Pollutants Main articles: Pollutant and Greenhouse gas Before flue-gas desulfurization was installed, the emissions

from this power pla nt in New Mexico contained excessive amounts of sulfur dioxide. Schematic drawing, causes and effects of air pollution: (1) greenhouse effect, ( 2) particulate contamination, (3) increased UV radiation, (4) acid rain, (5) inc reased ground level ozone concentration, (6) increased levels of nitrogen oxides . A substance in the air that can cause harm to humans and the environment is now n as an air pollutant. Pollutants can be in the form of solid particles, liquid droplets, or gases. In addition, they may be natural or man-made.[2] Pollutants can be classified as primary or secondary. Usually, primary pollutant s are directly emitted from a process, such as ash from a volcanic eruption, the carbon monoxide gas from a motor vehicle exhaust or sulfur dioxide released fro m factories. Secondary pollutants are not emitted directly. Rather, they form in the air when primary pollutants react or interact. An important example of a se condary pollutant is ground level ozone â one of the many secondary pollutants that ma e up photochemical smog. Some pollutants may be both primary and secondary: t hat is, they are both emitted directly and formed from other primary pollutants. Major primary pollutants produced by human activity include: Sulphur oxides (SOx) - especially sulfur dioxide, a chemical compound with t he formula SO2. SO2 is produced by volcanoes and in various industrial processes . Since coal and petroleum often contain sulfur compounds, their combustion gene rates sulfur dioxide. Further oxidation of SO2, usually in the presence of a cat alyst such as NO2, forms H2SO4, and thus acid rain.[2] This is one of the causes for concern over the environmental impact of the use of these fuels as power so urces. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) - especially nitrogen dioxide are emitted from high te mperature combustion, and are also produced naturally during thunderstorms by el ectrical discharge. Can be seen as the brown haze dome above or plume downwind o f cities. Nitrogen dioxide is the chemical compound with the formula NO2. It is one of the several nitrogen oxides. This reddish-brown toxic gas has a character istic sharp, biting odor. NO2 is one of the most prominent air pollutants. Carbon monoxide (CO)- is a colourless, odorless, non-irritating but very poi sonous gas. It is a product by incomplete combustion of fuel such as natural gas , coal or wood. Vehicular exhaust is a major source of carbon monoxide. Carbon dioxide (CO2) - a colourless, odorless, non-toxic greenhouse gas also associated with ocean acidification, emitted from sources such as combustion, c ement production, and respiration. It is otherwise recycled in the atmosphere in the carbon cycle. Volatile organic compounds - VOCs are an important outdoor air pollutant. In this field they are often divided into the separate categories of methane (CH4) and non-methane (NMVOCs). Methane is an extremely efficient greenhouse gas whic h contributes to enhanced global warming. Other hydrocarbon VOCs are also signif icant greenhouse gases via their role in creating ozone and in prolonging the li fe of methane in the atmosphere, although the effect varies depending on local a ir quality. Within the NMVOCs, the aromatic compounds benzene, toluene and xylen e are suspected carcinogens and may lead to leu emia through prolonged exposure. 1,3-butadiene is another dangerous compound which is often associated with indu strial uses. Atmospheric particulate matter - Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM) or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas. In contrast, aerosol refers to particles and the gas togeth er. Sources of particulate matter can be man made or natural. Some particulates occur naturally, originating from volcanoes, dust storms, forest and grassland f




[4][5] Toxic metals.similarly formed from NOx and VOCs. Although in wide use. either directly or indirectly. living vegetation. Ammoni a. and to have potential significant impacts on human health and the environment. Persistent free radicals connected to airborne fine particles could cause ca rdiopulmonary disease. which can attach to particulate matter. Modern smog does not usually come from coal but from vehicular and industrial emissions that are acte d on in the atmosphere by ultraviolet light from the sun to form secondary pollu tants that also combine with the primary emissions to form photochemical smog. such as lead. At abnormally high concentrations brought about by human activities (largely the combustion of fossil fuel). ammonia is both caustic and hazardou s. bioaccumulate in human and animal tissue. Ammonia (NH3) . Increased levels of fine particles in t he air are lin ed to health hazards such as heart disease. Photochemical and chemic al reactions involving it drive many of the chemical processes that occur in the atmosphere by day and by night. A variety of persistent organic pollutants. Because of this. Ammonia is a compound w ith the formula NH3. It is also an important constituent of certain regions of the stratosphere commonly nown as the Ozone layer. Minor air pollutants include: A large number of minor hazardous air pollutants. it is a pollutant. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) . and photolytic processe s. Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) . Ozone (O3) is a ey consti tuent of the troposphere. anthropogenic a erosolsâ those made by human activitiesâ currently account for about 10 percent of the tot al amount of aerosols in our atmosphere. Chile Secondary pollutants include: Particulate matter formed from gaseous primary pollutants and compounds in p hotochemical smog. to be capable of long-range transport. Ground level ozone (O3) formed from NOx and VOCs. is also a building bloc for the synthesis of many pharmaceuticals. Classic smog results from large amounts of coal burning i n an area caused by a mixture of smo e and sulfur dioxide. biom agnify in food chains.produced by nuclear explosions. biological. cadmium and copper.emitted from agricultural processes. Ammonia contributes significantly to the nutritional needs of terre strial organisms by serving as a precursor to foodstuffs and fertilizers.harmful to the ozone layer emitted from product s currently banned from use. they have been observed to persist in the environment. power plants and various industrial processes also ge nerate significant amounts of aerosols. Smog over Santiago.ires. war explosives. and natural processes such as the radioactive decay of radon. and a constituent of smog. the word "smog" is a portman teau of smo e and fog. sewage. Smog is a ind of air pollution. Human activities. nuclear events.[3] altered lung funct ion and lung cancer. such as the burning of fossil fuels in vehicles. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are organic compounds that are resistant to environmental degradation through chemical. Odors â such as from garbage. Averaged over the globe. It is normally encountered as a gas with a characteristic p ungent odor. and industrial processes Radioactive pollutants . and sea spray. Sources                 . Some of these are regulate d in USA under the Clean Air Act and in Europe under the Air Framewor Directive .

Chemicals. and anthropogenic organic carbon compoundsâ to produce a seasonal haze of secondary pollutants. activities or factors w hich are responsible for the releasing of pollutants into the atmosphere. manufacturing fac ilities (factories) and waste incinerators. germ warfare and roc etry Natural sources Dust from natural sources. after cigarett e smo ing Smo e and carbon monoxide from wildfires Vegetation. however. In developing and poor countries. farming. These VOCs react with primary anthropogenic pollutantsâ specifical ly. Radon is a colorl ess. Fumes from paint. it is highly flammable and may form explosive mixtures with air. and ash particulates Emission factors Main article: AP 42 Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors Industrial Air Pollution emissions   Anthropogenic sources (human activity) mostly related to burning different of fuel inds           . Texas Controlled burning of a field outside of Statesboro. naturally occurring. Controlled burning stimulates the germination of some desi rable forest trees. for example cattle Radon gas from radioactive decay within the Earth's crust. aerosol sprays and other solvents Waste deposition in landfills. usually large areas of land with little or no veg etation Methane. Georgia in preparation for spring planting Sources of air pollution refer to the various locations. radioactive noble gas that is formed from th e decay of radium. such as nuclear weapons.5% by displacement Military. prairie restoration or greenhouse gas abatement. traditional b iomass burning is the major source of air pollutants. hair spray. Fire is a natural part of both forest and grassland ecology and controlled fire can be a tool for foresters. Radon gas from natura l sources can accumulate in buildings. emitted by the digestion of food by animals. chlorine. These sources can be classified into two major categories which are: "Stationary Sources" include smo e stac s of power plants.Main article: AP 42 Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors Dust storm approaching Stratford. emits environmentally significant amounts of VO Cs on warmer days. aircraft and the ef fect of sound etc. traditional biomass includ es wood. Methane is not toxic. Metha ne is also an asphyxiant and may displace oxygen in an enclosed space. thus renewing the forest. marine vessels. SO2. especially in confined areas such as the basement and it is the second most frequent cause of lung cancer. in some regions. toxic gases. It is considered to be a health hazard. dust and controlled burn practices in agriculture and forestry ma nagement. Asphyxia or suffocation may result if the oxygen concentration is reduced to below 19. Controlled or prescribed burning is a technique sometimes used in fore st management. which produce sulfur.[6][7] "Mobile Sources" include motor vehicles. as well as furnaces and other types of fuel-burning heating devices. odorless.[8] Volcanic activity. varnish. which generate methane. NOx. crop waste and dung.

care should be ta en to distinguish b etween several forms of relevant diseases. Traps are built into al l domestic plumbing to eep sewer gas. Intentional air pollution is introduced with the use of air fresheners. dust mites in bedding. in side and out. These factors are usually express ed as the weight of pollutant divided by a unit weight. Biological sources of air pollution are also found indoors. carpeting and furniture produce enz ymes and micrometre-sized fecal droppings. volume. Controlled wood fires in stoves a nd fireplaces can add significant amounts of smo e particulates into the air.[10][11][12][13] Indoor air quality (IAQ) Main article: Indoor air quality A lac of ventilation indoors concentrates air pollution where people often spen d the majority of their time. air conditioning systems can incub ate Legionnaires' disease and mold. these may defined as. ilograms of particulate emi tted per megagram of coal burned). Building materials includin g carpeting and plywood emit formaldehyde (H2CO) gas. out of interiors. mold forms in walls and generates mycotoxins and spores. Suf ferers have severe dyspnea (shortness of breath) and are at an increased ris re garding several different types of lung cancer. hydrogen sulfide. Asbestosis is a chronic inflammatory medical condition affecting the tissue of the lungs. Australia. or other dry cleaning fluids. Chronic carbon monoxide pois oning can result even from poorly adjusted pilot lights. heavy exposure to asbestos from asbestos-containing materials in structures. As clear explanations are not al ways stressed in non-technical literature. The POPs are also endocrine disruptor and can mutate the human genes.[9] The Un ited Kingdom. for days after dry cleaning. Lead paint can degenerate into dust and be inhaled. According to the World Health Organis ation (WHO). Such factors facilitate estimation of emissio ns from various sources of air pollution. There are 12 compounds in the list of POPs. asbestosis. and houseplants. In most cases. dust.[14] Indoor pollution fatalities may be caused by using pesticides and other chemical sprays indoors without proper ventilation. distance. Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning and fatalities are often caused by faulty vents a nd chimneys.Air pollutant emission factors are representative values that people attempt to relate the quantity of a pollutant released to the ambient air with an activity associated with the release of that pollutant. lung cancer. soil and surrounding garden s can produce pollen. or by the burning of charcoal indoors. and are generally assume d to be representative of long-term averages. Pets produce dander. the lac of air circulation allow                     . Cloth ing emits tetrachloroethylene. the extensive use of asbes tos in industrial and domestic environments in the past has left a potentially v ery dangerous material in many localities. and mold. incense. Though its use has now been banned in many countries. and Peritoneal Mesot helioma (generally a very rare form of cancer.. inhabitants emit methane. The United States Environmental Protection Agency has published a compilation of air pollutant emission factors for a multitude of industrial sources. as gases and airborn e particulates. Radon (Rn) gas. these factors are simpl y averages of all available data of acceptable quality. as well as the European Environment Agency. li e open burning of pla stics. Paint and solvents give of f volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as they dry. It occurs after long-term. and other scented items. is exuded from the E arth in certain locations and trapped inside houses. people produce dust from minute s in fla es and decomposed hair. Dioxins and furans are two of them a nd are intentionally created by combustion of organics.g. or dur ation of the activity emitting the pollutant (e. when more widespread it is almost always associated with prolonged exposure to asbestos). a carcinogen. Indoors. Canada and many other countries have published similar compilations.

according to the WHO . These effects can result in increased medication use.000 fewer premature mortalities.[20] Causes of deaths include aggra vated asthma. The health effects caused by air pollution may include difficulty in breathing . .000 more died within the following months.[18] Worldwide more deaths per year are lin ed to air pollution than to automobile accidents.000. 1948.[cit ation needed] The US EPA estimates that a proposed set of changes in diesel engi ne technology (Tier 2) could result in 12.s these airborne pollutants to accumulate more than they would otherwise occur i n nature. Individual reactions to a ir pollutants depend on the type of pollutant a person is exposed to.000 fewer emergency room visits by children with asthma .100 premature deaths nationwide in 2020 compare d with the current 75-ppb standard.[citation needed] The US EPA estimates allowing a ground-level ozone concentration of 65 parts per billion.00 0 fewer heart attac s.000 Americans die each year from cardiopulmonary disease lin ed to breathing fine particle air pollution. when 20 people died and over 7.700 to 5. . 15. The human he alth effects of poor air quality are far reaching. Pe nnsylvania in late October.[cita tion needed] An accidental lea of anthrax spores from a biological warfare labo ratory in the former USSR in 1979 near Sverdlovs is believed to have been the c ause of hundreds of civilian deaths. more hospital admissions and premature death. the individual's health status and genetics.900 fewer respiratory-related hospital admissions each year in the Unite d States. with 1. and lung cancer. nitr ogen dioxide.[23] Lea ed industrial vapours from the Union Carbide factory.[citation needed] The most common sources of air pollution include particulate matter. belonging to Union Carbide.[21][22] The worst short term civilian pollution crisis in India was the 1984 Bhopal Disa ster.A. In six days more than 4. emphysema. ozone. would avert 1. Inc.. and 8. and sulfur dioxide. Both indoor and outdoor air pollution have cau sed approximately 3. and more than a million cases of missed wor or school. and 8. lung and heart diseases.[16] "Epidemiological studies suggest that more than 500. the degree of exposure.000 to 600."[17] A study by the University of Bi rmingham has shown a strong correlation between pneumonia related deaths and air pollution from motor vehicles..S. 6.000 people outright and injure d anywhere from 150. illed more than 25.3 million deaths worldwide. increased doctor or e mergency room visits.4 million people die each year from causes directly attributable to air pollution.[citation needed] The worst single incident of air pollution to occur in the United States of America occurred in Donora. The agency projects the stricter standard wo uld also prevent an additional 26. U. coughing and aggravation of existing respiratory and cardiac conditi ons. wheezing.5 million of these deaths attributable to indoor air pollution. Health effects Air pollution is a significant ris factor for multiple health conditions includ ing respiratory infections.000 died.[24] A new economic study of the health impacts and associated costs of air pollution in the Los Angeles Basin and San Joaquin Valley of Southern California shows th at more than 3800 people die prematurely (approximately 14 years earlier than no                   .[15] The World Health Organization states that 2. Children aged less than five yea rs that live in developing countries are the most vulnerable population in terms of total deaths attributable to indoor and outdoor air pollution. heart disease. The United Kingdom suffered its worst air po llution event when the December 4 Great Smog of 1952 formed over London.000 were injure d. and respiratory allergies. but principally affect the bo dy's respiratory system and the cardiovascular system.[19] A 2005 study by the European Co mmission calculated that air pollution reduces life expectancy by an average of almost nine months across the European Union.000 cases of aggravated asthma.

[30] A 2007 study found that in women air pollution is associated not with hemorrhagic but with ischemic str o e.[35] Researches have demonstrated increased ris of developing asthma [36] and COPD[3 7] from increased exposure to traffic-related air pollution. Effects on cardiovascular health A 2007 review of evidence found ambient air pollution exposure is a ris factor correlating with increased total mortality from cardiovascular events (range: 12 % to 14% per a 10 microg/m3 increase). by the University of Washington. Peterborough. The numb er of annual premature deaths is considerably higher than the fatalities related to auto collisions in the same area. All subjects were male postal truc drivers aged 40 to 59. In several human experimental studies.[28][29] This serves as a plausible mechanistic lin between the previously described association between particulate matter air poll ution and increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. tobacco smo e and improper use of indoor heating devices could further compromise lung function. the London subjects exhibited more severe respiratory symptoms ( including cough.rmal) each year because air pollution levels violate federal standards.000 per year.[33] Patien ts were examined before the study for amounts of specific pollutants li e Pseudo monas aeruginosa or Bur holderia cenocepacia as well as their socioeconomic stan ding. These same patients had higher level of pollutants found in th eir system because of more emissions in larger cities. The study controlled for age and smo ing habits. phlegm. and Norwich. PMID 19235364. Participants involved in the study were located in the United States in cl ose proximity to an Environmental Protection Agency. Additionally.[34] Effects on COPD and asthma Main article: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) includes diseases such as chronic b ronchitis and emphysema.[38][39] A study conducted in 1960-1961 in the wa e of the Great Smog of 1952 compared 29 3 London residents with 477 residents of Gloucester. using a well validated exposure chamber setup. which average fewer than 2. particularly in deve loping countries where pollutant levels are highest. The differences were more pronounced for subjects aged 50 to 59. reduced lung function (FEV1 and pea flow rate). Air pollution is also emerging as a ris factor for stro e.[clarification needed] Durin g the time of the study 117 deaths were associated with air pollution.[40]                                     . so concluded that air pollution was the most li ely cause of the observ ed differences.[2 5][26][27] Diesel exhaust (DE) is a major contributor to combustion derived particulate mat ter air pollution. As cystic fibrosis patien ts already suffer from decreased lung function. Compared to the subjects from the outlying towns. air p ollution has been associated with increased hosptializations and mortality from asthma and COPD. showed that patients near and around particulate matter air pollution had an inc reased ris of pulmonary exacerbations and decrease in lung function. everyday pollutants such as smo e.[32] Effects on cystic fibrosis Main article: Cystic fibrosis A study from around the years of 1999 to 2000. DE has been lin ed to acute vascular dysfunction and in creased thrombus formation. and increased sputum production and purulence. Many pati ents in the study lived in or near large metropolitan areas in order to be close to medical help. three towns with low reported death rates from chronic bronchitis. and dyspnea). emissions from automobiles.[31] Air pollution has was also found to be associated with increased incide nce and mortality from coronary stro e in a cohort study in 2011.

since a large number of people breathe in su ch pollutants. PMID 19235364 The review further noted that living close to busy traffic appears to be associa ted with elevated ris s of these three outcomes (increase in lung cancer deaths. nitrogen dioxide. Mongolia. In 2011. and include ozone. lower levels of lung function. A 2005 scientific study for the British Columbia Lung Association showed that a small improvement in air quality (1% reduction of ambient PM2.[46] This finding is based on health valuation of l                             . Examples of these countries include Eg ypt. Sudan. including cervical cancer and brain cancer.[43] Effects on children Around the world. Because children are outdoors more and have higher minute ventila tion they are more susceptible to the dangers of air pollution. PMID 19235364 The reviewers also found suggestive evidence that exposure to PM2.It is believed that much li e cystic fibrosis. by living in a more urban environ ment serious health hazards become more apparent. and lead. Ris s of low ini tial birth weight are also heightened in such cities. despite the passage of the Clean Air Act in 1970. The World Health Organization reports that the greatest concentrations of partic ulate matter particles are found in countries with low economic world power and high poverty and population growth rates. public health eff ects can be significant and costly. Protective measures to ensure childrens' health are being ta en in cities such a s New Delhi. in 2002 at least 146 million Americans were living in non-attainment areasâ regions in which the concentration of certain a ir pollutants exceeded federal standards.5 is positivel y associated with mortality from coronary heart diseases and exposure to SO2 inc reases mortality from lung cancer. an d more self diagnosis of chronic bronchitis and emphysema. and overall nonaccidental deaths. carbon monoxide. pneumonia and other lower respirato ry infections. the association was higher for non-smo ers than smo ers.[41] Lin s to cancer A review of evidence regarding whether ambient air pollution exposure is a ris factor for cancer in 2007 found solid data to conclude that long-term exposure t o PM2. also in 2011. and Indonesia. sulfur dio xide.[44] These dangerous pollutants are no wn as the criteria pollutants. In this study. However even in the United States.[42] An add itional Danish study. li ewise noted evidence of possible associat ions between air pollution and other forms of cancer.PMID 19235364 Exposure to PM2. children living in cities with high exposure to air pollutants are at increased ris of developing asthma. particulate matter. Studies have shown that in urb an areas patients suffer mucus hypersecretion.5 a nd ozone concentrations) would produce a $29 million in annual savings in the Me tro Vancouver region in 2010.5 was also associated with an increased ris of mortality fr om lung cancer (range: 15% to 21% per a 10 microg/m3 increase) and total cardiov ascular mortality (range: 12% to 14% per a 10 microg/m3 increase).5 (fine particulate matter) increases the overall ris of nonaccidental mo rtality by 6% per a 10 microg/m3 increase.[45] Health effects in relatively "clean" areas Even in the areas with relatively low levels of air pollution. cardiovascular deaths. a large Danish epidemiological study found an increased ris of lung ca ncer for patients who lived in areas with high nitrogen oxide concentrations. India where buses now use compressed natural gas to help eliminate the "pea-soup" smog. but the data was insufficient to provide soli d conclusions.

.ethal (death) and sub-lethal (illness) effects.

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