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The following section is a review of the basic setup procedure for the ECU.

Copyright MoTeC May 2008

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The program can be started from the Start menu, or from a desktop shortcut. Both are added automatically during the installation. If the ECU is connected, the left side of the status bar will show the firmware version in green. Next to this are Diagnostic Errors in red. The screen above shows ECU Manager prior to opening the ECU file. The serial number of the ECU is displayed on the top left side of the screen. Below that is the list of options that have been enabled in this ECU. From either the Adjust or File menu choose Open ECU.

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When you connect to an ECU, the software checks to see if the current file in the ECU matches a file on the computer. If the file does not exist then a new file is created on the computer. If the file already exists then you have a choice of using the current file or creating a new file. It is good practice to create a new file if any major changes are to be made, this allows the original file to be at hand if anything goes wrong.

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The EMP software has a built in help system. When an item is highlighted, a help screen is displayed on the right hand side of the screen. You can also press the F1 key to get additional information where available. Number Of Cylinders: In this case four. For two stroke or rotary engines a negative number is used.

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Efficiency selection sets the input sensor that is used for the Y axis of the main Fuel screen. Typically set to Throttle Position for naturally aspirated engines and MAP for turbo engines.

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Load selection sets the input sensor that is used for the Y-axis of the main Ignition screen. Load and Efficiency do not necessarily have to be set the same.

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Injector scaling is the maximum injector opening time expected for the engine that is being tuned. This scaling value may need to be changed during the tuning process. Start with a recommended scaling value.

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As explained earlier different injector types will need a different control method. The Injector Current setting tells the ECU how to control the output to suit the injector. Injector current setting is based on the resistance measured across the pins of the injector. Care must be taken as some cars like Nissans and Mitsubishis can have extra resistors in series with the injector so it is also recommended that the resistance be measured across the injector output and 12 V ECU supply with the ECU unplugged. Press F1 for a list of popular injector settings.

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The ECU can add extra pulse width to account for changes in Battery Voltage. The table is 3D and would normally also be referenced to Fuel Pressure. If no Fuel Pressure sensor is fitted a 2D table is all that is needed. Standard calibrations for popular injectors can be directly loaded from the Tools menu. New or uncommon injectors may need to be tested by MoTeC.

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The Ignition outputs, like the injector outputs can control different types of ignition systems. Ignition Type specifies how the ignition outputs should be controlled. Some ignition modules need to be switched to power for the coil charging time (Dwell Time) and some are switched to ground. Care must be taken as an incorrect setting WILL damage the ignition system components.

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The coil dwell time is generally between 1.8 to 3 milliseconds. The dwell time is very small when compared to the time between spark firings, 20 milliseconds at 6000 RPM. At 6000 RPM if the wrong edge is chosen the coil will be dwelled for the 17 milleseconds instead of 3 milliseconds, more than six times what is necessary. Too long a dwell time will result in the module overheating and generally failing. If the wrong edge is chosen the engine will continue to run as normal but the module will become very hot and the ignition timing will be advanced. Some coils with inbuilt modules can limit the dwell time themselves in the event of too much dwell time from the ECU. In this event the spark can fire too advanced causing loss of performance or engine damage.

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The ECU will assign an ignition output for each individual coil.

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It is recommended that the Ignition Trim Percent or Degrees parameter be set as degrees.

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The Dwell table will need to be set for the particular coil/module in relation to battery voltage. It must be noted that too much dwell time can destroy modules the same way as choosing the incorrect ignition type so care must be taken. Too little dwell time and the spark will be weak. Please consult MoTeC for coil dwell time details.

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The ECU uses the mode number to understand the ref and sync signals that are being sent from the sensors. The ECU will base its ref/sync error checking on this number also.

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Number of Ref teeth per crank revolution.

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Finding Crank Index Position for multi tooth modes: Place engine at TDC for number one cylinder on the Compression stroke Wind engine forward until Sync tooth lines up with Sync sensor. ECU is flagged at this point to look for the next Ref tooth. Wind engine forward until next Ref tooth lines up with the Ref sensor. The Crank Index Position is now the number of degrees from this point forward to TDC Compression number one again.

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The Ref and Sync sensor type needs to be set to the correct type. Generally only Hall or Magnetic sensors are used.

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Hall: either edge of a Hall sensors signal can be used. It is best to choose the edges that are the furthest apart. Magnetic: the edge used for a Magnetic sensor is set by its wiring, so some form of oscilloscope must be used.

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Version 3.3 software for M400, M600 and M800 contains a capture function that allows the user to take an oscilloscope trace of the ref and sync inputs as the ECU sees them. In the past it was often necessary to carry around a separate oscilloscope to get vital information for setting the ECU trigger parameters. From this capture of Hall sensors it can be seen that either edge of both the Ref (yellow) or Sync (blue) could be chosen.

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Magnetic Ref and Sync. The blue Sync trace shows a falling edge. The yellow Ref trace shows a missing tooth. It is only when the missing tooth occurs that the Ref edge can be seen, in this case falling.

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For Magnetic sensors a table is set to ignore any background signals (noise) that can be picked up by the Ref and Sync inputs. Filters by voltage level. The Engine is brought up to each RPM point and the maximum Ref/Sync voltage taken from the Sensor View Screen, 30% of this voltage level is entered in the table. Note: the ECU clips the voltage input at 10 V. Press F1 for detailed help on the process to set this table accurately.

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A time based Filter. Any pulse of shorter time duration will be ignored. Calculated based on RPM and width of tooth in degrees: 0 RPM = tooth degrees x 40 1000 RPM = tooth degrees x 20 6000 RPM = tooth degrees x 5 20000 RPM = tooth degrees x 2 Press F1 for detailed help.

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Electrical interference induced onto Ref or Sync wires from high current devices like ignition systems are generally high voltage, short duration noise spikes that can be filtered with a time based filter. Extra signals caused by imperfections in the trigger disc are usually long duration, low voltage spikes that can be filtered with a voltage trigger level. In the above picture it can be seen that the Ignition Spike cannot be filtered by the Voltage Level Trigger but is of short enough duration to be removed by the Time Filter. The Extra Tooth possibly caused by bad machining of the trigger disc is of longer duration than the Time Filter but of lower voltage than the Trigger Level. Note: As engine RPMs rise, the output of a magnetic sensor will rise and therefore the output due to the Extra Tooth. Trigger level tables must be correctly set for the entire RPM range.

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The Input Setup screen shows the details of each channel. Double click the channel to be setup.

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The input for Manifold Pressure has been chosen. Input Source: Assigns an input pin to the channel, AV2. Can also be assigned as a CAN channel, e.g. from ADL or E888. Calibration: A predefined calibration can be chosen or a custom calibration entered. Default Value: The channel value used if a sensor has failed Filter: Used to filter unstable sensor inputs. Care should be taken to not over-filter input signals as response may suffer. Diagnostic Lo and Hi: Voltage levels used to diagnose a failed sensor. Warning Lo and Hi: The tuner can set sensor levels deemed to be a problem, e.g. oil pressure too low. When alarm limits are exceeded and laptop is online, screen will display warning text which needs to be acknowledged (press enter) before tuning can continue. Can be used to activate an output configured for a warning light. It is important to note that a sensor should never use its entire 0 V to 5 V range, they will always have some slight voltage buffer at each end of their range. This buffer range is used to diagnose if the sensor is faulty.

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After completing the input setup for all sensors it is required that the closed and fully open positions of the throttle sensor be set. This screen is to scale the sensor voltage readings into a scale of 0% (closed) to 100% (fully open). If the throttle butterfly and hence the sensor is adjusted the Hi and Lo positions need to be reset using this screen. Make sure TPLO parameter is highlighted. Press enter key to set TPLO value Using down arrow or mouse highlight TPHI parameter Press enter key to set TPHI value

For Drive by Wire applications all four throttle positions (two throttle body and two throttle pedal) will need to be set in a similar way.

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With the engine off do all the sensors read logical values? Engine and Air Temperature should read roughly the same if the engine has not been started Throttle position should move through 0 to 100% without any problems Manifold Pressure (MAP) should read around 100 kPa +/- 3 kPa depending on altitude. Is there enough battery voltage?

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The throttle position sensor information needs to be correct and repeatable. If the TPS sensor is not working correctly this will badly affect engine tuning if it is the primary sensor for Efficiency and Load.

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Manifold Pressure sensors are generally used for fuel compensations if not for the main Efficiency and Load parameter. It is imperative that the MAP sensor is connected properly with no leaks. On a turbo or super charged engine the vacuum lines should be firmly fastened to prevent them blowing off. Similarly to throttle position, if the MAP signal is erratic the performance and tuning will be affected.

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If the engine is cold the water and air temperature should be within a couple of degrees of each other. Air temperature sensors should not be place in a position where fuel stand off can affect their readings. For a turbo engine it is best to read the air temperature after the intercooler. Engine temperature sensors should remain in their factory location.

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When a sensor goes into error there will be a red warning bar appear in the lower left hand corner of the ECU Manager screen. This message will appear no matter which screen is being displayed. Pressing F3 will show the Diagnostic Errors View Screen. All sensor errors will appear in red. Note the Ref/Sync Synchronised NOT SYNCED error - this will always appear whenever the engine is not running; if there is no RPM there can be no synchronization. With the ECU connected to a laptop all error indications will remain until the operator acknowledges them by hitting the Enter key. If the error is no longer current the red indication will return to black. if the red indication remains, the error is still current. If an error cannot be cleared the diagnostic bar in the main screen will turn to yellow indicating that the error has been acknowledged but not fixed. The moment a new error occurs the bar will return to red and the number of errors updated. The view screen shows that both the Manifold Pressure and the Air Temperature sensors are in error.

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In the Input Setup for each sensor there is a Diagnostic High and Low level, these levels set the range of voltage the sensor should use in normal operation. If the sensor voltage channel goes outside of the range set by the user the sensor

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The first check to be made is if the sensor is actually plugged in and the connector fastened properly. Is the calibration correct for that sensor or has the correct sensor been connected, e.g. a 100 kPa MAP sensor been used on a turbo engine with a sensor calibration for a 300 kPa sensor If a spare sensor is available it is a simple matter of swapping to the spare sensor to see if the error remains the same. Remember once the sensor has been changed the Enter key must be pressed in the Diagnostic Errors View Screen to see if the error has been corrected. Sensors are usually wired with common voltage supply and 0 V. If all sensors show errors which wire is common to all? Hint: Air Temp and Manifold Pressure only share 0 V. A multi-meter is an invaluable tool when diagnosing sensor problems.

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Raw sensor voltage information is available in the View menu. Check the value for any sensor that is in error. AV inputs have 0.000 V with no sensor connected. AT inputs will have very close to 5 V (about 4.95 V) with no sensor connected. It should be logical as to how much voltage should be on a pin for a certain sensor, e.g. a 2 bar MAP sensor should be reading 100 kPa with the engine off, which is half way in its range. Therefore it would be expected that the voltage be roughly 2.5 V with the engine off. A Throttle Position Sensor should be sitting close to 1 V depending on calibration. This screen can be used as a quick check to confirm which inputs the sensors are connected to. Knowing what voltage should be on a disconnected pin, unplug the sensor to make sure of its pin assignment. For the example of an Air Temp sensor on AT1 in error we can see that there does not appear to be anything connected. Making sure the sensor is actually connected is probably the first check.

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When checking the MAP sensor input on AV2 it can be seen that the input pin is sitting at 5 V. Remembering that an AV should be 0 V if the sensor is not connected. If the sensor is disconnected and the AV2 reading goes to zero it may indicate a faulty sensor, if the 5 V reading remains it is probably a wiring fault.

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In general most of the sensors will have a common 0 V or supply voltage (depending on the sensor). The M400, M600 and M800 have three 0 V and two 5 V pins, so some knowledge of how the vehicle was wired is necessary for wiring diagnostics.

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With the sensor unplugged use a multimeter to check the connection to the ECU. Using the engine block as the earth reference check for all voltages. MoTeC wiring convention uses the first pin for 0 V, the last pin as sensor voltage supply (generally 5 V) and the middle pin(s) for signal. 0 V pin should have no voltage and should be continuous with the engine block The last pin should have sensor supply voltage (check sensor drawing for details) The signal pin connected to an AV input should have no voltage A signal pin connected to an AT or Digital input should have 5 V

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It may be necessary to check the wire for continuity back to the ECU. With the ECU unplugged do a continuity test from the ECU pin to the sensor connector. A resistance test should also be done. A single wire with nothing connected to it should have less than one ohm resistance (depending on length). With some knowledge of how the loom was constructed it will also be possible to check for short circuits with other wires. Signal wires should never be shorted to any other wire. 0 V and sensor voltage supply wires should be common to a number of sensors but this depends on how the loom was constructed.

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All Auxiliary Outputs have a large number of functions available to them, pressing the F1 key from the Parameters screen will display the list of functions and their parameter setting number. Note: Some functions are only available to specific pins, e.g. Drive by Wire, Stepper Motor Idle Control. Consult MoTeC drawings for details.

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Each output function will have a Parameters page allowing the tuner to enter the conditions under which the output operates. For a Fuel Pump output only a delay time needs to be entered - this sets a number of seconds over which the pump primes when the ECU is powered. The fuel pump output will always be on if there is any RPM. Parameters for a Thermatic Fan would include on and off engine temperatures.

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The output logic can be set with the Polarity parameter. Some devices need the output to be switched on to turn the device on, e.g. a fuel pump. There may be situations where a device output needs to be switched on to turn the device off.

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ECU outputs in general are required to switch to earth to turn a device on. For example, if pin 85 on a Bosch relay is connected to permanent 12 V (from ignition switch) to turn the relay on pin 86 needs to be switched to earth by the ECU output. This is the most common way and requires the MoTeC output to be configured as 0 or Low Side. If pin 86 of the relay was wired directly to a chassis earth, pin 85 would be connected to the ECU output and have 12 V switched to it; the ECU output would be set as High Side. Some devices have special requirements to have the output switched to ground and 12 V alternately, this setting is not commonly used. Note: Output Mode is not the same as Polarity.

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Low Side: The internal switch of the Auxiliary output connects the Device circuit to ground through the ECU High Side: The internal switch of the Auxiliary output connects the Device circuit to power through the ECU

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An output test should be done to ensure that all devices connected to the ECU are working properly. It is very important to check that the firing order of the injectors and ignition is correct. The output test function can be found in the Utilities menu. It is recommended that the ignition test is done first. If the injector test is done first there is the possibility that some fuel could be injected, this fuel could be ignited if the ignition test is done second. For the Ignition test it is possible to use a timing light to check that each coil is firing. Another method of checking ignition is to remove the spark plugs and lay them across the engine (to earth the plug body) to see the spark. This test confirms that multi coil installations have been wired in firing order. Note: Some ignition modes cannot be tested, e.g. Ignition Expanders, CDI8 and OEM Rotary modes. Note: Wiring recommendations state that ignition power should be from the fuel pump relay, it may be necessary to bridge relay for this test. Note: The Output Test will not work if there is any RPM signal.

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For the injector test disable the fuel pump so that fuel is not injected. Start test for each injector in turn, the injector will be able to be heard clicking. If it is difficult to determine exactly which injector is operating, remove the plug to confirm..

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All outputs to other devices that have been configured should be checked, e.g. Fuel Pump, Thermo Fan. Note: Some output functions cannot be checked with the Output Test function, e.g. ignition expanders.

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The same procedure for sensor checking is valid for checking outputs. First check the that device is plugged in and powered - many factory cars will have various devices powered from relays that are only active when there is any engine RPM. Some MoTeC diagrams recommend certain systems be powered by others meaning the relay may need to be by passed, e.g. it is recommended that the ignition power be supplied by the fuel pump relay meaning that the ignition system will have no power for a test if the fuel pump is not working. The wiring should be checked the same way a sensors wiring is checked using a multimeter.

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Press V for the Sensors View Screen and check the RPM at cranking. This is to ensure that the correct ref details (including filters and magnetic levels if applicable) have been entered and the wiring is adequate. Disconnecting the injectors and ignition ensures that the basic ECU information can be checked without the possibility of an incorrect setting causing a misfire and possible engine damage.

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The ECU must be told how many teeth there are for each crank revolution to calculate RPM. The ECU is only able to choose what is a valid tooth based on the operators settings, if they are wrong the RPM will be wrong. Check that the Ref/Sync Mode and Crank Teeth parameters are correct. If there is a lot of electrical interference being induced onto the Ref signal wire the ECU could be treating this as extra Ref pulses and calculating RPM incorrectly. Often in the case of Magnetic sensors the high RPM reading is a result of the Trigger Levels being too low. The Ref/Sync Capture function should be used to check Ref trigger signal. For a Hall sensor the interference signal voltage must be very high to be seen as an extra pulse. As there is no Trigger level setting for the Hall sensor inputs, the time based filter table will be used to remove these unwanted pulses. It may be necessary to move Ref wires to a different physical location further away from areas of high electrical interference.

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The same basic checks are needed for low RPM. Again, if the ECU settings are incorrect the RPM calculation will be incorrect. If the filter and trigger levels are too high the ECU could ignore valid Ref signals. The Ref/Sync Capture function should be used to correctly set both levels. There has been more than one case of Ref and Sync sensors being wired back to front. If the Sync generally has one tooth and the Ref has multiple, wiring the Sync sensor to the Ref input will result in very low craning RPM.

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In the top left hand corner of the Sensors View Screen is a live reading of the Ref and Sync voltage levels and their maximum and minimum readings. As a quick check this screen can be used to see if the Ref and Sync sensor inputs are in the correct range. Note: The update rate of this parameter on a laptop screen is quite slow so it should only be used as a guide, the Ref/Sync Capture function is a more accurate method of viewing Ref and Sync inputs.

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From the Sensors View Screen press the Tab Key until the Status View Screen (or press S key) is displayed. Cranking the engine the Ref/Sync Synchronised status must go to OK. Synchronisation can take up to 720 degrees. It must be noted that magnetic sensors can cause Ref/Sync errors within the first crank revolutions due to the low speed and therefore low output voltage. If Synchronisation does not occur the errors need to be checked. Hint: When first cranking the engine the Enter key should repeatedly be pressed to make sure initial errors are cleared.

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In the Diagnostic Errors View Screen (press F3) in the right hand column are the detailed errors for the Ref and Sync. The ECU has been setup by the user with a Ref/Sync mode setting and a number of Crank Teeth, this setting tells the ECU what type of pattern it is to expect. If the Ref and Sync signals coming into the ECU do not match the Ref/Sync Mode setting the ECU will not be able to calculate where the engine is in its cycle and it will not fire Ignition or Injector outputs.

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Error REF Signal: Too many Ref pulses have occurred between sync pulses. Can be caused by electrical interference being seen as extra Ref pulses. A Sync pulse could also have been missed. Error SYNC Signal: A Sync signal has appeared before expected. Electrical interference could have caused extra Sync pulses. Ref pulses could have been missed. Error No REF Signal: Two consecutive Sync pulses have occurred with no Ref pulses. Error No SYNC Signal: Two consecutive Sync pulses have been missed. Errors will always be caused by incorrect setup or bad signals. Bad signals can usually be tracked down to poor wiring or wiring position. Low battery voltage can lead to inconsistent cranking speed. Most factory trigger patterns need consistent cranking speed to work, be careful of engines with raised compression and light flywheels. For a full list of errors and their explanations press F1 from the Error View Screen.

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Ref/SyncNT and Ref/SyncNA: Possibly increase filter level. Note that this error could also be due to too much filtering causing the normal pulse to look like noise. Ref/SyncRnt: Background noise is dangerously close to the trigger level. The trigger level can be increased but the actual noise should be reduced by modifying physical Ref/Sync sensor system. Ref/SyncLo: Trigger level is set too close to actual peak signal voltage. Trigger level setting should be reduced at the RPM where error occurs.

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Located in the Ignition menu is the test page for the Crank Index Position. The Crank Index Position page includes a Test Advance setting, this is the ignition timing value that will be locked when in this page. With injectors still unplugged, connect the ignition system. Crank the engine and using a timing light confirm that the Test Advance timing and actual ignition timing on the engine match, if they do not, alter the Crank Index Position value (this will automatically update the CRIP setting in the Ref/Sync Sensor Setup). The engine should not be placed under any load at this point. If the engine is wasted spark it is possible for the CRIP to be out 360 degrees and the engine will still run. It is highly important in this instance that the original physical CRIP measurement is done on the engine. Hint: If the actual advance is more than the Test Advance, the CRIP must be increased buy the number of degrees difference. If the actual advance is less than the Test Advance the CRIP must be decreased. Once this is done the injectors can be reconnected.

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Going into the Main Ignition map. Set starting and idling ignition timing points in the Main Ignition table. 10 15 degrees will be suitable for most applications. If no start file is available the MoTeC Sample file will suffice as a starting point.

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The correct amount of fuel that is needed to start the engine is difficult to predict so it is suggested that the standard Fuel map supplied with the ECU be used. The Fuel Overall Trim located in the main Fuel menu is used to adjust injector pulse width while cranking until the engine fires. MoTeC may be able to supply a start up file for common engines. Once the engine is started let it warm up.

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Recheck all sensor readings with the engine running.

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The Narrowband sensors were designed for one simple purpose, to be able to tell if an engine was running richer OR leaner than Lambda 1.00 (e.g. 14.7:1 for petrol) . A Narrowband sensor cannot be used for tuning where an exact mixture reading is needed. Narrowband functions in factory, and MoTeC ECUs, use narrowband sensors to quickly alter an engines fuelling from rich to lean so that the mixtures average at Lambda 1.00. Narrowband control is usually only used for emissions and economy.

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Wideband Lambda sensors are used during tuning when the exact mixture needs to be known. The Wideband Lambda sensors use more sophisticated devices to read them as the temperature change needs to be taken into account to be accurate.

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A few different types of Wideband sensor can be wired directly to the ECU. The Wideband Lambda upgrade needs to be enabled to do this. Using the sensor input setup, set the Input Source and Calibration. The Calibration is predefined for the Bosch LSU 4.0, 4.2 and 4.9 sensors and the NTK UEGO.

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The actual Lambda sensor type needs to be specified as each sensor has its own specific way of being controlled. There is a Fast Heat and Normal. The fast heat setting brings the sensor online as soon as the ECU is powered, which is most suitable when doing cold start up tuning. The sensor in fast heat mode should be online within 20 seconds of ECU power up. In Normal mode the sensor is off until there is engine RPM. Once the engine is started there is an extra delay time to let the exhaust system heat up. The delay time is dependent on engine temperature.

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The newer five wire Lambda sensors have a resistor in the connector that is used for calibration, the ECU does not use this resistor so its value must be manually entered. Sensors purchased from MoTeC will have the calibration number engraved on the sensor body. If the sensor is changed the calibration number must be changed to suit.

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The five wire Lambda sensors have a Duty Cycle controlled heater. An Auxiliary Output must be set up a function 9, the Duty Cycle of this output is used to maintain a steady sensor temperature. Note: Do not connect the sensor heater directly to an uncontrolled voltage source, this will damage the sensor.

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A MoTeC PLM is a stand alone Lambda meter. The PLM is able to transmit Lambda information to other devices (ECU, SDL, ADL2) via an analogue voltage output or CAN communications. ECU upgrades are not required when connecting a PLM. All advanced Lambda functions are able to be used with PLM Lambda information, e.g. Wideband Lambda Control, Quick Lambda etc. The PLM has the facility to act as a PLM Collect unit which enables it to take Lambda information from up to 11 other PLMs and transmit the information over CAN to another device.

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Firstly it is necessary to set up the ECU to receive the incoming PLM CAN message. In the CAN Setup we need to choose the first available CAN device and set 1 for PLM

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The Base Address tells the ECU which device on the CAN bus is sending the information.

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The ECUs Lambda input calibration and input source need to be specified. Double click on the Lambda 1 input configuration.

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The Input Source is set as PLM 1 and the Calibration has a predefined setting for CAN Lambda. A default value and warning levels can be set.

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If using the PLM Collect function it is possible to assign twelve Lambda inputs to the ECU.

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Nearly all ECU Manager functions are based around tables so it is important to know the way they are able to be manipulated. The first thing to notice is that the table uses two indicators. The blue indicator is used to show the current table value that has been chosen by the tuner. The blue indicator can be moved using the up and down arrows on the keyboard or by left clicking on the desired cell. The red indicator shows where the engine or sensor is currently operating. The red indicator automatically moves to follow any changes in actual engine or sensor operation. The blue tuning cell can be sent to the current engine/sensor operating point (red indicator) by simply hitting the space bar.

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To adjust the current table value highlight it with the blue indicator by hitting the space bar. The value can be changed in two ways. 1.Enter the desired value by direct typing. As soon as the first number is entered, the Direct Entry dialogue will appear. Once the number is entered simply hit Enter or click on OK 2.Using the Page Up and Page Down buttons. Note: The Enter key must be used to lock the value. If the blue indicator is moved before the Enter key is pressed the number will go back to the original value.

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It is possible to change an area all at once. With the blue indicator at one corner of the area to be highlighted hold down the Shift key and use the arrow keys. Again a value can be directly entered. Note: The Page Up and Page Down keys cannot be used to alter the highlighted values.

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Mathematical operations can be performed on the one highlighted value or on a highlighted area. The way the function is typed in is very important, operation value is typed first and then the math function. As can be seen above, the highlighted single value or area will be multiplied by two. In the above example the highlighted area is multiplied by 1.05 which represents an increase of 5%. Warning: If 1.05 was typed and the Enter key pressed before the maths function, the table value or highlighted area will be set as 1.05. Multiply: Shift 8 Divide: / Add: + Subtract:

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On the left hand side of the Main Fuel and Ignition maps is a tuning Target, circled above in blue. The Target is used to tell the tuner that the engine is at the exact same map point as the operator wishes to tune. The left hand picture shows that the engine is running at a point that is lower in both RPM and Load. The RPM can be seen, circled above in red, both with a numeric display and an arrow head. The engine load can be seen as a numeric display circled in green. In the right hand picture the engine is now running at the correct RPM and Load for the map site that was chosen. The map site is ready to be tuned.

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Table interpolation means that using the table sites either side of it any RPM and Efficiency combination can be accurately catered for with the correct amount of fuel. It is important to make sure an engine is on site before any tuning is done otherwise the actual table value that is to be tuned will be incorrect. If the fuel value rises between 3000 RPM and 4000 RPM, tuning 4000 RPM with the engine on 3678 will make the 4000 RPM site incorrectly rich. Note: All tables in all MoTeC software work this way.

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As a starting point a recommended value for Lambda can be used when first tuning an engine but there are factors which can affect the readings seen. If a Lambda sensor is placed in a different position in an exhaust system the sensor may read slightly different for exactly the same fuel pulse width. It would not be good practice to simply tune an engine to a rule of thumb Lambda reading. An engine tune by definition is a test to see what makes an engine perform the best. Some consideration needs to be made for the operating conditions of the engine. If the engine is to be held at wide open throttle for long periods of time (e.g. ski racing) it may need to run richer than an engine that only has relatively short bursts at wide open throttle (e.g. motorkhana). Also, consider if fuel consumption is important, e.g. a V8 Supercar runs different mixtures at Bathurst compared to a sprint round.

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At light loads it is possible to enlean the fuel mixtures for better fuel consumption. Factory vehicles are tuned to run as close to Lambda one for as much of their operation as possible, which is mainly for emissions. Be aware that exhaust gas temperatures will go up rapidly as mixtures are made leaner. The Overrun Fuel Cut function can be used to make further fuel savings. Overrun Fuel Cut turns the injectors off when coasting at closed throttle.

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Pressing the F8 key will display the Lambda Table. This Table is used for a number of different functions in the ECU and is a look up reference for what the desired Lambda is for a certain engine operating condition. The Lambda table generally will have the same axis setup as the main fuel table. The values set in the Lambda table are mainly based on experience, at low load the mixtures can be leaner than at full load. Idle mixtures will depend on the engine configuration but generally 0.95 Lambda is a good starting point. Depending on throttle body size different Lambda Aim values will be used for the same throttle angle. This table should be set before any tuning starts.

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Before any tuning starts a basic check of the engine and its plumbing should be made. The engine should be warmed first so that there are no cold start compensations being applied. As the fuel is generally tuned before the ignition it is highly important that the ignition map used is safe for the particular type of engine. How much ignition is safe is up to experience. MoTeC is able to supply a safe start file for many popular engines but it must be noted these start files are based on standard engines. The Acceleration Enrichment function is designed to apply extra fuel for rapid changes in throttle position. When tuning the fuel table it is important that the Lambda reading is not affected by the enrichment function. Setting the function to a low number or completely turning it off eliminates its effect.

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The order in which table sites are tuned is down to personal preference. In most cases it is best to start with the light load areas of the map and slowly work up to the high load areas. As the tuning gets higher in the load and RPM it will be possible to see where the map is going and rough starting values can be set in areas that have yet to be tuned.

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With a map site chosen for tuning and the engine running at the matching RPM and Load, the Lambda difference needs to be seen. On the above picture a Chart Recorder has been added to show the Lambda Aim table value and the actual current Lambda reading from the Lambda sensor. From the chart recorder it can be seen that the actual Lambda (green) is above the Aim Lambda (red), this means the engine is leaner than it needs to be, some fuel must be added to this site. Using Page Up the fuel table value could be altered until the Lambda and Aim Lambda matched, remembering to press the Enter key.

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All MoTeC ECUs have a Quick Lambda function available. By hitting the Q key the tuner is given the option to use the Quick Lambda function. The function uses the percentage difference between the Aim Lambda and the actual Lambda to automatically alter the relevant fuel table value by the same percentage amount. When pressing Q the Quick Lambda function will automatically jump to the nearest fuel map site without the tuner having to use the arrow keys so it is important to know exactly where the engine is (target). The Quick Lambda function will take out about 80% of the error with the first press of the Q key, it may be necessary to press two or three times to remove large errors.

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The W key is also a Quick Lambda function. The difference is that this key will automatically transfer the Quick Lambda resulting fuel table value to the next most likely sites to tune (next higher load, and RPM sites). The W function allows the tuner to set the next tuning sites to a close value before the engine even gets there, this is quite helpful when starting with no previous fuel map.

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The picture shows a completed 2500 RPM column, it is clear that the whole starting fuel map was lean. This is the area of the map that is typically first to be tuned as it gives a good idea of where the bulk of the map is heading. Note how the tuned sites have an asterisk on them, Quick Lambda automatically adds this to sites that have been altered and it is a quick reference to which sites have been tuned. At this point it is best to alter the remaining part of the map manually as it is highly likely the engine will require higher fuel table values as the RPMs increase. The quickest way to alter the fuel map is to highlight the remaining sites and add a percentage to them.

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After manual modification, tuning can resume on a higher RPM columns. Continue this process until all relevant sites are tuned. There may be need to add extra RPM columns or Efficiency rows. Sometimes there may be an area in between two sites where the engine requires a more accurate amount of fuel than the interpolation can provide. Extra sites can be added using the Axis Setup menu. Note: There will be some sites the engine cannot physically achieve (e.g. 7000 RPM at 10% throttle), these sites should be set manually for neatness and may need to be modified in the vehicle. 7000 RPM at 10% throttle could be achievable on overrun in the vehicle.

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Because the main fuel table numbers are a percentage of the injector scaling parameter the most resolution we can get from each fuel adjustment is when the scaling number is the smallest. In the final fuel table above we can see that the highest number is 71.2%. Out of a possible 100% the resolution is only approximately 3/4 of what it could be. The way to make the resolution of the table better would be to make the scaling number smaller. Note: The site marker blocks can be cleared using the clear all * option in the Tools menu (press F9).

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From the previous slide it was determined that the scaling number needs to be smaller by roughly 25%. The scaling number needs to be changed from 15 to 12 (only uses whole numbers). When the new number is typed a dialoged box will appear, press Enter or left click OK.

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Once the new scaling number has been entered the ECU will give two options: the first is simply for adjusting the numbers for better resolution without changing the tuning, the second option is to allow for changes in injector size. In this case the Yes option is chosen to keep the tuning the same.

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Going back to the main fuel table it can be seen that all the numbers have been altered to match the new Injector Scaling. The tuning has not been altered. Having the best resolution for the fuel table will help with idle and light load tuning of the engine where very small changes in the fuel value can make a large difference to the fuel mixture and engine smoothness.

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It is common for an engine to not have the same amount of air provided to each cylinder. Packaging of intake and exhaust may not allow for the desired manifold design. Using multiple Lambda sensors is the most accurate way of determining how well balanced the engine is. The ECU Manager software has individual cylinder 3D maps so it is possible to get the desired Lambda accurate for all cylinders. Note: Lambda sensors close to the exhaust port can read leaner than one further down the exhaust system due to the mixture still burning. With individual Lambda sensors it is recommended that one extra sensor be placed after the last collector as well for an overall average Lambda reading.

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Each cylinder can be tuned on a 3D table separately. Note that the Individual Cylinder tables are percentage trims on the Main Table values.

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Injection timing as default is set for End of Injection. The Injection Timing table sets the degrees before TDC that the injection event must be finished by. Injection timing can have an effect on the smoothness of the engine by making the most efficient use of the fuel being injected. To set the injection timing hold the engine at the desired RPM and Load and press the space bar to make sure the correct site is to be tuned. A rule of thumb starting point is 270 degrees BTDC at 0 RPM and increasing by 5 10 degrees for every 500 RPM. Adjusting the timing up, the engine will be heard to run better. The tuner will also notice that the Lambda reading will become richer. Using the engine power, Lambda and engine note to tune the map. At high loads the injector duty cycle is usually quite large, at these points injection timing may have little effect. Correct injection timing will greatly minimize fuel stand off and the potential for air box fires in multi-throttle body engines. Note: Large changes between adjacent table sites can cause drivability problems, the table must have a smooth shape and be always increasing as RPM rises.

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Ignition timing should always be done on a dynamometer as the engine can be more accurately controlled to a particular map site and small power increases measured. Some method of listening to the engine for detonation should be used. Most good dyno shops will have a set of knock ears which are a set of headphones connected to an amplifier that reads from a knock sensor bolted directly to the engine. The type of induction the engine has needs to be taken into consideration. A naturally aspirated engine can have a fairly wide range of safe ignition advance from maximum power until detonation. A forced induction engine will have a much narrower range of ignition advance from maximum power till detonation.

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As with the Fuel Main Table, the Ignition Main Table can be adjusted by direct enter, Page Up, Page Down, highlighted area and math. The dynamometers torque/power reading will need to be closely monitored and attention paid to any detonation monitoring.

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As Ignition Advance is increased the engine torque/power will rise, more advance, more power. As the advance goes up there will be a point where the power gain for more advance becomes less and the engine will get closer to detonating. How close the engine is tuned to detonation is up to the tuner and the engines intended use. A forced induction engine can have detonation start very close to or before the point of Maximum Best Torque on the above graph. All ignition tuning is highly dependant on fuel quality (Octane rating) and compression ratio.

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If the initial ignition advance is well below optimum and the fuel has already been tuned, the Lambda reading may change as more advance is added. The Quick Lambda function also works from the main ignition table so fueling changes can be made without having to go back to the main fuel table. It is important in this case to have the same Load and RPM axis site set in both the main fuel and main ignition tables.

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It has been stated many times that there have been engines that make more power with some detonation. Perhaps more power with detonation means that only some of the cylinders are detonating and the rest are making more power through higher ignition advance. A gated detonation detection device uses the ECU to provide accurate information for where the crank is in the engine cycle. A gated device will only listen for detonation between a set range of crank angles and knowing where the engine is in its cycle means it can also know which cylinder is detonating. Knowing which cylinder is detonating allows the tuner to stop adding advance to each individual cylinder as they start to detonate. All cylinders are not held back by one which does not have the same efficiency.

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Based on a gated detonation detection device each cylinder can be individually tuned. The number placed in these tables is a degree or percentage trim (set in main Ignition setup) applied to the main table for the particular cylinder.

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Before any dyno ramp runs are performed it is best to double check the tuning that has been done so far. Take the engine through a few of the sites that will be used during the ramp run to confirm that the fuel table is correct and there is no detonation. It is probably a good time to give the engine a rest at this point and recheck for leaks, etc.

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After a base power ramp run the tuner should try extra runs with small alterations to the fuel and ignition. The engines efficiency will be slightly different in a dynamic ramp test as opposed to the static tuning. Using the main tables overall trims add small amounts of fuel and ignition in turn to see how they affect the power curve. From the diagram it can be seen that in this case adding fuel did little to the engine power through most of the RPM range, it does however lose power at the top. The fuel change was probably not necessary. Looking at the difference in power between the base run and the +2Deg run, good gains in the mid range were had over a wide RPM range with a small increase over a short range at the top. The tuner would take note of the ignition map sites where the power was increased, the overall trim could then be reset to zero and the two degrees of timing added to the main table. The tuner may then choose to do another ramp run with another two degree overall trim to see if more power can be made. Very accurate detonation detection is essential at this stage.

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The MAP Compensation table is only 2D. It is considered that the amount of air is directly related to the pressure it is under. A point of reference is 100 kPa which is assumed to be normal atmospheric pressure. If the pressure is raised by 10 kPa then it is logical that to maintain the same Lambda reading the fuel pulse width must be increased by 10%. There is generally no need to modify this table from standard. Even for a naturally aspirated engine tuned on throttle position it is best to have a MAP sensor to monitor either the actual manifold pressure or the atmospheric pressure. If the car is driven in mountainous areas the atmospheric changes can be quite large. From pit straight to across the top of Mount Panorama the atmospheric pressure changes 5 kPa, requiring a 5% fuel change on every lap.

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An engine will almost always require more fuel pulse width when it is cold compared to warm. The Engine Temperature Compensation table is used to tune the engines fuel requirements at different operating temperatures and in this case against throttle position. All Compensation tables are percentage trims on the Main Fuel table value and not the Injector Scaling as for the Acceleration Enrichment. Because the compensations are percentages of the fuel table values they cannot be accurately set until the main tuning has been done. Once the Main Fuel table has been tuned it is easy to see from live Lambda readings or data logging how much extra fuel is needed at different operating temperatures. It can take a number of days to properly tune all of the engine temperature related compensation tables. Once the engine has started from cold and warmed up it must be completely cooled before cold start and engine temperature compensations can be retested. Note: Cold operating temperatures may require richer mixture because the atomization of air and fuel in a cold engine is not a good as that in a warm engine.

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As the temperature of air changes so does the density. Hot air is less dense than cold air, therefore the oxygen content of the air being induced by an engine is highly dependent on air temperature. In most cases the standard air temp comp table will be suitable. Some exceptions to this will be if ambient tuning temperature is greatly different from the zero sites in the standard table, e.g. tuning in very hot or very cold climates. The table would need to be offset so that the zero sites occur at the tuning ambient temperature. This will not be perfect as the relationship between air temp and oxygen content is not linear. The only accurate way to do it is to tune the engine completely at a constant air temp then manually raise and lower the air temp adjusting the comp table to suit. Care must be taken with turbo charged engines as the inlet air temperature can change dramatically dependent on boost level and intercooler efficiency.

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In a cold engine most of the first fuel pulse fired will end up sticking to the walls of the inlet port. Injecting an extra amount on the very first firing of each injector can help the engine to start quickly. The first injection amount is less at higher engine temperatures because the intake ports are generally wet and the extra heat helps with fuel/air atomization.

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If necessary more fuel can be injected while the engine is cranking due to the low speed and therefore lower vacuum. Note, that by default this tables Y axis is based on the amount of Engine Temperature Compensation and not Engine Temperature, this of course can be changed using the axis setup menu. The above table has also been based on Cranking Time, another option would be to base it on the actual number of crank revolutions.

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Straight after the engine has fired it may take a few seconds to settle; in this time some extra fuel may help. Again as the engine gets warmer there is less need for starting compensations.

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The ECU Manager software has six additional fuel compensation tables based on various other parameters. The two general purpose compensations can be set with any parameter. A good example is the use of an external nine position switch. Note: All compensation tables can be set with any parameter but their table name cannot be changed, e.g. Fuel Temperature compensation cannot be renamed even if it is based on another parameter. This may cause confusion if the channel is to be logged.

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As with the fuel air temp compensation it can be possible that the denser, cooler air will be able to take more ignition timing without detonation and that hotter air will be able to take less. It is highly recommended that this table be properly tested and tuned to avoid any unforeseen engine damage. Again for forced induction engines the temperature of the air can change dramatically so this table becomes very important.

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On cold start it may be necessary to add more ignition advance for a higher idle speed especially if the engine does not have an idle air control valve. If an engine runs too hot it can heat the incoming air after it has passed the air temperature sensor, the Ignition Engine Temp Comp table can be used to reduce the ignition advance.

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The ECU Manager software has five additional ignition compensation tables based on various other parameters. The two general purpose compensations can be set with any parameter. Note: All compensation tables can be set with any parameter but their table name cannot be changed, e.g. Fuel Temperature compensation cannot be renamed even if it is based on another parameter. This may cause confusion if the channel is to be logged

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A dynamometer is not a good tool when it comes to finishing the overall tune. A dynamometer is used for steady state tuning and acceleration runs but cannot replicate normal driving conditions. A dyno tune is a good starting point. In some situations, like low load driving, maximum power may not be the best option for drivability and fuel economy. Tuning for maximum power at every point can make the vehicle difficult to drive.

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On a dyno when tuning for maximum power it is possible that there can be large changes in ignition advance (and possibly fuel) between adjacent sites. These statically tuned values may produce the most power but can lead to light load drivability problems. It is often best to keep the changes of advance between sites to a minimum at light load. If a driver is hovering in an area of high change the car can be difficult to drive smoothly.

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When the throttle is opened rapidly there can be a large volume of air induced that may not be accurately catered for using the Main Fuel table alone. Acceleration Enrichment is an extra amount of injector pulse width momentarily added to the current main table pulse width to compensate for large, rapid changes in engine efficiency. Most Acceleration Enrichment is needed in the lower RPM range.

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The Acceleration Enrichment Clamp table sets the maximum amount of additional injector pulse width due to Acceleration Enrichment. The values in this table are the same as the Main Fuel table, they are a percentage of the Injector Scaling. There is more need for Acceleration Enrichment at lower RPM/Load. Note: At zero RPM there should generally be no Acceleration Enrichment. Moving the throttle while starting the engine can cause flooding if there is any Clamp value.

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The Acceleration Enrichment Sensitivity table can be likened to the cam in a carburetors acceleration pump, the higher the cam ramp the more sensitive it is to rate of change of the throttle. The amount of extra fuel injected for Acceleration is based on how quickly the throttle is moved. The sensitivity level is a multiplying factor of the throttle rate of change, the calculation will give an injector pulse width which is added instantaneously to the current injector pulse width.

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Once an extra amount of fuel pulse width has been calculated the ECU also needs to know how quickly that extra pulse width should be removed. The Acceleration Enrichment Decay table sets the percentage of the Acceleration Enrichment pulse width that should be removed with each revolution of the crank, e.g. if a pulse width has a decay rate of 10%/rev it will take ten crank revolutions before it is completely removed. Example: If 10 msec of fuel is added with a decay of 10% per rev, after one revolution of the crank the extra pulse width will be 9 msec, after the next revolution it will be 8 msec, etc. A higher decay number will remove the extra pulse width faster.

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When tuning the Acceleration Enrichment the tuner will need to investigate what effect the throttle movement has on the Lambda reading. In the example above it can be seen that when the throttle is floored there is a short time where the mixtures go lean. It can be assumed that there is a need for roughly 8% extra fuel at this RPM. How much Decay is needed can be calculated from the time it takes for the Lambda reading to recover, e.g if the engine was doing 6000 RPM for 100 msec it would have done 10 revolutions, divide 100% by 10 revs gives 10% per rev. Acceleration Enrichment cannot be done accurately unless the main fuel map has been completely tuned.

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All MoTeC ECUs have the option to record data. The ECU has a menu system of various parameters and channels which can be used to create a Log Set. Obviously it is impossible to have a laptop and tuner.

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The Data Logging Setup sets the logging rate for each parameter/channel that is to be b recorded. A zero value means th parameter i not t b l d d l the t is t to be logged, a number d b greater than zero means the parameter is to be logged and the number sets the number of times per second the parameter will be logged. M400, M600 and M800 ECUs can log at rates up to 200 times a second (200 Hertz) Various parameters will need to be logged at different rates. RPM and Load (Throttle Position in the example) are logged at a high rate of 20 Hz because their values can change rapidly. Temperature channels like Air and Engine Temperature change fairly slowly and are generally only logged at 1 Hz, Exhaust Gas Temperatures for example will be logged at a higher rate. Pressing N will move to the next list of logging parameters, pressing P will move to the previous. There are 48 pages of up to 13 parameters so it is possible to record just about anything the ECU calculates. A maximum of 64 items can be logged at any time. The ECU only has a set amount of logging memory space so it is important to be aware of how much time is needed for any test/race. The logging time in minutes is displayed at the lower middle of the Logging Setup screens, it is updated every time a parameter is added/removed. The Logging time is only displayed while an ECU is connected.

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It is possible to set RPM points and delay times for logging. If the engine never goes above 2000 RPM while warming up the Start RPM parameter could be set to 2500 RPM, so no cold start fuelling is logged. A delay time of up to 20 seconds may also be desired. The logging in an ECU continually overwrites itself once it gets to the maximum logging time. This means that if the Logging Time is 30 minutes and the race is 50 minutes long the first 20 minutes will have been overwritten and only the last 30 minutes recorded. Knowing the limitations of the logging overwrite and the final logging time it may be necessary to make sure the logging is stopped at the start of a cool down lap and the drive through the pits. The Stop RPM and delay can be used to protect race logging from being overwritten.

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Open the MoTeC i2 software and choose the relevant Project.

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The i2 software will open at the last worksheet to be used previously. Click on File and Open Log File, choose the log file to be analysed and double click.

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On a blank worksheet add a mixture map. The i2 worksheets work the same way as the screens in the ECU Manager software, right clicking in the blank area will produce an Add feature. Left click on Mixture Map.

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Choosing a Mixture Map will open a Mixture Map Properties dialogue box. The Channel should be set as Lambda 1 by default. Right clicking on the Lambda 1 label will allow the scale to be changed if need be. The engine RPM range will default to the minimum and maximum values in the logged data but it is also possible to change this range by changing the Scale Mode to Manual Scale In Lambda Settings the Lambda sensor delay specifies the time it takes for a burnt mixture to travel from the exhaust port to the Lambda sensor. The delay time can be found through testing and is generally in the range of 0.1 0.3 seconds depending on sensor placement.

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On the Load Channel tab the Load channel needs to be set according to the Load sensor the engine tune was based on, e.g. Throttle Position, Manifold Pressure etc. It is again possible to manually set the scale maximum and minimum. The band width should be set to match the spacing of the load table axis in the Main Fuel table. In the example above there is a band for every 10% of throttle opening.

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Using a Mixture Map display the Load and RPM range you wish to tune. Take note of the Lambda reading at each RPM and Load point that needs to be retuned. In the above example take 100% throttle (in red) and 6000 RPM, the Lambda reading is 0.91 La. Note: The number of logged sample points is listed beside each throttle position level. If the number of samples is low (below 300) then there may not be enough information to form an accurate picture of what is happening.

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The Graph page should also be used to back up the values that have been noted from the Mixture Map. The Mixture Map is only a record of what the Lambda was at a certain RPM and Load and does not take into account that the car may be on cold start or the car is coasting. Find RPM and Load points in the graphs that match the points of interest and make sure it is when the car is accelerating. The fuel Acceleration Enrichment parameter should be logged and displayed to avoid making an incorrect judgment on mixtures after a large, rapid change in throttle position.

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Some testing should be done on the car to determine how much delay there is in the Lambda Measurement. Usually there is a distance for the burnt exhaust gas to travel from the cylinder to the sensor location; this means a time delay.

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Prior to using the Lambda Was function it is useful to clear all asterisks if present. By pressing F9 an option to Clear All * will be available. From our logging we have written down the actual Lambda values the car produced. Go to the first site to be modified and press the L key; the Lambda Was dialogue box will appear which contains an area to enter the logged Lambda value. The Lambda Table value for this site is also displayed. It can be seen that the logged value is slightly leaner that the LA Table value. Type in the logged Lambda value and hit Enter. In exactly the same way Quick Lambda modified the sites while tuning, the Lambda Was function will calculate a new fuel table value. The Back Space key should be pressed, again to keep track of the sites that have been modified.

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Once the ECU has been calibrated for all sensors and engine details it is necessary to perform some checks before the engine is started.

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