The Respiratory System A. Types of Respiration 1. External respiration- occurs in the lungs 2.

Internal respiration- occurs between blood/capillaries & the cells/tissues B. Functions of the Respiratory System 1. phonation (voice production)- occurs in the larynx (voice box) on the vocal folds, thorax, nose, mouth, pharynx, and sinuses contribute to resonance 2. Body temperature regulation 3. pH regulation 4. sense of smell 5. respiration C. Structure of the Respiratory System

Lining of nasal cavity

1. Upper Respiratory Tract a. nose (nares)- external opening into the nasal passages b. nasal passages -removes particulate matter (filters), humidifies, and warming the inhaled air - located between nares & pharynx -nasal septum- separates the nasal passages -turbinates (nasal conchae)- thin, scroll-like bones covered with nasal epithelium that increase the surface area of the nasal passageway, divide the nasal passageway into passageways (nasal meatus)

-lateral ventricles. middle nasal meatus.located between the ventral turbinate & floor of the nasal passageway 2. Pharynx (throat)      common passageway for both respiratory & digestive systems opens dorsally into the esophagus & ventrally into the larynx The respiratory passageway and digestive passageways switch places at the pharynx . Once the swallowing is complete. project laterally into the space between vocal & vestibular folds. forms the boundaries of the glottis (opening into the larynx) o thyroid cartilage (1) o cricoids cartilage (1) -vestibular folds (false vocal cords).found in equines.. cilia sweep mucus produced in the sinuses down into the nasal passage d. The act of swallowing involves a complex series of actions that stop the process of breathing.present in non-ruminant animals. move the material to be swallowed to the rear of the pharynx. common nasal meatus. paranasal sinuses.nasal meatus: 1. Larynx (voice box)   a short.outpouchings of the nasal passages that are contained within spaces of certain skull bones. not involved in voice production. the opening of the larynx is uncovered and breathing resumes. dorsal nasal meatus. o arytenoids cartilage (2): vocal cords and muscle. ventral nasal meatus. most animals have 2 frontal sinuses & 2 maxillary sinuses. and move the material into it.located on either side of the nasal septum c. e.located between the two turbinates 3. a few have sphenoidal & ethmoidal sinuses. The larynx and the pharynx work together to prevent swallowing from interfering with breathing and vice versa. irregular tube that connects the pharynx with the trachea. covers the larynx during swallowing. involved in the horse condition called “roaring”  .located between the dorsal turbinate & roof of the nasal passage 4. cover the opening into the larynx. supported by the hyoid bone made up of segments of cartilage that are connected to each other & surrounding tissues by muscle made up of: o epiglottis: most rostral of the laryngeal cartilages. open the esophagus.

this division is called bifurcation of the trachea -c-shaped cartilage rings prevent the trachea from collapsing during inspiration 2.f. ranges from mild to life-threatening.when the body’s at rest). The sacks are lines with a thin layer of fluid called surfactant to keep the alveoli from collapsing during respiration. Trachea (windpipe) -tube of fibrous connective tissue & smooth muscle held open by hyaline cartilage rings (dorsal side of cartilage ring has an open section filled with smooth muscle). Blood cells return carbon dioxide and receive oxygen here.disease causing the bronchial tree to become overly sensitive to irritants in inhaled air. Alveoli o Structurally they are tiny. lined by ciliated epithelium with a mucosal layer -extends from the larynx to the thorax where it divides into the 2 main bronchi. Lower Respiratory System a. often occurs in cats during summertime o b. Bronchial Tree and It’s Parts o o o o o Lower Respiratory Tract starts with bronchi and ends with alveoli Passageways that lead from bronchi to alveoli is the bronchial tree Eventually each bronchus divides into bronchioles which become so small they form alveolar ducts The grouped together alveoli form alveolar sacs that look like a cluster of grapes The bronchial tree can also dilate (when the body’s active) and constrict (bronchioconstriction. Wall of each aloveoli is lined with simple squamous epithelium o . leads to bronchioconstriction. They are surrounded by capillary networks. thin walled sacks where external respiration takes place.autonomic nervous system Asthma.this diameter change occurs by the smooth muscle in the wall of the bronchil tree.

and diaphragm houses heart. diaphragm is dome-shaped . & lymph nodes -lobes.where blood. in contact with the apex of the lung -mediastinum. esophagus pleura has 2 layers: visceral (lines organs) & parietal (lines cavity) between pleural layers is fluid-filled space to lubricate surfaces of organs mediastinum – area between the lungs. body. and esophagus diaphragm – muscle that forms the base of thoracic cavity. instrumental in breathing o when relaxed.D. large blood vessels. solid consistency) Lungs of a newborn will float in water (surfactant keeps inflated. spongy consistency) D.well-defined regions of the lungs. ribs. lymph. lungs. HORSES DON’T HAVE LOBES EXCEPT FOR A ACCESSORY LOBE ON R.area between the lungs that contains the heart. esophagus. and apex (caudal) -diaphram. middle. trachea. trachea. sternum. trachea. caudal. most species have 2 left lobes (cranial & caudal) & 4 right lobes (cranial. nerves. accessory). only area of the lung fastened in place • Pulmonary Circulation – – – • Blood enters the lungs through pulmonary artery Blood loses CO2 and gains O2 in the capillaries around the alveoli Returns to the heart via pulmonary vein Alveoli of the lungs to not expand in a fetus until it is born – – Lungs of an unborn fetus will not float in water (non-functional. & nerves enter/leave the lungs.thin muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity. LUNG -hilus. lymphatic vessels. Thorax (chest cavity) • • • • • • bordered by vertebrae. contains heart. Lungs -cone-shaped with a base (cranial).

Inspiration (inhalation)–process of drawing air into the lungs.pressure in the thorax is negative with respect to atmospheric pressure (partial vacuum within thorax). 2. allowing thorax to expand for increased air volume .process of pushing air out of the lungs. Negative Intratoracic Pressure. diaphragm flattens. Minute Volume. helps return blood to the heart by pulling blood into the large veins in the mediastinum.occurs by contraction of expiratory muscles F.volume of air inspired & expired during one breath.volume of air inspired & expired during 1 minute Tidal volume X # breaths/min.internal intercoastal muscles (rotates ribs inward & downward) & abdominal muscles E. Tidal Volume. enlargement of the volume of the thoracic cavity by the inspiratory muscles pulls air into the lungs 3.o when contracted. Respiration 1. Expiration (exhalation). activity) 2. Respiratory Volumes 1.volume of air remaining in the lungs after maximum expiration (lungs cannot be completely emptied of air) .diaphragm & external intercostals (rotates ribs outward & upward) muscle -Expiratory muscles. = minute volume 3. caused by decreasing the size of the thoracic cavity.Inspiratory muscles. Residual Volume. varies accordingly with the animals needs (rest vs.

Partial Pressure of Gases Daltons Law: the total pressure of a mixture of gases is the sum of the pressures of each individual gas. Control of Breathing • The respiratory center in the medulla oblongata of the brain stem houses the two main systems of breath control. if anything goes outside preset limits the chemical system will signal the respiratory system in order to regain appropriate levels • This center controls breathing on a subconscious level but can be overridden for a time on a voluntary basis. I. Partial Pressure (P). Holds true for gases dissolved in liquids (i. pH.03 % carbon dioxide Capillary blood contains very little oxygen but high level of carbon dioxide Oxygen diffuses from alveoli which is high concentration into the blood of alveolar capillary which is low concentration H.G.pressure of each individual gas The concept of Partial Pressures then leads us back to diffusion. chemical system chemical receptors in the blood vessels (located in carotid arteries & aorta) & brain stem monitor characteristics of the blood ( CO2 content. O2 content of arterial blood).e. PTotal =PGas1 + PGas2 + PGas3 1. The Partial Pressure of Oxygen (PO2) is higher in the air of the alveoli in the lungs and lower in the alveolar blood and the PCO 2 is lower in the alveolar air and higher in the alveolar blood causing each to diffuse into the area of lower concentration. . operates through stretch receptors in the lungs that set limits on routine resting inspiration/expiration 2. Gas Exchange in Alveoli • • • Atmospheric air contains 21 % oxygen and 0. blood). 1. mechanical system sets routine inspiration and expiration limits.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful