You are on page 1of 84

Cyber Security

Basic Cryptography and Public Key Infrastructure

Lesson Planning
The lesson should include lecture, demonstrations, discussions and assessments The lesson can be taught in person or using remote instruction

Major Concepts
Describe how the types of encryption, hashes, and digital signatures work together to provide confidentiality, integrity, and authentication Describe the mechanisms to ensure data integrity and authentication Describe the mechanisms used to ensure data confidentiality Describe the mechanisms used to ensure data confidentiality and authentication using a public key

Lesson Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson, the successful participant will be able to:
1. Describe the requirements of secure communications including integrity, authentication, and confidentiality 2. Describe cryptography and provide an example 3. Describe cryptanalysis and provide an example 4. Describe the importance and functions of cryptographic hashes 5. Describe the features and functions of the MD5 algorithm and of the SHA-1 algorithm 6. Explain how we can ensure authenticity using HMAC 7. Describe the components of key management

Lesson Objectives
8. Describe how encryption algorithms provide confidentiality 9. Describe the function of the DES algorithms 10. Describe the function of the 3DES algorithm 11. Describe the function of the AES algorithm 12. Describe the function of the Software Encrypted Algorithm (SEAL) and the Rivest ciphers (RC) algorithm 13. Describe the function of the DH algorithm and its supporting role to DES, 3DES, and AES 14. Explain the differences and their intended applications 15. Explain the functionality of digital signatures 16. Describe the function of the RSA algorithm 17. Describe the principles behind a public key infrastructure (PKI)

Lesson Objectives
18. Describe the various PKI standards 19. Describe the role of CAs and the digital certificates that they issue in a PKI 20. Describe the characteristics of digital certificates and CAs

Secure Communications
CSA

MARS
Firewall

VPN IPS

CSA

VPN

Remote Branch

Iron Port
CSA

CSA

CSA CSA
CSA
Web Server Email Server

CSA

DNS

Traffic between sites must be secure Measures must be taken to ensure it cannot be altered, forged, or deciphered if intercepted

Authentication
An ATM Personal Information Number (PIN) is required for authentication. The PIN is a shared secret between a bank account holder and the financial institution.

Integrity

An unbroken wax seal on an envelop ensures integrity. The unique unbroken seal ensures no one has read the contents.

Confidentiality
Julius Caesar would send encrypted messages to his generals in the battlefield. Even if intercepted, his enemies usually could not read, let alone decipher, the messages.

I O D Q N H D V W D W W D F N D W G D Z Q

History
Scytale - (700 BC)
Vigenre table

German Enigma Machine

Jefferson encryption device

Transposition Ciphers
1 FLANK EAST ATTACK AT DAWN
Clear Text

The clear text message would be encoded using a key of 3.

F...K...T...T...A...W. .L.N.E.S.A.T.A.K.T.A.N ..A...A...T...C...D...

Use a rail fence cipher and a key of 3.

FKTTAW LNESATAKTAN AATCD


Ciphered Text

The clear text message would appear as follows.

Substitution Ciphers Caesar Cipher


1 FLANK EAST ATTACK AT DAWN
Clear text

The clear text message would be encoded using a key of 3.


Shift the top scroll over by three characters (key of 3), an A becomes D, B becomes E, and so on.

2
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C

3 IODQN HDVW DWWDFN DW GDZQ


Cipherered text

The clear text message would be encrypted as follows using a key of 3.

Cipher Wheel
1 FLANK EAST ATTACK AT DAWN
Clear text

The clear text message would be encoded using a key of 3.

Shifting the inner wheel by 3, then the A becomes D, B becomes E, and so on.

3 IODQN HDVW DWWDFN DW GDZQ


Cipherered text

The clear text message would appear as follows using a key of 3.

A B C D E F G H

a a b c d e f g h

b b c d e f g h i

c c d e f g h i j

d d e f g h i j k

e e f g h i j k l

f f g h i j k l m

Vigenre Table
g g h i j k l m n h h i j k l m n o i i j k l m n o p j j k l m n o p q k k l m n o p q r l l m n o p q r s m m n o p q r s t n n o p q r s t u o o p q r s t u v p p q r s t u v w q q r s t u v w x r r s t u v w x y s s t u v w x y z t t u v w x y z a

u u v w x y z a b

v v w x y z a b c

w w x y z a b c d

x x y z a b c d e

y y z a b c d e f

z z a b c d e f g

I
J K

i
j k

j
k l

k
l m

l
m n

m
n o

n
o p

o
p q

p
q r

q
r s

r
s t

s
t u

t
u v

u
v w

v
w x

w
x y

x
y z

y
z a

z
a b

a
b c

b
c d

c
d e

d
e f

e
f g

f
g h

g
h i

h
i j

L
M N

l
m n

m
n o

n
o p

o
p q

p
q r

q
r s

r
s t

s
t u

t
u v

u
v w

v
w x

w
x y

x
y z

y
z a

z
a b

a
b c

b
c d

c
d e

d
e f

e
f g

f
g h

g
h i

h
i j

i
j k

j
k l

k
l m

O
P Q

o
p q

p
q r

q
r s

r
s t

s
t u

t
u v

u
v w

v
w x

w
x y

x
y z

y
z a

z
a b

a
b c

b
c d

c
d e

d
e f

e
f g

f
g h

g
h i

h
i j

i
j k

j
k l

k
l m

l
m n

m
n o

n
o p

R
S T U V W X Y Z

r
s t u v w x y z

s
t u v w x y z a

t
u v w x y z a b

u
v w x y z a b c

v
w x y z a b c d

w
x y z a b c d e

x
y z a b c d e f

y
z a b c d e f g

z
a b c d e f g h

a
b c d e f g h i

b
c d e f g h i j

c
d e f g h i j k

d
e f g h i j k l

e
f g h i j k l m

f
g h i j k l m n

g
h i j k l m n o

h
i j k l m n o p

i
j k l m n o p q

j
k l m n o p q r

k
l m n o p q r s

l
m n o p q r s t

m
n o p q r s t u

n
o p q r s t u v

o
p q r s t u v w

p
q r s t u v w x

q
r s t u v w x y

Stream Ciphers
Invented by the Norwegian Army Signal Corps in 1950, the ETCRRM machine uses the Vernam stream cipher method. It was used by the US and Russian governments to exchange information. Plain text message is eXclusively OR'ed with a key tape containing a random stream of data of the same length to generate the ciphertext. Once a message was enciphered the key tape was destroyed. At the receiving end, the process was reversed using an identical key tape to decode the message.

Defining Cryptanalysis
Allies decipher secret NAZI encryption code!

Cryptanalysis is from the Greek words krypts (hidden), and anal (to loosen or to untie). It is the practice and ein the study of determining the meaning of encrypted information (cracking the code), without access to the shared secret key.

Cryptanalysis Methods
Brute Force Attack
Known Ciphertext

Successfully Unencrypted Key found

With a Brute Force attack, the attacker has some portion of ciphertext. The attacker attempts to unencrypt the ciphertext with all possible keys.

Meet-in-the-Middle Attack
Known Ciphertext
Use every possible decryption key until a result is found matching the corresponding plaintext.

Known Plaintext
Use every possible encryption key until a result is found matching the corresponding ciphertext.

MATCH of Ciphertext! Key found

With a Meet-in-the-Middle attack, the attacker has some portion of text in both plaintext and ciphertext. The attacker attempts to unencrypt the ciphertext with all possible keys while at the same time encrypt the plaintext with another set of possible keys until one match is found.

Choosing a Cryptanalysis Method


1

The graph outlines the frequency of letters in the English language.

For example, the letters E, T and A are the most popular.


There are 6 occurrences of the cipher letter D and 4 occurrences of the cipher letter W.
2 IODQN HDVW DWWDFN DW GDZQ
Cipherered text

Replace the cipher letter D first with popular clear text letters including E, T, and finally A.
Trying A would reveal the shift pattern of 3.

Defining Cryptology
Cryptology
+

Cryptography

Cryptanalysis

Cryptanalysis

Cryptographic Hashes, Protocols, and Algorithm Examples


Integrity Authentication Confidentiality
DES 3DES AES SEAL RC (RC2, RC4, RC5, and
RC6)

MD5 SHA

HMAC-MD5 HMAC-SHA-1 RSA and DSA

HASH
NIST

HASH w/Key
Rivest

Encryption

Hashing Basics
Hashes are used for integrity assurance. Hashes are based on one-way functions. The hash function hashes arbitrary data into a fixed-length digest known as the hash value, message digest, digest, or fingerprint.
Data of Arbitrary Length

Fixed-Length Hash Value

e883aa0b24c09f

Hashing Properties
Arbitrary length text

X
Why is x not in Parens?

h = H (x)
Hash Function

(H)
Why is H in Parens?

Hash Value

e883aa0b24c09f

Hashing in Action
Vulnerable to man-in-the-middle attacks
Hashing does not provide security to transmission.

Well-known hash functions


MD5 with 128-bit hashes SHA-1 with 160-bit hashes

I would like to cash this check.

Internet
Pay to Terry Smith $100.00 One Hundred and xx/100 Dollars Pay to Alex Jones $1000.00 One Thousand and xx/100 Dollars

4ehIDx67NMop9

12ehqPx67NMoX

Match = No changes No match = Alterations

MD5
MD5 is a ubiquitous hashing algorithm Hashing properties
One-way functioneasy to compute hash and infeasible to compute data given a hash Complex sequence of simple binary operations (XORs, rotations, etc.) which finally produces a 128-bit hash. MD5

SHA is similar in design to the MD4 and MD5 family of hash functions
Takes an input message of no more than 264 bits Produces a 160-bit message digest

SHA

The algorithm is slightly slower than MD5. SHA-1 is a revision that corrected an unpublished flaw in the original SHA. SHA-224, SHA-256, SHA-384, and SHA-512 are newer and more secure versions of SHA and are collectively known as SHA-2.

SHA

Hashing Example

In this example the clear text entered is displaying hashed results using MD5, SHA-1, and SHA256. Notice the difference in key lengths between the various algorithm. The longer the key, the more secure the hash function.

Features of HMAC
Uses an additional secret key as input to the hash function The secret key is known to the sender and receiver
Adds authentication to integrity assurance Defeats man-in-the-middle attacks
Data of Arbitrary Length

Secret Key

Fixed Length Authenticated Hash Value

e883aa0b24c09f

Based on existing hash functions, such as MD5 and SHA-1.

The same procedure is used for generation and verification of secure fingerprints

HMAC Example
Data
Pay to Terry Smith One Hundred and xx/100 $100.00 Dollars

Received Data
Secret Key
Pay to Terry Smith One Hundred and xx/100 $100.00 Dollars

Secret Key

HMAC (Authenticated Fingerprint)

4ehIDx67NMop9

HMAC (Authenticated Fingerprint)

4ehIDx67NMop9

Pay to Terry Smith One Hundred and xx/100

$100.00 Dollars

If the generated HMAC matches the sent HMAC, then integrity and authenticity have been verified. If they dont match, discard the message.

4ehIDx67NMop9

Using Hashing
Data Integrity Data Authenticity

e883aa0b24c09f Fixed-Length Hash Value

Entity Authentication

Routers use hashing with secret keys Ipsec gateways and clients use hashing algorithms Software images downloaded from the website have checksums Sessions can be encrypted

Key Management
Key Generation Key Verification
Key Management

Key Storage

Key Exchange

Key Revocation and Destruction

Keyspace
DES Key
56-bit

Keyspace
11111111 11111111 11111111 11111111 11111111 11111111 11111111

# of Possible Keys
72,000,000,000,000,000
Twice as much time

256

57-bit

11111111 11111111 11111111 11111111 11111111 11111111 11111111 1

257

144,000,000,000,000,00 0 288,000,000,000,000,00 0

Four time as much time

58-bit

11111111 11111111 11111111 11111111 11111111 11111111 11111111 11

258

59-bit

11111111 11111111 11111111 11111111 11111111 11111111 11111111 111

259

With 60-bit DES an attacker would require sixteen more time than 56-bit DES

576,000,000,000,000,00 0

11111111 11111111 11111111 1,152,000,000,000,000,0 60-bit 11111111 11111111 11111111 11111111 00 For each bit added to the DES 1111 the attacker would require twice the amount of time to key, search the keyspace.

260

Longer keys are more secure but are also more resource intensive and can affect throughput.

Types of Keys
Symmetric Key Protection up to 3 years Protection up to 10 years Asymmetric Key Digital Signature Hash

80 96 112 128 256

1248 1776 2432 3248 15424

160 192 224 256 512

160 192 224 256 512

Protection up to 20 years
Protection up to 30 years Protection against quantum computers

Calculations are based on the fact that computing power will continue to grow at its present rate and the ability to perform brute-force attacks will grow at the same rate. Note the comparatively short symmetric key lengths illustrating that symmetric algorithms are the strongest type of algorithm.

Key Properties
Shorter keys = faster processing, but less secure

Longer keys = slower processing, but more secure

For Data Link Layer confidentiality, use proprietary link-encrypting devices For Network Layer confidentiality, use secure Network Layer protocols such as the IPsec protocol suite For Session Layer confidentiality, use protocols such as Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) or Transport Layer Security (TLS) For Application Layer confidentiality, use secure e-mail, secure database sessions (Oracle SQL*net), and secure messaging (Lotus Notes sessions)

Confidentiality and the OSI Model

Symmetric Encryption
Key Pre-shared key Key

Encrypt
$1000

$!@#IQ

Decrypt
$1000

Best known as shared-secret key algorithms The usual key length is 80 - 256 bits A sender and receiver must share a secret key Faster processing because they use simple mathematical operations. Examples include DES, 3DES, AES, IDEA, RC2/4/5/6, and Blowfish.

Symmetric Encryption and XOR


The XOR operator results in a 1 when the value of either the first bit or the second bit is a 1 The XOR operator results in a 0 when neither or both of the bits is 1

Plain Text Key (Apply) XOR (Cipher Text) Key (Re-Apply) XOR (Plain Text)

1 0 1 0 1

1 1 0 1 1

0 0 0 0 0

1 1 0 1 1

0 0 0 0 0

0 1 1 1 0

1 0 1 0 1

1 1 0 1 1

Asymmetric Encryption
Encryption Key Two separate keys which are not shared Decryption Key

Encrypt
$1000

%3f7&4

Decrypt
$1000

Also known as public key algorithms The usual key length is 5124096 bits A sender and receiver do not share a secret key Relatively slow because they are based on difficult computational algorithms Examples include RSA, ElGamal, elliptic curves, and DH.

Symmetric Algorithms
Symmetric Encryption Algorithm Key length (in bits)

Description

DES

56

Designed at IBM during the 1970s and was the NIST standard until 1997. Although considered outdated, DES remains widely in use. Designed to be implemented only in hardware, and is therefore extremely slow in software. Based on using DES three times which means that the input data is encrypted three times and therefore considered much stronger than DES. However, it is rather slow compared to some new block ciphers such as AES. Fast in both software and hardware, is relatively easy to implement, and requires little memory. As a new encryption standard, it is currently being deployed on a large scale. SEAL is an alternative algorithm to DES, 3DES, and AES.

3DES

112 and 168

AES

128, 192, and 256

Software Encryption

160

Symmetric Encryption Techniques


blank blank 1100101 01010010110010101 01010010110010101

64 bits

64bits

64bits

Block Cipher encryption is completed in 64 bit blocks

0101010010101010100001001001001 0101010010101010100001001001001

Stream Cipher encryption is one bit at a time

Selecting an Algorithm
DES
The algorithm is trusted by the cryptographic community The algorithm adequately protects against brute-force attacks

3DES
Yes

AES
Verdict is still out Yes

Been replaced by 3DES No

Yes

DES Scorecard
Description Timeline Type of Algorithm Key size (in bits) Speed Time to crack
(Assuming a computer could try 255 keys per second)

Data Encryption Standard Standardized 1976 Symmetric 56 bits Medium Days (6.4 days by the COPACABANA machine, a
specialized cracking device)

Resource Consumption

Medium

Block Cipher Modes


ECB
Message of Five 64-Bit Blocks
Initialization Vector

CBC
Message of Five 64-Bit Blocks

DES

DES

DES

DES

DES

DES

DES

DES

DES

DES

Considerations
Change keys frequently to help prevent brute-force attacks. Use a secure channel to communicate the DES key from the sender to the receiver. Consider using DES in CBC mode. With CBC, the encryption of each 64bit block depends on previous blocks. Test a key to see if it is a weak key before using it.
DES

3DES Scorecard
Description Timeline Type of Algorithm Key size (in bits) Speed Time to crack
(Assuming a computer could try 255 keys per second)

Triple Data Encryption Standard Standardized 1977 Symmetric 112 and 168 bits Low 4.6 Billion years with current technology Medium

Resource Consumption

Encryption Steps
1
The clear text from Alice is encrypted using Key 1. That ciphertext is decrypted using a different key, Key 2. Finally that ciphertext is encrypted using another key, Key 3.

When the 3DES ciphered text is received, the process is reversed. That is, the ciphered text must first be decrypted using Key 3, encrypted using Key 2, and finally decrypted using Key 1.

AES Scorecard
Description Timeline Type of Algorithm Key size (in bits) Speed Time to crack
(Assuming a computer could try 255 keys per second)

Advanced Encryption Standard Official Standard since 2001 Symmetric 128, 192, and 256 High 149 Trillion years Low

Resource Consumption

Advantages of AES
The key is much stronger due to the key length AES runs faster than 3DES on comparable hardware AES is more efficient than DES and 3DES on comparable hardware
The plain text is now encrypted using 128 AES

An attempt at deciphering the text using a lowercase, and incorrect key

SEAL Scorecard
Description Timeline Type of Algorithm Key size (in bits) Speed Time to crack
(Assuming a computer could try 255 keys per second)

Software-Optimized Encryption Algorithm

First published in 1994. Current version is 3.0 (1997)


Symmetric 160 High Unknown but considered very safe Low

Resource Consumption

Rivest Codes Scorecard


Description Timeline Type of Algorithm Key size (in bits) RC2 1987 Block cipher 40 and 64 RC4 1987 Stream cipher 1 - 256 RC5 1994 Block cipher 0 to 2040 bits (128 suggested) RC6 1998 Block cipher 128, 192, or 256

DH Scorecard
Description Timeline Type of Algorithm Key size (in bits) Speed Time to crack
(Assuming a computer could try 255 keys per second)

Diffie-Hellman Algorithm 1976 Asymmetric 512, 1024, 2048 Slow Unknown but considered very safe

Resource Consumption

Medium

Using Diffie-Hellman
Alice
Shared
1

Bob
Calc
1 3

Secret

Shared

Secret

Calc

5, 23
2

5, 23

56mod 23 =

8 8

1. Alice and Bob agree to use the same two numbers. For example, the base number g=

5 and prime number p=23

2. Alice now chooses a secret number x=

6.
56 modulo 23) = 8 (Y) and

3. Alice performs the DH algorithm: gx modulo p = ( sends the new number

8 (Y) to Bob.

Using Diffie-Hellman
Alice
Shared Secret Calc Shared

Bob
Secret
Calc

5, 23

5, 23 6
5

8 8 19 19 mod 23 = 2
56mod 23 =
6

15

515mod 23 = 19
6

815mod 23 =

4. Meanwhile Bob has also chosen a secret number x= gx Alice.

15, performed the DH algorithm: modulo p = (515 modulo 23) = 19 (Y) and sent the new number 19 (Y) to

5. Alice now computes Yx modulo p = ( 6. Bob now computes Yx

196 modulo 23) = 2. modulo p = (86 modulo 23) = 2.

The result (2) is the same for both Alice and Bob. This number can now be used as a shared secret key by the encryption algorithm.

Asymmetric Key Characteristics


Encryption Key Encryption Plain text Encrypted text Decryption Key Decryption Plain text

Key length ranges from 5124096 bits Key lengths greater than or equal to 1024 bits can be trusted Key lengths that are shorter than 1024 bits are considered unreliable for most algorithms

Public Key (Encrypt) + Private Key (Decrypt) = Confidentiality


Computer A acquires Computer Bs public key
1 Can I get your Public Key please? Here is my Public Key.
Bobs Public Key

Bobs Public Key

Computer A
Encryption Algorithm

Computer A transmits The encrypted message to Computer B

4
Encrypted Text

Bobs Private Key

Computer B
Encryption Algorithm

Encrypted Text

Computer A uses Computer Bs public key to encrypt a message using an agreed-upon algorithm

Computer B uses its private key to decrypt and reveal the message

Private Key (Encrypt) + Public Key (Decrypt) = Authentication


Alice encrypts a message with her private key
1
Alices Private Key

Bob uses the public key to successfully decrypt the message and authenticate that the message did, indeed, come from Alice.
Encrypted Text

Encryption Algorithm

Alice transmits the encrypted message to Bob


3

4
Encrypted Text

Alices Public Key

Computer A

Encrypted Text
Alices Public Key

Can I get your Public Key please?

Computer B

Encryption Algorithm

Here is my Public Key

Bob needs to verify that the message actually came from Alice. He requests and acquires Alices public key

Asymmetric Key Algorithms


Key length (in bits) Description 512, 1024, 2048
Invented in 1976 by Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman. Two parties to agree on a key that they can use to encrypt messages The assumption is that it is easy to raise a number to a certain power, but difficult to compute which power was used given the number and the outcome.

DH

Digital Signature Standard (DSS) and Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA)

512 - 1024

Created by NIST and specifies DSA as the algorithm for digital signatures. A public key algorithm based on the ElGamal signature scheme. Signature creation speed is similar with RSA, but is slower for verification.
Developed by Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Leonard Adleman at MIT in 1977 Based on the current difficulty of factoring very large numbers Suitable for signing as well as encryption Widely used in electronic commerce protocols Based on the Diffie-Hellman key agreement. Described by Taher Elgamal in 1984and is used in GNU Privacy Guard software, PGP, and other cryptosystems. The encrypted message becomes about twice the size of the original message and for this reason it is only used for small messages such as secret keys Invented by Neil Koblitz in 1987 and by Victor Miller in 1986. Can be used to adapt many cryptographic algorithms Keys can be much smaller

RSA encryption algorithms

512 to 2048

EIGamal

512 - 1024

Elliptical curve techniques

160

Authenticates a source, proving a certain party has seen, and has signed, the data in question Signing party cannot repudiate that it signed the data Guarantees that the data has not changed from the time it was signed

Security Services- Digital Signatures

Authenticity

Integrity Nonrepudiation

Digital Signatures
The signature is authentic and not forgeable: The signature is proof that the signer, and no one else, signed the document. The signature is not reusable: The signature is a part of the document and cannot be moved to a different document. The signature is unalterable: After a document is signed, it cannot be altered. The signature cannot be repudiated: For legal purposes, the signature and the document are considered to be physical things. The signer cannot claim later that they did not sign it.

The Digital Signature Process


The sending device creates a hash of the document

Data
Confirm Order

The receiving device accepts the document with digital signature and obtains the public key

Validity of the digital signature is verified


Signature Verified 0a77b3440

hash

Signed Data
Confirm Order ____________ 0a77b3440
4

Signature Key Encrypted hash

Signature Algorithm

3 The sending device encrypts only the hash 0a77b3440 with the private key of the signer The signature algorithm generates a digital signature and obtains the public key

Signature is verified with the verification key


5

Verification Key

Code Signing with Digital Signatures

The publisher of the software attaches a digital signature to the executable, signed with the signature key of the publisher. The user of the software needs to obtain the public key of the publisher or the CA certificate of the publisher if PKI is used.

DSA Scorecard
Description Timeline Type of Algorithm Advantages: Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA) 1994

Provides digital signatures


Signature generation is fast

Disadvantages: Signature verification is slow

RSA Scorecard
Description Timeline Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Len Adleman 1977 Asymmetric algorithm 512 - 2048 Signature verification is fast

Type of Algorithm
Key size (in bits) Advantages:

Disadvantages: Signature generation is slow

Properties of RSA
One hundred times slower than DES in hardware One thousand times slower than DES in software Used to protect small amounts of data Ensures confidentiality of data thru encryption Generates digital signatures for authentication and nonrepudiation of data

Public Key Infrastructure


Alice applies for a drivers license.

She receives her drivers license


after her identity is proven.

Alice attempts to cash a check.

Her identity is accepted after her drivers license is checked.

Public Key Infrastructure


PKI terminology to remember:
PKI: A service framework (hardware, software, people, policies and procedures) needed to support large-scale public key-based technologies. Certificate: A document, which binds together the name of the entity and its public key and has been signed by the CA Certificate authority (CA): The trusted third party that signs the public keys of entities in a PKI-based system

CA Vendors and Sample Certificates


http://www.verisign.com http://www.entrust.com

http://www.verizonbusiness.com/

http://www.novell.com

http://www.rsa.com/ http://www.microsoft.com

Usage Keys
When an encryption certificate is used much more frequently than a signing certificate, the public and private key pair is more exposed due to its frequent usage. In this case, it might be a good idea to shorten the lifetime of the key pair and change it more often, while having a separate signing private and public key pair with a longer lifetime. When different levels of encryption and digital signing are required because of legal, export, or performance issues, usage keys allow an administrator to assign different key lengths to the two pairs. When key recovery is desired, such as when a copy of a users private key is kept in a central repository for various backup reasons, usage keys allow the user to back up only the private key of the encrypting pair. The signing private key remains with the user, enabling true nonrepudiation.

The Current State


X.509

Many vendors have proposed and implemented proprietary solutions Progression towards publishing a common set of standards for PKI protocols and data formats

X.509v3
X.509v3 is a standard that describes the certificate structure. X.509v3 is used with:
Secure web servers: SSL and TLS Web browsers: SSL and TLS Email programs: S/MIME IPsec VPNs: IKE

X.509v3 Applications
SSL Internet Mail Server S/MIME External Web Server EAP-TLS Cisco Secure ACS CA Server

Internet

Enterprise Network

IPsec

VPN Concentrator

Certificates can be used for various purposes. One CA server can be used for all types of authentication as long as they support the same PKI procedures.

RSA PKCS Standards

PKCS PKCS PKCS PKCS PKCS PKCS PKCS PKCS PKCS PKCS

#1: RSA Cryptography Standard #3: DH Key Agreement Standard #5: Password-Based Cryptography Standard #6: Extended-Certificate Syntax Standard #7: Cryptographic Message Syntax Standard #8: Private-Key Information Syntax Standard #10: Certification Request Syntax Standard #12: Personal Information Exchange Syntax Standard #13: Elliptic Curve Cryptography Standard #15: Cryptographic Token Information Format Standard

Public Key Technology


PKCS#7 PKCS#10

CA
Certificate

Signed Certificate

PKCS#7

A PKI communication protocol used for VPN PKI enrollment Uses the PKCS #7 and PKCS #10 standards

Single-Root PKI Topology


Certificates issued by one CA Centralized trust decisions Single point of failure
Root CA

Hierarchical CA Topology
Root CA

Subordinate CA

Delegation and distribution of trust Certification paths

Cross-Certified CAs
CA2

CA1

CA3

Mutual cross-signing of CA certificates

Registration Authorities
2 Completed Enrollment Request Forwarded to CA

CA

Hosts will submit certificate requests to the RA


Enrollment request

RA
3 1 Certificate Issued

After the Registration Authority adds specific information to the certificate request and the request is approved under the organizations policy, it is forwarded on to the Certification Authority

The CA will sign the certificate request and send it back to the host

Retrieving the CA Certificates


Alice and Bob telephone the CA administrator and verify the public key and serial number of Out-of-Band the certificate
Out-of-Band Authentication of the CA Certificate
3

Authentication of the CA Certificate POTS

CA Admin POTS CA
1 3

CA Certificate

CA Certificate

Enterprise Network
2 2

Alice and Bob request the CA certificate that contains the CA public key

Each system verifies the validity of the certificate

Submitting Certificate Requests


The certificate is retrieved and the certificate is installed onto the system
Out-of-Band Authentication of the CA Certificate POTS CA
1 3 1 2

The CA administrator telephones to confirm their submittal and the public key and issues the certificate by adding some additional data to the request, and digitally signing it all
Out-of-Band Authentication of the CA Certificate POTS

CA Admin

Certificate Request

Certificate Request 3

Enterprise Network

Both systems forward a certificate request which includes their public key. All of this information is encrypted using the public key of the CA

Authenticating
Bob and Alice exchange certificates. The CA is no longer involved
2 2

Private Key (Alice) Certificate (Alice)


1

Private Key (Bob)

Certificate (Alice)

Certificate (Bob)

Certificate (Bob) CA Certificate CA Certificate

Each party verifies the digital signature on the certificate by hashing the plaintext portion of the certificate, decrypting the digital signature using the CA public key, and comparing the results.

PKI Authentication Characteristics


To authenticate each other, users have to obtain the certificate of the CA and their own certificate. These steps require the out-of-band verification of the processes. Public-key systems use asymmetric keys where one is public and the other one is private. Key management is simplified because two users can freely exchange the certificates. The validity of the received certificates is verified using the public key of the CA, which the users have in their possession. Because of the strength of the algorithms, administrators can set a very long lifetime for the certificates.

End