of some 8." Time Magazine (3 July 1950):67-69. 72.. TEENAGE OPINIONS IN THE 1950s The McCarthy period had a profound influence on the opinions and ideas of an entire generation of Americans. as soon as the new model is on the market. Fe of its more than 40... Eighty percent of the men commute to their jobs in Manhattan. "Only forty-five percent of the nation's young adults believe that newspapers should be allowed to print anything they want except military secrets. the living room a fireplace and a built-in Admiral television set.

Here Kennedy suggests a type of accommodation between the superpowers.. Some say that it is useless to speak of world peace or world law or world disarmament--and that it will be useless until the leaders of the Soviet Union adopt a more enlightened attitude. "Thirty-seven per cent feel that the greatest threat to democracy in the United States comes from foreign ideas and foreign groups... KENNEDY AND THE COLD WAR President John F. But it is also a warning--a warning to the American people not to fall into the same . does not require that each man love his neighbor--it requires only that they live together in mutual tolerance. "Thirty percent declare that one can't raise a normal family and become a scientist. But I also believe that we must reexamine our own attitude--as individuals and as a Nation--for our attitude is as essential as theirs. I believe we can help them do it." Source: Richard Current... describes his attitude and approach toward the Soviet Union... "Seventeen percent say that it may be right for police to jail people without naming the charges against them. and indeed the rest of the nations. It is sad to read these Soviet statements--to realize the extent of the gulf between us. I hope they do. 854. I am talking about genuine peace. a recognition of their economic and political differences tempered by the realization that despite those differences the two nations. "Fourteen percent think there is something evil about scientists.... do not last forever. Kennedy in a 1963 speech given five months before his assassination. as between individuals. Not the peace of the grave or the security of the slave. must a small planet. However fixed our likes and dislikes may seem. "Thirty-three percent say that people who refuse to testify against themselves be made to talk or should be severely punished. JOHN F. An additional 20 per cent are uncertain about the point. "Thirty-five percent believe that it's necessary to be a genius to become a good scientist and forty-five per cent think their own school backgrounds are too poor to permit them to choose science as a career. submitting their disputes to a just and peaceful settlement. American History: A Survey. the tide of time and events will often bring surprising changes in the relations between nations and neighbors."Twenty-five percent agree that some groups should not be allowed to hold public meetings. And history teaches us that enmities between nations. 1961). like community peace. (New York: Knopf. What kind of peace do we seek? Not a Pax Americana enforced on the world by American weapons of war. World peace. p..

C. President Lyndon Johnson sought and received overwhelming Congressional authorization to send combat troops to defend South Vietnam. Our commitments in that area are well known to the Congress. 1964 Last night I announced to the American people that the North Vietnamese regime had conducted. Speech at American University. I further announced a decision to ask the Congress for a resolution expressing the unity and determination of the United States in supporting freedom and in protecting peace in southeast Asia. and communication as nothing more than an exchange of threats. INCIDENT IN THE GULF OF TONKIN In August. and new weapons beget counterweapons. accommodation as impossible.. Our policy in southeast Asia has been consistent and unchanged since 1954.. These latest actions of the North Vietnamese regime has given a new and grave turn to the already serious situation in southeast Asia.. our most basic common link is that we all inhabit this small planet.. in the final analysis.. at least we can help make the world safe for diversity. This treaty with its accompanying protocol obligates the United States and other members to. not to see only a distorted and desperate view of the other side.S. If we cannot now end our differences.. Two U. Here as elsewhere. following a purported attack on U. naval vessels operating in international waters. President Johnson's Message to Congress August 5. This "escalation" initiated the longest war in the history of the United States. They were first made in 1954 by President Eisenhower. After consultation with the leaders of both parties in the Congress.trap as the Soviets. aircraft were lost in the action. we must and shall honor our commitments. What follows are both the President's message to Congress concerning the incident and its response. not to see conflict as inevitable. I summarized it on June 2 in four simple propositions: America keeps her word.deliberate attacks against U. We are both caught up in a vicious and dangerous cycle in which suspicion on one side breeds suspicion on the other. Source: John F.. June 10. This air action has now been carried out with substantial damage to the boats and facilities. We all breathe the same air. 1963.. Washington D. They were further defined in the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty approved by the Senate in February 1955. . 1964. and I had therefore directed air action against gunboats and supporting facilities used in these hostile operations.S. Kennedy. We all cherish our children's future. military forces off the coast of Southeast Asia. No government or social system is so evil that its people must be considered as lacking in virtue. meet Communist aggression against any of the parties or protocol states. the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution. For.S.. And we are all mortal.

political. to take all necessary measures to repel any armed attack against the forces of the United States and to prevent further aggression. except that it may be terminated earlier by concurrent resolution of the Congress. and a threat to us.edu/lawweb/avalon/tonkin-g.. 1964 © 1996 The Avalon Project. Section 3. ----------------------------------------------2. prepared. to join in affirming the national determination that all such attacks will be met. Joint Resolution of Congress H. That the Congress approves and supports the determination of the President. This resolution shall expire when the President shall determine that the peace and security of the area is reasonably assured by international conditions created by action of the United Nations or otherwise. the United States intends no rashness. as the President determines.. As President of the United States I have concluded that I should now ask the Congress. Section 2.yale. to take all necessary steps. on its part. or territorial ambitions in the area. August 24.htm. with respect to South Vietnam and Laos..J. Source: Department of State Bulletin. As I have repeatedly made clear. Our military and economic assistance to South Vietnam and Laos in particular has the purpose of helping these countries to repel aggression and strengthen their independence. the actions of the North Vietnamese regime have become steadily more threatening. We have no military. We must make it clear to all that the United States is united in its determination to bring about the end of Communist subversion and aggression in the area. The Avalon Project : The Tonkin Gulf Incident. and seeks no wider war.. Consonant with the Constitution of the United States and the Charter of the United Nations and in accordance with its obligations under the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty. In recent months.. but a struggle for freedom on every front of human activity.The issue is the future of southeast Asia as a whole.. . 1964 was last modified on: 12/13/2002 14:40:05. The United States regards as vital to its national interest and to world peace the maintenance of international peace and security in southeast Asia. 1964 Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled. A threat to any nation in that region is a threat to all. therefore. including the use of armed force. the United States is. to assist any member or protocol state of the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty requesting assistance in defense of its freedom. We seek the full and effective restoration of the international agreements signed in Geneva in 1954. www. RES 1145 August 7. Our purpose is peace. and that the United States will continue in its basic policy of assisting the free nations of the area to defend their freedom. This is not just a jungle war. as Commander in Chief.

Vol. We have to be. Heath and Company. I won't follow nobody if he isn't going to help fight for my freedom. What they had to say would have had an impact on the people back home. California. chose to protest the war in Vietnam by resisting the draft. You'd be surprised to know that a guy you went to school with is right now shooting a nine year-old girl and her mother.: D. 1984). Dreams Die Hard. From what they said. The American Spirit. He did it because if they got the chance they would kill him. Dennis [Sweeney] and the Channing Street Group were at the lecture as well. One showed me where he had been shot. David Harris. . Harris was arrested and spent two years in a federal penitentiary for his actions. Or wake up in the morning and see a friend hung from a tree by hooks in his armpits with parts of his body cut and shoved into his mouth. Or throwing a Vietcong out of a helicopter because he wouldn't talk. and student body president at Stanford University. They told me of some of their patrols and how they would be talking to a buddy one minute and watch him die the next. ed.000 by the end of 1968. a former Boy-of. Part of the letter is reprinted below.. Virtually all of them were aware of the growing unpopularity of the war in the United States and were both angered and bewildered at the lack of support. and I wish I could have taped it on my recorder. he explains his decision. Well. He was more angry than hurt. Mass. C. the worse it seemed. I asked if it hurt. Source: Thomas A.about the way some of those cowardly students are acting on campuses. A few weeks ago. Have to. I tell you. Late in July. too. 890-891. VIETNAM-A PROTESTER'S VIEW In 1966. Not until after he got the that shot him.. They sure don't show me much as far as being American citizens. Bailey and David Kennedy.. One Oregon serviceman wrote a letter home in 1966 expressing his dismay at the anti-war protest. The more we learned about the war. II. In his 1982 autobiography. I had the chance to talk with some Marines who had come to Okinawa for four (lousy) days of leave. They were more than happy because they had been fighting for six months with no let-up. They have the idea that they are our future leaders.VIETNAM--A SOLDIER'S VIEW The number of American servicemen and women stationed in South Vietnam peaked at 538. (Lexington. How are the people taking to the war in Portland? I've read too much . We sat in a restaurant all the time. One guy (who had broke down and cried) said that his one desire is to get enough leave to go home and kick three of those demonstrators in a well-suited place and bring him back. it's horrible to read a paper and see your own people aren't backing you up.Year from Fresno.the. pp. and he didn't feel it. the Vietcong aren't the only ruthless ones. I attended a lecture by a Canadian journalist who had just returned from North Vietnam.

I spoke up. 894-896. but one wounded required five. each shaped with fins. The American strategy's starting point was a calculation by Defense Department planners that it took only two Vietnamese to deal with one of their dead countrymen." I said.With what amounted to only a fledgling air defense system. Source: Thomas A. possessed a student deferment. "those bastards have got to be stopped. were increasingly rebellious against the political system." the most horrendous of which were manufactured from phosphorus. It seemed that to do anything else would have dishonored both. I warned them. Theoretically. logistic. COMPROMISE By the 1970s some Soviet youth. occasionally fatal to old people and children. Bailey and David M. Kennedy. Heath and Company. Being even implicitly a party to the destruction of Indochina was not part of my plans." The BLU 52 was 270 pounds of "riot control" chemical that induced vomiting. Mass woundings. North Vietnam had no hope of turning the American Air Force back. I would refuse to comply. The M-36 was an 800-pound casing containing 182 separate "incendiary bomblets. I was prepared to abandon what seemed a promising future and pit myself against the war one on one.. the target increasingly became the population itself. pp. "I helped to build the Moscow State [University] tower where you . It was a privilege I found unwarranted for any student. As a teenager. a visiting American university student describes "Volodya. like their Western counterparts. would tie the enemy's hands." Three weeks later I sat at my typewriter and wrote local Draft Board 71 in Fresno. and the American arsenal had developed wounding devices in great variety.. a letter "To whom it may concern. The American Spirit (Lexington. The letter informed my draft board that I could no longer in good conscience carry the enclosed document or accept the deferment it signified. commonly lodging in the flesh and continuing to burn for as long as fifteen days." I enclosed a Selective Service classification card indicating that the bearer. it was assumed. California. Mass: D. It also signified tacit assent on my part for both the task the Selective Service System was performing and the power it had assumed over my life.C. make "enlarged wounds. David Victor Harris. and muscle spasms. "You know. explained the journalist." who although disenchanted with the Soviet political system eventually succumbed to it. TOTALITARIANISM: IDEALISM. strategic air power destroys the enemy's industrial. nausea. Consequently. Volodya was an idealistic Komsomol member who worked in a construction brigade. If they ordered me for induction. designed to "peel off" the outer flesh. DISILLUSIONMENT." and "shred body organs" before "lodging in the blood vessels. 1984). and transportation systems. The CBU was a small explosive package stuffed with hundreds of one-inch steel darts. In this account written in 1979. causing its victims' wounds to glow with an eerie green light. Without looking at Dennis. but North Vietnam possessed little centralized industry and only a rudimentary transportation system. believing I would redeem my country and realize myself in the process.

60-61. My job was just silliness─it didn't exist. hopes. and concerns for a better world. directed at the government. . but his awakening had been permanent. which turned me into a rebel.." After that. until they were all suddenly arrested. They locked us up in Lubyanka [a Moscow prison and the KGB headquarters] for a week. rebellion meant abandoning his job. They let me out. and was finally assigned to patrol a game preserve several hundred miles north of Moscow. with his cycle and his leather jacket and his anti-establishment stance.he lived like an outlaw in friends' apartments. I met Anna [his wife] and settled down.. Volodya. When you get older." For Volodya. So I began to read. I was to give up my former friends and my politics and they would let me alone. I was slowly providing us with rifles stolen from my forestry job. What I was doing wasn't any use. Russian Journal.' And I agreed. They had beaten me on the head in prison. which he saw as corrupt. or proletarian intellectual. a thinker schooled in Dostoyevsky. who unexpectedly granted him his freedom. This solitary job was a turning point in Volodya's life.. I spent my days walking or skiing alone through the woods. But up there.live.To me. we'll throw you so far into the camps you'll never see the light of day. Ironically. Eventually he went back to work. I didn't even care any more. pp. I got rid of my old friends and my big ideas. He went to dances and created a scandal by dancing the boogie-voogie. "They struck a bargain with me.' they told me. it was like building a shrine─every stone laid with sweat and strong beliefs. A few years later he formed a circle of young men like himself. 1981).." The group met for a year. as having failed to set a moral and spiritual example for its citizens." Source: Andrea Lee. spending entire days immersed in Russian literature.. His anger became more specific. She granted me permission to share it with you. LETTER FROM YUGOSLAVIA The Cold War had prompted such fear and suspicion between the peoples on either side of the Iron Curtain that we often forgot that all of us shared common aspirations. from a simple discontented worker to an intelligent.. `and if you ever touch politics again. and the bitter political satire of Saltykov-Shchedrin. you realize you have to survive. They wanted me to denounce my comrades and recant my own beliefs. he says.. he attended a forestry institute.I wasn't building Communism as I had been taught to believe. "We planned to take on the State with arms.. unquestioning. I hardly even read any more. and just as I had promised. seems to have been a bit like a Soviet James Dean. and nobody cared whether I lived or died in that forest. who pledged themselves to revolution. and buying a motorcycle. Books are dangerous─they disturb you. (New York.. and that did something to me. you want different things.. Tolstoy. moving illegally back to Moscow. "One of us. beat us up and interrogated us. I slept alone in a hut. her country. "Until then I was a child─loyal to the State. damn him. was a planted informer. `Lead a simple life. this time in a forest outside of Moscow.. no longer exists. This changed him. Yugoslavia... In 1986 the letter reprinted below was sent to one of my Cal Poly students from her friend in Yugoslavia." One day he was brought before a high KGB official..

A lot of civilists helped guerilla called partisans. we can only be critical. but very slow. but it does not help much. because government can make mistakes and here is no organization or party to change them on their position. the Soviet Union would do it and after war the least eastern parts of Yugoslavia would be in a pact with Soviet Union. Then illegal communist party organized a strong guerilla movement against Germans. without help in occupied Yugoslavia. workers have more chances to take part in managing factories. The trip was organized by Skiing Club. nonaligned polity. Things are changing. etc. The week was over too soon! Now I'm back in [her hometown] and all work and worries are coming to me again. That was the reason why they were so successful. I was very lucky to get that job because there were many students who wanted to do it but not so many people who had troubles in a school and were willing to pay instruction. If Yugoslav communists were not successful in 2nd WW. So when I compare our life with life of families in the two countries I'd say. that our life is more similar to British one. Many things have changed after 1948. When Hitler attacked Yugoslavia. that communists organized one of the strongest guerilla against German nazism in Europe. One of the reasons is that communist government does not have an opposition. Now Yugoslavia is independent and nonaligned country and we must admit that communists have made it.. Well.Dear ________: Thank you for your letter. The country became more democratic. . I don't think that communism helped Yugoslavia to become a stronger nation. many unemployed young people etc. the king with family and government escaped to England and left their nation alone. I don't think that communism had much influence in our family life. economical and social circumstances. We hoped that the last one of them will be gold-yellow as their mother. But the fact is. I think that Yugoslav foreign polity is good. but they are all completely black! Now they are one week old and still cannot hear and see anything. The Soviet Union had a big influence on Yugoslav communists. They are only sleeping and drinking milk. the weather was sunny almost all the time. They made a state very similar to Soviet Union. if they didn't make Yugoslavia free of Germans. Opposite organizations are forbidden and this is very bad. Last week our Labrador Retriever has brought back 8 young dogs. Partisans became very popular among Yugoslav people and after the 2nd World War the partisans (communists) won elections and Tito became president. Tito refused Stalin in 1948 and started independent. I lived one month with a British family in Great Britain and I was for a month in Soviet Union before 2 years. but our economy! We have about 80% inflation (it will increase this year). it's true. After that I went to France to ski for one week. Conditions for downhill skiing were very good. how do you find it? I understand that you don't have much free time. the government is less totalitarian. Before two months I started instructing math a 13 year girl. I'm in the same situation. But Tito soon recognized that Stalin wanted to create our political. without army. When the 2nd World War started Yugoslavia was a poor monarchy with a small group of rich and crowds of poor people. Have you visited your sister yet? Have you seen New York. Yugoslavia has many debts in west countries. I passed two exams in the beginning of March.

A Russian life was very sad. under their desks in an air raid drill. Bye for now my friend. A child who never had a father after Leningrad. keep in touch. Followed the rules and drank his vodka straight. take care of yourself and please. Stop them at the 38th parallel. and such was life in Leningrad. Part of the song is reprinted below. But let me ask you one question: What do you (and other Americans) think about war between USA and Libya? I think this war is too dangerous to continue. USA and UN have to find a better solution. In the lyrics of his 1987 song "Leningrad. Your Friend. Katrina BILLY JOEL'S "LENINGRAD" The Cold War has hovered over the lives of three generations of the world's people since 1945. The Cold War kids were hard to kill. 'till the Soviets turned their ships around. Haven't they heard we won the war What do they keep on fighting for? Children lived in Lenintown. we knew our childhood days were done. hid in the shelters underground. A child of sacrifice. a child of war. a better way to suppress international terrorism. What do we keep on fighting for? . And in that bright October sun. I was born in '49 A Cold War kid in the coffee time. and tore all the Cuban missiles down. blast those yellow Reds to hell. to learn to serve the state. Violence always causes new terrorism. Went off to school." Billy Joel captures the essence of the Cold War dilemma. And now I watched my friends go off to war.Let it be enough about polity. I really didn't mean to bore you too much. Victor was born the Spring of '44 and never saw his father anymore.

the idea that one person's "terrorist" is another's "freedom fighter" cannot be sanctioned... Although his speech cast the Soviet Union as the major sponsor of terrorism at the time.. press and privacy. It is responsible for assuring the democratic freedoms of speech. Freedom fighters or revolutionaries don't blow up buses containing noncombatants. I believe that the ultimate but seldom stated goal of these terrorists is to destroy the very fabric of democracy. TERROR AND THE COLD WAR In July 1979. terrorist murderers do..rests on the consent of the governed.. International terrorism is a special problem for democracies.sympathize with freedom. It is a disgrace that democracies would allow the treasured word "freedom" to be associated with the acts of the terrorists.. travel. Today's terrorists have modern technology to help them.. A democratic government. women and children.. liberal democracies must acknowledge that international terrorism is a "collective problem. We must be allied in our defense against terrorists. then you must join me in wondering why the community of liberal democracies had not bended together more effectively to opposed those international murderers and to loudly and vigorously expose those states which cynically provide terrorists with comfort and support. they can work with others of like mind across the international borders of the world's free nations.. These conditions.. I believe that international terrorism is a modern form of warfare against liberal democracies.. Israel. assembly. and behave accordingly. Modern terrorism is a form of "warfare by remote control. If you believe as I do. N.. Freedom fighters don't assassinate innocent businessmen or hijack and hold hostage innocent men. .Y.. When one free nation is under attack. What can be done? First." Everything else follow from this. I believe that it is both wrong and foolhardy for any democratic state to consider international terrorism to be "someone else's" problem. What is new is the international nature of terrorism.. permitting rapid international communications. terrorist murderers do." waged against free nations or against nondemocratic but moderate states which. "Leningrad" Copyright (1987) by Columbia Records. Reprinted with permission... I'm talking about highly organized groups with international connections and support who systematically rely on major acts of violence as a political instrument. obviously facilitate terrorist operations directed against a particular government. New York. I am not talking about individual acts of madmen.Source: Billy Joel. and the transfer of monies.. Washington Senator Henry 'Scoop' Jackson addressed a Conference on International Terrorism in Jerusalem.. and foremost. Secondly. travel. the rest must understand that democracy itself is under attack. Freedom fighters don't set out to capture and slaughter schoolchildren. Terrorism is not a new phenomenon. terrorists do. his words resonate even in this post-Cold War era when superpower rivalry is history but international terrorism is not.

930. Density per sq. and local agencies to deal more realistically with terrorists threats.000 live births Life Expectancy at birth Males Females Births per 1.000 8. 1992) pp.8 trillion $ 4.9 $3.000 6.000 11 72 76 16 9 New York 7. 582-585.We can do more. In my country. we are making some progress in organizing federal. 1989 The Soviet Union The United States Political Leader: Mikhail Gorbachev General Secretary. Communist Party 277.700 286.550 141. W..2 million 170 million 361. Source: William Safire: Lend Me Your Ears: Great Speeches in History (New York. Gross National Product Per Capita Income Railroad Mileage Road Mileage Passenger Cars Doctors Infant Mortality per 1. Bush President 238.. mi.000 inhabitants Largest Cities: million .3 million 17 million 896. mi.6 million 31. state.7 million million Kiev 2. is it moral to trade openly and freely with states who use the profits from such trade to finance the murder of innocents? Why should those who conduct remote control warfare against us rest easy that we will contribute to financing our own destruction? [Finally] within each of our own countries. we must organize to combat terrorism in ways consistent with our democratic principles and with the strong support of our citizens.848.000 3.4 million Work Force: Industrial Workers Agricultural Workers 45% 20% Chicago 2.1 Los Angeles 3.000 inhabitants Deaths per 1.800 1.000 26 62 73 20 11 Moscow 8. For instance.1 Population Land Area in sq.6 trillion $ 12.. THE SUPERPOWERS COMPARED.5 million 65.9 million 32% 3% George H..8 million Leningrad 4.2 $1.

A general crisis of communism engulfed the Marxist-Leninist states. For communism to try distributing benefits equitably.800 85..6 million 99.000 99.000 4.465 1.5% 175 3.000 184 85 million 164 million 639 80.000 titles 4. of course.026 592 5.398 982 1. aims not at economic efficiency but at social justice. The problem of attempting to reform failed economic systems overtaxed the gerontocratic remnants of politburos in most communist systems and left them with the options of either repression or a sharing of power.6 million 1. in future centuries it may be celebrated as a new watershed in revolutionary behavior.000 titles 59. there must be some benefits.7 144.070 CHINA.170 $ 1.0 billion 4. Professor of Pacific International Relations at the University of California.609 387. . The communist revolutions of the 20th Century differed from the English revolution of the 17th Century or the French . Communism. particularly after the advent of the information-based.During 1989.8% 14 3.1 billion 15... But in the modern world.331 248 134 million 484 million 1.Average Monthly Industrial Wage Entertainment: Annual Movie Attendance Annual Movies seen per capita Movie Theaters 1980 Film Production TV Sets Radio Sets Daily Newspapers 1980 Books Published 1980 Periodicals Museums Public Libraries Literacy Rate Nobel laureates Men & Women in the Military Nuclear Missiles: Land Based Sea Based Bombers $ 320 4. The system had run out of benefits.486 1. provides his assessment of events leading to the student uprising in China in 1989 and the possible future consequences. The year 1989 not only marks the 200th anniversary of the French Revolution. San Diego.2 million 1. electronics-driven industrial structure. Dictatorship was the second problem.7 13. state-owned and -controlled enterprises cannot operate efficiently enough to finance a modern welfare system.700 1. de facto insurrections occurred in every communist capital except those ruled by family dynasties. By the late 1970s it had become apparent to virtually all Chinese that Mao's 27 years in power had produced nothing more than that: 27 years of personal dictatorship.. 1989: TIANANMEN SQUARE IN PERSPECTIVE Chalmers Johnson.

including members of the People's Liberation Army. China's Great Leap Forward. It does not work.Revolution of the 18th Century in that they did not culminate in "Thermidor. The vanguards first attempt to force their ideology on the masses─the Reign of Terror in the French Revolution. and Lenin had predicted . including those of the late Manchu China. is not a unilinear process. Premier Li Peng. the beach resorts and party stores of China's party plutocracy. students of revolution mean that stage in the process of revolution when the masses assert themselves and send the revolutionary vanguards back to their customary occupations as clerks. much like the attempt to achieve an outward orientation among less developed countries. Many of the students who gathered in Tiananmen Square came from families of lesser officials or professionals on fixed incomes. China seemed to have taken Ferdinand E. Then the vanguard dictatorship becomes solidified and makes its rule routine. Inflation affected them personally and focused their attention on families not troubled by inflation because those families were on the take.Nothing is easy about this process. The 14 Big Families reacted precisely as Marx. Reform of a Soviet-type economy. but that is an inadequate way to put it. Thermidor means that the peoples whose victimization justified the revolution finally decide to take their winnings and call it quits─consolidating the new order and preserving gains. Deng attempted economic reform without political change. But neither he nor his hand-picked managers of reform. Corruption extended all the way to the top political leadership.. czarist Russia and Meiji Japan. Deng sought perestroika without glasnost.. 70% of all reported economic crimes during 1987-88 were committed by officials. This latter phase.. the deposed party leader Zhao. or critical mass. Stalin's purges. there are many possible forms of political economy other than Marxism-Leninism or Adam Smith's bedrock capitalism. the East German communist elites guarded paradise at Wandlitz.According to the Chinese government's own statistics. There are innumerable historical examples of similarly placed monopolists without political reform..Instead of studying such nearby functioning states as South Korea and Taiwan. President Yang Shangkun. ever touched the privileges of the old communist vanguards. This was not a particularly unusual project. What is needed is a set. There are different ways to do it. Calls for democracy were not so much for institutions of the West as they were for Thermidor─to get the entrenched old vanguards off the backs of the people and to hold public officials accountable.. known as the 14 Big Families.. the sleepy but policed indolence of the Leonid I. Where Thermidor did not occur─largely because the masses are too unsophisticated to understand what their vanguards are up to─we see a typical pattern. Hu Yaobang and Zhao Ziyang. Engels.. Although the terms had not yet been invented. lawyers and functionaries. Marcos' Philippines as its model. Economic reform certainly must be accompanied by political reform." By Thermidor. Brezhnev years. each with different trade-offs. but as the economic dynamism of the non-communist Pacific reveals. of reforms together with a clear understanding of what markets do and cannot do for economic systems.. is typified by massive cynicism and corruption─the world of dachas in Russia. Deng tried to restart China's economy without disturbing the dictatorship's entrenched vanguards. plus heirs and descendants of the old vanguards. These are the families of Deng.

won control of the National Assembly. free elections were arranged. Hungary cast off most of its Communist leadership. Gorbachev.. where in early November. and in August Latvia broke free. Bush and Yeltsin signed .. our cause is democracy. courageously mounting a tank to denounce the plotters. the union movement that had initiated the drive for liberalization. hundreds of thousands of people protectively cordoned off the parliament. fearing otherwise an unpredictable instability in East Germany. an agreement to cut strategic nuclear weaponry ultimately by 30-40 percent. the president of the Russian republic. But Bush's caution was overwhelmed by volcanic demands for freedom that redrew the political map of Central Europe with stunning speed. overwhelmed by the liberalizing forces he had unleashed. in the end. During the first year of his presidency. resisted the union. thousands forced the regime to open the gates to the West and started tearing down the hated wall dividing Berlin. The following month. Gorbachev resigned. rallied the crowd. December 17. anxious about Russian security in the face of a united Germany and under pressure from hard-liners at home. in exchange. When he entered the White House in 1989. George Bush was suspicious of the genuineness of Mikhail Gorbachev's commitment to perestroika and glasnost.. at a summit in Moscow.." The next time the students' cause will not be democracy but anti-communism. and Boris Yeltsin. Russian hard-liners attempted a coup against Gorbachev and his reforms. 1989. and Yeltsin reigned over Russia. Source: Los Angeles Times. agreed to German reunification by 1994. In December 1991. In defiance. and Gorbachev. during a summit in Washington. .Deng and company used the army. Bush and Gorbachev signed the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START 1). Estonia and Lithuania declared themselves independent of the Soviet Union.. Upheaval followed in East Germany. In the worldwide 1989 crisis of communism. China behaved worse than any other communist nation and with less excuse. and so did Poland.such a ruling class would act under similar circumstances: in their own interest. he granted Gorbachev a trade package to help shore him up against the hard-liners. sentiment for reunification was mounting rapidly.The reply of the students of Tiananmen was apt: "Only power grows from the barrel of a gun. he was increasingly overshadowed by Yeltsin and.In East and West Germany. Although the coup failed and Gorbachev retained power. and Solidarity.. and a pro-democracy playwright became president of Czechoslovakia. however. But Bush opted for it.. and Romania were overthrown. the Soviet Union came to an end. In January 1993. the Communist governments in Yugoslavia. That winter. with the help of the administration. Instead of compromising with the students. In July 1991. where. replaced by a Commonwealth of Independent States comprising the eleven former Soviet republics.. In May 1990. In May. with Gorbachev having declared a hands-off policy. THE END OF THE COLD WAR The passage below by historian Pauline Meier describes the collapse of the Soviet Union and of four decades of superpower rivalry and potential nuclear war. Bulgaria.


"GREED IS GOOD": THE 1980s THE COMPUTER AGE ARRIVES THE INTERNET THE E-MAIL "REVOLUTION" BEGINS AMERICAN AND JAPANESE AUTOS IN THE 1990s MAJOR U.S. AND IMPEACHMENT AMERICAN URBANIZATION. LIES.Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) Martin Luther King 1964 Civil Rights Act George Wallace League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC) Free Speech Movement Immigration Act of 1965 The Counterculture The Great Society Betty Freidan. 1972 Stonewall Riot Watergate Iranian Hostage Crisis Saturday Night Massacre . 1980-2000 TWENTY TOP METROPOLITAN AREAS. 1994-2004 TERRORISM IN THE 1990s SEX. Wade. The Feminine Mystique National Organization for Women (NOW) Phyllis Schlafly Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) Roe v. EMPLOYERS. 2000 9/11 Terms for Week 9 Wing Luke Barry Goldwater Student Non.

[Nobody] was prepared for my generation. it loomed even larger in relative terms. But the magnitude of the baby boom cannot alone explain the unprecedented character of its impact on politics. My eyes filled with tears. it was also the richest. dramatic technological innovation. healthiest. professors. and it was born and reared in the world's most powerful nation flush with confidence." This was not some postwar spurt of pent up passion but the first of a series of demographic tsunamis which would not crest until 1957 or abate until 1964.. Huge as the baby boom was in absolute numbers. and best educated. the train delivered my mother and me to King Street Station. This golden cohort was not merely the largest in history. The boom followed upon the fertility bust of the Depression and war years and thus overwhelmed the generation of its parents. In all. Nearly 50 million of us hit our teens and early twenties between 1960 and 1972 and were old enough to participate as leaders or followers in shaping the Sixties. and also great . popular culture. twisting route had brought me to that moment. The adolescence of the baby boom also coincided with a profound transformation of economic organization from capital industry to mass consumerism. art and social values. where my father waited to take us to our new home. and not a little arrogance. and society never got ahead of the wave. idealism. but I was one drop in a swelling wave of more than 3. No one knew it then. That year was the leading edge of the "baby boom. teachers.Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) Jerry Falwell/Moral Majority "Reaganomics" The AIDS Crisis Desert Storm Newt Gingrich/Contract With America Monica Lewinsky The World Trade Organization (WTO) THE BABY BOOM GENERATION: ONE SEATTLEITE'S RECOLLECTION In the following vignette local historian and political activist Walt Crowley describes the baby boom generation.8 million births in 1947. 75 million Americans were born between 1946 and 1964. and other social guardians.. Three days out from Chicago. when annual births finally dropped below 4 million. A long. I first saw Seattle from the windows of the Great Northern's Empire Builder early one November morning in 1961. but not of joy. least of all me. I was born fourteen years earlier in a middle class suburb of Detroit.

I like to think that we grew up together. least of all at Jane Addams Junior High School. I walked into the lunch room to discover a full- . was raised an only child. Conservatives like to argue that we were shaped by a "liberal media. and confident citizens eager to build a new world up from the ruins of World War II. Both were independent. but our house resounded with discussions of current events and solutions to the world's problems. I. and interviews with Allen Ginsberg and other beatniks--each in its own way undermined faith in the established order and created an appetite for something new and better. My parents instilled in me a fierce individualism. On my first day. my upbringing was not exactly average. Most children of the boom were raised with one or two siblings in "nuclear" families. science and science fiction--which provided my first reading. provincial. scenes of federal troops guarding Negro children during the integration of Little Rock's Central High School. I found Seattle puny. caring person could be nothing else. and militant atheist. my experience and understanding of the Sixties are condition by this basic natal fact. The coffee table was piled high with magazines--news. however. and Hull. My father was a scientist. and puritanical. but the wrong one. and diverge early from the lives of others raised in large families. Neither of my parents was active politically. to enter what was regarded as one of the worst in an undistinguished system. for a thinking. did education. labor and reform which shaped the city's destiny. certainly we both changed during the next ten years.. My mother was a feisty British war bride raised in the working class row houses of Hartlepool. why couldn't the world? * * * If the clay of my personality was still damp at age fourteen. the Army-McCarthy hearings.dread. a passion for justice. The content of news broadcasts--footage from far off wars in Korea and the Middle East. the first children raised with televised mass marketing and the prospect of nuclear mass destruction. The boom did not erupt from the large families typically raised by farmers and the urban poor to provide a domestic work force and hedge against infant mortality. which deserves a little explanation. and a historical optimism which refuses to surrender to objective reality. the same could be said of Seattle when I arrived virtually on the city's 110th birthday. from what I could tell. a faith in rationalism. inventor. Sheffield. I had left Ridgefield [Connecticut] High School. We were shaped by both unprecedented affluence and anxiety. I was singularly underwhelmed by the city. I grew up a "liberal" without ever having to ask why. energetic. There is no doubt that television shaped the political consciousness of my generation.. consistently rated one of the nation's best. Having lived much of my life close to three of the nation's largest cities. If breakfast cereals could improve themselves every other week. Stories of old strikes and scandals had no place in the classroom. It wasn't really a school at all but an asylum for victims of juvenile dementia and hormonal hysteria. Neither. Beyond this. I would learn only much later about the richness of its past and the titanic struggles for wealth." They have a point.

He was the first non-white ever elected in the city. 3-5. 1960 Shortly after the Democratic Party held its Convention in Los Angeles in 1960 where it nominated Massachusetts Senator John F. Shocked. he became a voice for the "other Seattle" and championed causes such as open housing and minority employment. The vice principal listened to my appeal for action and then replied. One has a feeling that general gratitude would be the reward for any one who would once and for all declare the "demonstration" abandoned.scale food fight in progress. Now however TV has opened a window onto convention deliberations and the "demonstration" is revealed as a synthetic time waster which only serves to belittle us in what should be one of our finer moments. Another measure of social progress came in March 1962 when Wing Luke was elected to the Seattle City Council.. had just visited Seattle. aren't you?" The Rev. I marched directly into the administration office to alert officials to this obvious collapse in social discipline. True they once had their place when their only purpose was to influence the delegates within the convention hall... Luke was no mere token. I know this is presumptuous of me but I'm passing on some thoughts after viewing the Convention here in L. Martin Luther King Jr. In October 1961.. 11-13.S. the new Seattle branch of CORE [Congress of Racial Equality] led a "selective buying" campaign to compel the major downtown department stores to hire more black clerks. Rites of Passage: A Memoir of the Sixties in Seattle (Seattle... Somehow the idea persists that someone should put an end to the traditional demonstrations which follow each nomination. Similar tactics clogged up Nordstrom's during "shoe-ins. a conservative nation and that the GOP should rally many of those non-voting conservatives to political action. Source: Walt Crowley. 1995) pp. Vice Pres. in which protesters would fill and then abandon their shopping carts. July 15. and his seat on the Council was the highest elective office yet attained by a Chinese American anywhere in the continental U.. The letter outlines Reagan's belief that the United States is.. "You're going to be a little troublemaker. RONALD REAGAN TO RICHARD NIXON.A." Seattle yielded CORE its first employment gains for blacks and adoption of corporate "equal opportunity" policies by Nordstrom and other major retailers. 1960 Dear Mr. The campaign. at heart.. and troublemakers were much in the news at that time.. . Ronald Reagan sent the following letter to Vice President Richard Nixon offering his services in the upcoming presidential campaign. Kennedy for President.was later expanded to include "shop-ins" at area grocery stores.

California. paid services at "any price" and if we collectively can afford "free this & that" they'd like to know it before they buy and not after it is entrenched behind another immovable govt. I'm sure the American people do not want the govt. I am convinced that America is economically conservative and for that reason I think some one should force the Democrats to publish the "retail price" for this great new wave of "public service" they promise. Invariably the reaction is a standing ovation--not for me but for the views expressed. Hitler called his "State Socialism" and way before him it was "benevolent monarchy. Unfortunately he is a powerful speaker with an appeal to the emotions." I do not include Kennedy's acceptance speech because beneath the generalities I heard a frightening call to arms. In my opinion this would be fatal. One last thought. There is nothing new in the idea of a Govt. No Republican no matter how liberal is going to woo a Democratic vote but a Republican bucking the give away trend might re-create some voters who have been staying at home. being Big Brother to us all. Laguna Niguel Office.shouldn't some one tag Mr. I don't pose as an infallible pundit but I have a strong feeling that the twenty million non voters in this country just might be conservatives who have cynically concluded the two parties offer no choice between them where fiscal stability is concerned. You were kind enough to write me to comment on the "talk" I had given and which you had read. bureau. He leaves little doubt that his idea of the "challenging new world" is one in which the Federal Govt. Pacific Region. That is why I'm presuming on your busy day with these thoughts. Kennedy's bold new imaginative program with it's proper age? Under the tousled boyish hair cut it is still old Karl Marx--first launched a century ago. LETTER FROM A BIRMINGHAM JAIL . Laguna Nigel. will grow bigger & do more and of course spend more.-. I know there must be some short sighted people in the Republican Party who will advise that the Republicans should try to "out liberal" him. "talks suitable for any patriotic occasion with platitudes and generalities guaranteed. I have been speaking on the subject in more than thirty eight states to audiences of Democrats & Republicans. Ronnie Reagan Source: Reproduced from the holdings of the National Archives. You will be very much in my prayers in the days ahead. Sincerely." I apologize for taking so much of your time but I have such a yearning to hear some one come before us and talk specifics instead of generalities.Starting with the opening speech and continuing through all the speeches until Kennedy's acceptance speech I thought the Democrats could pick up some campaign money by selling the collection of addresses as.

kick and even kill your black brothers and sisters. 523. why do white people treat colored people so mean?... Frankly."--then you will understand why we find it difficult to wait. Anyone who lives inside the United States can never be considered an outsider anywhere within its bounds. it must be demanded by the oppressed. Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere. when you have seen hate-filled policemen curse. Never again can we afford to live with the narrow. I cannot sit idly by in Atlanta and not be concerned about what happens in Birmingham. but we still creep at horse-and-buggy pace toward gaining a cup of coffee at a lunch counter. The Negro American: A Documentary History." When your first name becomes "boy" (however old you are) and your last name becomes "John.. some white Birmingham clergy openly criticized his efforts as harmful to the harmonious relationship between the races and questioned his commitment to Christianity.. Ill. But your statement fails to express a similar concern for the conditions that brought about the demonstrations. I am in Birmingham because injustice is here. For years now I have heard the word "wait!" This "wait" has almost always meant "Never. 1967). In his letter written while he was under arrest for violating Birmingham's segregationist ordinances. But more basically." and your wife and mother are never given the respected title "Mrs. "Wait." Several months ago the [SCLC] affiliate here in Birmingham asked us to be on call to engage in a non-violent direct-action program if such were deemed necessary... p. LETTERS FROM MISSISSIPPI ." We have waited for more than 340 years for our constitutional and God..when you have to concoct an answer for a five-year-old son who is asking: "Daddy.By 1963 Martin Luther King had emerged as the most important civil rights leader of the era. The nations of Asia and Africa are moving with jet like speed toward gaining political independence.. I have yet to engage in a direct-action campaign that was "well-timed" in the view of those who have not suffered from the disease of segregation.. King answers the ministers.. and when the hour came we lived up to our promise... Source: Leslie H.. We readily consented. (Glenview. Fishel and Benjamin Quarles. but it is even more unfortunate that the city's white power structure left the Negro community with no alternative. Perhaps it is easy for those who have never felt segregation to say. provincial "outside agitator" idea. However as the campaign to desegregate public accommodations in Birmingham proved far more difficult than King or his followers had anticipated.given rights. It is unfortunate that demonstrations are taking place in Birmingham. You deplore the demonstrations taking place in Birmingham." But when you have seen vicious mobs lynch your mothers and fathers and drown your sisters and brothers at whim. I think I should indicate why I am here in Birmingham since you have been influenced by the view which argues against "outsiders coming in. We know through painful experience that freedom is never voluntarily given by the oppressor.

A lot of the meetings have been run by a Negro Mennonite minister from Georgia. His main point was that people within the movement must not use each other because it is that very exploitation of someone else... and has some excellent staff people here.. a member of the National Council of Churches. Dear Mom and Dad. or Negroes in the community using volunteers as the only available victims of their suppressed hostility to whites in general.. etc. etc). plump. 1964. or vice versa. This letter is hard to write because I would like so much to communicate how I feel and I don't know if I can. I won't let you see your exam paper. Yesterday he gave a long talk about people using each other and where to watch out for this within the movement itself (Negro man accuses white girl of being a racist if she won't go to bed with him.. I felt so bad I was about ready to forget about going to Mississippi at all.. I can only hope you have the . June 15 I turned down a chance to work in the southwest part of the state. which turns him from a human being into an object.) His name is Vincent Harding. These are examples of the kind of honesty that characterizes the whole training session. After thinking about this seeming contradiction. Susan June 27 Dear Mom and Dad. And a large part of that leadership is young people from the South--Negroes who've had experience just because they're Negroes and because they've been active in the movement." Monday night.. The direction of the whole program is under Negro leadership--almost entirely. I decided that I have not discovered just how dedicated I am to the civil rights cause and that is the purpose of the trip.The following letters written between June and August. that the movement is fighting against. provide a brief glimpse of the impressions and emotions of the largely white college students who worked in Mississippi during that "Freedom Summer." June 15 Us white kids here are in a position we've never been in before. Love. because the thought is cruel. I told him that I couldn't go in there because I was just too scared. But I still wanted to go. or white girl looking for "my summer Negro". for the most part never experiencing any injustice other than "No. (The NCC is paying for this orientation. and brilliant moderator in discussions because he reacts so honestly and humorously to every question. It is very hard to answer to your attitude that if I loved you I wouldn't do this--hard. the most dangerous area. I talked to a staff member covering that area for about fifteen minutes and he told me about the five Negroes who have been taken into the woods and shot in the last three months. bespectacled. I just didn't feel like giving up my life.. And here "we" are.

In fact. There comes a time when you have to do things which your parents do not agree with. Later. I have no way of demonstrating my love. July 29.. While some questions were relevant. Bonnie July 30 Yesterday.. they are worse than worthless--they become a force of evil in themselves. Love.. And what I see here does not apply only to Gulfport or to Mississippi or even to the South. Convictions are worthless in themselves.The people we're killing in Viet Nam are the same people whom we've been killing for years in Mississippi.. both for myself and for the Negroes of Mississippi.. True. two of us (both white) went to speak in two Sociology classes [at a local white university]. I try to fight the bitterness..sensitivity to understand that I can both love you very much and desire to go to Mississippi.. This doesn't apply just to civil rights or social consciousness but to all the experiences of life. I am seeing what it is like to be poor.. Both classes treated us respectfully and were very attentive to what we had to say. I am beginning to understand why people who work in the Movement come to not really care too much about the kind of thoughts of some "liberal" southern and. and hated... it follows you in your conscience. We spoke about our project in Holly Springs and then answered questions. This summer is only the briefest beginning of this experience. It was that they were patting themselves on the back for recognizing and admitting that conditions in Mississippi were bad.. if they don't become actions.. You can't run away from a broadened awareness.. northern whites. I realized what had been bothering me about those people at [the university]. or you become a self-deceiving person who has numbed some of his humanness.. I hope you will accept my decision even if you do not agree with me. many were of the nature of: a "Would you marry a Negro?" "Is your organization Communist?" and "Why are Negroes so immoral?" Both Alvin and I felt that it was fairly successful.. Your daughter. Ellen ... Gulfport.. Their questions were for the most part more sophisticated.If you try.For the first time in my life. we didn't tie the knot in Mississippi and we didn't pull the trigger in Viet Nam-that is. August 12 Dear Mother and Father: I have learned more about politics here from running my own precinct meetings than I could have from any Government professor. We were able to answer most of the questions in sociological terms... It think you have to live to the fullest extent to which you have gained an awareness or you are less than the human being you are capable of being.... we personally--but we've been standing behind the knot-tiers and the triggerpullers too long.. The second class which we attended was an advanced class in Urban Sociology. It is simply a fact and that is all I can say. oppressed. for that matter..

There it was doused with diesel fuel and burned. I was told that another man fired the shot. about four miles from where the three were taken from the station wagon. (New York. Three of those workers. The murder was done in the "cut" on Rock Cut Road. . Michael Schwerner and James Chaney. They were also uncovered." Another said: "So you wanted to come to Mississippi? Well. 45-72. now we're gonna let you stay here. were killed near Philadelphia. I was told that the three victims said nothing. but that they were jeered by the murderers. So he wasn't shot with the same precision. It was before midnight. Three cars were in the cut.. Chaney was last. as though they had practiced it: "Ashes to ashes. but my opinion remains that one man fired both shots. They were met by an official of the state of Mississippi. I was told that the man with the pistol asked him: "You still think a nigger's as good as I am?" No time was allowed for a reply. and the moon was still high. Andrew Goodman. We're gonna let you stay here with us. he tried to pull and duck away from his executioner. 314. forty-four days later. Apparently he stood as still as Schwerner did. You wouldn't be here with us. describes their deaths. and he was shot three times instead of once.Source: Elizabeth Sutherland. 229-230. using the same pistol. We're not even gonna run you out. After the burial the station wagon was driven to a point fifteen miles northeast of Philadelphia." When Schwerner was pulled from the car and stood up to be shot. and the only difference was that he struggled while the others had not. to the edge of the Bogue Chitto swamp. If you'd stayed where you belonged. He didn't stand still. 145-147. ed. for the shot that killed him was the same precise shot. 1965). with nothing said. All three bodies were buried in darkness with a bulldozer. Letters From Mississippi. pp. 22-23. Afterwards the murderers began drinking though none could be called drunk. He was shot straight through the heart and fell to the ground. The passage below from William Bradford Huie's Three Lives for Mississippi. with a bulldozer. Dust to dust. The three bodies were tossed into the station wagon and driven along dirt roads to a farm about six miles southwest of Philadelphia. less than a mile from Highway 19. Several of the murderers chanted in unison. Goodman was next. facing his executioner. MURDER IN MISSISSIPPI During the 1964 Freedom Summer hundreds of black and white civil rights workers from throughout the United States assisted black Mississippians to register to vote and to challenge the racially discriminatory laws of the state.

In 1964 one of the first sights a visitor saw. and both school segregation and discrimination in employment and housing were common. manning a card table. organ of William F. Note the movement's links to civil rights activism then taking place in the South. and asking for a donation to support ."Well. 3 Lives for Mississippi. In the early 1960s Berkeley student activists were particularly drawn to the civil rights cause because of the changing racial composition of the city of Berkeley. activists for-several years had solicited donations and sign-ups for protests from card tables set up on the city sidewalk at the edge of campus at Bancroft and Telegraph. "you've done a good job. 118-121.750 to 20. was a student. possibly blue-jeaned. In keeping with the. Vice-Chancellor for Student Affairs.. black shoppers were not welcome in downtown Berkeley. You've struck a blow for the White Man.S. white Berkeley was schizophrenic--many older residents were native Southerners. In the summer of 1964. (New York. Mississippi can be proud of you.dead!" Source: William Bradford Huie. In truth.. In 1963 Berkeley voters rejected an open housing ordinance. senator. when the Republican national convention met in San Francisco. jingling a can. at the corner of Bancroft and Telegraph. and in October 1964 the school board was nearly recalled over desegregation... and sandaled. bearded. boys. dead.. then the rest of us are going to kill him just as dead as we killed those three sonsofbitches tonight. Due to black migration from the South.. Alex C. 22. activists organized anti-Goldwater pickets on the Cal campus. Sherriffs. Throughout 1964 CORE and its allies sponsored demonstrations at Lucky's stores in Berkeley.. One seldom saw a black on campus. a former U. perhaps worried less about political activity itself than about its visibility and the effect that it had upon visitors to campus... To some people.. by 1960 the city was one-fifth black. Sherriffs. it appeared that a handful of agitators systematically used the campus as a staging ground for making trouble." he said. and they pointed with pride to the black assemblyman elected from a mostly white district as early as 1948. These votes indicated the city's bitter divisions. 1968) pp. I'm looking each one of you in the eye and telling you this: the first man who talks is dead! If anybody who knows anything about this ever opens his mouth to any outsider about it. because liberals had long considered Berkeley to be advanced. Whether pressured from outside or not. and at the Oakland Tribune. BERKELEY: THE FREE SPEECH MOVEMENT In the following vignette University of Washington historian William Rorabaugh describes the Free Speech Movement in Berkeley that began in September 1964. at the Sheraton-Palace Hotel and along auto row in San Francisco. Berkeley's blacks lived in a corner of the city remote from the University.became upset by the activists' presence..456. But before you go. Knowland. The split was ironic. Go home now and forget it.rules banning political activity on campus. whose office was in Sproul Hall. "Does everybody understand what I'm saying? The man who talks is dead. Berkeley student activists formed the Berkeley Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) to protest job discrimination..

. they knew what they wanted. When the University opened that September." They knew when to advance. on the other hand.. The police did not know what to do. they -demanded an end to the regulation of political activity on campus. This protest led to a mill-in inside Sproul Hall and the summary "indefinite suspension' of eight students [including] Mario Savio [and] Art Goldberg. they spoke a common language gained through a common experience. a kind of consensus that came to be called participatory democracy. activist leaders knew how to maintain discipline over their troops.. several hundred students surrounded the car. were dumbfounded in mid-September when the University suddenly issued new rules that banned tables. The activists were better prepared for war than [University President Clark] Kerr. the sit-in. how to use crowds. In contrast. Finally. when to retreat. some of the activist leaders were battle-tested veterans of the civil rights movement. University police went to the plaza to arrest a former student.civil rights. The vice-chancellor saw himself as a moral guardian bound to protect the purity of the campus and its clean cut fraternity and sorority kids from unkempt beatniks and wild-eyed radicals. how to use the media. This was called free speech. and they returned to campus with renewed dedication and determination. Kerr's bureaucracy became paralyzed.. Although the leaders were not close to one another. Participants later recalled the spontaneity of the "sit-down. Kerr. First. "A student who has been chased by the KKK in Mississippi.. These activists..an army. because they had never encountered such massive defiance.' "is not easily scared by academic bureaucrats. who was manning a CORE table. and were prepared to use it. was as unready to do battle as a southern sheriff facing a civil rights march for the first time. who in other circumstances might have sided with Kerr... theater. The angry students escalated the conflict by moving their tables to Sproul Plaza. on October 1.." observed one student. Jack Weinberg. For . The activists understood their ultimate weapon." Suddenly. To Sherriffs. This event launched the Free Speech Movement. Second.where they had been placed in growing numbers for two or three years... Although their specific demands changed over time. and as Weinberg got into the car. and other techniques long favored among revivalists and street politicians accompanied innovative mass meetings at which people freely spoke and at which collective decisions were made by. this scene was appalling because it created an image of the University as a haven for eccentrics and malcontents. "Sit down. including Mario Savio and Art Goldberg. someone shouted. The activists identified the issue as a traditional American right in order to appeal to large numbers of students. The police drove a car onto the plaza to take Weinberg to be booked.. they could get no answers. Kerr showed that he understood nothing about his opponents' tactics. When the activists sought an explanation for the change. and how to negotiate. and the feeling that something important was happening. activists looked forward to recruitment and fund-raising." the thrill of power over the police. Finally. Over the summer. song.. Kerr badgered his beleaguered bureaucracy until it could barely function. Again and again. Mass psychology.sixty students had worked for civil rights in Mississippi. how to intimidate.. activists created. Through these techniques and by focusing on the simplicity of the demand for free speech. Throughout September 1964 skirmishes continued as defiant activists set up tables and were cited by irritated deans...

Source: William J.thirty-two hours Weinberg sat in the back of the police car. Americans of all religions and of all colors. there were always at least several hundred surrounding the car.. He became a celebrity and was identified by the crowd as the leader of the activists. and when he spoke. Mario Savio. who was hostile to the protest.. Martin Luther King led demonstrations at Selma.. p. We have already waited one hundred years and more. Wednesday I will send to Congress a law designed to eliminate illegal barriers to the right to vote. his words seemed especially to energize the crowd. Rorabaugh. From then on Savio battled Kerr. King and the Civil Rights Movement. Several times a twenty-one year old junior. It is the effort of American Negroes to secure for themselves the full blessings of American life. So many people stood on the car's roof that it sagged. 1965.which have been used to deny Negroes the right to vote. Berkeley at War. and the discussion moved from the rules banning political activity to analyses of the University's governance. Mr.. Among those who observed the sit-down was Jerry Brown. Members of the Congress: I speak tonight for the dignity of man and the destiny of democracy. and the time for waiting is gone. 1989). to join me in that cause. President. to secure voting rights for black Americans. 18-19. removed his shoes to climb atop the car. which contrasted with the power that they held over the immobilized police car. What happened in Selma is part of a far larger movement which reaches into every section and State of America. . from every section of this country. Alabama. then living in Berkeley. PRESIDENT JOHNSON PROPOSES THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT On March 7. Speaker.01 damage.. Although students came and went. The 1960s (New York. the governor's son. During the sit-down the demonstrators used the roof of the police car (with police permission) as a podium to speak to the crowd. Students expressed their powerlessness.. During the night students who disapproved of the sit-down--many from nearby fraternities--molested the protesters by tossing lighted cigarettes and garbage into the crowd. the FSM later took up a collection and paid the $455. People aired all sorts of views. Johnson for the first time placed the full support of the Presidency behind Dr. The activists responded by singing civil rights songs. This bill will strike down restrictions to voting in all elections. I urge every member of both parties. But even if we pass this bill... 20-21. We cannot refuse to protect the right of every American to vote in every election that he may desire to participate in. the battle will not be over. One week later President Lyndon Johnson spoke before a joint session of Congress to urge passage of voting rights legislation that would guarantee that right. Here is part of his address to Congress: Mr.. It was not a fair match.

But a century has passed. sharecropper and city dweller. Kennedy. 1984). And. poverty. 872-873. King. It was later determined that the letter originated with the FBI which was trying to discredit King and retard the Civil Rights Movement. but really it is all of us. restless country can offer opportunity and education and hope to all: black and white. North and South. The time of justice has now come. Mass.. and to all in the Nation tonight. I know how difficult it is to reshape the attitudes and the structure of our society.Their cause must be our cause too. I will not dignify your name with either a Mr. more than a hundred years. or a Reverend or a Dr. pp. how many white families have lived in stark poverty. (Lexington. shortly after his notification that he was the Nobel Peace Prize recipient. In view of your low grade. White people in this country have enough frauds of their own but I am sure they don't have one at this time anywhere near your equal. The American Spirit. As a man whose roots go deeply into Southern soil I know how agonizing racial feelings are. disease.. And these enemies too. how many white lives have been scarred by fear. For Negroes are not the only victims. You know you are a complete fraud and a great liability to all of us Negroes. got an anonymous letter suggesting he was a fraud and that he commit suicide. who must overcome the crippling legacy of bigotry and injustice. You are .. They are the enemies and not our fellow man. The letter is reprinted below. since the Negro was freed. I tell you that I believe sincerely that no force can hold it back. your last name calls to mind only the type of King such as King Henry the VIII. because we have wasted our energy and our substance to maintain the barriers of hatred and terror? So I say to all of you here. MARTIN LUTHER KING AND THE FBI In 1964 Martin Luther King. disease and ignorance. Source: Thomas A. rich. we shall overcome. How many white children have gone uneducated. And he is not fully free tonight.. And when it does.. that those who appeal to you to hold on to the past do so at the cost of denying you your future... I think that day will brighten the lives of every American. Bailey and David M. look into your heart. It is right in the eyes of man and God that it should come. ignorance. This great. Because it is not just Negroes. And we shall overcome. These are the enemies: poverty. not our neighbor.

Charles Patrick Fizer. For a brief time. We will now have to depend on our older leaders like Wilkins. King you are done. Satan could not do more. abnormal beast. like all frauds your end is approaching. he moved to Watts with his mother. He broke in singing second lead with the Olympics.. People paid to hear Charles Fizer sing. Most of the Fizer family migrated to California during World War II to take jobs in the buzzing Los Angeles area aircraft plants and shipyards. You. I repeat--no person can argue successfully against facts. Clearly you don't believe in any personal moral principles. I repeat you are done. You better take it before your filthy. (New York. He lived with them for a time.Came the Olympics' recording of "Hully Gully. THE END OF NON-VIOLENCE: THE WATTS RIOT The four days of rioting that swept the Watts section of Los Angeles in August. You could not believe in God. You are done. King.. Then. Source: David J. born in Shreveport Louisiana. the church organizations that have been helping--Protestant. There is but one way out for you. 1981). your Nobel Prize (what a grim farce) and other awards will not save you.126. sang because he loved to-and for money.. Charles attended the Sweet Home Baptist Church and became an enthusiastic choir member. You have just 34 days in which to do it (this exact number has been selected for a specific reason. when he was only three. The passage below describes the death of Charles Patrick Fizer. Garrow.... 125. The nation's attention.. The American public. there is only one thing left for you to do. a man of character and thank God we have others like him. Charles Fizer was taken there by his grandparents. By the time he was fifteen. 1965 proved a turning point in the Civil Rights struggle." and Charles Fizer was . You are done. vicious one at that. when he was seven. even at an early age have turned out to be not a leader but a dissolute. So will others who have backed you.. But you are done. The FBI and Martin Luther King. You could have been our greatest leader. Jr. You know what it is. one of the 34 people killed during the riot. he was singing in night clubs. he made it big. The Fizer family was a religious one.. He had a good voice... Catholic and Jews will know you for what you are--an evil. abnormal fraudulent self is bared to the nation. In 1944. What incredible evilness.. I repeat you are a colossal fraud and an evil. it has definite practical significant [sic]). King.. not even a fraud like yourself.He became part of a successful group of entertainers..no clergyman and you know it. which had previously been focused on the rural South now shifted to the ghettos of the North and West as African Americans demonstrated their anger with the prevailing political and economic status quo. abnormal moral imbecile. King. as the group was known. No person can overcome facts. pp. Your "honorary" degrees.

The Olympics won television guest shots. but as total acts by the White community against the Negro community. 1966).Violent Coordinating Committee and soon afterwards advanced the concept of Black Power. Then came the roar of M-1 carbines. not five but 500 Negro babies die each year because of lack of proper food. Charles Fizer never realized his resolve to make a new life. Too many white faces challenging him? Perhaps.But there would be no work Saturday─the restaurant manager decided to close until peace was restored in the city. 1965. Other hit songs followed.. Even as the violence spread in Los Angeles. Inexplicably. Suddenly.. Source: Jerry Cohen and William S. The record sold nearly a million copies. Burn. 211-213. This has not been on the level of individual acts of discrimination between individual whites against individual Negroes.. In any event. he stopped short of a National Guard roadblock at 102nd and Beach Streets. He was released Thursday.has been the maintaining of the Negro community in its condition of dependence and oppression. and it seemed nothing could stop Charles Fizer from reaching the top.that is a function of institutionalized racism. In the center of the fireblackened community. a bullet in his left temple. that act is widely deplored by most segments of the society. (New York. . The history of every institution of this society indicates that a major concern. Guardsmen cried to him to halt and fired warning shots into the air. he became impatient. In a article published later that year he discussed its ramifications for America. He and another entertainer formed a night club duo. But when in that same city.. he hit bottom. [But] Charles became restless. A white man giving him an order? Perhaps. The Buick spun crazily and rammed a curb. went jobhunting and found work as a busboy.. Inside the car he lay dead. Charles Fizer wakened early Friday. What compelled him to jam the accelerator to the floor only he could say─and soon he was past explaining.M.. He served six months at hard labor on a county prison farm after being arrested with illegal barbiturates. The time was 9:15 P. With his fellow performers. Alabama. But that night Charles Fizer drove through Watts after the curfew hour. but it flopped... Baby. pp. August 12. Let me give you an example of the difference between individual racism and institutionalized racism. he turned on the car's headlights and shifted into forward gear. he backed the Buick away from the barricade. When unidentified white terrorists bomb a Negro Church and kill five children. His testy attitude and souring views cost him his job with the singing group. The summer of the Los Angeles Riot. Burn: The Los Angeles Race Riot August..something to be reckoned with as an entertainer. he pointed the car straight for the roadblock. The riot already was in progress.. Birmingham. Charles came up with a snaky dance to fit the "Hully Gully" music.. STOKLEY CARMICHAEL ON BLACK LIBERATION In the Spring of 1966 Stokely Carmichael became chairman of the Student Non. shelter and medical facilities. Murphy.

If such a program is developed it will not have the effect of isolating the Negro community but the reverse. Frazier. The next question usually is. Afro. and with the white rush to suburbia. The single aspect of the black power program that has encountered most criticism is this concept of independent organization. of W. and negotiate with other groups from a position of organized strength. who later spoke. This is a choice that the country will have to make. 1988). or organized and powerful communities able to make constructive contributions to the total society. without effective political institutions through which to relate to the total society. which was at its inception limited to dealing with effects rather than causes.420. Without the power to control their lives and their communities. The only difference is that we will have the power to define the terms of these alliances. Negroes will in the next three decades control the heart of our great cities. 419. [The] "inner city" in most major urban areas is [sic] already predominately Negro.We must organize black community power to end these abuses. The vignettes below provide rare glimpses into the campus mood which generated the UW BSU. and to give the Negro community a chance to have its needs expressed. These areas can become either concentration camps with a bitter and volatile population whose only power is the power to destroy. these communities will exist in a constant state of insurrection. Such leadership will recognize that its power lies in the unified and collective strength of that community. That is a rule of politics and there is no reason why it should not operate here. 414. can the ghettoes in fact be organized?" The answer is that this organization must be successful. "So--can it work. Athletic Department was jolted by charges of racism and discrimination made by some 13 black athletes.American History: Primary Sources . because there are no viable alternatives--not the War on Poverty. Among the 13 was basketball player Dave Carr. or a withdrawal into black nationalism and isolationism.. The first vignette describes black student athletes and the second is an interview with UW BSU leaders. pp.about the feelings of Negroes on the . And "Integration" is meaningful only to a small chosen class within the community.. A leadership which is truly "responsible"--not to the white press and power structure. the possibility of meaningful political alliances on specific issues will be increased. and has become simply another source of machine patronage. (Chicago. Source: Thomas R. When the Negro community is able to control local office. This is presented as third-partyism which has never worked. In March [1968] the U. but to the community--must be developed. THE UW BLACK STUDENT UNION By 1968 Black Student Unions had emerged on virtually every major university campus in the United States including the University of Washington.

To combat this. "like not being able to find a place to live in the U. a black athlete is Mister when he's overseas. Richard Brown. The conversation is a mixed bag of self-kidding.campus." * * * Hidden away in a far corner in the basement of the UW HUB is Room 92. and he has a habit of gnawing his lower lip. so it's never served black students.' racism is not so noticeable these days. "No black person will be free. ending the conversation. "For example. I'm not exceptional. "There are other aspects. "Yeah. Little more than a cubbyhole. but he's nothing when he gets home--can't find housing." Adds Brown. Though nothing on the door proclaims it. middle-class kids. So many of us now are hungry to compete and able to compete if we get the chance. "Voices from the Ghetto. Brisker. I'm just lucky. "Except for some talk of 'niggers. one thing we want to do is establish courses in Afro-American culture and history. "until all blacks are free. District. Among those present are E." he says. he gestures as he speaks. and on one recent afternoon. But no one's interested in that. 'What are you doing on our campus." Seattle Magazine." says Gossett. This country has been using its black athletes far too long. But you know the single thing that bothers me most? Nobody will ever talk to me about anything except basketball. the BSU's sole Mexican American. Whitey put-ons and serious discussion. BSU vice-president. and Larry Gossett. "the Black Students' Union is a political organization set up to serve the wants and needs of black students on white campuses." says Carr. can't get a job. showing them off in foreign lands to convince the people that racism doesn't exist in America--when we know it does. Room 92 houses the UW Black Students' Union (BSU). A "FISH-IN" ON THE NISQUALLY . "White students just look at us like.' Or sometimes we're considered exceptional Negroes. we're in full support of the Olympic Games boycott.J." Gossett wears black-frame glasses and a big Afro. and ultimately I intend to go into personnel work." he explains. Brown and Gossett do most of the talking. one of those involved in the Franklin High sit-in. 'You keepin' in shape? You goin' to play pro ball?' I'm supposed to be the dumb black athlete who can't do anything else. "In general. one of the four young men who had been charged with firebombing." Source: Ed Leimbacher. the room is jammed with furnishings. I like basketball. Hell. a half-dozen BSU members. "The Black Student Union is for anything that advances the cause of black people. 41-44. The educational system is geared for white. Jesse Crowder. We're educated to fit into some non-existent slot in white society." On Richard Brown's lapel is a button which displays a leaping black panther. but I also am taking a degree in business. rather than to be responsible to the needs of our brothers in the ghetto. 5:51 (June 1968) pp." he continued.

Suzan Satiacum and Don George Jr. Hw was in charge of the reinforcements from all over the State that come down on us like a sea of green. the game wardens were looking us up and down. Many of us were dressed in our traditional way with headbands. 1969. between state officials and Indians who refused to stop fishing.. He stated that he was directing the game wardens at the Landing on Oct. And why would we want to wipe out our livelihood? Our attorney made Lasseter state that could have been the pollution not the Indians who depleted the fish in the Puyallup River. The trial was to begin on January 15." Now. we held a "fish-in" on the Nisqually River to try and bring a focus on our fishing fight with the State of Washington. He told of the tactics . I said to my cousin. a Tulalip mother of eight was one of the protestors arrested and held in jail. There was a seventh Indian who was later arrested for the same charge. Now it was our turn! The first witness for our defense was Bob Johnson. some dressed in their uniforms and some in plain clothes. They were released after posting bail a few hours later.. The Puyallup River is filled with pollution more than it is with water. He talked about how we Indians are the ones who depleted the fish in the Puyallup River and if we weren't controlled we would do the same to the Nisqually River.. not their smaller operations. In jeopardy were rights which Northwest tribes like the Nisqually. at 9:30. 1965. The "fish-in" started at 4:00 p. Her daughter. At the time of the fish-in he was the editor of the Auburn Citizen newspaper. It ended with six Indians in jail and dazed Indian kids wondering "what happened?" My parents. The next morning the State started off with their last witness. The first witness for the State was a field marshal for the game department-Zimmerman. 13. Laura McCloud. Janet McCloud. but we recognized all of them. were arrested that day. According to the protesters.. During the controversy there were a number of "battles" around Puget Sound and on the Columbia River. Lasseter. recounts her story at the trial. they don't know any better. Al and Maiselle Bridges. "Don't pay any attention to them.m. The charges against these six Indians was "obstructing the duty of a police officer.". As we walked the length of the corridor to the courtroom. Nugent Kautz. We went into the courthouse that Wednesday certain that we would not receive justice as was proved to us in other trials. and was over at 4:30. And he had not been a Frank's Landing on that day. At the time of the fish-in I thought that there were about a hundred game wardens. As we walked into the hallways there were many game wardens standing there. pollution and commercial fishing were depleting the salmon. the white man's dams. all we could do was wait till the trials started. laughing at us. Puyallup and others enjoyed since the days of their treaties signed in 1855. On October 13. State Fisheries Biologist. to fish and net salmon on the Nisqually and other rivers. Don & Janet McCloud. leggings and necklaces.In mid-October 1965 a group of Washington State Indians staged one of their first "fish-ins" to protest state conservation prohibitions against traditional fishing.

we could tell she was trying very hard to keep from crying but.. .. ed.." They have never stopped! Source: Peter Nabokov..why the Indians had the fish-in demonstration on that day and what the mood the Indians had before the fish-in.the game wardens use on us. After the two lawyers gave their summations the jury went into session. It is impossible to ignore the handwriting on the wall--the enormous. except the State.flashlights. Mr. The game wardens were very hostile after this. pictures of game wardens. Tulalip Indian. once you get tangled in nylon mesh it is very easy to drown. The next defense witness was Janet McCloud. This was at ten o'clock at night. With all this testimony and evidence.... angular jottings that spillover imaginary margins.. So the war goes on--which goes to prove that the history books are wrong when they talk about "the last Indian wars. Across the peeling faces of neo-Victorian buildings..'" He read the rest of the names with the same verdict. the youngest was 7 and could not swim.. here comes another guilty [verdict]. "Did I hear right?" She nodded her head. We were not expecting any violence because all my brothers and sisters were there and the youngest was 4 at that time. On the ash-gray bricks of one nameless liquor store deep in the heart of the East Los Angeles barrio. it was plain to see that the game wardens had lied. The foreman came in first and said. Excerpts of the article appear below. yes. When the foreman handed the judge the decision the room became very silent.. Then the judge read. 362-366. 1991). their dreams.. anywhere where there is a decent-size blank space young chicanos scrawl their names... I turned to my cousin and said. "The jury finds the defendant Nugent Kautz 'not guilty.and [how] these mean meant business with their.. 1492-1992 (New York. The Prosecuting attorney got real shook up about these.. We also learned the names of the game wardens whose pictures we had..... showing billie clubs and seven-celled flashlights. pp. their slogans. especially the one who had been beating on Alison and Valerie Bridges. While she was telling this story. She told.she started to." I thought. She told how she felt when she realized that the game wardens were going to ram our boat. Besides. They were out until midnight. on littered sidewalks. It seemed like he was saying "I object" every few minutes. Everyone was happy.. " The rest are afraid to come in... My two little brothers were in the boat when it was rammed. billie clubs and brass knuckles. I didn't believe it. We only hoped that the jury would believe our side of the fish-in story. Native American Testimony: A Chronicle of Indian-White Relations from Prophecy to the Present.. Johnson also had evidence with him. "TIO TACO IS DEAD" This title of a 1970 Newsweek article signaled for many in the United States an introduction to the Chicano Movement.

" Just as often the Anglo attitude has been more subtle--and more crippling. Today. The first is made up of descendants of settlers who arrived in the Southwest before the Mayflower.6 million Mexican-Americans in the United States.?" Source: Newsweek.. Substantial migration to the U. pp. Commission on Civil Rights. 27-30. For years. Guidance counselors regularly steer students into "realistic" vocational programs. advice that just about locks young chicanos into the poverty cycle. as they prefer to be called. they make do on less than $3. "There's a lot to the saying that all Texas Rangers have Mexican blood. Countrywide. 1970. and larger. through the wastelands of New Mexico and Colorado. a chicano activist in Los Angeles.. "Tio Taco is dead. Brown has become aggressively beautiful. The second. and points farther north." Tio Taco--or Uncle Taco. began with the Mexican Revolution and went on through the 1960s with Texas serving as the way station to the great urban ghettos of San Antonio. "They have it on their boots. sulking in the shadow of an Anglo culture--is dead. Denver.. Overall the insensitivity of Anglos--whether in government. the unemployment rate among chicanos is twice as high as the unemployment rate among Anglos. poverty-stricken Mexican-Americans live in unbelievably primitive conditions... MexicanAmericans average four years less schooling than Anglos and two years less than Negroes. The forefather of these Spanish Americans. In some sections of Texas. "Why do they persecute us"? asks Bob Castro. founded California and gave Los Angeles its name. Through the Southwest today. into the fertile reaches of the Rio Grande valley in Texas..000 a year.. Their are 5.S... culture and history? Why do they call us names? Why do they hate us. Mexican-Americans have long been subjected to violence by the authorities.S. were 90% of the Mexican-Americans live.jobs. And the vast majority of Mexican-Americans who are employed work at unskilled. From the ghettos of Los Angles." one witness told the U..someone has written a footnote to American history. divided roughly into two subgroups.. June 29. a new Mexican-American militancy is emerging. law-enforcement agencies in the Southwest acted as it was open season on muchachos.. "Why do they beat us and throw us into prison? Why do they insult our language. Statistics tell only part of the story." it says. THE BROWN BERETS AND CHICANO LIBERATION . Los Angeles.. sapped of energy and ambition. "Con safos. the stereotype Mexican-American. a third of them are below the official poverty line--that is. On top of the poverty. subgroup is made up of more recent immigrants from Mexico and their descendants. they live in rural communities scattered across New Mexico and Colorado. in education or simply on a person-to-person basis--has amounted to psychological oppression of incalculable dimension.

Police and sheriff's deputies raided the Berets. it is an affirmation of the police's increasing awareness of the resentment toward police brutality and the realization that the theme of liberation is becoming more popular among Chicanos. Events meanwhile forced the organization to become more militant. the Berets were there. a teenager from a lower-class family. In effect. A grand jury later indicted 13 Chicanos on . intimidating. while playing down the legitimate grievances of the Chicano students. The police and sheriff's departments there abandoned reason in harassing. where the Berets were founded. the Berets were escalated into the national limelight by the East Los Angeles school walkouts. The YCCA became popularly known as the Brown Berets. These organizations. There is little evidence that the organization itself took a leadership role in planning the walkouts. in effect. In time. the group's defensive posture crystallized. with the organization evolving from a community service club into a quasi "alert patrol.. has aroused a fear in Anglo-Americans that a Chicano group would counter U. and they took on a paramilitary stance. and persecuting the Brown Berets in a way that no other Chicano organization has experienced in recent times. In Los Angeles. The Brown Berets. this is reflected in the change in the group's name to the Young Chicanos for Community Action. The Brown Berets is an exception. Whether or not the threat was real is not at issue. That same month. picked up members. Four other Chicanos joined Sánchez as charter members. The objective was to destroy the Berets and to invalidate the membership in the eyes of both the Anglo and the Chicano communities.S. At first they were known as Young Citizens for Community Action (YCCA). branding them as outside agitators. have worked within the system and have been reform oriented. This is especially true in Los Angeles. the police and sheriffs departments attempted to make the Brown Berets the scapegoats. the Los Angeles Sheriff's Department began a vicious "bust the Berets" operation." During the walkout." Later in the year. Beret chapters spread throughout the Southwest and Midwest. infiltrated them. They raided them. the YCCA opened a coffee shop called La Piranya to raise operating expenses. Simultaneously. it is one of the few Chicano organizations advocating physical measures to defend the Chicano community's rights. The Brown Berets. The group was sponsored by an interfaith church organization. panicked police officials and exposed their basic undemocratic attitudes toward Mexicans or groups attempting to achieve liberation.. and its founding leader was David Sánchez. This militant profile attracted a large number of young Chicanos and had considerable impact on the student organizations of the time.. offering to serve and taking the brunt of the police brutality. sheriff's deputies harassed the Brown Berets and so disorganized them that they were forced to shut down their coffee shop in March 1968. The members began to wear brown berets. but as one observer stated: "When the crap came down. libeled and slandered them. More important is that law enforcement authorities believed that the Brown Berets were capable of violence or arousing this kind of action in other groups. They were the shock troops. and even encouraged counter groups to attack the members. for the most part.In the following account historian Rodolfo Acuna describes the Brown Berets who emerged in the East Los Angeles barrio in the late 1960s. The Brown Berets were formed in 1967 in East Los Angeles. and spread rumors that they were Communists. Most Chicano organizations have had defensive postures and have reacted to crisis situations. oppression with its own violence.

Moreover.. and they had a similar organizational structure. etc. Nonetheless. but wanted to stand up and fight. the Berets operated with no budget. the uniform and the paramilitary nature of the group gave members and nonmembers the feeling that they could strike back in the manner that they felt and understood best--physically. the only offensive action during this time was on the part of law enforcement agencies. Ironically. obvious parallels between the Brown Berets and the Black Panthers emerged. became a model. because they are one of the few Chicano groups that have not attempted to work entirely within the civil rights framework of the present reform movement.. who not only wanted to defend themselves. many times.g. At the same time.." . Unable to articulate their feelings or their grievances.. the Black Panthers attracted many middle-class Black intellectuals as well as white radicals (nonmembers). the Berets. . Their philosophy has been molded by the conflict and the street. the Brown Berets are important. their frustrations. a film depicting the Algerian struggle against the French. especially those in their early teens. which shall become more offensive. A basic weakness in the Brown Berets is that it does not have the strong family structure that has heretofore marked survival and success for most Chicano organizations. despite the failures. The Battle of Algiers. education. unemployment. has been frustrated by outside interference such as police harassment and Red-baiting. The lack of funds prevented the Berets from building a Panther-like network among its own chapters. It has not been accepted as the "Army of the Brown People. attracted the street batos (guys) who directly felt the oppression of the police and the street. The Berets inspired a revolutionary fervor in many youth. They are the bridge between the groups of the past and those of liberation. e. but only after three years of legal harassment. Meanwhile... There were also very real differences: the Black Panthers evolved from a Poverty Agency.. Both organizations were paramilitary. for example. In addition. The Berets evolved into a radical group. the Panthers have received considerable financial support from the Anglo-American liberal community. Imbued with the politics of liberation. This case was appealed and later declared unconstitutional. the popularity of the group spread. they dealt with the immediate needs of the barrio--food. The ability to serve and to protect the Chicano barrio by any means necessary provided a link with the Chicano community. the batos were alienated from the mainstream of the Chicano community. Moreover. etc. As the police and sheriff's repression increased. education. whereas the leadership of the Berets was primarily comprised of high school dropouts who were highly suspicious of educated Chicanos and who almost totally rejected Anglos.conspiracy charges stemming from the walkout. housing. the prime minister.Its attempt to operate a free clinic in East Los Angeles. These youth were attracted by the physical nature of the Beret-defined form of confrontation. or to obtain editorial help in producing sophisticated literature. which did not understand their hybrid culture or. seven were Brown Berets. and they were not able to attract high-powered legal assistance to advertise the police harassment of the group.. the ministers of defense... whereas the Berets were much younger and their base was the barrio.

what they don't get in money they more than gain in popularity these days. Now how am I supposed to believe everything all these people say? They weren't talking that way a few years ago. Occupied America: The Chicano's Struggle Toward Liberation (New York. You'd think Negroes were the only people in America that have a tough time. and pay for it in taxes and everything? Whose kids are pushed around? And who gets called `prejudiced' and all the other sneery words? I've had enough of it. That's why they moved so far. I'm sick of their editorials. It's hypocrisy. And we're the ones who get it. I don't understand it all. the Negro or anything else. and I do more than go to Church once a week. All you hear these days is news about them. But no. where they can do something. or else they will be hurt. Anyway. and send their children everywhere. a psychiatrist and noted author on racial attitudes. 231-233." which attempted to explain the "backlash. but no by very much. What about the rest of us? Who comes here asking us how we get by. I'm as devout a Catholic as you'll find around. But if he does anything bad. They never used to care about anything. And the same goes with the Church. 1967 Robert Coles. The Negroes were in Roxbury and we were here. Who has to live with all this. just as we do. too. right down the line. but suddenly they're not happy together. pp. The governor wasn't either. and we should clap. The papers have suddenly decided that the Negro is teacher's pet. Nor the mayor." the growing white resentment of black civil rights gains in the 1960s. or how we feel about what we had to go through? They may be poorer than a lot of white people. But now even the school people tell us we have to have our kids with this kind and that kind of person. Whatever he does good is wonderful. it's our fault. They moved and now they're all ready to come back--but only to drive a few Negro kids out for a Sunday picnic. But I just can't take what some of our priests are saying these days. They're talking as if we did something wrong for being white. wrote an article titled "The White Northerner: Pride and Prejudice. My brother is a priest. They have their own people. the final buck gets passed to us. Priests never used to talk about the Negro when I was a child. They want to go here and there. Now they talk to my kids about them all the time. if they meant so well. All of a sudden they start giving us a lecture every day on how bad we are. and nobody was talking about Negroes and busing us around. and get away from us. .Source: Rodolfo Acuna. I can't read the papers anymore when they talk about the race thing. instead of staying here. Everybody can't live with you. I went to school here in Boston. Suddenly they're interested in the Negro. Why do they do it? [Call for integrated schools] I don't understand them at all. I thought the Church is supposed to stand for religion. Now they're so worried. They worked and worked to get away from him. In the part of the article reprinted below Coles allows a Boston housewife to explain her fears following the integration of the nearby public school in 1967. and eternal things. of course. can they? Everybody likes his own. The same with those people out in the suburbs. THE WHITE BACKLASH. or something. 1972).

Vol. 1984). II. this being a necessary. since it is this experience that has crucial influence on habits.. representing 44 colleges and universities met at the estate of William F. creative. The American Spirit. Buckley. That the economy itself is of such social importance that its major resources and means of production should be open to democratic participation and subject to democratic social regulation. but not sufficient. PARTICIPATORY DEMOCRACY: THE PORT HURON STATEMENT In 1962 the Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) issued the Port Huron Statement which outlined their vision of a just society. channels should be commonly available to relate men to knowledge and to power so that private problems from bad recreation facilities to personal alienation are formulated as general issues. pp. Source: Jack Newfield. perceptions and individual ethics. encouraging independence. not manipulated. not mechanical. A Prophetic Minority (New York. YOUNG AMERICANS FOR FREEDOM In 1960 ninety college students from 24 states. (Lexington. it should provide outlets for the expression of personal grievance and aspiration. In this time of moral and political crisis. 999. opposing views should be organized so as to illuminate choices and facilitate the attainment of goals. that the political order should serve to clarify problems in a way instrumental to their solution. 1966). in Sharon. that politics has the function of bringing people out of isolation and into community. We. The economic sphere would have as its basis the principles: That work should involve incentives worthier than money or survival. Connecticut to form the Young Americans for Freedom (YAF). Their founding statement appears below. Bailey & David M. pp. it is the responsibility of the youth of America to affirm certain eternal truths. the political life would be based on several root principles: That decision-making of basic social consequence be carried on by public groupings.. way of finding meaning in personal life. That the economic experience is so personally decisive that the individual must share in its full determination. a sense of dignity and a willingness to accept social responsibility.Source: Thomas A. a respect for others.. Part of the statement appears below: In a participatory democracy. It should be educative. Kennedy. Jr. 125-126. that politics be seen positively as the art of collectively creating an acceptable pattern of social relations. not stultifying. as young conservatives believe: . Mass. 997. self-direct.

or to the people. That when government interferes with the work of the market economy. and can exist only when free citizens concertedly defend their rights against all enemies. Schneider. rather than coexistence with. that when it takes from one man to bestow on another. the greatest single threat to these liberties. That the Constitution of the United States is the best arrangement yet devised for empowering government to fulfill its proper role. allocating resources by the free play of supply and demand. and That American foreign policy must be judged by this criterion.. and that political freedom cannot long exist without economic freedom. That liberty is indivisible. That the market economy. the integrity of the second. it diminishes the incentive of the first. pp. Conservatism in America Since 1930 (New York. while restraining it from the concentration and abuse of power. That when government ventures beyond these rightful functions. in those spheres not specifically delegated to the Federal Government. does it serve the just interests of the United States? Source: Gregory L. 229-230 SEATTLE'S FIRST ANTI-WAR PROTEST . it accumulates power which tends to diminish order and liberty. That the genius of the Constitution--the division of powers--is summed up in the clause which reserves primacy to the several states. and the administration of justice.That foremost among the transcendent values is the individual's use of his God-given free will. and the moral autonomy of both. and that it is at the same time the most productive supplier of human needs. this menace. That we will be free only so long as the national sovereignty of the United States is secure. ed. at present. That the United States should stress victory over. the provision of national defense. is the single economic system compatible with the requirements of personal freedom and constitutional government. That the purposes of government are to protect these freedoms through the preservation of internal order. 2003). that history show periods of freedom are rare. it tends to reduce the moral and physical strength of the nation.. whence derives his right to be free from the restrictions of arbitrary force. That the forces of international Communism are.

my friend. Our every move was photographed by men with crew cuts who aimed cameras at us from doorways and rooftops. 45-46. you don't believe we're on the eve of destruction. more than had died in the previous year. paradoxically. that "we have stopped losing the war. Everyone knew much worse was to come.000 pro-war anti-protestors marched in New York City. On October 16. written by P.S." On Christmas Day Tom Hayden and Quaker activist Staughton Lynd arrived in Hanoi on the first of many such pilgrimages.In the passage below. 1965. Sloan and intoned in urgent. if that is the right word. Rites of Passage: A Memoir of the Sixties in Seattle (Seattle. passing through Seattle warned. pp. intact. 1995).S. "Joe Freedom. There were a few scuffles when the rally broke up." He turned out to be one of Brass's students. Americans were also dying: 240 fell in a single week in November [1965]. [Defense Secretary Robert] McNamara boasted. When UW Professor Paul Brass began his remarks. We marched down two lanes of Fourth Avenue. and involved 350 demonstrators who gathered in front of the Federal Court House and proceeded to the Westlake Mall. Most had fallen in the past six months. The national mood was summed up by the surprise hit song of 1965. The march took place on October 16. to a noon rally beneath the old Monorail station at Westlake Mall. but all of us got home with our skin. Walt Crowley recalls the first protest march in Seattle against the War in Vietnam.000 U. "We are deluding ourselves to think there is going to be a quick solution in Vietnam. In contrast marches the day before in Oakland and New York City involved 10. The Seattle Jaycees urged everyone to turn their lights on during the day to endorse the war and 10. and a combat death toll of 1. I was among the nervous 350 or so who gathered in front of the Federal Court House that morning. herded by motorcycle police and taunted as Communists and traitors by passing motorists. The year ended with 184. Three days later. President Johnson halted all bombing in the north as a "gesture of peace." Source: Walt Crowley. B-52s began bombing North Vietnam's primary seaport at Haiphong. F. The press coverage was nasty and the public response was hostile. rasping tones by Barry McGuire: "And tell me over and over again." but Senator Edward Kennedy. and they tried to drown out our speakers by singing the Mickey Mouse Club anthem. He later identified himself to the press as. . a man rushed up and doused him with red paint. started counting in 1961." On December 20. Seattle experience its first antiwar march led by the UW SDS and "Seattle Committee to End the War in Vietnam" (SCEWV). troops deployed in Vietnam. An ugly crowd surrounded us at Westlake. Both the P-I and the Times editorialized that students were allowing themselves to be duped and exploited by Communists.000 protestors in each city. if not our nerves.350 accumulated since the U.

. As a housewife and mother. ate peanut butter sandwiches with her children. clothes. her children. look. how to buy a dishwasher.. If she tried to tell her husband. "There isn't any problem." Gradually I came to realize that the problem that has no name was shared by countless women in America.. The problem lay buried. chauffeured Cub Scouts and Brownies. a yearning that women suffered in the middle of the twentieth century in the United States. She did not really understand it herself. Sometimes I sensed the problem not as a reporter. Other women were satisfied with their lives. What kind of woman was she if she did not feel this mysterious fulfillment waxing the kitchen floor. matched slipcover material. lay besides her husband at night--she was afraid to ask even of herself the silent question--"Is this all?" For over fifteen years there was no word of this yearning in the millions of words written about women. educated. the dangers of childbirth and the illnesses of her grandmother. she thought. A thousand expert voices applauded their femininity. unhappy women who wanted to be poets or physicists or presidents. how to breastfeed children and handle their toilet training. he didn't understand what she was talking about... She was healthy. They were taught to pity the neurotic.. If a woman had a problem in the 1950s and 1960s she knew that something must be wrong with her marriage or herself.. appliances. and build a swimming pool with their own hands. or their houses. shopped for groceries.. supermarkets. for many years in the minds of American women.Experts told them how to catch a man and keep him.. The American housewife--freed by science and labor-saving appliances from drudgery. As a magazine writer I often interviewed women about problems with their children. their new maturity. The suburban housewife--she was the dream image of the young American woman and the envy. Each suburban wife struggled with it alone. All they had to do was devote their lives from earliest girlhood to finding a husband and bearing children. and act more feminine and make marriage more exciting. political rights--the independence and opportunities that old fashioned feminists fought for. or their marriages. They learned that truly feminine women do not want careers.. She was free to choose automobiles. As she made the beds. higher education." they kept telling themselves... "There's nothing wrong really. how to cope with sibling rivalry and adolescent rebellion. She was so ashamed to admit her dissatisfaction that she never know how many other women shared it. their adjustment.BETTY FREIDAN ON "THE PROBLEM THAT HAS NO NAME" The following are excerpts from Betty Freidan's 1963 book.. concerned only about heir husband. her home. but as a suburban . of women all over the world. it was said. a sense of dissatisfaction. bake break. unspoken. The Feminine Mystique. She had found true feminine fulfillment.. for women. unfeminine. she was respected as a full and equal partner to man in his world. or their communities. she had everything that women ever dreamed of. beautiful. It was a strange stirring. books and articles by experts telling women their role was to seek fulfillment as wives and mothers. in all the columns. cook gourmet snails. how to dress.

the new wives and mothers. to dismiss the desperation of so many American women... or another baby. or have an affair. doctors have treated them.incomplete.the problem cannot be understood in the generally accepted terms by which scientists have studies women.. I think I understood first as a woman long before I understood their larger social and psychological implications. They are the ones who quit high school and college to marry. It persists in women whose husbands are struggling interns and law clerks...000. cold. The ones in their forties and fifties who once had other dreams gave them up and threw themselves joyously into life as housewives.. It is the key to." Or she would say. hunger. these daughters of the American middle class. This is not what being a woman means no matter what the experts say... for during this time I was also bringing up my own three children in Rockland County." Sometimes she blotted out the feeling with a tranquilizer. and yet they still suffer the problem.is far more important than anyone recognizes. "I feel as if I don't exist. It is no longer possible to blame the problem on loss of femininity.housewife... in whom the voice is stirring. counselors have advised them. They are not career women (although career women may have other problems). this was the only dream. have lived their whole lives in the pursuit of feminine fulfillment. sickness. The women who suffer this problem has a hunger that food cannot fulfill. on quiet afternoons when children were at school or on quiet evenings when husbands worked late. For the youngest.000 a year or $50. to say that education and independence and equality with men have made American women unfeminine. and puzzling their doctors and educators for years. Just what was this problem with no name? What were the words women used when they tried to express it? Sometimes a woman would say "I feel empty somehow. Women who suffer this problem.. in wives of workers and executives who make $5. I heard echoes of the problem in college dormitories and semi-private maternity wards. For the oldest of these women. New York. It is no longer possible to ignore that voice. or marked time in some job in which they had no real interest until they married. not to hear their strange.. or her children. or move to a better neighborhood. dissatisfied voice stirring within her. no other dream was possible. or prosperous doctors and lawyers.. It may well be the key to our future as a . they are women whose greatest ambition has been marriage and children. or that what she really needed was to redecorate her house. at PTA meetings and luncheons of the League of Women Voters... It can be less painful for a woman.problems which have been torturing women and their husbands and children.. Sometimes she thought the problem was with her husband. The groping words I heard from other women.in station wagons waiting for trains. part of the strange newness of this problem is that it cannot be understood in terms of the age-old material problems of man: poverty. I do not accept the answer that there is no problem because American women have luxuries that women in other times and lands never dreamed of.. If I am right. Most [women] adjusted to their role and suffered or ignored the problem that has no name. These women are very "feminine" in the usual sense. the problem that has no name stirring in the minds of so many American women today. and writers have written about them..

Here are excerpts from the founding statement of the organization. to dominate.. 21-22. 1963). Constitution to the civil rights of all individuals.. and that a woman is automatically entitled to lifelong support by a man upon her marriage. 27 NOW'S CALL FOR ACTION The National Organization of Women was organized in 1966 to campaign for women's rights. to ensure equality of opportunity in employment and education. WE REJECT the current assumption that a man must carry the sole burden of supporting himself. as well as for Negroes and other deprived groups.. WE BELIEVE that the power of American law. as part of the world-wide revolution of human rights now taking place within and beyond our national borders. We can no longer ignore that voice within women that says: "I want something more than my husband and my children and my home. must be effectively applied and enforced to isolate and remove patterns of sex discrimination. to innovate new social institutions which will enable women to enjoy true equality of opportunity and responsibility in society. or that marriage.S. exercising all the privileges and responsibilities thereof in truly equal partnership with men. and the protection guaranteed by the U. and family.. without conflict with their responsibilities as mothers and homemakers. as there has been for Negroes and other victims of discrimination. home and family are primarily woman's world and responsibility--hers.. 11-16. ." Source: The Feminine Mystique (New York. WE BELIEVE that it is as essential for every girl to be educated to her full potential of human ability as it is for every boy--with the knowledge that such education is the key to effective participation in today's economy. The National Organization for Women must therefore begin to speak. WE. and toward a fully equal partnership of the sexes.. WE DO NOT ACCEPT the token appointment of a few women to high-level positions in government and industry as a substitute for a serious continuing effort to recruit and advance women according to their individual abilities. and equality of civil and political rights and responsibilities on behalf of women..nation and a culture. his to support. pp. believe that the time has come for a new movement toward true equality for all women in America. There is no civil rights movement to speak for women. his wife. men and women who hereby constitute ourselves as the National Organization for Women.. The purpose of NOW is to take action to bring women into full participation in the mainstream of American society now. WE BELIEVE that this nation has a capacity at least as great as other nations.

Heath and Company. In addition. Wade: We forthwith acknowledge our awareness of the sensitive and emotional nature of the abortion controversy.400. Wade.. One's philosophy. even among physicians. ceremonies. Mass: D.... of the vigorous opposing views..WE BELIEVE that women must now exercise their political rights and responsibilities as American citizens. and racial overtones tend to complicate and not to simplify the problem.S. freedom. . pp.. Wade decision in 1973. The ERA is reprinted below as well as excerpts from the Roe v.C. laws. They derive from statutory changes effected.. Source: Mary Beth Norton. * * * Roe v.. Supreme Court Decision on abortion in Roe v. population growth. 1989). and the moral standards one establishes. the Equal Rights Amendment and the U. 1972 Section 1: Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged United States or by any State on account of sex. and in the texts. in the latter half of the 19th Century.. have come to symbolize the complex issues raised by the feminist movement and reflect the deep divisions among women and men as to the implications of sexual equality.. by the Section 2: The Congress shall have the power to enforce. and by speaking out in behalf of their own equality. poverty. pollution. 397.attitude toward life and family and their values.. Major Problems in American Women's History Lexington.. WADE Two measures in the 1970s. we will protest and endeavor to change the false image of women now prevalent in the mass media. They must refuse to be segregated on the basis of sex into separate-and-not-equal ladies' auxiliaries in the political parties. by appropriate legislation. and human dignity. IN THE INTERESTS OF THE HUMAN DIGNITY OF WOMEN.religious training. for the most part. and practices of our major social institutions. the provisions of this article. It perhaps is not generally appreciated that the restrictive criminal abortion laws in effect in a majority of States today are of relatively recent vintage. and of the deep and seemingly absolute convictions that the subject inspires. WE BELIEVE THAT women will do most to create a new image of women by acting now. The Equal Rights Amendment.. THE EQUAL RIGHTS AMENDMENT AND ROE V. Section 3: This Amendment shall take effect two years after the date of ratification. are all likely to influence and to color one's thinking and conclusions about abortion.

Still.3 million new immigrants arrived into the United States during the 1980s. To be sure. with any assurance. however... The appellee and certain amici argue that the fetus is a "person" within the language and meaning of the Fourteenth Amendment.. 7. Source: Mary Beth Norton. The Constitution does not define "person" in so many words. it established two principal criteria for admission to the United States: family ties to citizens or permanent residents or possession of scarce and needed skills. that it has any possible prenatal application. THE IMMIGRATION ACT OF 1965 In the passage below historians Roger Waldinger and Mehdi Bozorgmehr describe the impact of the 1965 Immigration Act on the United States with particular reference to Los Angeles. By the 1960s. whether it be founded in the Fourteenth Amendment's concept of personal liberty and restrictions upon state action.C. Second.. however. The 1965 legislation was principally targeted at eastern and southern Europeans. population hit its historic nadir in 1970. Heath. But in nearly all of the instances the use of the word is such that it has application only postnatally.. 422. it abolished the old country-oforigins quotas.or in the Ninth Amendment's reservation of rights to the people. the 1990 level represented a substantial increase over the 5% level recorded when the foreign-born share of the U. the groups hardest hit by the nativist legislation of the 1920s. which allotted small quotas to southern and eastern Europe and still smaller--almost prohibitively small--quotas to Asia.S. The 1965 reform transformed the immigration system with a few bold strokes.. Third. pp. an influx second only to the peak of 8.. A second unexpected twist concerned the act's beneficiaries.. The reformers thought that the new act would keep immigration to modest proportions.. In a line of decisions.8 million newcomers recorded during the first decade of the 20th Century. Passage of the Hart-Celler Act in 1965 provided the conventional date for the onset of the new immigration the United States. Main Problems in American Women's History (Lexington. does exist under the Constitution.. 425-427. This right of privacy. the Court has recognized that a right of personal privacy. the destination for the largest number of newcomers. is broad enough to encompass a woman's decision whether or not to terminate her pregnancy. at 8%. . 1989). workers from Italy or Yugoslavia had fallen out of the orbit of trans-Atlantic migration..The Constitution does not explicitly mention any right of privacy. it increased the total numbers of immigrants to be admitted to the United States. First. or a guarantee of certain areas or zones of privacy. when fifteen of every hundred Americans were foreign-born. But for various reasons the numbers quickly spiraled. the immigrants constituted a far more modest share of the nation's population in 1990 than was true in 1910. Mass: D. Instead. None indicates..

nurses. [The best estimate] suggests about 2 to 4 million residing in the United States as of 1980. The collapse of the U. Asia emerged as the number two source area of the foreign-born. who enjoyed easy access to American employers.. By the 1980s. followed by Communist takeovers in Cambodia and Laos..S.-supported regime in South Vietnam. Along with students already living in the United States. massive outflow of refugees. and with time.. Political developments added momentum to the migrant flow across the Pacific. While Mexicans were drawn by the inducements of American employers...the newcomers who took advantage of the newly liberalized system came from Asia. whether or not they had legal documents. like the Chinese. and the workers it imported were supposed to head back to Mexico after a short stint of temporary labor in the U. Hence. Like the Vietnamese. Cambodians. and Laotians. the Central Americans had the bad fortune to be fleeing right-wing regimes propped up with U..S.networks between the United States and villages throughout Mexico's central plateau were already in place... these newcomers mainly moved across the border as unauthorized migrants. By 1964. What no one expected in 1965 was the burgeoning of Asian immigration. Just how many newcomers have arrived without authorization has long been a matter of dispute. ... many of whom settled on the West Coast. these professionals made up the first wave of new immigrants. wildly disparate estimates. an increasing number of migrants dropped out of the bracero stream. The 1965 reforms created opportunities for immigrants whose skills--as engineers.ranging from 2 to 12 million are stock-intrade. The immediate roots of Mexican unauthorized migration lie in the Bracero Program begun during the Second Word War to eliminated the shortage of agricultural workers. the Central Americans were escaping political unrest. accounting for 37% of all newcomers. Asian immigrants passed through the front door opened by the 1965 reforms. Mexican and later on Central Americans were more likely to come through the back door of unauthorized migration.. Latin American and the countries of the Caribbean... pharmacists--were in short supply. to renew migration streams while also allowing entirely new groups--most notably Koreans and Asian Indians--to put a nucleus in place and then quickly expand. of whom over half had come from Mexico.. providing all the information and connections needed to keep the migrants coming. the Salvadorans and Guatemalans who headed for the U.. But the influence of agribusiness kept the Bracero Program alive until 1963.. Ostensibly. government support. The system was sufficiently flexible for longer-established groups. border in increasing numbers in the late 1970s and afterwards were responding to different factors. triggered a sudden. in turn creating the basis for the kinship migration of less-well educated relatives. doctors.. the Bracero Program was destined for a short existence.S... San Francisco and other urban areas. Unexpected pressures repeatedly forced the United States to expand greatly its admission of refugees.S.. but unlike their Asian counterparts. heading for better jobs in Los Angeles.

923.233 1.Given the many circumstances of migration.099. Ethnic Los Angeles. IMMIGRATION TO THE UNITED STATES. 1996) pp.013 1. it should be no surprise that the newcomers of the post-1965 years are an extraordinarily diverse lot. Source: Roger Waldinger and Mehdi Bozorgmehr.035 1. among many of these groups.801.736 1. Africa..419. median levels of schooling leave America's native white workers far behind. South and Southeast Asia.019 1.794. Manual workers with little schooling predominate among other groups--Mexicans are the most conspicuous example--and the contribution of low-skilled workers to America's immigrant pool has risen substantially in recent years. most notably those from the Middle East..912 10.308.80% 10.589 653. 9-12. 1940-1979 Total Number of Immigrants 1940-1944 1945-1949 1950-1954 1955-1959 1960-1964 1965-1969 1970-1974 1975-1979 203. (New York..950 Percentage of Immigrants By Country of Origin South and Central America\West Indies 21.40% 12..60% Asia Mexico Canada 18.413 2.400.40% . Highly educated professionals and managers dominate some streams. The extraordinary educational differences among various immigrant groups suggest that skill levels have gone up and down.

000 4.000 541. Switzerland & Low Countries Central Europe Other 9.000 4.000 2.000 660.000 5.Germany Great Britain Italy France.119.000 410. 1820-1979 Germany Italy Great Britain Ireland Austria-Hungary Canada Russia Mexico Sweden Norway West Indies France Greece China Cuba Poland Portugal Philippines Japan 3.000 753.724.000 4.000 560.000 4.20% 5.000 798.000 432.10% 6.300.000 .40% 3.985.377.000 857.30% 10.40% NATIONAL BACKGROUNDS OF IMMIGRANTS.000 1.000 453.40% 2.912.316.000 521.

for racial pride.000 204.in the ten years between 1966 and 1976. (New York.000 360. 1982). The Cultural Revolution. Some members of these communities-- . an officially sanctioned campaign by young Red Guards against a segment of China's political establishment. where they might learn from "the masses"--as the Red Guards in China were doing--the Asian American activists descended on their surprised communities. Her assessment challenges the widely held belief of political apathy within Asian communities. and engaged in sectarian struggles. and white peers. fired the imagination of rebellious students everywhere. also drew inspiration from China's Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution..Turkey Denmark The Netherlands Switzerland Spain Belgium Vietnam 387. Rise of the American Nation. along with their black. Young Asian Americans.000 Source: Lewis Todd and Merle Curti. but the movement against U.. pp.000 365. waved the pocket-sized talismans as they marched in demonstrations against the war in Vietnam. practiced collective leadership. A number of the more radical students began to think of the war not only as an imperialist but also a racist one. and for the establishment of ethnic studies courses and programs. many Asian American students. 798. Chicano. an increasing number of Asian American college and high school students realized with a shock that the "enemy" whom American soldiers were maiming and killing had faces like their own. The activists eagerly adopted the Chinese Communists' political work style. Very few Asian Americans participated in the civil rights movement in the early 1960s. But since there was no "countryside" to go to. as well as youth of other backgrounds.S. 843.000 261. ASIAN AMERICAN POLITICAL ACTIVISM SINCE 1965 In the brief discussion below Sucheng Chan describes the growing importance of "grassroots" political activism among younger Asian Americans. involvement in the war in Vietnam caught their attention in the late 1960s. for civil rights.000 137.000 350.. Bookstores in the United States that imported the red plastic-covered booklets containing the sayings of Mao Zedong did a thriving business. With the help of the television evening news. they held long meetings. Like the Red Guards in China.

reporter Larry Bacon describes the experiences of recently arrived Latino immigrants in Newport." which allowed entrepreneurs from Hong Kong. hundreds of other Hispanics also came looking for jobs in Newport's new whiting processing industry. The workers brought racial diversity to a community where few . Singapore. recruit individuals to leftist organizations. Source: Sucheng Chan. Within the political arena. left his family behind and came to Newport four years ago when there were few Hispanics in the area Hernandez. 174-175. Oregon. Taiwan. driving real estate prices sky high and causing severe hardship on the old residents. as well as the refugees who risked their lives to escape communism. and rude (and terribly un-Asian) manners. which mushroomed overnight. Mao jackets. Here is his account. 23. Some of the reformers. and various other Asian metropolises to buy up buildings in the major Chinatowns and Japantowns of America. have run for office or supported candidates. and bilingual programs for the elderly and youth. meanwhile. In the long run. Bangkok. 37. At the same time Hernandez arrived. They continue to render important assistance to the needy and have been crucial in providing services to non-English-speaking new immigrants. but many of the agencies set up by the latter have remained. The political activists were of two kinds: radicals who were mostly concerned with articulating the "correct" leftist political "lines" and reformers who put their energy primarily into setting up legal aid organizations. DREAMS OF PROSPERITY: NEWPORT AND LATINO IMMIGRATION In a 1992 Register-Guard article. NEWPORT--Narciso Tamayo and Jesus Hernandez came to Newport in search of a better lives for themselves and their families Tamayo. arrived in March with his wife and two children. These included not only those created by American racism and capitalism but also those spawned by the increasing presence of Asian "flight capital. those who paved the way for Asian American involvement in mainstream politics are now slowly outnumbered by more conservative individuals who support the domestic and foreign policies and programs of the Reagan and Bush administrations. Nonetheless. the former has had relatively little effect. and protested against a variety of ills. Tokyo. but a number of them later became actively involved in Jesse Jackson's Rainbow Coalition. a former fisherman from the seacoast city of Puerto Angel in the south of Mexico. pp. The new immigrants who have come in search of a good life under capitalism. the radicals were initially firmly opposed to "bourgeois" electoral politics. 1991). set up social service agencies. the activists tried to organize garment and restaurant workers. a former shoemaker from the industrial city of Purisime del Bustos in central Mexico. Asian Americans: An Interpretive History (Boston.especially the leaders of the traditional organizations--looked askance at the students' unkempt long hair. Ironically. health clinics. are natural allies for the Republican party.

" Tamayo says. Meanwhile.." he says. who helped sponsor Tamayo. Most of the prejudice he's experienced has not been not overt "It's something you can feel when they see you. Prejudice kept the local Eagles lodge from accepting him as a member. He's been able to find enough work at the seafood plants to stay employed almost yearround. 1992. Now members are admitted by majority vote. p. 1 CHANGING ATTITUDES TOWARD GOVERNMENT . have invited them to dinner and given them clothes for their children. Their tiny apartment costs $340 a month. Yet Tamayo has grown comfortable with his new life in Newport." He recalls a white co-worker telling him a joke based on the racial stereotype that Mexicans steal. Now the whiting season is over.. Maria Luisa Dale. Their salaries--$5. president of the Eagles lodge. "It's like he was trying to be nice.75 an hour for him and $5. Dick Gearin. both he and a lodge official say. "I am afraid the white people have prejudice about my kids. Tamayo rejected a friend's advice to sue the lodge for discrimination. The friends.. The young newcomers lived with the Dalles for four months until they could rent a one-bedroom apartment of their own. November 8. says he and most other lodge members were so upset by the blackballing that they changed the rules.25 an hour for her part-time work--are eaten up by living expenses. At the time. "I don't want to make trouble with anybody.. however." he says. They are looking for any type of work to tide them over until whiting season begins again next April. They say they have made Anglo friends who have been warm and friendly. But life in the United States is not always easy for the two men.000 to $24. and their dreams have proved somewhat elusive. says Tamayo and three other Hispanics were "blackballed" by three members who were angry about problems some other Hispanics had caused at a lodge function.000. But it is expensive for them to live in Newport.people of color have lived before. but at the same time--put the knife inside. Tamayo and his friends have since joined the Eagles lodge at nearby Toledo. He's learned to speak English fairly well. and they have both been laid off.. Even though he hopes to bring his family to this country someday. he has some reservations. They have had help learning American ways from Luna's older sister. He has friends in both the Anglo and Hispanic communities. are less concerned about prejudice than learning English and making their way in a new country. and they have saved little so far. Saray Gabriel Luna. Hernandez dreams of making enough in the fish plants to return to Puerto Angel and buy a small fishing boat for about $3.000 a year--much more than he could hope to make in Mexico--and still spends two months each winter at home with his family. primarily from their church. He makes from $18. particularly rent. who married an Anglo and moved to Newport eight years ago. three negative votes could bar anyone from membership. Gearin. Source: Eugene Register-Guard. Hernandez and his wife.

. The capture of five burglars inside the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate complex in Washington.. Only a great national effort by a great people working together can explore the mysteries of space.. Blum. an adversary. or save our cities.. January 20. Jimmy Carter. Ronald Reagan. It can't set our goals. or provide energy. Franklin D. John F. had aroused widespread suspicion about White House involvement. on June 17. Roosevelt. 1978 Government is not the solution to our problem. as new conditions and problems arise beyond the power of men and women to meet as individuals. The liberal party insists that the Government has the definite duty to use all its power and resources to meet new social problems with new social controls--to insure to the average person the right to his own economic and political life. harvest the products at the bottom of the ocean. and the pursuit of happiness.During the 1930s when the United States was in the throes of the Great Depression most Americans welcomed and indeed demanded an activist government that would reinvigorate the economy and protect their rights..C. 1963 Government cannot solve our problems. Government cannot eliminate poverty. liberty. June 16. or cure illiteracy. attitudes toward government and what it can and should accomplish have undergone a dramatic shift. 1981 Source: John M. 1941 Statements are made labeling the Federal Government an outsider. The National Experience: A History of the United States (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Government is the problem. or reduce inflation. It cannot define our vision. p. The quotes from four American Presidents reflect that shift. D. It is the people of fifty states joining in a national effort. Kennedy. Despite official denials. The liberal party is a party which believes that. January 19. Over the years however. Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward. The people of this (TVA) area know that the United States Government is not a stranger or not an enemy. two investigative reporters of The Washington Post. 1972. natural. it becomes the duty of the Government itself to find new remedies with which to meet them. WATERGATE The vignette that follows is a brief description of the worst political scandal in the history of the United States. and material resources of our lands. 1989). May 18. and mobilize the human. an intruder. 812. printed stories claiming that the burglars had obtained money from the Committee for . or provide a bountiful economy.

Four of the burglars. Haldeman.the Senate established the Ervin committee to probe possible violations of campaign law. all connected to the anti-Castro Cuban community of Miami and believed to have participated in the CIA-backed Bay of Pigs fiasco." The President named as attorney general Elliot Richardson.. I can state categorically that no one in the White House staff. John Dean. but that Nixon alone..”Nixon pledged to "bring the guilty.the Re-election of the President (popularly known as CREEP) and that illegal campaign contributions had been "laundered" in Mexican banks. and in the process.former White House appointments secretary Alexander Butterfield was describing the administration's office procedures when an .. Richardson selected. In a letter to Sirica in March 1973. John Ehrlichman.” On Friday.. Hunt.” The President told a stunned television audience that four major advisers--H.. In May. “and am absolutely positive he had nothing to do with this mess. presently employed. Nixon.. McCord. "What really hurts. "is if you try to cover it up.” maintained House Minority Leader Gerald Ford.. as chief executive. 1973. maintained silence by pleading guilty. a federal grand jury indicted the five burglars as well as two former White House aides. White House personnel were not“nobility and royalty.” announced a Justice Department official.” Two weeks later. R. was involved in this very bizarre incident..” retorted Ervin. "We have absolutely no evidence to indicate that any others should be charged. determined to protect the CIA. White House press secretary Ron Ziegler announced the discovery of new evidence that made all previous statements about Watergate“inoperative. the thirteenth of July.. and former CIA operative James McCord were also convicted. Gordon Liddy and E.” replied President Nixon in a news conference on August 29. Howard Hunt. But unlike his codefendants. refused to participate further in the Watergate cover-up.”he stated.. was responsible for what he termed “a series of illegal acts and bad judgments by a number of individuals. save his own skin.. that perjury had been committed. and that the web of complicity reached high into the administration. On April 17..Archibald Cox. promptly announced his refusal to cooperate with the Senate on the grounds of “executive privilege..to justice. no one in this administration.” and agreed to appoint an independent special prosecutor to deal with the Watergate case. “I have the greatest confidence in the President.” “Executive poppycock. on charges of tapping telephones. and would face arrest if they refused to appear before a congressional committee.. The trial of the Watergate burglars opened in January 1973 in the court of Judge John Sirica. fearing exposure of the Watergate cover-up and confident in his ability to defy congressional power. McCord admitted that “political pressure” had led the defendants to plead guilty. electronic surveillance.. Persuaded that the Nixon White House would never adequately investigate itself.“a man of incomparable integrity and rigorously high principle... Liddy. and theft of documents.. and Attorney General Richard Kleindienst—had resigned because of the Watergate affair.

” and ordered him to produce the subpoenaed White House tapes for Judge Sirica. Nixon announced his intention to comply with the spirit of the ruling. “We've demonstrated that we can replace a Vice President... the taping of conversations.000 fine. In leaving government service... a $10..” asserted the Vice President. The Ervin committee. But prosecutor Cox questioned the reliability of such secondhand evidence and rejected the proposal. “so I expect we could replace a President. the full equivalent to a plea of guilty--to a single count of income tax evasion. introduced a resolution listing four presidential actions—the bombing of Cambodia. Disregarding the court order.” As Nixon struggled to recapture public confidence. “I was hoping you fellows wouldn't ask me about that.investigator asked about the possibility of recording presidential conversations. Agnew offered a “nolo contendere” plea.” After a decade of assassination—the sudden loss of the two Kennedys. and a letter from Richard Nixon expressing “a great sense of personal loss..” wrote columnist William Raspberry in The Washington Post. On the day he announced [Gerald] Ford’s nomination [as Vice President].by providing written summaries of the tapes.. Agnew agreed.to plea-bargain for a reduced sentence. “that the biggest threat to the presidency today is the President.... “I think it is my duty as the special prosecutor... “I am innocent of any wrongdoing. On October 10.. 1973.”replied Butterfield. 1973. On August 6. would reveal at last who had told the truth and who had lied. Agnew could no longer rally public support. But with the administration/s credibility already suspect.. Representative Robert F.. the Justice Department revealed that the second highest executive officer was under investigation for receiving bribes during his tenure as governor of Maryland.” rejected his claim “of special presidential immunities.. even while serving in Washington.551. “It may well be. King." remarked William Rusher. the refusal to spend impounded funds..promised to resolve the conflicting testimony presented to the Ervin committee. his administration received a severe blow from its sturdiest supporter—Vice President Agnew. The President ordered the Secret Service to install voice-activated tape recorders in White House offices to preserve a historical record. and the establishment of a “super secret security force within the White House”—as grounds for impeachment. Facing incontrovertible evidence of bribery. On July 31. amounting to $13. the former Vice President received a three-year suspended sentence.” The departure of Agnew also served the crucial symbolic role of weakening public allegiance to the entire administration. an appellate court denied the President's “incantation of the doctrine of separation of powers.. a Catholic priest from Massachusetts. 1973. George Wallace—the idea of finding substitute leadership no longer seemed odd or implausible. Drinan. Such tapes. Public opinion polls found that large majorities doubted the President’s honesty and most Americans believed he had an obligation to surrender the White House tapes..” declared Cox in a televised news conference on Saturday. October 20. in exchange for his resignation.47. “to bring to the court’s attention what seems to me to be noncompliance.consented to Nixon's compromise. 1973.” . publisher of the conservative National Review.

headed by Representative Peter Rodino of New Jersey.” concluded political columnist George Will. Still maintaining that "the President has nothing to hide. Colson. provoked waves of protest that White House Chief of Staff Alexander Haig likened to “a fire storm. Gray... But Richardson.. “We have seen the private man and we are appalled. urging passing motorists to “honk for impeachment. [O]n July 27. “springs to mind.” objected Senator Robert Packwood. Mitchell. who are still there providing the continuity in this ongoing cover-up." Nixon released a 1. The President's hope to restore public confidence in the new year [1974] abruptly collapsed when a panel of expert technicians reported or January 15 that a particular eighteen-and-a-half minute gap in conversation between Nixon and Haldeman had been deliberately erased. “He is humorless to the point of being inhumane. refused the task and instead submitted his resignation. having assumed office the previous April on assurances that the President would not interfere with the special prosecutor. He displays amazing gaps in his knowledge.308-page edited transcription of the subpoenaed tapes. one name. embarrassed and angered by such disclosures.” In the House of Representatives. He is profane. Strachan.” “The office of the President does not carry with it a license to destroy justice in America. charging the President with obstruction of justice for blocking a full investigation of the Watergate affair. and Magruder-—Will asked. He is devious.” “Nobody is a friend of ours. Let’s face it.. Solicitor General Robert Bork then assumed the attorney general's post and executed the order. Ehrlichman.” In audacious attempt to preserve his administration.. “Of all the significant men who were around the White House when the cover-up began [and]. Nixon immediately ordered Attorney General Richardson to fire Cox. and on Sunday huge crowds surrounded the White House. too. Porter. 1974. Congressional leaders. He is willing to be led. refused and was promptly fired by the President.. Liddy Kaimbach.” he said. Stans. Listing the names of all the White House aides who had left the administration because of Watergate--Haldeman. the [House Judiciary] committee voted 27—11 to adopt the first article of impeachment. “We know that there is corruption in the.” commented the conservative Chicago Tribune. Chapin.. More than a quarter of a million telegrams denouncing the President’s action poured into Washington. prepared to take him at his word. McCord. Dean. This Saturday Night Massacre. The publication of the transcriptions revealed the most intimate details of White House conversations and stripped away the remaining shreds of presidential dignity. Nixon commanded television airtime on April 29. On July 29. Mardian.” said Nixon on one of the tapes.. Caulfield.Enraged by his subordinate’s audacity. and the Democratic leadership instructed the judiciary committee. But he. to begin an impeachment inquiry. Oval Office.his loyalty is minimal. Nixon then ordered deputy Attorney General William Ruckelshaus to fire Cox. eighty-four congressmen sponsored twenty-two different bills calling for Nixon’s impeachment. Hunt. the committee recommended 28— . in place of the actual evidence. reported immediately by the television networks. Ulasewicz. Segretti. He is vacillating.

p. FBI. Facing certain conviction. In subsequent years. The issue coalesced first in Miami. through its laws. 153.10 the second article of impeachment... These assertions of gay rights. 145. For the first time.. he acknowledged the legal rights of gays. citing the chief executive's violations of congressional subpoenas. GAY RIGHTS: FROM STONEWALL TO SAN FRANCISCO The vignette below describes the gay-rights movement of the 1970s. “I have never been a quitter. House Minority Leader John Rhodes.. Shocked by this disclosure. The emergence of a gay life-style triggered a demand for homosexual rights. 148-51. Nixon prepared to carry his fight to the Senate. an American president had resigned. 155-58.. three of the most powerful Republicans on Capitol Hill. 1982)." he stated on Father's Day. numerous municipalities enacted ordinances extending equal protection to homosexuals. soon after the city adopted a law prohibiting discrimination against homosexuals. Florida. Certain that the full House would ratify the recommendations.” he admitted. “Always give your best. the Stonewall Inn. and a gay-rights bill lingered in Congress.. and angry patrons fought back. 1977. Activists dated the beginning of gay militancy to a hot June day in 1969 when New York City police invaded a homosexual bar. Nixon personally ordered a halt to a full investigation of the crime. Those who hate you don't win unless you hate them. . CIA. On August 5. 1972. On July 30.. six days after the Watergate burglary. he announced. 140-43. and discriminates against my children's rights to grow up in a healthy. “Never get discouraged. 1974. Carroll.. in an act of apparent political suicide. Republican loyalists quickly withdrew their remaining support. And then you destroy yourself.. Though Carter rejected the pressure.. journeyed to the White House to confirm estimates of minimal support.prompted a powerful backlash that swept the nation in 1977. ought to abuse or harass the homosexual. and the State Department. Nixon bade farewell to the members of his administration on the morning of August 9. Senate Minority Leader Scott. the committee approved 21—17 the third article of impeachment. Never be petty." His struggle. would end the next day at noon. and Senator Barry Goldwater. In a somber White House. the 37th President of the United States addressed the American people for the 37th time on August 8. "I don't feel that society.” advised the outgoing President. Gay lobbyists met with [President] Carter's aide Margaret Constanza to seek the right to serve in the military. It Seemed Like Nothing Happened: The Tragedy and Promise of America in the 1970s (New York. On August 7. "The ordinance condones immorality. accusing Nixon of abusing his powers of office to violate constitutional rights. the President released additional transcriptions of conversations which showed unmistakably that on June 23. Always remember: others may hate you. "To leave office before my term is completed is opposed to every instinct in my body.” Source: Peter N.

"If a bullet should enter my brain. For twenty years the companies were able to stabilize the posted price of oil─in effect." Milk had prophetically tape-recorded his own eulogy. pp. and a gay rights ordinance signed by Mayor Moscone in 1978. gay activists defined the issue as a defense of civil rights.. "Miami is our Selma. Oregon [where] popular referenda repealed existing antidiscrimination laws. voters overwhelmingly rejected an attempt to repeal a law protecting civil rights regardless of sexual orientation. who quickly launched a Save Our Children movement to overthrow this measure. the spirit of Miami spread to St. first elected in 1977. "let that bullet destroy every closet door. But in a hotly contested municipal election in Seattle.. [Yet even here] a substantial constituency criticized gay rights and a conservative police department resented the mayor's prohibition of the harassment of homosexuals." claimed one gay activist. Paul.. disagreements between homosexuals who urged anonymity and exhibitionists who flaunted their preferences--left this group vulnerable to further attack. Alabama. 1982). boasted a gay supervisor.38 and a dozen hollowed bullets." commented San Francisco Mayor George Moscone. Carroll. Harvey Milk.decent community. OPEC. The outcome outraged liberals through the nation. "Terribly wrong.. From about 1948 to 1971 the price was remarkably even. with one of the largest homosexual communities in the country. social deviates. assassinating Moscone and Milk in their offices in November 1978." Unable to influence municipal policy.. as five thousand of his city's homosexuals marched in protest.. the price at which they chose to sell (vastly above the cheap price at which they bought). Minnesota. White overcame his political impotence with the help of a police special . if temporarily. Kansas and Eugene.. Wichita. "Gay rights now!" Division within the homosexual communities--distrust between lesbians and gay men. Miami voters spoke--by a two-to-one margin rejecting the antidiscrimination ordinance. AND THE POLITICS OF OIL During the 1970s the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) dramatically. San Francisco. angry gays paraded the streets chanting.. What if the people of Selma. staying near $2 a .. In New York City. Fighting back.. Those years of change are described in this excerpt from David Halberstam's book. incorrigibles. changed the world balance of power by first embargoing and then raising the price of oil sold to the West." charged singer Anita Bryan. alluding to the black crusade of the sixties. The Reckoning. In the spring of 1978. THE WEST. had been asked to vote on equal rights for blacks in 1964?" In June 1977." Source: Peter N. It Seemed Like Nothing Happened: The Tragedy and Promise of America in the 1970s (New York. The only supervisor to vote against the antidiscrimination measure was a former policeman named Dan White who had campaigned against "splinter groups of radicals. 290-293.

From 1950 to 1965 the six Common Market countries' reliance on oil as an energy source increased from 10 to 45 percent. fiercely anti-Western... Libya had opened itself up to a variety of companies. was furious." he declared. and the Americans offered 15 cents. Thus someone like Qaddafi could exert considerable leverage on a single firm he chose to isolate.. For the first time the Arab nations began to talk of unity. It was probably the first time one of the oil countries did to a company what the companies had been doing to them.. Unlike other Arab countries. the new Arab confidence was obvious. among the many companies doing business in Libya." The negotiations between the companies and the Iranians became intense.. At the same time the buyer's market in oil was beginning to become a seller's market. he sought an increase.. bitterly anti-Israel... Word of that price spread swiftly through the Arab world..barrel. Occidental quickly offered a modest increase in price. In May 1970. Japan's economy. The Six-Day War took place twenty-two years after the end of World War II. . But beneath the seeming stability there was volatility. at last compelling the Arab nations to cooperate with one another. Advised by experts that his oil was under priced. increasing to 50 by 1975.. "Otherwise you would not have the common front. became ever more oil-based. King Idris was overthrown by a group of radical officers headed by a young army colonel named Muammar Qaddafi. In 1967 the Egyptians and the Syrians attacked Israel in what became known as the Six-Day War."The oil-producing countries know they are being cheated.. The Shah... The impotence of the Arabs simply created more contempt for them in the West. where the government dealt with only one main concessionaire.. the weakest link. an increase of 76 cents.. The Iranians wanted 54 cents more a barrel.. At a meeting of OPEC in December 1970. But it was this demonstration of their own ineffectuality that prompted real change.. a scaled-down replica of the American model. The first substantial break came in 1969 in Libya. he realized how much more he could have gotten. The speed and completeness with which the Israelis defeated their Arab opponents only made the Arabs more aware of their weakness and deepened their rage. By then Western Europe had become a full-fledged member of the oil culture. an independent and. and countless smaller countries were also beginning to demand oil. the companies rejected his request. In September of that year. he took on Occidental Petroleum.. and its fields were allotted among them.. They finally settled on 30 cents... his patience exhausted. Not just the leaders of the radical countries but even supposedly moderate leaders like the Shah were behaving in a new way.. hearing the news.... The all-powerful seven sisters [the international oil companies] have got to open their eyes and see that they are living in 1971 and not in 1948 or 1949. but it was too late. In March the companies doing business with Libyans agreed on a posted price of $3.

which used 25 percent more gas than manual transmissions.. It was clear that the posted price and the market price no longer had anything to do with each other. Source: David Halberstam. had made both their political and economic points. the Iranian State Oil Company for the first time conducted an auction of its oil. the boycott was over.. for those allowed to buy. It seemed a particularly cruel irony that only a few weeks earlier the companies had sneered at Yamani's request for a $5 price. Shell was said to have bid at $12. Four Arab foreign ministers flew to Washington to warn the Americans of the possibility of a boycott. The American economy and the American people were completely unprepared for the change.. and were now being richly rewarded by the high price of oil." which was an attempt to keep one's tank perpetually filled. we will. for example.. In March 1974. and announce it unilaterally to the companies. In a short time it went from 36 cents a gallon to 60. (New York. at which the countries announced an additional 12 percent increase.. The squandering of oil was built into the very structure of American life. began. pp. Suddenly gas was expensive and scarce. Everyone had become dependent upon cheap energy." On October 21 the boycott. The Reckoning.. and Saqquaf retorted. At one service station in Pittsburgh a motorist came in and bought 11 cents worth and the attendant spit in his face.. from now on they would meet. Almost all American cars. 1973.. Sheik Yamani [the Saudi oil Minister] told reporters that this was the last time the countries would negotiate with the companies on price. the President pleaded too busy a schedule. Eighty-five percent of the job holders in America drove to work every day─and as a result. reports of bribes. In the neurosis created by the boycott there was a new craze called "topping off. though much more expensively. aimed primarily at the Americans. and even one murder committed in a struggle for gas. On December 16.. 1986). 452-459. work out the price. just five months after it began. the foreign minister of Saudi Arabia.. had automatic transmissions. There were fights as drivers tried to jump the line.. People lined up for hours at every service station. The most important of them was Omar Saqquaf. Another auction in Algeria produced bids of $22. The embargo helped drive the price per barrel skyward. The highest bid was $17 a barrel.In June 1973 there was another OPEC meeting.. and that angered the Saudis. The oil began flowing again. The Arabs had flexed their new muscles. Now two powerful currents came together─a changing market value for oil and an enraged Arab sensibility over American support of Israel. On the day that Saqquaf hoped to see President Nixon. HOSTAGE CRISIS IN IRAN .. public transportation had atrophied. A press conference an American reporter suggested to Saqquaf that the Saudis might have to drink their oil.. "All right.

your faith. Schlafly: The first requirement for the acquisition of power by the Positive Woman is to understand the differences between men and women.who rapidly turned the government into a theocracy that condemned modernization and preached hatred of the West. In January 1979. On a visit to Tehran in 1977.. Jerry Falwell. The Positive Woman starts with the assumption that the world is her oyster.1101 THE CHALLENGE TO FEMINISM: PHYLLIS SCHLAFLY AND REV. Virginia and the founder of the Moral Majority. Your outlook on life.. especially among the country's religious leaders. Carter complimented the shah on "the admiration and love which your people give to you. had tortured and imprisoned some 50. But after being invaded by Iraq in September." In fact.000 people and had been spending unprecedented amounts of Iranian wealth on arms from the United States instead of investing it in economic development. who strongly disliked the Westernizing trends the shah supported. 1979. A mission to rescue the hostages in 1980 fell apart when two American aircraft crashed into each other in the desert. She rejoices in the creative capability within her body and the .The following account describes the 444 day Iranian hostage crisis which of 1979-1981. Source: Pauline Maier. 997-998 . In early November. all are determined by the parameters of your original premise. a lawyer. Opposition to his regime was bitter and widening. seventy-nine years old. The new head of Iran was Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. having held them for 444 days. JERRY FALWELL In the following vignettes we see the views of Phyllis Schlafly. On November 4. 2003) pp. a Baptist Minister from Lynchburg. The crisis increasingly frustrated and angered Americans as television carried nightly clips from Tehran of anti-American mobs demonstrating at the embassy and shouting "Death to America.. the Ayatollah Khomeini's government decided it did not want to deal with two enemies at once. your potential for fulfillment. your behavior. Carter admitted the shah to the United States for cancer treatment. Inventing America: A History of the United States (New York. President Carter valued Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi of Iran. when the CIA helped pave his way to power. Like Richard Nixon. as an instrument of American interests in the Persian Gulf region. despite warning that the action would jeopardize American diplomats in Iran... which had close times to the CIA. The attempt had been pushed by the White House over the misgivings of the military. a revolution led by Shiite fundamentalists forced the shah to flee to Europe.. author and political activist who emerged in the 1970s as the principal opponent of the Equal Rights Amendment and Rev." Carter immediately froze Iranian assets in the United States and prohibited the importation of Iranian oil. armed students broke into the American embassy compound in Tehran and held fifty Americans hostage. the shah had long been violating his subjects' human rights--his secret police. whom the United States had been supporting since 1953. It released the hostages on Carter's last day in office.

It become necessary... It is self-evident. on the other hand. for women to agitate and demonstrate and hurl demands on society in order to wrest from an oppressive male-dominated social structure the status that has been wrongfully denied to women through the centuries. and despondent from the loneliness of living a life without commitment.. her youth. Caring for a baby serves the natural maternal need of a woman.. The overriding psychological need of a woman is to love something alive.. Confrontation replaces cooperation as the watchword of all relationships. The differences between men and women are. A baby fulfills this need in the lives of must women.. It has produced a generation of young women searching for their identity..power potential of her mind and spirit. Those who think it is unfair that women have babies. will have to take up their complaint with God because no other power is capable of changing that fundamental fact..that the female body with its baby-producing organs was not designed by a conspiracy of men but by the Divine Architect of the human race. Someone--it is not clear who.. just nothing. The Positive Woman will never travel that dead-end road. therefore. Although not nearly so total as the baby's need. but they can't find any new rules that work. the human race would have died out centuries ago. but it is still the woman who is hurt the most. It robs the woman of her virtue. The advertisement showed a darling curly headed girl with the caption: "This healthy.. Women must be made equal to men in their ability not to become pregnant and not to be expected to care for babies they may bring into this world. She was born female. is imprisoned by her own negative view of herself and of her place in the world around her.. perhaps God.. This view of women was most succinctly expressed in an advertisement designed by. Without woman's innate maternal instinct.." perhaps a conspiracy of male chauvinist pigs--dealt women a foul blow by making them female. normal baby has a handicap. the woman's need is nonetheless real.. They are doing what come naturally to the female psyche.the National Organization for Women (NOW)... and her love--for nothing.. the most oppressive is the cruel fact that women have babies and men do not. whereas men cannot. The . bored with sexual freedom.. The new generation can brag all it wants about the new liberation of the new morality. chip-on-the-shoulder. and that those very differences provide the key to her success as a person an fulfillment as a woman.. her beauty. She understands that men and women are different. Women and men become adversaries instead of partners. women search for a baby-substitute.. The new morality isn't just a "fad"--it is a cheat and a thief. fundamental dogma of the women's liberation movement.. This is the reason why women have traditionally gone into teaching and nursing careers.emotional and psychological. They have abandoned the old commandments.. and seen in many magazines and newspapers. If a baby is not available to fill that need. The second dogma of the women's liberationists is that." This is the self-articulated dog-in-the manger.. The women's liberationist. perhaps the "Establishment. of all the injustices perpetuated upon women through the centuries.

They need a man who knows Jesus Christ as his Lord and Savior.. and some are lonely women who like being housewives and helpmates and mothers. 5:23). Some are misinformed. 1989). Sometimes the full load of rearing a family becomes a great burden to a woman who is not supported by a man. In 1 Peter 3:7 we read that husbands are to give their wives honor as unto the weaker vessel. Christian women are honored above men. "GREED IS GOOD": THE 1980s Historian Pauline Maier.. Falwell: I believe that at the foundation of the women's liberation movement there is a minority core of women who were once bored with life. even as Christ is the head of the church" (Ep... pp. Women need to know Jesus Christ as their Lord and Savior and be under His Lordship. But this is not what the present feminist movement and the equal rights movement are all about. and she will reach her goal because the longest journey starts with a very practical first step. Not all the women involved in the feminist movement are radicals.schoolchild or the patient of any age provides an outlet for a woman to express her natural maternal need. and they need to be part of a home where their husband is a godly leader and where there is a Christian family. women are different from men in dealing with the fundamentals of life itself. And. women are practical. as Karl Marx did. Women don't take naturally to a search for the intangible and abstract. The Equal Rights Amendment can never do for women what needs to be done for them. spend years reading political philosophy in the British Museum while her child starved to death. I believe that women deserve more than equal rights. Ma. He made men and women to complement each other and to love each other. The Equal Rights Amendment is a delusion. but whose husbands spend little time at home and who take no interest in their wives and children. . Women who work should be respected and accorded dignity and equal rewards for equal work. Men are philosophers. that they are both heirs together of the grace of life. and 'twas ever thus. God Almighty created men and women biologically different and with differing needs and roles. Only in places were the Bible is believed and practiced do women receive more than equal rights. ERA defied the mandate that "the husband is the head of the wife. The Positive Woman knows who she is and where she is going. . women are concerned about feeding the kids today. Because a woman is weaker does not mean that she is less important. Many women have never accepted their God-given roles. Major Problems in American Women's History (Lexington. No woman would ever. in this vignette. Source: Mary Beth Norton. in families and in nations where the Bible is believed. provides one description of the 1980s. Men and women have differing strengths. They live in disobedience to God's laws and have promoted their godless philosophy throughout our society.. 429-433. whose real problems are spiritual problems. Men may philosophize about how life began and where we are heading. Finally.

5 percent. 1026-1027. loans issued to finance the purchase of corporations for prices far higher than the corporations were worth. and by 1989 median family income corrected for inflation had shot up 12.. Some of the heroes. and generating fears that the country might be headed for another Depression. By 1988. which formed all its electrical parts out of a flat piece of silicon. Americans of all sorts became absorbed with celebrities-professional athletes. and in the naked materialism of the culture associated with it. losing almost a quarter of its worth wiping out $750 billion in paper wealth. who received several hundred million dollars a year in commissions. and a drop in the unemployment rate from 7." a derivative acronym for "young urban professionals. Among the heroes of Wall Street ere manipulators of junk bonds. Inventing America: A History of the United States.. when the Dow Jones industrial average (an indicator of stock-market value) plummeted 508 points. Source: Pauline Maier. dressed for success and exuding the ambitions of an unrestrained materialism. notably the military's patronage of microelectronics and the interests of hobbyists in democratizing the use of computers. vol. 2 (New York. THE COMPUTER AGE ARRIVES The vignette below describes the emergence of the personal computer and ironically its debt to the counterculture generation. but reality outdid fiction.4 percent to 5. mortgage rates had plummeted roughly 40 percent. One of the most significant technical developments of the 1970s was the personal computer. 11 million jobs. Corporate profits broke records. An essential component of the PC was the integrated circuit. clothing designers. a number of savings-and-loan institutions were looted by white-collar thieves. generating more than 630. entertainers. The decade produced a new group called "yuppies. even chefs. and so did the stock market--at least until October 19." a sentiment that pervaded the popular film Wall Street. "Greed is all right. were later exposed as crooked and went to jail. television newscasters." upwardly mobile men and women with degrees in law or business.000 new businesses. By 1989. Tom Wolfe's best-selling novel Bonfire of the Vanities relentlessly explored the culture of avarice. not only in the ebullience of the prosperity but in the unevenness of it. Between 1982 and 1988. one of the financial buccaneers of the decade-he later went to jail for fraudulent manipulations proclaimed. photo etching the connections between . Amid the weakened oversight of Reaganite deregulation. 2003). the gross domestic product grew at an average annual rate of about 4 percent.5 percent. Personal computers (PCs) sprang from several sources. 1987.The Reagan years reminded some observers of the 1920s.everybody should be a little greedy. Ivan Boesky. most of whom were admired for their professional skills but also for their opulent incomes. the Dow Jones had more than doubled its level in 1982. some of whom bought yachts and threw lavish entertainments. But the jitters were short-lived. pp.

to write a software program for it that they licensed to the Albuquerque firm. twenty-five. In 1976. a twenty-year-old Harvard student. the Apple. Eager to expand the business. twenty. obtained venture capital. New Mexico. several other companies were selling personal compute software for them was initially confined to educational programs and games such as the wildly popular "Pacman. and his high school friend Paul Allen. Although integrated circuits were not developed with military patronage. was an acolyte of vegetarianism. the Intel Corporation. announced that it had produced such a chip: the 8080. and Steve Jobs. They built the first Apples in the home garage of Jobs's parents. began marketing a comparable personal computer. It spurred Bill Gates. In 1973. Jobs. for example. Jobs and Wozniak relinquished their T-shirts for suits. and transcendental meditation. called for bringing computing power to the people by. the Altair ran on the Intel 8080 chip and was an instant hit with hobbyists. to sell radio transmitters for model airplanes went beyond the dream of universal terminal access to put computers themselves into everyone's hands. which included a keyboard. founded by several veterans of Fairchild. the Defense Department and NASA provided a sizable fraction of the early market for them. By this time.them. the Apollo guidance system." but in 1979 . a monitor. Selling for $397. time-sharing gave users in their offices access to their personal files and encouraged them to think they could have interactive access to their own computers at any time for any purpose. which was an incubator for many of the engineers who would develop the computing industry in what came to be known as Silicon Valley.000. twenty-two. Gates dropped out of Harvard to develop the Microsoft Corporation. One Minuteman II missile used 2.000." In 1974. engineers in Silicon Valley were creating an integrated circuit on a small chip containing the calculating circuits equivalent to all those in a mainframe computer of the 1950s. Computer hobbyists. One enthusiast recalled the "strong feeling that we were subversives. By the late 1960s. Both were T-shirts-and-jeans devotees of the hobbyist electronics culture in Silicon Valley. They started marketing a personal computer kit called the Altair. A later version. the region heavy with computer firms on the peninsula south of San Francisco. Steve Wozniak. where they grew up. The development of the personal computer was encouraged by the abundant technical resources of Silicon Valley notably the electronics graduates from nearby Stanford University and the University of California at Berkeley and the engineering innovations from local firms such as Hewlett-Packard--and by the inspiration that hobbyists drew from time-sharing computers. a software firm he and Allen founded in 1975 for the Altair venture. 5. in Palo Alto. introduced in 00 operated with a mouse and pull-down menus. both of which had been originally developed under contracts the Defense Department and NASA. the Beatles. and in 1977 brought out the Apple II. even though it had no keyboard or monitor. It was devised independently at Texas Instruments and at Fairchild Semiconductor Laboratories. California. and a floppy-disk drive for storage. some of them in tune with the countercultural ambience of the San Francisco Bay Peninsula. We were subverting the way the giant corporations had run things. providing the public with free access to timeshared terminals. Built around a central computer that automatically allocated processing time to different individuals. a small firm that three hobbyists had founded in Albuquerque. with long hair and sandals.

By the late 1970s. In 1981. It was principally conceived in the late 1960s by a computer scientist at MIT named J. The PC caught on so fast that two years later Time magazine designated the personal computer its "Man of the Year. 991-993. THE INTERNET Few late 20th Century inventions have so profoundly changed U. you are reading this vignette courtesy of internet technology. having devised a browser. to other makers of personal computers." Source: Pauline Maier. Inventing America: A History of the United States." for hypertext markup language) for presenting text and images. personal computing was rapidly turning away from its countercultural origins into a lucrative for-profit enterprise. Programmers at a government computing facility in Illinois. In the seventies. which soon became an industry standard. which was pioneered in 1971 and which an authoritative 1978 report dubbed a "smashing success" that would "sweep the country. the Internet originated in the national defense program's patronage of science and technology. Like so many innovations that changed the way people lived. Licklider as a network that would preserve communications in the event of nuclear attack.VisiCalc. and provided it to IBM as MS-DOS (short for "Microsoft Disk Operating System")." for hypertext transfer protocol) for transferring them from one computer to another. In the meantime. 2 (New York. scientists and engineers at different institutions developed the essential hardware and software that would permit different types of computers and networks to communicate with each other through an intermediate service provider. A brief history of the Internet appears below. Microsoft bought a software package that had been devised at Seattle Computer Products by Tim Paterson. an arrangement that permitted the company eventually to earn billions of dollars by selling the right to use the system. and protocols ("http. C. a recent college graduate. partly at the initiative of then-Senator Al Gore. They also devised a language ("html. Gates sold IBM the right to use the system but maintained Microsoft's ownership. came on the market and demonstrated the value of the PC for business. 2003). left in 1994 to develop a new.S. Bill Gates had already warned the hobbyists that he would consider free sharing of the software that Microsoft had produced for the Altair a form of piracy. a spreadsheet program. . Indeed. It was used mainly for e-mail. IBM entered the PC market. enlisting Microsoft to provide the operating software for its machines. vol." for universal resource locator). In response." Between the mid-1980s and early 1990s. Together. scientists in Europe developed a program to retrieve information from any computer connected to the Internet by latching on to its standard address (called a "URI. pp. R. the Internet was transferred to civilian control and then opened up to commercial use. a nationwide network rapidly developed among industrial and university scientists. commercial version that they called Netscape. society as the Internet. With the sponsorship of the Defense Department.

p. "Electronic mail will be the 21st Century version of the telex--which it clearly makes obsolete. to send you a message regardless of where in the world either one of us is at the time. coordinated its Tedi River gold mining operations around the globe in Papua New Guinea by exchanging information over a computer message network. including two out of five adults.95 From offices in San Francisco. And in Dearborn. the Bechtel Group. Michigan. After the mid-1990s. has established 14." said communications consultant Richard Miller. Ironically Microsoft advertised its Word program for the AppleMcintosh in that section of the paper for $149. the Web spread with the freely accessible Internet across the globe. THE E-MAIL "REVOLUTION" BEGINS The following passage from a 1985 Los Angeles Times article describes the advent of electronic mail. Ohio-based CompuServe--the nation's largest electronic mail service--doubled its subscribers to 185. were accessing the Internet. for example. Inc. with revenues last year estimated at $200 million. for example. At the time electronic mail services charged $40 to sign-up or $10 for a monthly service rate.com" and were known accordingly as "dot com" companies. 2 (New York. He predicated dramatic changers in international communications. president of International Telematics in Palo Alto.. electronic mail use is growing at an annual rate of nearly 60%--faster than any other segment of the computer industry. . Inventing America: A History of the United States. information that might otherwise require costly long distance calls or delay for postal delivery can be exchanged across town or around the world virtually in an instant via "electronic mail"-. Today. most of them with URLs that ended in the designation "." Although still a fledgling industry. vol. 2003).000 in the last month alone. Last year. In Mexico agricultural scientists are using computer links to remote experimental crop stations to monitor data of new strains of wheat being grown there. "It allows me. a Marina del Reybased newcomer. Source: Pauline Maier.000 subscribers in less than a year. the Society of Manufacturing Engineers coordinates plans for its annual convention and distributes abstracts of technical papers to engineers across the United States over a computer communications system. 1065-1066. about 74 million people. adding 3.000. And Echo..these innovations led to the birth of the World Wide Web.a computer-to-computer communications system regarded as the most revolutionary since the telegraph and telephone replaced horseback couriers more than a century ago. according to analysts. Today there are an estimated 1 million electronic "mailboxes" in use. Columbus. Its diffusion was accompanied by an avalanche of companies founded to exploit it commercially. By early 1999.

" Source: Los Angeles Times. TOKYO-As the worldwide auto industry enters the 1990s." he said. we'll have the same problem that the telephone had for the first few decades--that is. Back in the days when mail was delivered by horseback. however. AMERICAN AND JAPANESE AUTOS IN THE 1990s In an article titled "Why Can't America Catch Up."In the next decade electronic communication is going to become as routine as making phone calls. Part VI." James Risen offers an explanation of the success of Japanese auto manufacturers vis-à-vis their American counterparts. He conceded. February 24. the latest stock quotes.. could be relayed in a matter of hours to financial centers in the East. even if some the of earliest users had a telephone. She predicted that the average home in the mid-1990s will be equipped with a telephone with a built-in computer that will permit easy access not only to electronic mail. weather reports and computerized directory assistance. executive director of the Electronic Mail Association--a Washington-based industry group. So. "Until they do. "People who use it in the office are going to want to use it at home. Californiabased marketing research firm. p. multibillion dollar effort by the American auto industry to catch up with Japan in terms of reliability and overall quality. that consumer growth will lag behind business use of electronic mail. the computer has squeezed the hours down to milliseconds. who could they call?" That's the case now with electronic mail. for example. the chances were that very few of their friends did. telegraph--the original electronic communications system--revolutionized the way the world conducted business. Despite a 10 year. News of a gold discovery in the West. "More people need to buy personal computers and telephone modems for their homes. It is technically possible today to move the contents of an entire set of encyclopedia from a computer in Chicago to another terminal in Los Angeles in the time it takes to read this sentence. ." said Michael J Cavanagh." said Jan Lewis.. The explanation describes the challenge auto manufacturers and indeed all American industry faces in an increasingly competitive world market. but to various databases. the Japanese are still holding the competitive edge over Detroit's auto makers that they first asserted more than a decade ago. The electronic mail concept is not new. the Japanese are still building better cars. a Cupertino. however. "We won't even have to memorize telephone numbers anymore. "After a time they found that there were also personal messages being exchanged like plans for Friday night poker games. 1." said Cavanagh." Cavanagh said.citing the example of an early electronic mail network set up a few years ago through the Defense Department--a system designed for the exchange of important scientific information. "Its consumer value will increase as the numbers of subscribes increase. The increasing business use of electronic mail will affect consumer use as well. an analyst for InfoCorp. 1985." Lewis said. Today.

are included.000 compared to $40.. at the very least. "I think the domestics. are still out of touch with what a whole generation of car buyers─and I mean anyone under 45─wants in a product. The domestics are now only about where the Japanese were in 1983 or 1984. the Japanese have kept their competitive lead during the period in which they lost their once-formidable labor-cost advantage over Detroit. the average Toyota worker made the equivalent of $49. Ironically. The Big Three auto makers have dramatically improved the quality of their cars over the last 10 years.. the Japanese can design and develop a new car much faster than American companies can. after several years in which Detroit did narrow the gap. D. But many automobile industry analysts believe the Japanese are in fact widening their quality lead once more. Said Cedergren. A free-fall plunge in car sales has forced General Motors. one of every four cars sold in America comes from the Japanese─more if the Japanese-built cars hiding behind American nameplates. Why are Japanese cars still better? First. Power & Associates. The Japanese have adjusted by drastically upgrading the automation of their factories. for example. and now they are doing it─and they are still beating us. Thanks to the rise in the value of the yen relative to the dollar and a worsening labor shortage.000 at Ford. The Japanese now sell more cars in America than does Ford and they are rapidly catching up with industry leader. It often takes two years longer in Detroit to develop a new model than it does in Japan─virtually assuring that Japanese cars will always seem newer. after all this time. while Chrysler's mini-van single-handedly created a whole new market. fresher and just plain better. "We screamed at them to come over here and build cars where they sold them. but the Japanese are too. A staggering 42 of 62 Big Three assembly plants are being shuttered temporarily during January. . Detroit is paying an awful price for its failure to close the quality gap in the 1980s. Most embarrassing for auto executives in Detroit has been that they have had to watch as the Japanese have rapidly set up shop in the Midwest with plants that can approach the best quality levels of Japan─while employing the same kind of American workers that Big Three management once blamed for the poor workmanship in American cars. "The domestics are certainly improving. assembly-line workers in Japan command higher wages than their counterparts in Detroit." Today. kept America in the ball game and Detroit has produced its share of winning products. Ford's Probe and Plymouth's Geo Storm. "The quality gap is still there" warned Chris Cedergren of J.This winter. Ford's Taurus helped redefine automotive styling. Ford and Chrysler to lay off tens of thousands of workers during the last few months. GM." one Ford official said with a sigh. a trend that has. Remarkably. the Japanese seem to have a better understanding of American consumers than the American auto companies do.

taking a big load off their workers and their factories. placing a much greater emphasis on what they call "designing-in" quality. They have also perfected the complex art of building many different models on the same assembly line─something Detroit has never quite mastered. Ford and General Motors are the fifth and six largest employers and only eight of the top twenty-five employers are primarily manufacturers. the function of quality control in Japan is kaizen─the search for constant improvement." Los Angeles Times. usually make at least 50 times as much and sometime as much as 500 times. Japan. which continues to elude Detroit's auto makers even after years of rhetoric about it. . they spend a great deal of time making sure that the cars will be easy to build on the assembly line. January 14. "We are never satisfied. That allows the Japanese to offer a wider array of new models without going to the huge expense of building new plants. When their engineers design new models. "We are moving now so that in the next couple of years we can open the quality gap even wider over America. The Japanese have also developed far more sophisticated relationships with their parts suppliers. Instead. MAJOR U. more than ever. general manager of Honda's massive assembly plant in Sayama. So what is most frightening for Detroit today is that the Japanese are. The pay gap between executives and the people on the shop floor is much smaller in Japan than in the U. 1994-2004 As the table below indicates. the United States is now a post-industrial economy. That willingness by both managers and line workers to focus on even the smallest problems until they are solved springs from a genuine sense of team spirit. By bringing their parts suppliers into their development process. the Japanese do a better job of planning ahead for problems. it is quite common for six different cars to be built on the same line. which borders on the obsessive.S.In addition. not through words but through deeds." said Kaname Kasai. 1990.S. a moving target. top executives in Detroit. The chief executive of a major Japanese auto company earns only about 10 times as much as the youngest line worker. Along with their fixation on detail comes a sense in Japan that quality isn't stationary." Source: James Risen. EMPLOYERS. The difference is that Japanese assembly-line workers are made to feel like a team. who often perform critical research and development work for the auto makers. But what may be most important is the Japanese attention to detail. by contrast. the Japanese are consistently able to offer newer and better technology for much less money than Detroit. "Why Can't America Catch Up. In Japan.

700 213.000 208.000 -12.000 70.568 260.000 203.531 326.600 249.000 -197.213 710.067 293. In February 1993.000 324.000 188.800 256.000 258.000 173.100 200. They infuriated Osama bin Laden.000 129. and the United States' support of Israel all angered a number of Muslims in the Middle East. directed against the country.600 140.900 178.000 355.600 --131.000 265.000 327.000 Source: Investor's Business Daily (September 2004).000 -174.000 260.000 165.500.040 144.000 123. four Muslim terrorists connected to bin Laden exploded a .Ran Company k 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Wal-Mart Stores McDonalds United Parcel Target Ford Motor General Motors IBM General Electric Home Depot Kroger Yum Brands Tyco International Sears Roebuck Albertsons Safeway United Technologies Verizon Aramark Delphi HCA Berkshire Hathaway SBC Communications Altria Group Kmart Holding Boeing Current (2004) 1.700 168.000 190.850 59.600 22.600 200.000 156.000 291.000 75.000 342.000 328.000 100.800 168. Bin Laden hated the United States enough to finance a network of terror called Al Qaeda.000 172.000 47.000 319.273 305. TERRORISM IN THE 1990s In the following vignette historian Pauline Meier describes the emerging Al Qaeda terrorist network led by Osama bin Laden and its relationship to the Taliban.000 167.000 87.000 359. who controlled Afghanistan through the decade.000 158. a rich Saudi exile living in Afghanistan.000 212.000 528.000 418.000 278.000 157. The sanctions against Iraq and the civilian suffering they generated. the presence of American troops on Saudi Arabian soil during and after the Gulf War.207 222.525 -231.000 256.000 5 years 10 years ago ago 910.000 105.000 299.545 594.000 284.000 50.000 330.300 203.000 322.720 73.000 290.

Some contended that it was only a matter of time before the terrorists would strike on American shores with far greater destructive effect than they had achieved in the 1993 bombing at the World Trade Center." In October 1999." (The owner of the plant denied that he had anything to do with bin Laden. a group of extreme Islamic fundamentalists. President Clinton declared.) During the trial of the organizers of the Africa bombings. In 1996. and reporters visiting the site saw no evidence that he did. The Taliban refused. killing 213 Kenyan citizens and injuring thousands of civilians. planes attacked two targets believed to be associated with bin Laden-the Al Shifa pharmaceutical plant in Sudan.S. [President Bill] Clinton's ability to advance even a modest domestic agenda was greatly undermined by the scandals that began washing over him and led to his impeachment the following year. who in August 1994 had been appointed a special . and a temporary base camp in Afghanistan. no matter what or how long it takes. alleged to be a source of biochemical weapons. 2003). several other suicide truck bombers blew up the American embassy in Tanzania. resolved to impose limited sanctions against the Taliban in an effort to force them to turn over bin Laden immediately to a country where he could be brought to justice. Source: Pauline Maier. vol. A few hours after the attacks in 1998. and bin Laden and Al Qaeda grew bolder. the U. AND IMPEACHMENT In the vignette below historian Pauline Meier describes the Monica Lewinsky Scandal which prompted the second impeachment of a President in the nation's history. LIES. alarmed." In an operation code-named "Infinite Reach. "We will use all the means at our disposal to bring those responsible to justice. terrorists linked to bin Laden attacked the USS Cole while it was anchored in the Yemeni port of Aden. terrorists drove a truck bomb into an American army barracks in Saudi Arabia itself. killing 19 U. pp. the Taliban. testimony indicated that bin Laden and Al Qaeda had attempted to acquire weapons of mass destruction about five years earlier. a number of analysts believed that the United States was inadequately on guard against the war of terrorism that was increasingly being waged against it. labeled by Clinton "one of the most active terrorist bases in the world. From early 1998.000. killing 17 of its crew and injuring 47. they succeeding in killing 6 and injuring more than 1.S. Inventing America: A History of the United States. and [the one] in Kenya. And in 1998. 2 (New York. Although they failed in their ambition to topple the tower into its twin. Security Council. SEX. to some $300 million a year. killing 11.car bomb in the garage under one of the World Trade Center towers in New York City. gained control of Afghanistan and extended their protection to bin Laden as a "guest. Between 1993 and 1999. in the wake of so many successful assaults. the FBI's counterterrorism budget more than tripled. The scandals came to light as a result of the work conducted by Kenneth Starr." U. military service people. 1062-1063. A year later. In 1996.N. Still.

and advisers that the stories about his relationship with Lewinsky were absolutely untrue. At Starr's request. a young government intern. During the next several years. he conceded that his conduct with Lewinsky had been "wrong. and the Internet for months. she turned over a blue dress that. who was still pursuing her sexual harassment suit against the president. Starr received evidence from a government employee named Linda Tripp that Monica Lewinsky." Frenzied discussions of the case fined newspapers. they obtained a ruling from the Supreme Court requiring Clinton to answer their questions. word of the information Tripp had given Starr was making headlines." He refused to discuss the matter further publicly. agreed to testify in return for a grant of immunity. according to her. Philip Roth remarked in his novel The Human Stain that in the summer of 1998 "a president's penis was on everyone's mind. Besides telling a federal grand jury in graphic detail about her affair with Clinton. By now. Hillary Clinton blamed the array of investigations into the couple's activities on a "vast right-wing conspiracy. was stained with the president's semen.the ecstasy of sanctimony. Still. television.." and his alleged Oval Office peccadilloes "revived America's oldest communal passion. in late 1997. establishing the precedent that a sitting president could be compelled to testify in a civil suit concerning actions that took place before his presidency. He told the American people in a four-minute nationally televised address that he had "misled" them and done injury to his family. The report detailed Clinton's sexual contacts with Lewinsky and . Clinton. Starr was authorized to investigate several other allegations of impropriety in the Clinton administration. but he told his family. radio. Then in January 1998. In 2000. Clinton denied having a romantic relationship with Lewinsky. Clinton realized that DNA testing of the stain would demonstrate that the semen was his. On January 17. whom Starr had threatened to prosecute. shaking his finger. "I did not have sexual relations with that woman. the attorneys for Paula Jones." In August. Lewinsky. On September 9.." but insisted that he been legally accurate in denying to Jones's lawyers that he had engaged in a "sexual relationship" with Lewinsky because he took such a relationship to mean intercourse. had been having an affair with the president that included her performing oral sex on him during visits to the Oval Office. Hoping to demonstrate that Clinton showed a pattern of predatory sexual behavior.prosecutor to look into the Whitewater affair. Attorney General Janet Reno authorized him to enlarge his multiple investigations of Clinton into whether the president had lied in his testimony to Jones's lawyers and had sought to obstruct justice by encouraging Lewinsky to cover up their affair. cabinet. January 1998. In mid-August. responding under oath to questions by Jones's lawyers. Starr gave Congress a videotape of Clinton's grand jury testimony and a 445-page report. he defiantly insisted that he had not lied under oath nor asked anyone to lie for him. emphatically declared. had heard rumors of an affair between Lewinsky and Clinton. In a statement on national television at the end of January. Meanwhile. in videotaped testimony to Starr and the federal grand jury.

Inventing America: A History of the United States. CA 24 Largest Cities 2000 7. Newt Gingrich. and union officials as sex between two consenting adults.820 2. on December 19. 1998. the public standing of Starr. 10 Republicans opposed the charge of perjury. 2003). some of which focused on charges that he had lied under oath. "It's hard to get really excited.listed eleven possible grounds for impeachment.008. Congress quickly released both the full report and the videotape to the public. the House voted to launch an impeachment inquiry by a solid majority of 258 to 176. the Democrats gained five seats in the House while maintaining their number in the Senate and in state contests. with 31 Democrats joining most of the Republicans in support.278 3. The Senate voted 55 to 45 against the perjury charge and 50 to 50 on the charge of obstructing justice (Neither charge gained a single Democratic vote. All the same. but by no means worthy of impeachment. N. N. 2 Chicago. Linda Tripp. On January 27 1999.Y. AMERICAN URBANIZATION. vol. 1073-1074. but it had persistently registered high approval of his performance in office.783. covered up as anyone might conceal an illicit affair. On October 8." a waitress remarked. Robert Livingston of Louisiana. the impeachment trial began in the Senate. "What does the Clintons' sex life have to do with me?" Meanwhile. also left as news stories began to circulate that he had engaged in adultery. 5 the charge of obstructing justice. 2 (New York.030 1 New York.Y. IL . under fire himself for questionable financial dealings. IL 3 Los Angeles. Source: Pauline Maier. His expected successor in the speakership.724 2. announced that he would leave Congress.07 2 2 Los Angeles. pp. CA 3. 1980-2000 20 Largest Cities 1980 1 New York. blacks.005.071. the House in a strongly partisan vote resolved to impeach Clinton on two articles-perjury and obstruction of justice-making him the second president (after Andrew Johnson) to be so treated.763 3 Chicago. In the congressional elections in November.966. and the Republican Congress plummeted. Now Clinton's conduct was brushed off by leading Democrats and his supporters among feminists. with the House leadership presenting the case against the president: After more than a month of partisan debate. gays. 8. the prosecutor failed to come near the two-thirds majority (67 votes) necessary for conviction. The public had long thought Clinton was lying about his relationship with Lewinsky.694.

The total number of people in 2000 living in the twenty largest metropolitan areas . MI 11 San Jose.662 563.188. TX 11 Phoenix.S.906.212 573. TX 6 Detroit. the total U.4 Philadelphia. DC 572.631 1.141 21 Washington. HI 13 Indianapolis.953. Metropolitan Areas. Census. OH 646. CA 18 Milwaukee. MI 7 Dallas.045 1.144.400 1. TX.059 22 Nashville.517. TX 8 San Diego.617 15 Columbus.874 700. TN 711.550 636. IN 791.068 5 PA 1. WA 569. CA 8 Dallas.339 6 Phoenix.321.410 764.504 786. TN 16 Washington.911 762.651 636.203. 13 CA 776. population in 2000 was 281.470 656.374 Top Twenty U.775 785.807 7 San Diego. FL 735. DC 17 San Jose.822 564.891 563. OH 20 Columbus. CA 9 Baltimore. 1.270 894.926 San Francisco. WI 596.078 875.550 1.S.421.594. TX 17 Baltimore. CA 951.733 14 San Francisco.974 15 Memphis.974 20 Boston. TX 1. TX 24 Seattle. TX 1. OH 16 Austin.356 637. 5 Houston. WI 19 Cleveland. AZ 904. MD 18 Memphis.223.100 19 Milwaukee.210 4 Houston.580 9 San Antonio.688. MA 589.646 10 Detroit. MD 10 San Antonio. CA 678.562 651. AZ 12 Honolulu. IN Philadelphia.154 650.S.871 14 Jacksonville. PA 1.943 12 Indianapolis. 2000 According to the U. TN 23 El Paso.

spontaneous outpouring of support for both the victims and the nation.463 City Boston – Worcester – 5. 7.C.945. Here historian Pauline Maier describes the cataclysmic events in New York City and Northern Virginia and the massive.displayed below was 119.251.968.801 Houston – Galveston – 4.607 Denver – Boulder – 2.6% of the nation's people lived in these major urban areas.876.838. 42.997 .506 Greeley Tampa – St.362 – San Jose Philadelphia – Wilmington – Atlantic 6.039.819.198 Miami – Fort Lauderdale 3. Thus.157. America's world was suddenly and dramatically transformed.608.554. in 2000 New York – Northern NJ 21.831 San Diego 2.112.833 St. Within the space of an hour and a half that morning.S.380 Seattle – Tacoma – 3. On Tuesday.100 Lawrence Detroit – Ann Arbor – 5.669.540 Kenosha Washington D. two passenger Metropolitan Areas in Total Population U.876 Minneapolis – St.806 Cleveland – Akron 2.813. The events and our response serve to remind us of our connection to our collective history and to each other.639.395. Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 9/11 It is fitting that the final vignette in this manual address the events of September 11.428 Flint Dallas – Fort Worth 5. Louis 2.188.456. Petersburg 2.603.865 – Long Island Los Angeles – Riverside 16. Paul 2.571 Brazoria Atlanta 4. September 11.373.070 Baltimore San Francisco – Oakland 7.760 Bremerton Phoenix – Mesa 3. 2001. 2001.581.645 – Orange County Chicago – Gary – 9.199.221.

said. Many posted prayers. Across the country. the second plane out of Boston struck the south tower and exploded. solemnly peering at the smoldering ruins and the workmen removing the debris. were loaded with fuel. in the meantime. and blue streamers on their jackets. fell--and setting others in the area on fire. Shortly after 10. in touch with relatives via cell phones. "I don't think we want to speculate about that-more than any of us can bear. Commentators everywhere extolled the heroism of the firefighters and police who died in the line of duty at the World Trade Center. each was commandeered by four or five hijackers armed with box cutters and knives. Within less than an hour of the first crash at the World Trade Center. the Federal Aviation Administration halted all flights at American airports for the first time in the nation's history and diverted to Canada all transatlantic aircraft bound for the United States. the portion of the Pentagon that had been hit also collapsed. showering a torrent of debris into the streets below. In Washington. At a news conference in the mid-afternoon. In the weeks that followed. the city reported that hundreds of its police officers and firefighters on the scene were dead or missing. headed toward the nation's capital. and bridges. D. and poems on the protective . but the White House was evacuated and so were all other federal office buildings in the capital. now hallowed ground. At some point not long after the planes were airborne. and gave blood for the survivors. Passengers on the fourth flight.. its reinforced concrete supports severely weakened by the intense heat of the jet fuel fire. asked about the number killed.000 (they were later reduced to 3. learned about the attacks on the Trade Center and the Pentagon. Eighteen minutes later. white.) All forty-four people aboard were killed. in fact. Just before 10:30. with the result that the Plane crashed in a field southeast of Pittsburgh rather than into a building. collapsed. buildings. In New York.airlines took off from Logan in Boston. estimates of the deaths at the World Trade Center ran as high as 6. too. Secret Service agents armed with automatic rifles were deployed opposite the White House in Lafayette Park. they concluded that their plane was being flown to a target as well. bound for California. overpasses. notices of the missing. The attacks of September 11 prompted an outpouring of patriotism rarely seen since Pearl Harbor." That evening. people attended services for the victims. the stock exchanges and all state government offices were closed. cars and trucks.C. releasing a tremendous cloud of debris and smoke and severely damaging a nearby 47-story building--later in the day it.M. Thousands flocked to Ground Zero.. Millions of Americans pinned red. the plane from Dulles crashed into the Pentagon. sent money to assist their families. Some decided to storm the cockpit. and two others took off from Newark Airport in New Jersey and Dulles Airport in Washington. At 8:45 A.000). New York's Mayor Rudolph Giuliani. President Bush was in Florida. the north tower followed its twin into Vie dust. American flags appeared in shop windows and on homes. All four. Some 200 people died in the crash at the Pentagon. one of the planes from Boston crashed into the north tower of the 110-story World Trade Center in lower Manhattan. tearing a huge hole in the building and setting it ablaze. (It was. the south tower of the World Trade Center. At 9:43.

as the world's sole superpower. . their trumpets blaring Are calling us to arms. 2003). On a sheet of paper tacked up in New York's Grand Central Station in late October. was an integral part of what was becoming a global civilization. the French newspaper Le Monde ran the headline "Nous sommes toutes les Amiricaines" (We are all Americans). Caulfield. equality. Another poem posted at Grand Central Station told the perpetrators of September 11 why the nation remained strong and resilient: Well. Inventing America: A History of the United States. Kikuchihara and Tsoy.. Waking us up from our selfish slumber To the truth of our lives. democracy. Arm in arm. forged and enlarged through almost four centuries of struggle.chain-link fences at the site and on any available wall space (including phone booths) around the city. had come to include many elements. and children. The victims at the World Trade Center included the nationals of more than eighty nations. and Wiswall. America isn't even about a bunch of buildings America is about an IDEA. Source: Pauline Maier. vol. bind it together. but you missed America America isn't about a place. The multinational and multicultural nature of American society was revealed by the names of lost spouses. Cassino.. 2 (New York. Staub. you hit the World Trade Center. The idea. and Egan. Henrique and Calderon. stand up together as one. Williams. turn. an anonymous poet cried out: Six thousand fallen heroes The six thousand angels. and opportunity--continued to transcend the nation's diversity. and at once invigorate and temper its response to the shadowy threats it was now compelled to confront. pp. 1082-1086. September 11 heightened awareness of the fact that the United States. pillars of strength Many observers declared that September 11 had ushered the United States into a new era. the evil in the world We must stop. The day after the attacks. parents. Perhaps it had. The overarching ones—the Fourth of July standards of freedom. hundreds of them on posterboards pleading for information about them--people named Schwartzstein.

770 226.8 13.818.4 16. New Jersey 184.3 Percentage Persons of 19.214 5.1 7.1 6.453 23.3 79.9 16.3 18.5 12.0 69.452 12.1 56.4 9.1 11.4 33.2 10.3 10.155.947.266 105.8 15.906 Percentage Increase -35.7 35.1 33.000 2.5 11.1 16.7 14. 1788-2000 Population Order of at Time of Entry State Admission Original States 1.449 50.5 12.994.2 10.697. Mi.7 21.275 150.714 75.046 131.5 32.9 73.069.5 64.443.4 13.1 39.878 281.620 122.8 80.239.361 179.2 35.0 13.0 25.3 7.421.2 Percentage Urban 5.8 13.709.8 10.000 3.775.866.638.3 19.5 19.8 20.7 28.5 76.6 26.825 248.2 14.323.3 11.020 17.000 Year Admitted Area (Sq.9 19.4 18.1 36. Delaware 59.8 25.972.175 204.504.2 8.6 51.5 20.1 10.0 18.6 45.6 26.9 35.4 12.669.057 45.308. 1790-2000 Year Color 1790 1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Number of States 13 16 17 23 24 26 31 33 37 38 44 45 46 48 48 48 48 50 50 50 50 50 Population 3.483 7.1 7.0 GROWTH OF THE FEDERAL UNION. Pennsylvania 434.881 9.191.765.876 31.929.783 62.8 15.836 Dover Harrisburg Trenton .APPENDIX POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES.2 56.0 14.333 7.321 39.575 91.710.0 25. Capital 1787 1787 1787 2.

609 33. Alabama 128. Illinois 55. Vermont 154.000 Pre-Civil War 19th Century States 17.000 9.000 1791 1792 1796 9. 238.576 52. Indiana 147. Mississippi 75.000 6.000 5.009 8.257 10.000 13.214 67 Atlanta Hartford Boston Annapolis Columbia Concord Richmond Albany Raleigh Providence Washington District of Columbia 8.609 40.400 51.817 49. 249.4.000 11.000 12. Louisiana 153.000 19.000 21.359 42.523 36.000 16.000 Other 18th Century States 14. 69.000 22.876 5.000 20.222 48.000 15.000 7.000 18.000 23.291 47.215 Columbus Baton Rouge Indianapolis Jackson Springfield Montgomery Augusta . 142.586 1. 340.000 Georgia Connecticut Massachusetts Maryland South Carolina New Hampshire Virginia New York North Carolina Rhode Island 1788 1788 1788 1788 1788 1788 1788 1788 1789 1790 1791 58.000 10.005 9.244 Montpelier Frankfort Nashville 1803 1812 1816 1817 1818 1819 1820 41. Maine 298.304 40. 83. Tennessee 106. Ohio 231.577 31. 379.000 8. Kentucky 221.716 56. 320. 692. 394.

981 Jefferson City Little Rock Lansing Tallahassee Austin Des Moines Madison Sacramento St. Colorado 194.000 35.290 56.000 31.540 Topeka Charleston Carson City 1867 1876 1889 1889 1889 1889 1890 1890 1896 77.000 25.277 104.560 267. 172.693 84. Nevada 42. West Virginia 442.000 Missouri Arkansas Michigan Florida Texas Iowa Wisconsin California Minnesota Oregon 1821 1836 1837 1845 1845 1846 1848 1850 1858 1859 69. 52. 305. 93. South Dakota 349.047 147. Montana 143.686 53.000 42.000 38.000 36.000 40.068 96. 87. Idaho 89.339 56.557 97. 140. Wyoming 63. 212. 213.000 26.181 110.000 Post-Civil War 19th Century States 37. Washington 357.916 Lincoln Denver Bismarck Pierre Helena Olympia Boise Cheyenne Salt Lake City .216 58. North Dakota 191.192 83.000 28. 98.000 32. Utah 1861 1863 1864 82.000 41.000 45.000 44. Nebraska 123.665 77.104 58.914 84.000 43. Paul Salem States Admitted During the Civil War 34.000 33. 192.000 39.000 30. Kansas 364.264 24.24.000 27.000 29.154 158.247 70.138 68.

000 47. Hawaii 642.277.000 1907 1912 1912 1959 1959 69.000 50.909 586. New Mexico 360.919 121.666 113.412 6.000 49. Alaska 229.450 Oklahoma Santa Fe Phoenix Juneau Honolulu City .000 48. Arizona 334.657.000 20th Century States 46. Oklahoma 1.

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