BRICKLAYERS MAnuAL

“When all else fails read the instructions”

SECtIOn C

1St EDItIOn 2008

1 Building walls with ecobrick General Notes Construction of brick walls in both residential and commercial buildings are covered by the relevant sections in the Building Code of Australia. ecobrick can be used externally but will require surface protection with either render or appropriate paint finishes.2 Wall Types Cavity Walls ecobrick can be used for cavity wall construction.3 Wall Loads ecobrick is a load bearing wall when specific height and load considerations are met. Single leaf walls Single leaf walls comprise internal walls for residential building and as partition walls for commercial/ industrial buildings. Construction techniques are similar for both types of wall systems though structural and support systems may vary depending on application.SECtIOn C . C1. AS3700-2001 Masonry Structures (and all amendments and supplements since 2001).framed. C1. The intention of these notes is to provide helpful information and to highlight variations to standard bricklaying practice. 2 . AS1684-2006 the Residential Timber framed Construction Standard and AS1170. Walls to be built in high wind load areas must conform to the relevant designs codes of those locations. See Carpentry Section for specific roof attachment details. [Refer AS1684 and AS1170 for specific construction details).Clay .2-2002 Minimum Design Loads on Structures [known as the SAA Loading Code] plus any other relevant codes and standards. This information is provided on the basis that the wall is being built by a person trained and skilled in the art of bricklaying and conversant with the requirements of the relevant building codes and practices outlined above. Generally ecobrick is a brick product appropriate for the loads associated with single level construction.ecobrick or ecobrick .ecobrick. ecobrick . The cavity walls can be made up from the following combinations . ecobrick cannot withstand the high compressive loads associated with multilevel load bearing construction.BRICKLAYER C1 C1.

[Available from ecobrick and BGC builders supplies] C2. otherwise it may have to be removed by mechanical means. The ratio for this mortar is 6 parts bricklayers sand.1 Practical Issues Transport and Storage Being a cement based product the exposed surface ecobricks can and will be affected by long term exposure to moisture/water. Do not plaster a wet ecobrick but allow sufficient time for the bricks to dry out before plastering. [Drying time will depend on ambient temperature conditions and could be up to 7 days] The bricks will not deteriorate but applying cement based mortars and renders to wet bricks will cause drummy plaster or plaster to fall off a wall once the bricks dry out. Alternatively. We recommend that you clean up with water while the mortar is still moist. which can then be applied with a standard bricklayers trowel or a specialised notched trowel. The mortar is applied with a standard bricklayer’s trowel to a joint of 10mm. 1 part AAC Cement and 1/3 Lime and is used in the same way a standard bricklaying mortar is used.4 Cutting ecobrick is a light-weight concrete product and can be safely cut with a standard timber or metal saw. A dry ecobrick is a light grey/ pink in colour and has a “bright” appearance and feels quite light when picked up. although power tools can also be used so long as there is a dust collecting device attached.C2 C2.2 Cement or Mortar Builders Choice Thin Bed mortar to a finished mortar joint of 3mm thick is one recommended method to bond ecobricks together. [Available from ecobrick] Builders Choice AAC Cement is specialised cement that is another method to bond ecobricks together. C2. if you wish to use a brick cutting machine or angle grinder. C2.5 Dust Exposure As ecobricks are a cement based product. please remember that it is a health requirement to use dust extraction equipment connected to the cutting tool. AAC Cement is mixed with sand and lime to form thick mortar. For large numbers of bricks. ecobricks are generally delivered to site covered in plastic is it is recommended to keep them covered until just prior to use. unprotected long-term exposure to the cement dust is not advisable. We recommend that you clean up with water before the mortar has dried.3 Wet ecobrick Observation is the best way to gauge the level of moisture in an ecobrick. we recommend that you use a tungsten tipped saw. When using power cutting tools. The Thin Bed mortar powder is mixed with water to a form a loose paste. you may do so as long as the grinder has suitable dust collection equipment connected. or with hand tools like brick bolsters and chisels. A wet ecobrick has a dark dull grey appearance and feels quite heavy when picked up. it is preferable to lay only one or two ecobricks at one time rather than trying to lay a line of bricks. C2. 3 . As the mortar open time is short. otherwise it may have to be removed by mechanical means. A hand chisel is suitable when chasing out a wall.

Windows & Doors Single Glazing 2. External render 3. Wall 2 ecobrick external wall with ecobrick internal leaf. Top plates Metal roof Insulation 6. Tile roof Insulation 7. Internal finish Single Glazing Weep hole 4. Wall ties Weep hole 1. Damp proof course Weep hole Waterproof membrane and white ant protection Information Instruction General cross section [not to scale] Drawings are for illustrative purposes only 4 . Internal finish 3. Lintels Weep hole 5.C3 Cavity Wall Systems TYPICAL CROSS SECTION OF A DOUBLE BRICK CAVITY WALL Wall 1 Masonry external leaf with ecobrick internal leaf.

Clay masonry walls will not generally require any surface treatments.’ [Copyright 2006 . Spacing of the ties as per AS3700 indicated above. Builders Choice AAC cement mixed with sand and a small portion of lime will provide a 10mm mortar joint. See Plasterer Section for more detailed recommendations. The strap should be embedded at a minimum distance of 90mm. to other masonry manufacturers specifications.C3. The damp course is an integral part of any external wall system irrespective of wall material. C3. Tying into other construction materials. ‘An industry guide to the correct installation of windows and doors. 2. Builders Choice Thin Bed Mortar . ecobrick/ecobrick walls assembled with Builders Choice Thin Bed Mortar should use spiked ties that are hammered into the each leaf of the wall. Builders Choice Thin Bed Mortar is the mortar system required to achieve a four (4) hour fire rating for an ecobrick wall. See Plasterer Section for more detailed information. C3.3 Internal Finishes ecobrick can be finished with a plaster and set finish or a plasterboard system. Note: The external render on an ecobrick wall must finish at or above the damp proof course. C3. C3. The recommended spacing of ties is at 600mm centre’s for normal walls and at 300mm vertical centres around openings and no further away that 120mm from openings. steel or concrete members by securely attaching a steel strap to the existing material and then ensuring this strap extends into the ecobrick mortar joint to a minimum depth of 100mm.5 Windows and doors Installation of window and doors follow standard practice as outlined in the Australian Window Associations handbook . ecobrick can be tied into existing masonry.1 Damp Proof Course The intention of a damp course is to prevent the movement of moisture up into the wall structure.2 External finishes 1. Mortar for non ecobrick walls. Internal Walls Intersecting walls should be butt jointed using flat strap connectors placed at every joint.4 Wall ties Cavity walls Clay/ecobrick wall combination used with Builders Choice AAC cement can be tied together using standard wall ties used in accordance with AS3700. The ratio is 6 x sand to 1 of AAC cement to 1⁄3 lime. Mortar Types Two methods of assembling ecobrick are available. The damp course can be either mechanical or more commonly a cement based compound. 5 .Australian Window Association] Copies available AWA or to HIA members on HIA website. ecobrick walls will require the application of a render or paint finish to protect the surface.mixed with water to a paste will provide a 3mm mortar joint.

8 Fixing top plate and stick roof or trusses See Carpenters Section for detailed information. Movement joints. • Should the wall be continuous and have corners then there should be an expansion joint within 3 metres of the corner. The lintel should extend at minimum of 300mm onto the supporting brickwork.6 Cavity Wall Systems [Cont. C3. 6 . • The nominal length of a continuous wall before a expansion joint is required is 6 metres.C3 C3. [Point loads are not recommended] • Expansion joints are required in external rendered walls and a weather resistant mastic is to be used to ensure a waterproof joint.7 C3. • Supporting a lintel on the 90mm width of wall is permitted only if no additional unsupported loads are applied above the lintel and the load is spread. • Openings included in walls should have steel lintels fitted to support the brickwork. • ecobrick walls bonded to ecobrick walls at junctions with the appropriate connectors unless it is a movement joint. • Bonding ecobrick to dissimilar wall materials a separation of the materials is essential through the use of appropriate connectors with the resultant gap filled with polyurethane backing rods and finished with a mastic.] Lintels Steel lintels are recommended for all openings. joining walls & lintels Movement joints are required in ecobrick walls to allow for expansion and contraction of the building materials through normal thermal and structural movements in buildings. • Expansion joints should include an expanding connector to tie the walls together and the gap filled with polyurethane backing rods and mastic.

This document is not able to deal with all these variables.10 Recommendations Our recommendation is that any cavity wall with or without a structural load should to be designed by an appropriately qualified structural engineer to suit the service conditions of the project. C3.C3.Cavity Walls There are any number of variables with cavity walls ranging from a suitable foundation and footings to the number and size of openings in a cavity wall.9 Structural Loads . 7 .

] TYPICAL CROSS SECTION OF A VENEER CONSTRUCTION Wall 3 An ecobrick external leaf with framed internal leaf. Wall ties 1. External render 3. Internal finish Weep hole 4. Top plates Metal roof Bulk insulation Weep hole Single Glazing 6. Internal finish 5. [A reverse veneer wall] Tile roof 7. [The typical brick veneer wall] Wall 4 A framed external wall with ecobrick as the internal wall. Damp proof course Waterproof membrane and termite protection Information Instruction General cross section [not to scale] Drawings are for illustrative purposes only 8 . Windows & Doors Bulk insulation 3.C3 Cavity Wall Systems [Cont. Lintels Single Glazing 2.

C3. Mortar for non ecobrick walls to other masonry manufacturers specifications.mixed with water to a paste will provide a 3mm mortar joint. C3. See the Plasterer Section for more detailed recommendations.Cement Mortar The intention of a damp course is to prevent the movement of moisture up into the wall. The damp course can be either mechanical or more commonly a cement based compound. Builders Choice AAC cement mixed with sand and a small portion of lime will provide a 10mm mortar joint. See the Plasterer Section for more detailed information. Reverse veneer walls should use spiked ties that are nailed to the frame and hammered into the ecobricks. C3. Note: The external render on an ecobrick wall must finish at or above the damp proof course. steel or concrete members by securely attaching a steel strap to the existing material and then ensuring this strap extends into the ecobrick mortar joint to a minimum depth of 100mm.12 External finishes Masonry walls will not generally not require any surface treatments. Spacing of the ties as per AS3700 shown above. The ratio is 6 x sand to 1 of AAC cement to 1⁄3 lime.16 Tying into other construction materials ecobrick can be tied into existing masonry.13 Internal finishes ecobrick can be finished with a plaster and set finish or a hardwall system. Builders Choice Thin Bed Mortar . The damp course is an integral part of any external wall system irrespective of wall material.15 Internal Walls Intersecting walls should be butt jointed using flat strap connectors placed at every joint. C3. See Plasterers section for more detailed information. C3. Mortar Types Two methods of assembling ecobrick are available. The recommended spacing of ties is at 600mm centres for normal walls and at 300mm vertical centres around openings and no further away that120mm from openings. ecobrick can be finished with a plaster and set finish or a hardwall system. 9 .14 Wall ties Cavity walls A veneer/ecobrick wall combination can be tied together using standard wall ties used in accordance with AS3700. Builders Choice Thin Bed Mortar is the mortar system required to achieve a four (4) hour fire rating for an ecobrick wall. The strap should be embedded at a minimum distance of 90mm.11 Damp Proof Course . The wall ties will vary according to the type of mortar used to assemble the ecobrick wall. ecobrick walls will require the application of a render or paint finish to protect the surface. C3.

• Expansion joints are required in external rendered walls and a weather resistant mastic is to be used to ensure a waterproof joint. 10 . • Openings included in ecobrick walls should have steel lintels fitted to support the brickwork. • The nominal length of a continuous wall before a expansion joint is necessary is 6 metres.’ [Copyright 2006 Australian Window Association] C3. The lintel should extend at minimum of 300mm onto the supporting brickwork. • Should the wall be continuous and have corners then there should be an expansion joint within 3 metres of the corner. C4 C4.17 Cavity Wall Systems [Cont.18 Lintels Steel lintels are recommended for all openings .] Windows and doors Installation of window and doors follow standard practice as outlined in the Australian Window Associations handbook . screen walls and to act as fire screens due to the four (4) hour fire rating. • Bonding ecobrick to dissimilar wall materials a separation of the materials is essential through the use of appropriate connectors with the resultant gap filled with polyurethane backing rods and finished with a mastic. • Expansion joints should include and expanding connector to tie the walls together and the gap filled with polyurethane backing rods and mastic.1 Single Wall Systems General Notes Single width ecobrick walls are common in residential buildings to reduce noise transmission and improve thermal efficiency. Long lengths of single leaf walls will require expansions joint and in heights over 2.00 metres will require lateral support.C3 C3. C4.19 Fixing top plate and stick roof or trusses See the Carpenter Section for detailed information. The commercial application of ecobrick single walls are for partition walls. [Point loads are not recommended] • ecobrick walls bonded to ecobrick walls at junctions with the appropriate connectors unless it is a movement joint. ‘An industry standard to the correct installation of windows and doors. C3.2 Building a single leaf wall The following charts have been prepared from AS3700 ‘Masonry Structures Code” and indicate the height to length ratios under the specified conditions. • Supporting a lintel on the 90mm width of walls is permitted only if no additional unsupported loads are applied above the lintel and load is spread. C3.20 Construction Joints and Horizontal Slip Joints Movement joints are required in ecobrick walls to allow for expansion and contraction of the building materials through normal thermal and structural movements in buildings.

8m above the base of the wall. • This information cannot be used for fire walls as each fire wall is specified for a very specific application.0m Maximum length between intersecting walls 8.5m 7.0m 6.5m 6.5m 6.5m 8. C4. C4.0m C4. • The wall is in a single story building with the top of the wall laterally restrained by the roof and without any openings.5m 6. • External walls in high wind load areas must conform to the SAA Loading Code for the geographic area.4 Starting the wall These walls should always be started used a cement based mortar.3 Single Wall Support Systems Single leaf ecobrick walls can used for internal partitions in commercial or industrial buildings.0m 7. The use of a cement based mortar is the ensure the first course is laid level.0m 5.0m Maximum Height 4.5m 7.0m 6.0m 5. • The data is based on not having any intermediate support for the full height of the wall. 11 .5m 5.5m 5. being secured top and bottom.0m Table 2 Maximum length between intersecting walls 7.5m 8. Table 1 Maximum Height 4.The following ratios are based on the assumption that • The wall is to internal only and the data applies to walls in a wind classification are of N2 (40m/s).5 Supporting long lengths of wall Walls can be supported by the placement of piers or columns at the nominated intervals. Table 1 is suitable to be used where there are no immediate supports for the wall for its entire height.5m 5.4m and 2. Table 2 is to be used in situations where a ceiling frame is securely fastened to the wall at between 2. In the case of excessive undulations a “C” channel fixed to the floor may offer an alternative level base for the first course.5m 6.0m 5.5m 8.5m 5. NOTE Using lightweight channels is conditional on the channels being secured to a wall or if used centre wall.5m 8. Ecobricks have a consistent shape and size which means all other course will remain level. Another method is to use lightweight “C” section and “H” section channels supported at both ends of the “C” or “H” section channel.

• Retaining walls should be constructed so that the bricks are interlocking to improve the wall strength. See Diagram 2. like builders sand. • To enhance the life of the wall and aesthetics it is suggested that a render or paint finish be applied to the completed wall.g.general description ecobrick is a light weight material but it can be used for retaining loose materials. Either intersecting walls or piers should be used to ensure stability. • The foundation (earth) is compacted to form a stable and solid base for the wall. • An 800mm high wall should not be free standing over two (2) metres in length. rocks or materials that have a high degree of slump. Ecobrick retaining walls are not suitable for heavy soils (clay). • A solid footing should be included for all walls. The following information is a general guide only and should be used in conjunction with engineering advice for your particular location. See Diagram 3 12 . gravel. See Diagram 1.C5 Low Wall Systems . ecobrick laid on the flat can be used as that footing and should extend past the proposed wall thickness by a minimum of 200mm on either side of the wall. Note: The above description is a general description of the requirements for a low garden wall and should this description not be appropriate your circumstances we suggest you seek professional help. The lightness of ecobrick itself can be partially compensated by the use of additional bricks to make the wall thicker. ecobrick laid on the flat can be used as that footing and should extend at least 500mm past the base on the wall on either side of the wall to help resist the possibility of tipping over. e. • As a general rule going one brick up means going one brick out starting at the base of the wall. • A solid footing should be included for a garden walls greater than 400mm in height. A garden wall would be used as a surround for a garden bed and should not exceed 800mm in height or 200mm in length (unsupported). each brick is 200mm square so by going up four bricks high means the base layer is four bricks wide minimum. C6 Low Retaining Walls . • The foundation (earth) is compacted to form a stable and solid base for the wall. A four brick wall does not mean the four bricks are laid side by side but some are laid at right angles to each other to help lock the wall together.Garden ecobricks can be used as a garden wall if the following general conditions are followed. Note: The minimum brick dimensions for a low retaining wall are the 600mm long x 200mm high and 200mm thick. to a height no greater than 800mm.

Diagram 1 Minimum brick size 600mm x 200mm x 200mm Diagram 2 Standard detail for generic low ecobrick retaining wall. Maximum and only allowable height will be 800 mm (4 bricks) bricks to be adhered with Builders Choice AAC cement.second layer on top of base layer. The general rule is that going up one brick means going out one brick. So a wall made from four bricks 200mm high should be at minimum dimension of 800mm at the base layer. Diagram 3 Interlocking wall.base layer (first layer on top of footings). Note: It is recommended that prior to building a retaining wall advice is sought from your local council and a structural engineer about soil conditions and the most appropriate construction method for your particular locality and material to be retained. Plan view . Plan view . 13 .

2 Construction An ecobrick fire rated wall is constructed using normal wall construction techniques. [Other mastics may be suitable so we suggest consulting the manufacturers specifications to ensure the mastic is approprate for AAC bricks prior to use. Clay or concrete walls are treated in the same way as steel and the use of flexible connecting straps is recommended.] More detailed information is available in the ecobrick Technical Data File - Fire Rated walls E1.C7 C7. The Sika Firerate PU product has an equivalen 4 hour fire rating to the ecobricks. Any movement joints required to allow for expansion and contraction should be sealed with a fire proof mastic. Any movement joints required to allow for expansion and contraction should be sealed with a fire proof mastic. C7.4 Wall penetrations Wall penetrations for supply of services will require appropriate fire rated products and must be used and the manufacturers instructions. The ecobrick will be connected to the steel using flexible connecting straps to ensure movement stress is not transferred. The fire rating quoted in the CSIRO certificate 603 is based on using a thin bed mortar system to adhere the bricks together. Penetrations for the windows and doors must use fire rated products and be installed to the manufacturers instructions.5 Expansion joints & dissimilar materials To ensure dissimilar materials can expand and contract to accommodate the movement we recommend the use of a polyurethane mastic system.3 Protecting other Materials Steel columns and steel work should be literally encased with the ecobricks to protect the surface for the fire. 14 . C7. C7. The primary consideration is to ensures all mortar joints are filled to ensure no air movement is possible to prevent the movement of smoke or fire though these spaces.1 Fire Rating General The ecobrick material has been tested by the CSIRO and been proven to withstand naked flame for four hours. C7.

Penetrations for the windows and doors must use appropriately rated acoustic products and be installed to the manufacturers instructions. (Technical information and advice is available for the Australian Window Association) More detailed information is available in the ecobrick Technical Data File - Acoustic Walls E2.C8 C8.1 Acoustic Walls General requirements The construction of an ecobrick to be used as an acoustic wall requires normal construction methods.1 Wall penetrations Wall penetrations for supply of essential services will require an appropriately rated acoustic fitting be used in accordance with the manufacturers instructions. To achieve highest acoustic values all of the joints must be filled with mortar including any connecting walls. The ecobrick acoustic testing was conducted using a cement based mortar. C8. 15 .

# Advanced Concrete Technologies ABN: 62 005 736 005 SB0800939ECOBRICKLAYER Some images are used for illustration purposes only. Fittings or accessories supplied by third parties is beyond the control of Advanced Concrete Technologies and such is not warranted by Advanced Concrete Technologies.com. its subsidiaries and affiliates. Warranty Advanced Concrete Technologies warrants its products to be free from defects caused by faulty manufacture or materials. If any of its products are so defective the Company will at its option. supply equivalent replacement products or reimburse the purchase price. © Copyright 2008 Advanced Concrete Technologies ecobrick™ is a trademark of Advanced Concrete Technologies. Cnr Cook and Bannister Roads Canning Vale I WA I 6155 PO Box 1408 I Canning Vale I WA I 6155 t 08 9334 4750 e info@ecobrick.General disclaimer The information presented in this manual is general by nature and no liability is accepted by Advanced Concrete Technologies in its use.au .au f 08 9334 4751 w ecobrick. repair or replace them.com. Advanced Concrete Technologies recommends that the advice of a registered builder or structural engineer be sought for any major building works prior to commencement of the works. The warranty shall not apply to any loss or consequential loss suffered through or resulting from defects caused by faulty manufacture or materials.

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