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FALL 2011

MIDDLE EAST TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
ME 411 GAS DYNAMICS
HOMEWORK 4

1. A large tank supplies Helium to a converging-diverging nozzle. The pressure and the
temperature in the tank remain constant at 6 MPa and 1000 K, respectively. The flow
throughout the nozzle is isentropic. The nozzle discharges to the atmosphere with a
pressure of 100 kPa at an exit Mach number of 3.0. The exit cross-sectional area of the
nozzle is 0.001 m
2
. What is the mass flow rate through the nozzle? (Ans. 0.9983 kg/s)

2. A converging-diverging nozzle with a throat cross-sectional area of 6.5x10
-4
m
2
discharges
air into a duct with a cross-sectional area of 1.3x10
-3
. At the inlet of the nozzle, the
stagnation temperature and the stagnation pressure are 500 K and 700 kPa, respectively.
The nozzle has a discharge coefficient of 0.98.
a) Determine the Mach number, the pressure, the temperature, the mass flow rate and
the velocity at the exit of the nozzle for isentropic operation.
b) Determine the actual values of the pressure, the velocity, the temperature, the Mach
number and the mass flow rate at the exit of the nozzle.
c) Determine the efficiency of the nozzle.
d) Determine the velocity coefficient of the nozzle.
(Ans. a) 2.20, 65.46 kPa, 254.1 K, 0.8202 kg/s, 703.1 m/s, b) 0.8038 kg/s,65.46 kPa,
698.2 m/s, 257.5 K, 2.17, c) 0.9861, d) 0.993)

3. A perfect gas is supplied to a converging-diverging nozzle from a large reservoir where the
temperature and the pressure are T
0
and p
0
, respectively. The nozzle has an efficiency of q
between the inlet section and any downstream section.
a) Derive an expression for p/p
0
in terms of the nozzle efficiency, q, the specific heat
ratio, k, and the Mach number, M, of the downstream section.
2

b) Derive an expression ) /(
0 0
.
Ap RT m in terms of the nozzle efficiency, q ,the
specific heat ratio, k, and the Mach number, M, of the downstream section.
(Ans. a)
1
2
2
) 1 ( 5 . 0 1
) 1 ( 5 . 0 1
1

(

k
k
M k
M k
q
b)
1
2
2
2
) 1 ( 5 . 0 1
) 1 ( 5 . 0 1
1
2
1
1

(

+
k
k
M k
M k
M
k
M k
q
)

4. A solid propellant rocket engine generates gases at a stagnation temperature of 3000 K and
a stagnation pressure of 7000 kPa. The exit and the throat cross-sectional areas of the
nozzle are 0.025 m
2
and 0.002 m
2
, respectively. The generated gases are perfect with a
specific heat ratio of 1.3 and a gas constant of 320 J/kgK. The flow is isentropic. At an
altitude of 30000 m, determine
a) the thrust developed,
b) the specific impulse and
c) the thrust coefficient.
(Ans. a) 23.90 kN, b) 2507 Ns/kg, c) 1.707)

5. A gas turbine engine produces a thrust of 10000 N while the gas is entering to the engine,
at a velocity of 100 m/s. The mass flow rate through the engine is 50 kg/s. The nozzle exit
area is 0.2 m
2
. The atmospheric pressure is 100 kPa and the nozzle is not choked. Find the
Mach number at the exit of the nozzle. The specific heat ratio and the specific heat under
constant pressure are 1.33 and 1150 J/kgK for the exhaust gasses, respectively. (Ans.
0.7509)
Nozzle

100 m/s Gas turbine
engine
e
A
e
= 0.2 m
2
i

QUIZ 4 BASED ON THIS HOMEWORK WILL BE GIVEN ON NOVEMBER 02,
2011 WEDNESDAY AT 11.15 a.m.