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485.P18 1902

A manual of gothic moldings: with direct

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Cornell University Library


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the Cornell University Library.

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..— Conclusion Descriptions of Plates . . —Decorated Moldings VII. . IV.12 26 32 38 47 61 71 76 89 III. Early English Moldings VI. XII. Perpendicular Moldings Plans of Gothic Columns IX. Hood-Moldings and String-Courses . Early Moldings in general V.— Capitals X. The General Principles Copying Moldings of Formation . . VIII..— CONTENTS Section I.98 103 107 . page Introductory 1 II.—Bases XI. .


and also by arranging the plates so that they are Several small more easy been made. amendments have also Professor Willis's Nomenclature is now so difficult to obtain that one or two extracts have been made instead of the mere reference given in the former editions. for reference. The Editor has been careful to keep the book within the same limits as to size so as not to increase the cost. .PREFACE TO THE SIXTH EDITION. As a sixth edition of Mr. Paley's work is required. the Editor has endeavoured to improve it by inserting more examples in the text. this edition will and trusts that meet with the same approval which has been bestowed on its predecessors.


The Author has employed the terms "Early English. A considerable number of woodcuts has also been inserted by way of additional localities of the illustration. the present Editor. and. the Editor has been its careful to keep the book within present limits." " Decorated." and " Perpendicular" throughout. examples in the plates have been indexed but. as these were taken from the Author's note-books when the ascer- work was first published. so generally understood. that the Editor felt would have been undesirable to attempt any alteration. the Author was of opinion that the revision of a professional man would secure accuracy. But the student should . besides. it has undertaken to prepare always difficult for for the Press. and it are.EDITOR'S PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION. at the request of Mr. and these are so thoroughly engrafted into the work. and give the it work that practical character which he wished to have. Though it is one person to carry out satisfactorily the work of another. might not previously have seemed clear to a student same time. many of them cannot now be tained with certainty. Paley. The chiefly additions *and alterations that have been made have at the been done by way of further explanation where anything . lest he should change its whole character from an elementary treatise to one of an entirely different class. as far as practicable. A Thied Edition of the Manual of Gothic Moldings having been called for. the .

to attain a true knowledge of the science of Gothic Moldings. but those here employed them. hardly an old Church existing without it . on the character There is. for very little can be learnt without effect measuring. must be Several careful that he knows the dates to which they new terms have been proposed. not merely to read about them. 1st December. therefore. perhaps. as scale has a very important of Moldings. and locality at which certain kinds of do not Now the two latter of these terms therefore. something worth sketching in and often. as &c. and have the advantage of being precise. but he who attempts to practise as an architect (however freely he may use his knowledge) must study them thoroughly. Elizabethan. are frequently employed. but to sketch them and to measure them accurately. not merely by reading a work like this (though that may be of great assistance). Editor. Cambridge ." "late fourteenth. . F. feels that he cannot do better than advise those who wish carefully. and them. M. W. in using this condition." &c. first charming little variations may The be found. 1864. which at sight would hardly be suspected.PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION. already in common use . very An ture accurate knowledge of Moldings is indispensable to any one professing even an amateur's acquaintance of architec. the student refer. but by actually going about observing and measuring them himself . also such terms "early thirteenth century. in Moldings. have become so generally adopted that no others have succeeded in displacing of Mr Fergusson has proposed the adoption Edwardian and Plantagenet in a manner analogous to Tudor. remember that the work fulfil object to be attained in nomenclature is to define clearly the date prevailed.

" Tales of my Grandfather " —he the being . as well as respectful his memory." is certainly characteristic Whether man. and naturally became a member of the Cambridge Camden Society. a grandson of Archdeacon Paley who wrote "Evidences of Christianity. Butler was then the Head St.EDITOR'S PREFACE TO THE FIFTH EDITION. and so was not It eligible to enter in the lists for Classical honours. Paley either could not or would take the trouble to do this (probably the greater part of the latter). 1815. He held the office of Secretary from 1841—2 to its . Master. at York. where Dr. and took his degree in 1838. Since the last edition of this work was issued its talented Author has passed away. In due time he was sent to Shrewsbury. He was born on 14th January. and in 1834 he came up to John's College. classical scholar as That such a ripe he was should not have appeared in the strange all . Cambridge. near his life. of which parish his father was Vicar. if in the Preface to the new edition I give some account of Easingwold. Tripos seems a out in little but at that time every one going first honours at was obliged to appear in the not Mathematical Tripos. and to it will be probably of interest to our readers. was commonly said that he was plucked in one of the college examinations in Paley's " Evidences " because he wrote at the foot of his paper. true or not the tale of the While at Cambridge he was much interested in Architecture.

" He had taken had had considerable opportunity of getting a them." "Part I.xii PREFACE TO THE FIFTH EDITION. and I like to my brother's early interest in this work (not usually much taken up by amateurs) thus commenced. Norman and Early English " . and developing into a systematic and careful study of the subject. Eickman's ' Attempt to Discriminate of Architecture in England. F. consider rather dry and . near Stamford (about 1839 to 42). knowledge of A letter to me : Lancaster. says — " I well remember going home to my father's the Styles from his brother. which fortunately were singularly good and interesting buildings of every date from the eleventh to the sixteenth centuries. My brother. 1844. of Eectory at Gretford. was certainly a characteristic of and this quality may account for the somewhat remarkable fact that an amateur should give such close attention to a subject that the majority of students. I measured and sketched moldings as one important part of think that my studies. Decorated Styles. professional or otherwise. when it dissolution in 1845. and taking with me. and frequently accompanied visits to me in my examine and sketch the neighbouring churches. and Perpendicular great interest in these details. and fair only finishing with "Part II. A. Society. and collecting examples of moldings of various dates. the pleasure to send I had of him from time to time several the examples that appear in the book. I recollect well. E. Gr. As a young student of Church Architecture. amongst other Architectural books. and on 5th March the same notice appears. Paley. A keen and close observation my brother. Mr. Mr. Paley read a paper " On for the Society. fortunately eventuated in the publication of his book on Moldings. merged into the Ecclesiological The first form of this book was that of papers written among the notices of which we find that on 13th February. read this work with the subject of and became extremely interested in English Architecture.' avidity. the Moldings of Pointed Architecture.

— PREFACE TO THE FIFTH EDITION. Cambridge Camden Society Mr. though really of the first xiii importance. " Welby Pugin. written about this time. which you so kindly sent me. but his power of emendation. yours most sincerely. Webb. does an infinity of good. This was followed at intervals by editions of all the other plays of iEschylus. uninteresting. which displays not only his knowledge of the language and of his author. Paley 's powers as a Greek scholar were first proved in 1844 by his edition of the Supplices of iEschylus. though undated. have never met with any one who entertains more correct views of Church Architecture than yourself and our friend Mr. will be of the greatest time. as therefore better received by a host of intermediate men who could not swallow strong drink. — I was truly gratified by the receipt of your letter." This letter shows clearly that he was his paper before the fully qualified to when he read in 1844. which. and is evidently too interesting to be omitted here : " kind My dear Sir. Your tracing. "Believe me. " In later life he devoted himself almost entirely to Greek . G. E. service to me at the present Would it be trespassing on your goodness to ask for a ' few tracings from the give Bestiary ' in the Library ? I want to some outlines of animals. Augustus Welby Pugin. and I The Ecclesiologist its is am the more reconciled to it not being quite so strong as you and I could wish. —indeed speak the foundation and groundwork of the art." "Mr. There are few men whose In fact I appreciation I should desire more than your own. but are exceedingly useful to the cause as far as they go. Paley has also sent me a letter to our Author from is Mr.

He gave most attention to the vexata qu<estio of the authorship of the Homeric poems. which he always seemed to take up as a change whenever time could be found. Notes on Cartmel Priory Church" (2nd 1872) Churches round Peterborough " (1860) " Illustrations of Baptismal Fonts " : edition. and was always re- garded as one of the most careful Classical Tutors. and several It has new illustrations inserted. after Soon Society. left the dissolution of the Cambridge Camden Mr. (2nd 1856) . I believe. This edition of his work on Moldings has been carefully revised by the Editor. a manual for the amateur. on Sunday. Paley. joined the Church of Rome. Hesiod and literature. and showed bis Propertius. " Architectural ." knowledge of the Latin language by editing But he was not idle on the subject of Architecture. returned to In 1860 he Cambridge. and if Church complete. other authors with English notes. " Notes on . where he remained he passed away. Restorers list a Tale.xiv PREFACE TO THE FIFTH EDITION. 9th December. rather than what originally was. of his architectural works besides this book on Moldings. siologist's Guide to Churches near Cambridge " (1844) " The Eccle" Re. and Cambridge. become so much it lately a text-book for students. Paley's note-book when he himself was studying the subject." are. and also published a translation of Pindar. 1888. The " Manual of Gothic Architecture " (1846) . in 1847. marks on the Architecture of Peterborough Cathedral " edition. and for strict and absolute . . a fair. and he published editions of Euripides. Since the dissolution of that establishtill ment he resided at Bournemouth. Twenty Parish " The not the Introduction to . He remained until he accepted the post the of Professor of Classical Literature at newly-formed Roman Catholic College at Kensington. that it may be as well to remind the critical reader that the mass of illustrations were taken from Mr.

&c. self to How far an artist should confine himis copying the moldings.PREFACE TO THE FIFTH EDITION. . xv accuracy the student must measure for himself and not depend on small scale sketches. he is sure to find great value in a thorough acquaintance with the experience and work of those who have gone before him. of ancient work for himself. but whatever a matter each must decide freedom he may 'allow himself in his work.


as this country during the was practised in Middle Ages. equally * This. without feeling the im- portance of acquiring an accurate knowledge of Moldings. are curious questions. But whence these forms arose. details were in use at and were uniformly adopted and in the constructive secular.A MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. INTBODUCTOKY. or from some real or pretended secret of freehrasonry. or were assumed by some tacit agreement on the part of the masons themselves. so far as the author the subjects of aware. well known to and admitted by all who have paid any attention to the subject. perhaps.* That certain conventional forms or certain periods. have never yet been made much investigation. and were dispensed by authority through the country. from mere accident or caprice. with varieties rather of combination or disposition than of the component members. lastly. Again. though. B . SECTION I. how far the same forms were arbitrary or obligatory in ancient freemasonwork. is which. ecclesiastical the length and breadth of the land. has been adopted after Professor Willis. the ancient orthography of the word. are equally interesting speculations. is an undoubted fact. No person can have devoted much time and it pains to the in- vestigation of Christian architecture. or. throughout decoration of all edifices. whether from a natural process of gradual develop- ment. how far they emanated from some particular source.

that as the same kind of hat. independently. that certainly does appear strange and unaccountable. caprice in adorning of these indeed. is such resemblance it and decided system adherence to as to make evident that some must have been observed both them. it and even to ridicule the restraints of strict rule. and to make it probable that each architect worked. When the difficulty which then existed of constant and speedy communication between distant parts of the country is considered. with varieties. this general resemblance all and uniformity. it is quite certain that a strict intercourse must have been kept up between the members of this body of artisans. to determine. use at York. as hatters and tailors. was at once a fashion and a mono- poly in architecture and a solecism in moldings would have seemed fault as is to the ancient Churchman is as striking and offensive a a solecism in dress now considered ? . may have been. . these enough of licence and variety to give scope for occasional localisms. must appear There is in all more surprising. not only indeed in moldings. and even when he pretends to imitate. or other article of dress. in designing and executing Or can this acknowledged uniformity be referred to no more ? recondite cause than fashion Can it be said. in which at liberty to design just as is he pleases.2 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. but in parts the still and features of Church architecture. or coat. and yet there rule. his apt very freely to indulge own pleasure. to a certain extent. arid a considerable degree of them . and as all things are ex- clusively in the hands of certain bodies. or almost every ancient church would exhibit details new and strange varieties in the of its moldings. and no one ever dreams of employing others than these providing them . Perhaps this it the most rational and probable view but then is one so very different every professor from is modern architectural practice. in so there . is seen in is London which diversifying found in common that. difficult However this .

that to be regretted that so has yet been done in reducing to a science this interesting of Gothic architecture. M. an important work on Gothic Moldings has been published by Edward Sharpe. However. that moldings are of the greatest was written. b 2 . To the these may be added the tediousness of making any considerable collection of drawings and of sections of moldings. They are all the province of the antiit is quary rather than the architect. N. in six parts 4to. and to induce the reader to pardon any errors or deficiencies which he may notice in the course of the present work. and as such to out of place is say anything more about them. especially as the writer difficulty incompetent to give any solution of the involve. and the apparent anomalies and inconsistencies which seem often to occur. delay and difficulty copying them with minute accuracy. Sharpe's fine work. which they it is But this may little reasonably -be observed. or ignor- ance of the exact periods at which buildings were erected. Spon. and F. 1871. and so turning an amusing pursuit into a hard lesson. E. have all tended to deter even the treatise most competent from writing a complete on the subject. and practically important department Probably a fancied uncertainty and obscurity of the study. by imposing on beginners so to learn ? much The answer is. or a want of sufficient data. and the for attaining amount of observation and research necessary knowledge of their a history and true theory. all 3 these questions are quite foreign to the object of the present work. (London. Why should so much pains be taken investigating these comparatively copied in our insignificant minutiae why should they not be new churches without writing books about them. arranged according to their dates. being a series of examples. and printed in different tints. Charing Cross.* These are causes at once sufficient to render a first attempt imperfect.INTRODUCTORY. " Architectural Parallels.. reduced (for the most part) to one-third size. Esq.A.) Mr. It may in : possibly be said. so as to be readily distinguished.. contains a large number of reduced outline plans and sections of moldings of the * Since the above finest period." folio.

the acter and char- of which were completely lost or perverted by is some violation of leading principles. in the details of their moldings.4 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS.". Cambridge. of their designs. and a general poverty of appearance prevailed. Hickman's. they are of the importance. of course. too. John's College. on the first revival of the true principles of Gotbic architecture. and indeed surprising mistakes were frequently committed. as a is to first map of the study of geography. There was but little discrimination of styles. the smallest and humblest churches carefully show very pretty and worked moldings. the * As an new composition of the late Mr. very serious. and their uniformity of type. It is gratifying to find such rapid improvement and so much increased attention on the part of our present architects. especially in the working of capitals and bases. or of architectural members they are just as essential to a knowledge of architecture. that some years ago. : possible importance called so much so. tension. apparently an original instance. ing the dates of buildings. In structures of that period^ even of considerable preit was but too common to find the most wretched and spirit meagre imitations of ancient examples. "the very grammar of the certain. minor differences. may either contain a great collection best examples. In practice. They are by far the most and very frequently the only guides in determin. who are fully sensible of the great importance of effect.* This in striking contrast with often ancient practice . . No one has the any claim to the name architect who thinks science of moldings beneath his notice. accurately reduced to a scale. even by architects of repute. with. or accompanied by cloister to the molding of the archway in the centre of the buildings of St. It must be confessed. correct moldings to the as well as to the distinctive character. is partly Early English and partly debased Perpendicular . A work on moldings It may have any one of the three following of the ends in view. is surprising. that they have rightly been art.

and thus supply the wants of practical men. dealing with principles rather than with bare facts. The object being to exdifferences plain details and formations. and aboutas many drawings. The first could perhaps be satisfactorily accom- plished only by a professional man. lastly. and a judicious selection out of thousands of drawings. it may profess to be a complete and elaborate exposition of the theory of moldings. 5 measurements. who may often be unable to procure in their immediate neighbourhood any available models or. and to point out . Such exten. secondly. and that illustration attempt a complete would require many hundreds of engravings. own resources in examining and investigating is Such. made the eye alone. and on the differences observable in each style. who has himself seen the want of some work on the subject. and taking a comprehensive view of the whole subject through the Komanesque treatise. and being thrown entirely upon his it. INTRODUCTORY. medium of the Classic and it may be an elementary intended only to convey plain and easy information on the most ordinary forms. so as to form a magazine of reference. who might be supposed to know the wants them. then. is at different times and places by of that perfect and minute accuracy which full-sized might have been obtained by a laborious reduction of outlines to one and the same scale. of is which the method of treatment possible. sive resources the author does not profess to possess nor can he even assert that every one of the examples he has given. varieties .. but the observation and collections of many and from all places where Gothic architecture has prevailed. from a collection of a few hundreds of full-sized sections. acuteness and ingenuity. simple and practical as far as It is obvious that the number to of examples given might be absolutely unlimited. The last alone seems capable of being tolerably well treated by an amateur. of architects and the best method of supplying require not only very considerable The second would years. or. the aim and object of the present work.

ever observing and adding to his store of facts and examples. and shapeless excrescences. only occasionally added. rather than examples of rare exceptions to the general practice of the ancient architects.. and arranged by is certain laws of combination. will Possessed of these simple qualifi- cations. will learn to He pronounce with some degree of confidence the date of the merest fragment of sculptured stone. Let him only enter upon it. viewed without under- standing. Many persons. The only necessary ditions are a tolerable idea of delineation. and favourites of a familiar eye : soon become the though. But such surely the case and a knowledge of the should convince the student of the reasonableness of the study. Any one who engages effect. and con- he will be rewarded for his pains. the study of Gothic itself moldings as curious and interesting in as it is it important in will its results. course highly and was in the present case quite For the same reason the measurements are impracticable. is unnecessary. they may seem only an unmeaning cluster of hollows.* The specimens engraved are mostly those of ordinary occurrence. almost imperceptibly. the shadows. and the examples in the been reduced from actual measurements. nooks. though of desirable. are not aware that every group can be analysed with perfect ease and certainty . 6 MANUAL. * Most of the woodcuts. and tracing out to his own satisfaction the forms and processes through which he conceives moldings to have passed in the various stages of their development. in and a general interest Church he architecture. this ex- rather than to furnish models for treme faithfulness of delineation. are will themselves extremely beautiful. actively in he amply repaid. if only by the enlarged views he will acquire of the ancient principles of arrangement and composition. Viewed as an inductive is science. A broken have last five plates. be led on by his subject from step to step. really in The curves. and the blending forms. OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. modern imitation. that every member fact is cut by rule. .

the moldings of the respective. He will regard every arch with a in new attention. 7 dug up on the reputed site of an ancient building. that although earlier styles were occasionally imitated in completing or altering buildings at a later period. and with the light and shade upon it. of which so insignificant a remnant alone remains. — it for he will be sure to find in very demolition shattered peculiar facilities for research. or a door-jamb. that the same form seen in the one It is here. with a more searching eye. if A few examples in the page of a book he does not apply in practice that which he has learned from them. will tell style him of what and date the fabric was. these important members were always worked in strict conformity with the ordinary system prevalent at the time of their construction. " The assimilating process never tion of To however great an extent the earlier poran edifice may have been subsequently copied." p. an undescribed The learner must understand that the best work on Gothic moldings which could possibly be written will do no more than set him in the right way to obtain' a knowledge of the subject by his own research. are as nothing. perhaps some of his previously formed theories." " Analysis of Gothic extended to the moldings. may not even be recognized in the other. — Architecture. therefore. fossil. Introduction. The look of a molding is so very different in section. however dilapidated or defaced. —perhaps its ducible to and confirmatory of them. and any * The Messrs. explained how the engravings are to be under- Supposing a molded archway were to be taken down.INTRODUCTORY. He will find the same satisfaction examining which a botanist finds in a rare plant. a herald or a geologist in in an ancient escutcheon. from effects of appearance in perspective reality. all once for stood. Brandon have pointed out the interesting fact. a string-course.* He will ever and anon meet with overturning clearly re- some new and singular conformation. piece of a capital. . He will look at every ancient building. 10. eras were always most faithfully preserved. projected in a reduced size its on paper.

is a good illustration of a templet. . sife. this would in the same way represent the shaded sections of these details. and then after- a pencil were to be carried along the wall-line first. though its general appearance much more like the reality. But the student must not only knowledge observe . and shaded on the part which represents the side or bed of the a small size (say a scale of half an inch flat to a foot). parallel to one side . flat end or upper face. Again. Maxey. a thin plate of zinc. obtained reduced. and so up a portion of the soffit-plane .. as in the woodcut and PL. his ings in order to understand them. he must copy moldlatter. or a a piece of paper inserted capital or base down the middle. the uniformly that which has been followed in the plates illustrating the present work. if a string-course were to be sawn across. fig. Each example is. XII. at right angles with it. by the sharp edge of the mold- ing. would form a diagram exactly similar to our illustrations. and wards in and out of each cavity and round each projection. sheet of one of the arch-stones placed upon a large square the stone paper. and shading the cavities tions. the outline thus. lies in surface. will Without the never be practically perfect. V. is certainly But this. in such a manner that the wall-line. How to do this. 5. Northampton. should he and the soffit or inner with the end of the paper nearest to you. and and marked off in the crevice. tin. does not give so clear a view of the forms of architects is the separate members. The usual popular way of engraving Gothic moldings is to give a perspective sketch of a stone or slice cut out of the arch.8 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. showing at once the Beoorated door-jamb. or part of which parallel the plane of the outer wall. and the molded and projecfig. or wood. The shaded portion of PL. by workmen in marking out the stones previously to cutting them out. same as the which is used templet or mold. The method adopted by in fact. 15.

And if the true form is it not attained by the first stroke. of the Quarto Publications of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society. 1. . will 9 shortly be shown. Itinerarium of William of Worcester. '+ side. It is the following Schedule and diagram here inserted. of the Middle Ages. they are somewhat copy accurately eye. the measurements and name of place being duly registered with each example. that though certain lines. * Nothing is better adapted for a pedestrian tourist than a block sketching book. the en- deavours to improve the student's prising first will seldom be very successful. who was born in 1415. by explaining some of the It various at methods which have been practised. with the. . A small note-book should be kept exclusively for copying moldings by the eye. leaves fixed on one obviated. some of the it is names of moldings have been recovered and to be hoped they terms. ancient In this treatise. so that they form a book when complete. in the pocket of which a small " T-square. It will be found with fuller explanations Willis's treatise. will be revived. Perhaps it is attempts will result in failure readily a practised but sur- how well and how hand can copy in a few minutes a most complex group." being Part 7. the learned and useful work lately published by Professor Willisf supplies an authentic source of information. because the exact curves. can scarcely be caught without considerable practice. must be understood. planes. which are not always geometric. especially in the present dearth of As this work is not is easily obtainable. taken from the in Bristol in Prof." for ruling These are to be obtained parallel and rectangular lines. and the objection to having a " number of loose sheets is The Architectural Nomenclature Vol.* For the mediaeval nomenclature of moldings. and measurements may be drawn by the in all cases to assist the process.INTRODUCTORY. the outset. should be kept. . difficult to and ensure general fidelity.

is called the section or profile of a molding. a molding. being it the appearance right angles to would present bearing. North Door of St. felet. 40. fig. O. Any architectural it member is said to be molded. F. A casement. A and drawing which represents the outline of these projections recesses. 24.—A felet. "R. I.—A felet. felet. I. —A casement. N. Stephen's Church. —Yn'the my.— A boutell. if cut through by a plane at I. to A drawing which represents these lines as they would appear if the eye projected on a vertical plane placed opposite to them. PL.—A felet. —A boutel. T. A few expressions used in the present work it will be neces- sary clearly to define before entering upon the subject. C.—A felet. when the edge or surface of jections presents continuous lines of alternate pro- and recesses. —A ressant. its Thus PL. 1 to 5. I A felet. fig. would present the appearance of fig. . — A cors wythqute. filet.A S. —A casement with trayler of Levys. . 5. 22. is called the elevation of figs. A. Bristol. 8 . K. 'A I —A ressant. 10. — A bnwtelle. —A casement. H. -I P.— A felet. B.—A felet. R. M. —A casement with Levys. D. Facsimile of William of Worcester's drawing. if cut across A b. G. —A double ressaunt. X.ides of the door a boutelle. as in PL. U. A Ij." 10 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. — f A boutel.

" and 7 of "three hollow-cham- fered orders." As it is necessary for every student in this science. standing prominent or isolated. series com- signifies the entire which ornaments a jamb or but it is here generally used in the sense of a particular of such series. behind and beneath the next before outer wall line. I. said to be grouped. to be able to draw or " take " moldings. each placed it. but separate A bunch of moldings members. either on a shaft or between two deep hollows. these preliminary points will be before entering explained as simply and of briefly as possible. or molding (the former is the ancient term). part or member Members are we group is when placed or in combina- tion. and. either full-sized or reduced to a scale. fig. is is the section across an arch of "two orders.INTRODUCTORY. first to understand the general principles of formation. fig. upon the consideration varieties of detail. secondly. monly arch . is one which is recessed by many successive planes or retiring sub-arches. 5. 11 A mold. with tolerable precision. the combinations and more minute . An so arch of two or more orders. reckoning from the Thus PL. as generally find a them .

yet very decidedly. It is also true that the intercourse - . the transitions so easy. There are some who contend that Gothic moldings are derived. as * It is true that the Freemasons were an ecclesiastical body under the Pope.12 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. from the time of St. that any two styles working independently of each other from the same beginnings and elemental forms. SECTION II. and. if at it this or that period. and not confined to this or any other particular country in Europe. as might be expected. mediately indeed. and the steps are so natural. we cannot suppose they would have cared to copy in its details what they altogether repudiated in its kind. and one which appears scarcely tenof Italian architecture. some coincidences of form exist between them. with Eome was always frequent. from Koman . could hardly arriving at least at fail of some of the same results. Augustine downwards. THE GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF FORMATION. from the first and rudest origin to the most elaborate develop- ment . a new member was introduced. This is also the opinion of the authors of the " Analysis of Gothic Architecture. and indirectly borrowed from the Classic although. that in the Norman call style (in England at which was most closely connected with the Classic. is But the convincing argument this : that in Gothic molding all the links in the process of formation are connected and complete. It seems certain that all the forms of Gothic Moldings are the peculiar and genuine offspring of Christian architecture. and if able. Again. forms of the moldings which we and entirely undeveloped . Still it is impossible to trace in pure Gothic buildings the least symptom of Italianizing either in composition or details. or at least are very partially styles . when we observe least). the Gothic are merely nascent. from the consideration that the mediaeval architects of this little country* could have known they had." page 48. a supposition hardly probable in itself.

and though can hardly be said that the early Gothic forms are mere copies of Classic or Eastern ones. naturally be to accustom the different class of forms. as to have caused it to be classed it under the one title of Komanesque. from the debased Classical. From the time of the formation of the first Christian Basilica to the middle of the twelfth century. Arabian). some of which may be traced to foreign sources all : the Early English base is it allowed by to have been borrowed be demonstrated from the Attic that such . from the Byzantine . in its origin eclectic. it must be concluded that the whole series is art. Gothic architecture grew up under peculiar circumstances. rather than sought for in the resem- blance which an Italian molding may happen is to bear to it ? However. an and some leading features were then introduced Also in matters of mere detail. why should not be attributed to invention. forms. Still. mind to see beauty in an entirely and to enlarge its capacity of designit ing according to the requirements met with. and will hereafter clearly was the case. the discussion of this question rather for those who have tion of it to do with the "theory of moldings. from Norman. if every Gothic form can be shown to be an improvement or modification of a preceding one. we find new for the first time. were. as the determina- does not in the least affect the facts of which this work treats. a 13 it new letter added to the alphabet.THE GENERAL PRINCIPLES OP FORMATION. there is such a general resemblance in the character of the work. it adapted details from Saracenic or Moorish. About that time must be remembered that the whole of first Western Europe was engaged in the it Crusade. the effect of travel would. And it is undeniable that several forms and combinations of the ogee curve are nearly identical in Classic and in Gothic buildings.e. the offspring of one and the same progressive In truth. and to satisfy special wants . is That the whole tone of Architecture was then altered undoubted fact. (i.

They are also used very effectively to divide lofty walls into stages. and vertical ascending may so far perhaps be regarded as lingering ves- tiges of the Classic usage. horizontal moldings occur in water-tables and string-courses. so as to contrast and display the predominant principles of a sweep. or in projecting curves away by degrees into shadow. though the forms themselves are in the latter both are absolutely defined. both internal and external. and arcades. And it on which dies thus in general we measure. and ex- An intelligent and thoughtful writer in the English Review* has the following remarks on the differences between Grecian and Gothic moldings : "Where the Grecian delighted in broad level surfaces. in which posi- tions they invariably form subordinate lines. of form and taste modifications or produced by various national genius. lines. and from Italian. and in capitals and bases. material. differ as widely as possible The former are repeated to almost any extent. In their use also Gothic moldings from Classic.changes climates. and Komanesque history is edifices of all dates . churches. so as entirely to occupy the large recessed spaces in arches. or.14 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. measure arbitrary. Gothic architecture. that is. and descriptions. the Gothic roughened and encrusted them with carving. and are carried under windows of buttresses. each group being so. half Greek in design. if the expression may be used. . catching the light in masses. jambs and They are repeated too in groups. and the For December. the The former In run principally in vertical latter in horizontal. The combinations great fixed . 1844. round the weatherings tensively in base-courses. Its truly one of " evolution " of successive . we read. and peruse. or nearly earlier styles. especially in composed of the same members. Lombardic. the The latter are few in number. and numerous other influences. a Grecian molding by * its lights. and very limited of the one are in a in their application.

the cornice moldings were carried around it. Hori- zontal moldings form the leading lines and it by these. the Gothic in narrow. not only what are usually called ornamental moldings. &c. the When Eomans broke up. melt and slide insensibly into each other those of the Gothic are planted together in strong and bold contrast In rare. and they overrule and determine those which And parts . the Grecian in broad lights. In the Gothic. lines continuing to predominate." The notion of ascending moldings is coeval with the intro- duction of the arch. and may indeed be traced to a still earlier period in the sides of doorways and similar positions.THE GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF FORMATION. thereby producing the same result as in Gothic. Gothic by its 15 shadows. gently along in sweeping." the two classes of ficial " Of the differences between some may be detected by a supermolding. though with a different effect zontal . divisible into . Again : view. unbroken undulaits the Gothic fractures lines. The Grecian throws out projections to catch the it eye . since . vertical moldings are . and perplexed with innumerable intricacies. The Grecian leads tions . but also the plain continuous lines of light and shadow . the Gothic in concave. and fell on each side in vertical lines into the horizontal. horizontal entablature of the Grecians. the Grecian delights in convex lines. such as the dog- tooth. though they are in effect identical. othei> being subdued and rendered secondary and subordinate to the vertical principle. vertical moldings are most frequent are horizontal. that the vertical moldings are regulated. by means of the arch. even in later and degenerated specimens. in the one case. is the purest Grecian buildings. Grecian moldings are simple and easily Gothic are entangled in labyrinths. the ball-flower. and combines them in angles and curves. the continuous . horiin the. For instance. The lights and shadows of the Grecian . Gothic architecture revelled in the use of moldings. the Gothic endeavours to bury it in deep recesses.

that no ordinary pains are requisite in examining any considerable moiety of them gating their principles. roof. Boldness and simplicity produce effects. And yet moldings are merely the ornamental adjuncts. vertical or horizontal. forms. a fine tone. that a capital. so little did the mediaeval But masons depart from the conventional an abbey or a cathedral. and evident that they delighted in their extensive use. groin-rib.* first the former are nothing more or less rounded and modified from the window. label. or an arch-mold is often found of perfectly the same profile in village church at the other * This so that we occasionally be seen. Of course the effect produced by so free and extended a use of them was Construction gained thereby a magnificent in the extreme. internal or external. every arch. band. an attempering of bare prominent outlines. whether of wood or stone. may . It is probable that they were generally worked out after the completion of a building. Hence it is that such a vast quantity every- where remains. it . was generally molded. Some a buildings of the best periods were quite devoid of moldit ings. process. string. t The mediaeval term for what we now call mulUon.f every edge. which arrested the eye. whence perfect is evident that they are not necessary even to design. a depth of shade. there would have been nothing to investigate. but serrated ridges. and jamb. different indeed in their kind. rich perspective. when the molding was left for some reason or accident partially uncut. for the purposes of investi- If the uniformity in their use had not been tolerably to strict. Every door. not the essentials. But the power of moldings was it is appreciated to the fall by the ancient architects. It quite their was ambition to work them wherever they could possibly find means and opportunity. a base. had indeed been a hopeless task ever indeed. monial. if master the subject there had not been a system of molding. yet not less solemn and striking than richness of detail. of architecture. and made it dwell on certain parts of higher pretension and more exquisite elaboration than others.16 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. and in a end of the kingdom .

Although the examples given here are in nearly every case from stonework. must appear a very wonderful fact. be anxious to enter upon the subject at once. trom the le . when it is considered. as in fig. the student would do well to notice those in other materials. it And at may be well to proceed. 2. but has more members and will in it. as in PL. On examining the plan of a will Saxon window or doorway. This may often be met with. And this. and endeavouring and then gradually trace the progress of development been analyzed and classified according until the forms have all to their respective dates. for though the same forms will be found at the same date as in stonework. So in an ordinary Early English lancet window. they are on a more delicate scale. The reader this point will perhaps be tired of this preliminary chapter. the monial t. &c. I. 17 might almost suspect that the very same working drawing had been used for both. 1.. screen Woodwork. even considerably later. especially in relieved is. however. that and expanded by splaying off on one or both by sloping or chamfering the edges. it and rude country churches. beginning with very to discover the origin of the early buildings. in the annexed examples. at Burgh Marsh. iron. Burgh. is Stonework. practice. Lincolnshire. be sides. It may. in small belfry-arches. perhaps nothing more be found than a rude square-edged aperture in a plain wall. according to the fine- ^IBF B i ness of the material thus. only half the size of the stone one from Bottisham. fig. THE GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF FORMATION.1 . such as wood. Bottisham. the long narrow opening has a very wide splay inside and a very small one on c . Dear Cambridge.

made a In arching over the upper part of an aperin a thick wall of loose rubble masonry. it or a was carried continuously down to the ground. or simply as in fig. especially in pier arches. or under-rib. the plan at once obtained which was most con- stantly used. fig. constructed of fine-jointed ashlar.* or either on a pillar at each side. and sub-arch. fig. but no alteration of principle. This arch at Cherry Hinton. 18 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. is often corbelled jambs being left square. 3. like the as rib of a vault. with a small shaft at the angles. Now in this rude arrangement. there may be two or more sub-arches. with some improveIn ments of form and detail. for centuries afterwards (PL. I. the nave and transept-arches are constructed of two rectangular sub-ribs. arches The same at is observable in several of the Transition Buildwas Abbey. the outside. but was * off at the impost. In practice. hollow. the inner order. molded. for the sake at once of was not uncommon security. of this aper- which now becomes recessed. we shall find the germs of a usage which ever afterwards prevailed. if the wall be very thick each one retiring behind the other. PL. This sub-arch rested projecting impost. f Potter's Monastic Remains. 7. ornament groinfig. when worked on a small scale. that is. III. the sub- arch was no longer a separate constructive formation. and IV. or square edge. however. chamfering off each arris. the In Transition arches. or sub-arch. Of course.. the abbey church of St. ture as it fig. 5). 1. . near Cambridge. and was much in TOgue from about 1260 to 1320. or of two orders or retiring is members. 4. which are continued from the ground with the intervention: of a mere band or string-course at the impost. without the least change of form. f By ture. without any interruption or change of shape. And is the chamfer may be which is common in Early the case in the chancel- English and Decorated arches. which is observable in many continental Romanesque churches. Alban's. or soffit-pilasters. to add.

lllatS .

but occasionally double. as 1 of the same belfry arch of latter Morcot Church.." Seventh Edition. still In the latter church a Dedication inscription . They are commonly plate. Rutfig. both in Lincolnshire. as in this style. the element of moldings. fig. worked into a shallow Fig. was very usual is from Great Grimsby. from which this exampleis borrowed. XVIII.20 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. fig. shire. 8. is from Adel Church. fig. remains. 2. near is Boston. and 14 from Clee. and the other is of very nearly the same Both these are good examples of the same principle . an arch-mold from the choir of Ripon Minster. is From fillet this arrangement derived the double roll and of which forms the central member PL. In this the square edge is Lincolnshire. already described. These bold early moldings are generally called " edge-rolls. as side. I.fYork- and illustrates this arrangement. 12 is an Early English pier-arch at Skirbeck. occupied by a PL. In considering the origin of the cylindrical first roll or bowtell. the influence of jamb-shafts must be taken into account. the PL. fig. Here the howtell formed by rounding the edge as side. The pier- arches in the nave of Peterborough Cathedral are molded precisely in the t same manner.* bearing the date 1192 period. before. + See " Churches of Yorkshire. an arch from Seaton Church. * Facsimile given in Eiokman's " Gothic Architecture. and arch-molds of this kind are of constant occurrence in the Norman and Transition styles. 158. and cutting a deep three-quarter hollow on each Thus the Fig. triple roll. and are yet not extended on each single. XXI. 13 bowtell becomes attached only by a narrow neck. 15. In Norman doorways every nook formed is by the receding under-ribs. land . p. in the same county. Now this column seems at first to have borne a square-edged member or sub-arch." because they occur at the external angles of the receding ordei's. detached column. ." Part VII.

and is generally a mark of its early The clustered columns at Byland and Whitby Abbeys flanked by (the former circa 1190) exhibit the pointed shaft alternating at with the circular. as at a. Benet's. though not in the pure Norman. pier. near Cambridge. without either cutting off away or rounding example from the square edge. Lincoln. 24 shows this form more at large. is the plan of a late Mary's Church. the introduction of the pointed arch. which occurs frequently the Transition Norman and Early English periods. is the «^ p' r ^r pointed bowtell. of very Fig. by omitting altogether the impost or capital. Staffordshire. 13. the idea of continuous obtained. 21 exactly where the jamb cases. in Another form. will be spoken more fully in treating of capitals and shafts generally. The western porch Ely is . is of constant occurrence in Early English work. the plan of which may be described as a spherical triangle engaged at the base. the annexed its it Croxden Abbey. and which was afterwards. at Clee and fig. singular form. yC/^ which St. I. Ely. which seems the origin of what explained. between two cylindrical halfits bowtells. Hence occurrence in Early Gothic is may be expected. and coeval with. Yet something closely resembling this member often occurs in Norman work. 19 shows use in an Early English arch at St. this case the under-edge -is In withdrawn at the point. resembling. hereafter to be Fig. 16. fig. and in truth very frequently found in the Transition period. Its formation may be seen in PL.THE GENERAL PRINCIPLES OP FORMATION. The pointed shaft. in some correspond in form and size rounded off so as to itself. which projected above the impost receded below it. date. This subject. 17 is a triple respond or . Norman arch in This member arose from as in a desire to decorate the angles of recessed arches. fig. is called the scroll-molding. however. Norman doorway moldings of is Hauxton. with the column This at may very clearly be seen in an Early Hence.

where both sides are thus Fig. fig 1. The three exhibit the use of the pointed bowtell. 25 is an Early English arch at Little Casterton. Vol. PL. the outermost . 8. I. it may be stated that a shaft may it take almost any form to suit the primary molding which sustains on its capital. and fig/ 5 the jamb of the archway of the south porch at Great Grimsby. 3 the chancel-arch at Langtoft. first all in Lincolnshire. 4. where there are three fillets. of very Early English date.out of the solid Soffit block solely by removing plane. The student perceived. edges and sinking hollows. fig. PI. 22 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. 18 is at the a groin-rib from Tintern Abbey. and afterwards led to. Fig." which are so well known by the name of the " roll-and- As a general rule. on the principle of continuous moldings already alluded to. Fig. figs. II. the manner the adopted sections. at the east end of Rivaulx This is one of the comat the angles of monest moldings Early English window-jambs. 12 and 23. is the jamb of a lancet window Abbey. 22 a groin-rib from Eobertsbridge Abbey. fillet. existed earlier than. II. that the groups lie in the planes of the uncut blocks. filleted. is a pier-arch Middle Easen. will already have from here first. PL. XVIII. and ex- must never be regarded as Nave Arcade. 2 is a doorway at Ludborough. PL. Undoubtedly this form clustered columns of pointed shafts. (Brandon's Analysis. the filleted shaft and bowtell. And fig. Sussex. show the cylindrical and the pointed fillet bowtells with the addition of a small is at one side.. Of all these varieties more will be said hereafter. at fig. where the fillet is end or central point. New Shoreham.) crescences on a plane surface secondly. of drawing all that these moldings are formed. and in consequence.

It is clear that by sinking hollows in any one of these surfaces. that is. or the chamfer-plane. c the wall-plane. the that is. are represented facts in our engravings by dotted lines. or other feature. During the earlier portion of the Decorated Gothic period. which at this time was in most cases worked exactly at an angle of 45° and as the style advanced towards the . which may be called the soffit-plane and the third. the easy. 10. or uncut square surfaces. The planes. the wall and soffit planes still continued to be most generally used. a is the chamfer-plane. In PL. will be found to one parallel with the outer wall. analyzed. to ascertain the plan of the arch. which we shall designate . edge of each 23 member touching original the rectangular or chamfered so as to fall below or short surface. Without attending to these facts. a group of moldings would be developed. as a general rule. the plane formed by chamfering an edge. the moldings shared in the pre- . forty-five degrees. it of the process becomes comparatively and the most complex and extensive combination. rest When this is done by accurate measurement. In considering any series of moldings previously to copying them. which first appears at sight impossible to copy with anything like readily disentangled. one at right angles to it. although we occasionally find the jamb molded on the chamfer-plane. first point is to lay down on paper the various planes. There are three planes in which moldings lie . b the soffit-plane. era of decided architectural debasement.* that Early English * " In the Anglo-Norman stylo the jamb-molds were almost always worked in the wall and soffit planes and this continued to be the general arrangement throughout the Early English Gothic period. may be and sketched with precision. It may be . all attempts to do so will be futile. be- fore the moldings were cut.alleged. but then in tolerably frequent connection with the chamfer-plane. accuracy. These two must be regarded as fundamental canons in the arrange- ment of moldings. or parallel with the . . the wall-plane soffit. not being cut away of it. which was generally (not invariably) done at an angle of about fig. II.THE GENERAL PRINCIPLES OE FORMATION.

19 is a very fine molding from the inner door of the south porch. Cherry Hinton. It is. figs. 'Fig. II. is an Early English molding from the Fig. 13 a window-jamb. fig. which is much more rarely the case. fig. they will generally be found referable to some other. If some members seem to fall short of one . the inclination must be determined by bending a ruler or piece of lead across them. was less and less rigidly adhered to as the it and in the latest. Fig. by no all means uncommon to meet with moldings of the styles in which some of the members are withdrawn considerably below the plane of the others. 16 one at Trumpington. . 11. according to their kind. truly copied according to the above rules. CamFig. as in PL. fall either on these. that Decorated. II. a pier-arch. 2 and 3. (The semicircle round the central group represents the capital of the jamb-shaft.) Fig. These are Early Decorated. and 6 the northern doorway of the same church. fig. and fig. PL. II. most expensive kind of molding. PL. was frequently entirely lost. plane. and fig. way at Madingley.24 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. 14 is a door- both from Over. are instances moldings not uniformly falling upon the regular planes." —Brandon's Analysis. . is if the distorted and inaccurate form it would probably assume to attempt an unpractised and untaught draughtsman were it to copy by the eye. without correctness of composition. near Camany reference to vailing desire to produce a meretricious effect.The arrangement of moldings on the original block-planes styles progressed. 9 is a doorway. 7. lie on the planes rectangular. and if they fall on the segment of a circle. or on the chamfermoldings plane alone lie and that Perpendicular moldings almost always on the last. is an example of a molding from Over. fig. a pier-arch at All Saints'. III. 8 is interior of the chancel door. 12 bridgeshire. Stamford. or Third-pointed. 15. of Early English PL. however. 50. because more has to be cut away from the solid block. p. It is obvious that this is the .

Whether con- structive or symbolical. the central member but falls on the line of the chamfer. is Occasionally each member has three fillets. that there clear. 5. This is not an easy example to copy by the eye. imagines) suggested by philosophical principles of effect. that an archway has two sub-arches. and we only mention as an opinion entertained by some. if It is however. Clement's Church. Too much stress has frequently been laid on the it theory of architectural symbolism. already quoted. each group having three members. though symbolism may have had its influence. bridge. we need not now consider. Fig. for in each group does not extend to the angle. as in fig. or (as a writer in the English Review. Cambridge. which may be called the triplicity of moldings. so a triple triplicity in the entire composition. showing the capitals of the two jambshafts. since the architects of the period seem to have affected representations of the mystic number three. 25 is These are both pure Decorated. Early English and Decorated moldings very often consist of three groups. This molding consists of three distinct groups. or con- sists of three orders. . The observation of this difficulty. 18 a magnificent arch-mold from the doorway of St.THE GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF FORMATION. the angle of each will naturally form a group of three rolls with a hollow on each side. circumstance immediately removes the principal This section illustrates a very common peculiarity of its style.

however. voussoirs. of monials. are but These methods. By these means alone a be made. are lost. The best and simplest by inserting the paper in a loose joint. that if the molding extends over a con- siderable space. the tape. or some level surface If this should happen. there are many difficulties to over- come. on the ground. ever. and these may readily be placed upon sheets of paper for the purpose of tracing their .26 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. groin- and other molded may be found in every old abbey.outlines. But many fragments stones. and may be traced off with a pencil. a coil so as to be easily portable. shape it it retains the exact has received. ribs. except in ruined buildings. the true bearings of is. may be By being manipulated and impressed upon the moldings to be copied. or by a pencil. and laid upon a sheet of paper. and thence carefully removed. the edges sufficiently clear and sharp to trace their outlines by pressure against them. is almost unavoidably bent in transferring it to the paper. A thin flexible rolled into riband of this metal. SECTION III. which requires both pains and practice ensure tolerable accuracy. the members. confused or altogether and the copy is incorrect and worth- . that their relative position to each other. large collection of very valuable specimens may Another way is by the use of the leaden tape. There of all is are several ways of doing this. by its extreme pliability and great weight. In to this process. and here care should be taken not to damage or destroy any portion of the little that is left. or by applying a and left large sheet of paper where a stone has been removed. flat which must be spread nearest at hand. it is clear. how- seldom available. COPYING MOLDINGS. First. about a yard in length.

pro- and every separate member should be tested as jection. is An experienced hand required for making an accurate copy and the process. less. so clumsy that it can hardly be recommended to the student. is rather tedious. cannot truly be ascertained. or slide affixed one leg and passing undercut through the other.. and the tape adjusted it in the second case. or the planes in which the members respectively lie (that a full-sized plan first by measurement of the block. moss. COPYING MOLDINGS. the lead when them cannot be withdrawn. process similar in its nature and results to the . where the molding is much undercut. and subsequently to detertheir breadth and width by inserting a measure into them. marked out on the paper. and to if furnished with a segmental scale-bar. so that these especially must be supplied by the eye . and afterwards drawn upwards or down- wards till it finds exit at a broken place. or the sharp and rounded edges. dirt. first In all cases. and curvature. is advisable to carry the tape merely over the necks of the hollows. from being so far As Early English moldings are been broken the lead undercut that portions of the projecting members have fallen or off. &c. In the first instance. In using the tape. is A pair of compasses with the ends bent inward very useful in obtaining the breadth of the members . or con- tains deep fitted into is and wide hollows with a narrow neck. bearing. the width of bowtell the neck of each may be exactly marked. molding at once is. and whitewash must be scraped clear away from the part to be copied. to size. it is though the tape has in some cases been successfully used. on the whole. Sharp edges and angular hollows cannot be closely copied with the leaden tape. There is a to produce such a result. often mutilated. the rough draught of the pencil must invariably be corrected by close comparison with the original. jamb or arch) to may be them mine . the depth of the hollows. 27 Secondly. by the aid of the measure. may frequently be manipulated into a part which is entire. it better to copy only eight or ten inches of the .

and that with great accuracy. by which illustrated in the Engineers' may be copied with the most perfect accuracy. moldings can be taken by The only disadvantages are. the form of which thus and accurately obtained. is to copy by the eye alone. Another. they certainly were often so cut by Mr. about a foot's width of a molding can be taken at once a so that number of separate pieces of paper must be pinned together on the spot. and only fit to be applied when a model is necessary. 58. and the whole operation is tedious. though by no ient means large. or the planes and bearings will be incorrect. By pouring plaster of Paris into the matrix thus formed. the difficulty is here insurmountable. clumsy. little No. and called by him the Cymagraph. that the instrument. Geometric methods both of copying and reducing moldings are fallible libera .28 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. to the part to readily he copied. This is technically called clay. * If not so designed by the master. is use of the leaden tape. A beautiful moldings and ingenious instrument has been invented by Professor Willis. molding is exactly But in the case of undercutting. . has drawn them for the most part with the compasses. in giving the full-sized sections of moldings from Tintern Abbey. and is very successful where the mold- much undercut. Potter. and in this case no doubt correctly. and that only . and the most extensive and complex its aid. and of the full size. It can be successfully used with a very practice. . on a reduced the mason. or practised hy applying wet a composition purposely prepared of wax and some other inis gredients. the original copied. for the members and curves were very work . though the convex and concave surfaces are of course reversed. is an inconven- appendage to the equipment of a pedestrian. and for ordinary purposes much the best and scale. simplest way. often drawn manu* especially in earlier so that very consider- able deviations from geometric precision must be expected in pbserving ancient examples. which ings are not too squeezing. plaster. It is described and and Architects' Journal.

feet. The eye fre- becomes perfectly familiar with every kind and variety by quently contemplating new examples and collections previously is made and their this .COPYING MOLDINGS. as before stated. The practice of copying moldings by the eye alone. and II. VIII. a perfect copy of the ordinary and plainer moldings. any inaccuracy of proportion resulting from a hasty sketch will readily be recti- should the molding be adopted in practical architecture. figs. as in PL. it is well to adopt uniformly the plan. PL. as in PL. In this. an Early English Doorway at Louth. whole breadth or width of a series of mold- which simple and easy when they lie in one plane. For the sake of neatness. as in 29 PL. of drawing the outer wall-line parallel with the bottom of the page. 1. fig. the measurement serves to correct the drawing. soffit they should be given in respect of wall and planes. for the marked 3f inches is nearly as long as that marked 7. 3. measurements. all fig. to give the is enough ings. with in two or three minutes. By adding fied. already pointed out. is This is rather a troublesome process. is of the greatest importance in acquiring a sound acquaintance with the subject. may be made In be way also moldings which are quite out of reach may if sketched very tolerably at the distance of planes in which they lie many to. It is indeed. I. it is apt to produce a complex diagram. III. 3. The depth plane to which hollows are sunk from the surface of any may readily be added. fig. it is obvious that the double groove or hollow chamfer in the centre cuts off a less portion of the projecting angle than the diagram represents line . the measurements of the parts. 21. Generally. indispensable. and thus a great degree of accuracy in time attained. 20. XVII. tha be carefully attended . as in other cases. in copying moldings. adding the measurements of each If the particular face. 22. as PL. and the soffit parallel to the side. measurements of each member are required. 12. in For example. fig.

15). In copying the moldings of capitals. may of is be remarked. this. II. as they will tend very much to correct the eye for sketching. with angles of forty . Though the student should always carry his sketch-book and pencil with him. lie. the planes in which moldings relative proportions of the parts.30 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. the only difficulty is in the hinge of the rule. marked by a as in the illustrations of the pre- sent work. may fey be -. and the must be invariably observed. measure the depth from the top of the abacus to the under side of the neck- molding abacus . the over Both these a are easily taken by dropping a small bullet is plummet (a string. that in the example given by Professor Willis. and frequently show important deviations from geometric forms which are liable to be overlooked at first sight. he must be careful not to neglect to get full- sized details whenever he has the opportunity. and applying the It foot rule and triangle. These two points. in his tectural " Archiof Nomenclature. But as this is by no means invariably the to case." from the Journal William Worcester. It with a very close approximation to truth. it is advisable in every instance put it to the test. and the projection of the shaft. with best) from the outer edge of the abacus. which will prevent it being placed close against the wall. Another the use of a triangle of wood or brass. has been observed that edges are frequently chamfered at an angle of forty-five degrees. by which the angle can however small the copy be accurately transferred to the paper. and the practised eye will seize the outline almost instinctively. the plane line. There are several simple and effective means of doing. One is by bending the measure at its joint (PL. fig.

V. All other methods require both time and Every member may be reduced compass and scale . as to a in diagram. and the enclosed angle being a right angle.fig. care.COPYING MOLDINGS. is to measure along the wall and soffit-planes. in addition. Full-sized moldings are reduced by the use of the well- known instrument separately by called the Pentagraph. by applying the hypotenuse of which to the chamfer the two sides will be respectively parallel to the wallplane and the soffit-plane. and thus chamfer If. 12. the cross measurement be taken. . whether the walls are at right angles or not. inclosing certain portions of the copy. means of the or circles may be drawn. the direction of the is obtained. at an angle of but not otherwise. the splay will be obtained correctly. either the dimensions a b or b c may be obtained . however. The best plan. five 31 degrees. which may generally be easily done very by placing the rule against one it plane and sighting the end of line with the other. the end just meeting the other. if the chamfer is . Where the rule is placed against one plane. forty-five. See PL. and re- peated of the proportionate size in the same positions on the reduced drawing.

XVI. by coarse irre'gular channelling. Benet's. EAKLY MOLDINGS IN GENEKAL. fillet. Norman string-courses often consist off. St. PL. the very nature of the case would lead us to conclude that the earliest element arose out of a desire to relieve. 10. an excellent illustration of the first idea of off the parts forming rounds by removing edges. such as occur in the Ante-Norman III. its fig. of a square projecting with the angles chamfered so as to form a semi-hexagonal projection. chancel-arch at Wittering. and of setting . the theory formations of moldings must now be considered more fully. From Mr. and then removing indefinitely the remaining angles. for instance. a plain easily flat surface. Gaily Knight's " Italian Architecture. the balustre shafts in the tower of St. affords. A square-edged rib became a semi-cylindrical bowtell by first chamfering. generally semi-cylindrical." Parti. SECTION IV. Thus.32 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. Cambridge. Bavenna and. and other churches of that date. Northamptonshire. to which must be added the very curious and antique attempt at a molded architrave on the impost of the belfry-arch at Barna:ck. Sepulchre's Church. are the rough and coarsely chiselled members. Having thus far explained the general principles and the of the methods of drawing moldings in first section. both in groin-ribs and pier-arches. This last example. PL. indeed. 14. The first and rudest attempts at molding which are found in this country. an exact parallel to which occurs in a doorway of of Theodoric at the Bomanesque palace . fig. Cambridge.

From Winto . 85. The accompanying example of a similar kind is engraved in p. others worked into and the subfig. D . which an arch at Keymerston. till the Early English when it was carried to an extravagant excess. in fig. by which the contrast of light and shade was obtained. XXI. by sinking a small channel or furrow on each side a little below the surface. figs. which the first ap- pearance of the deep hollows may be traced. 1200 and the other from Peterborough. The deep rounded hollow (as contrasted with the mere notch). each angle. Norman work the one from Glastonbury. IV. at Barholme. arch cut away into a broad semi-cylindrical rib. rising in succession above and behind each other. and PL. thus bearing the effect of a series of detached arches or ribs. 7 and are groin-ribs of common circa profile in . 2. 1. PL. a square-edged arch with at its sub-arch or soffit-rib was either worked into rounds fig." p. 5. is a very Early English pier-arch. IV. Norfolk. PL. early Norman : both roll- clearly satisfactorily exhibiting the formation of the molding or bowtell. a which semi-Norman arch fig. which was not developed period. as in represents. as . 33 thus rounded. is fig. the Norman edge-mold is b and Transition bowtell A with side hollows well shown. circa 1200 rolls. "Canterbury. the eye being unable to penetrate to the depth of the dark hollow. . then. PL. each independent and unconnected. so that roll-moldiDgs were extensively undercut or attached only by a small neck of stone . 4." where the Contrast j^tffc between ^j^. at Barnack. Lincolnshire. 85 of Professor Willis's "Canterbury. 1.EARLY MOLDINGS IN GENERAL. was an after-thought. 8. or some edges were chamfered.. IV. or into pointed rolls. Thus.

represents its such a stone. established. principle. and PL. fig. 10. but and no doubt. by We may suppose the architect to have drawn on a board or a stone. 7. as well as considerable variety in the size and depth of the alternating hollows. and thus a great width was covered with minute members. IV. light. with a free hand. 34 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. so that the pieces. being applied to every stone to be worked. till unoccupied. when put together. Now. From and these two points both the hollow the bowtells may have been extended each no space was left way. diagram and PL. size . 3. and PL. at the point of the interior angle. Deeply recessed archways consist of several courses of molded . VI. coincided with perfect accuracy. designed not on any exact geometric regulated by taste. to a certain extent. . VII. we find a whole series of minute and skilfully diversified members. alternately dark and hollow and prominent.. multiplication naturally implies reduction in so that. caprice. It three-quarter circular hollow might appear probable that the true origin of the deep must be looked for in the wish to edge or point of the form a cutting inwards. as in fig. but is rather characteristic of the work of the first two Edwards. '>i '. Still. effect. in place of two or three heavy round moldings placed at the angles only. fig. corresponding to the bowtell at the exterior rectangle of the sub-arches. sur- The templet. with the profile scratched or marked on face. the outline to be followed in working out the hollows . so that this view is hardly correct. and without hollows of any great depth. this inner hollow at the angle is not very observable in the earliest arches. it The roll-molding being once to multiply it became natural as an ornamental feature to an unlimited extent and to prevent sameness of effect many modifications in the forms of the projecting members were introduced. afforded exactly the same shape for each.

manner of The Norman architects never got much beyond atten- the plain cylindrical edge-roll and shallow hollow. In later times. to the and each it. or. the different courses. The and far the most important and PL. fig. 35 or sub-arch. a doorway in the precinct of Lincoln Cathedral. and at the were often continuous. the shafts were engaged in the wall. contemporaneously with the general use of the pointed arch. fig. The introduction of this new feature may be said to have wrought a complete revolution in the system d 2 . notion of alternate hollows and projections does not appear to have been fully comprehended by them.EAELY MOLDINGS IN GENERAL. back of When the moldings are meagre. 20. for the period of Transition to effect this. was reserved The invention of the pointed bowtell. They paid so much tion to surface sculpture and shallow ornamental Ip work in the fiat faces of their arches. . it is essential to mark the joints The grouping and multiplying of members was greatly facili- tated in its development by the Gothic principle of distributing weights and thrusts under a number of different supports. all all more or less referable to this common first and used with the most refined taste in varying the members by of complex Early English grouping. opened the way to a great number origin. the arch generally consists of a single row of voussoirs. Thus each group way is of arch-molding in an Early English door- borne by a detached jamb-shaft below the impost. but with latest period the roll-moldings small pseudo-capitals and bases attached after the real columns. similar to the annexed example from Coton. stones. II. In taking a of molding of the former kind. I. if so. having its joint being overlapped own independent by the stone next construction. was found to be incompatible It with the enrichment by detail in Bas-relief. of these is the eoll-and-fillet. of new forms. 4. each order-. PL. that the Jp jj§ Coton.

to produce- more prominent As. was first added to the cylindrical bowtell. fillet. 17. a groin-rib from Tintern Abbey. 15. It is the keynote of almost all the of molding.36 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. A certain analogy may is be traced in the and that from Selby simply the ordinary roll-and-fillet used as a string. Shelford.. and in Norman work was used and in other places. of a single side to the roll is figured PL. as in PL. I. or from what. in strings. at with a square under-edge. String Nave.. formations. or as PL. the or fine edge was either (PL. I. as at Great. afterwards. subsequent set It may be defined to be a first flat band on the surface of a roll-molding. Sepulchre's Selby. fillet it will be found in the earliest examples that this frequently falls in a line figs. and Little Casterton. of this kind have probably suggested the use of the idea of a fillets with the roll. It. or as in PL. Cambridge. with a slope or ogee curvature. as at Little Casterton. so as effect. Or it may be cut that. m cu t surface of the Wall. a fig. being merely the unOvolo and Fillet. IV. II. 9. however. Forms first. Cambs. feature was itself a common enough down from Classic times. most commonly. 19. fig. Rutland. in the abaci of capitals. An example 12. surface-line having been feather suggested by the off pointed bowtell. annexed examples . Great Shelford. St. fig. This appears to be an acci- dental one. 18. the It is not certain at fillet what precise period. and in . was throated or widened. cause. 9). fig. II. with the chamfer-plane.

in mitering. For example. planes. instances of its use Perhaps. Its occurrence in early groin-ribs cannot have escaped the notice of the observer. introduced for the sake of contrasting and diversifying the members 8 of a group. 5. fig. roll-and-fillet in many Another plausible account of the origin of the may be offered. till towards the end of the thirteenth century. the eye would otherwise have an ill-defined and imperfect outline. have been as a standing portion of the uncut surface certainly borne out a view which molding. fig. 37 6. as in a pier-arch from Cherry Hinton. by the general analogy of The position of diagonal projection is undoubtedly . But all these are mere conjectures. so that it is on this theory of fact is its origin. . or joining rolls at right angles. One that it worthy of notice in the use of the roll-and-fillet commonly occurs in alternation with the pointed bowtell it whence would appear to be merely a variety of the latter. left is it may possibly . as well as in making them the die into or spring out of plain surfaces. the earliest may be traced to the obvious propriety of forming sharp and hard edge-lines instead of mere round mem- bers in positions in which. II. So also and the juxtaposition of these two forms may be noticed other instances. Again. the ordinary one throughout the Early English period and the fillet is not often found coincident with either of the other fig. examples are not not intended to wanting in much insist earlier molding . fig. EAELY MOLDINGS IN GENEEAL. has in the central group a filleted roll between two pointed ones. from their distance. the north doorway at Cherry Hinton. Still. The author has devoted considerable pains and attention to the discovery of the true origin of this very important feature. though the first seems the most probable. but without satisfying himself with any of the theories given above. indeed. PL. 8. the addition of fillet presents important advantages in neatness of con- struction.. .

MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. 4. a great depth or extent of molded surfaces and the general arrangein ment in rectangular faces. SECTION V. I. The annexed section will also serve as an illustration of the ordinary forms of Early English moldings.( W/a Early English ^ e sa moldings may Wmit / ' llllllp' ^ *° comP r i se *ne following p V members: \ \ r~\ ~ 4 1. roll-and-fillet. which comprise a great variety of pointed and clustered. llilli^ -. 2. TO DEATH OF HENRY III. The m_™. II. . %'^^^K* hollows an(^' are seldom true circles ^ie ^ e PL. archeS in the choir ° f g^ E ty Cathedral. The plain bowtell or edge-roll. fig. . 1189 TO 1272. isolated. The characteristics of the moldings of this style may be de- fined as deep undercut hollows between prominent members.— 38 . figs. and repeated at certain intervals . would alone be quite sufficient to convey to the eye an idea of the general first is method. they fTjkw |Mj assume a great number of capricious forms. filleted bowtells. Ripen Cathedral. The pointed The bowtell. and are reduced to a scale of half an inch to a foot. The scroll-molding (rare). The the belfry. 5. EARLY ENGLISH MOLDINGS.^ ^ ^^^ graph.arch \at Plymouth. 3. the second the pierEa^English Arch.D. 2 and 3. as shown PL. were taken ^. P roJ ec ting parts. III. FROM THE ACCESSION OF RICHARD A.

fillet. fig. 5. 13. as at Fountains. PL. leaving a more particular investigation to the student's own exertions. 9. which are so capricious as almost to defy any attempt them distinct names and formations. II. roll-and-fillet projecting fig. side has attached (PL. figs. fig. naturally produces. 11 and 13. figs. VII. The other forms to assign chiefly consist of modifications of the roll- and. IV. a. fig. p. the edges being sharp on each side. PL. The ordinary fig. 3. figs. 5. The is roll-and-triple-fillet (PL. 23). a fillet Sometimes only one I. It is illustrated also in Doorway. 39 Angular forms. and ways of that may be found in doorkind in many of our abbeys. It will be right. 12. PL. pier-arches of the choir. It will be observed in PL. A plain bowtell or or roll very often stands forward upon a short ridge neck in Transition moldings. II. PL. Sometimes there are two cut from Ripon. PL. consisting of chamfered ridges and inter- vening projections. this 12).EARLY ENGLISH MOLDINGS. 7. 90 of Professor Willis's " Canterbury " (fig. and fillets. . XVIII. figs. 12. This is of frequent occurrence even in semicir- cular arches. one at the top. suggested. VI. 6. is a form often found in labels. 18 and 19. as in the PL. rence. are varieties of very frequent occur- PL. therefore. 5. of irregular character. fig. in consequence of a slight hollow immediately below. 25 . VII. PL. 8.) much used in the more advanced buildings of the style. as fig. I. V. Fountains Abbey. fig. and therefore probably compound molding. from a ridge (PL. and Ripon Cathedral. each side of which is undercut by a deep hollow. the other on the side. . IV. and was the favourite form during the reigns of the first two Edwards. briefly to point out some of the most com- monly occurring varieties. figs. V. 37). 1. 3.

Fig. figs. which is quite invaluable in showing the curves and geometric formations of early moldings. closely approaches the character of the roll-and-triple-fillet. especially in it clustered piers. as PL.40 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. Lincolnshire. 6. * There lis is See the outline diagrams in sometimes so close a in this complex molding. fig. Fig. somewhat in the form of a fleur-de-lis. fall wholly on the chamferis PL. III. II. An example is given. the latter also illustrates the it as were depressed into the roll. fillet both from Lincoln Minster . we may here observe. 11 is the chancel doorway varieties. 9 is the arch-mold of a double piscina with from Histon. and indeed In some cases any position. fig. If set square on the roll. It may often be found between the detached shafts in of large doorways. IV. Potter's Monastic Remains. in The members plane. as in those to the east of the octagon at Ely. with many minor fig. 1. fig.* form a combination of very frequent occurrence. it 21. that resemblance to the head of a fleur-deit is difficult to disconnect the idea of full size. are examples. But in Early English it is almost always a narrow edge-line. rolls which seldom the case in this Three pointed placed together. 15 is a groin-rib from Furness Abbey. III. fig. 11. as in style. it is generally a sign of early work. PL. and PL. IV. its capital are fragments from Tintern and St. Mary's Fig. 19. PL. where very often occurs. and which every lover of Gothic architecture ought to possess. at Ludborough. XIII. often as it much as three. 4 and 7. varieties of shape. PL. . Tintern Abbey. PL. near Cambridge. It contains an immense number of moldings —a of the finest era and the richest design. V. which shows some other in fact. Northamptonshire. or even four inches. 5 and 6 Abbey. IV. as at Peterborough and Ely. fig. they seem to have been used together with the utmost licence. the combination of the roll-and-fillet having been once suggested. in PL. In Decorated work the fillet became extremely broad. In this case may be said to lose its original character. the one from the other. the beautiful Decorated window-jamb at North- borough. are groin-ribs from Robertsbridge Abbey . 5. York. of work.

fig. haps in an accidental or undeveloped form. engraved in Mr. together with the contiguous sections. 19. 3. or shifted a behind It is almost universally used in the abacus and neck of Decorated capitals. EARLY ENGLISH MOLDINGS. little withdrawn. the outer edge of which overlaps upon the side exposed to view. St. an Early Decorated door- way at Yaxley. It is certain that this form was known and in use even in the pure lancet architecture of 1200-1240. 6. the in Decorated. and in figs. It is represented in PL. bination of the scroll-molding and the PL. It I. PL. PL. fig.. in PL. is It may be described as a cylinder. VII. Here seen the unusual comside-fillet. and that geo- metric accuracy was avoided in a rather remarkable manner the irregular shape. 4 and 9. from proof of this. fig. in respect of size. See PL. An rated. elliptical. and the freely undulating curve. is —the latter an arcade in Lincoln Minster. IV. figs. is a PL. 14. for example.* the sceoll-molding so called from its resemblance to a roll of thick paper. XVII. and composition. important form. IV. perII. generally considered distinctive of Decobut not very is uncommon . Almost every conceivable modifica- tion of the plain roll. Lincoln. the latter in perpendicular. having been commonly preferred. It has been before stated that a great degree of licence is observable in the forms of Early English roll-and-fillet moldings. the under half of which the upper. depressed. XVIII. VIII. might be found and catalogued by a careful observer. fig. * It occurs. 41 The depressed %and elongated forms on each side of first 11 are principally found in later buildings. fig. in advanced Early English work. The presence of the scroll-molding in any approach towards the Geometric age. Bowman's account of that church in his Specimens of Ecclesiastical Architecture. which. grooved at the end. and very often in strings and basemoldings. peaked. represent the jambs of the immense Early Decorated and Geometric windows in the south aisle of Grantham Church. Benet's. Hunts. 11 and 16. in the moldings of the very elaborate triplet at the east PL. fig. elaborate group its marks . also occurs. shape. of end of Castle Eising Church. 6.

Cambridge. line where it most constantly occurs. 5. and. with a long neck it .d. Ha Roche Abbey. as in these examples from Barnwell and Ely. is MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. It left may perhaps be regarded as a it roll-and-fillet with one side sight. The earliest pointed bowtell was simply the new form of the pointed arch used as a molding (as at Roche this and Byland). so as to make it a little sharper. probably from occasionally turning the combination of the two forms. The shadowed edgeroll- was presented by the scroll-molding as well as by the . the rich and circa a. and-fillet and the principles of effect which suggested both Ik. When it worked in with more deeply cut moldings Rivauix. its likeness to from the section of a ship show- ing the form of the keel. 7. as to leave but little doubt on the subject. either because was removed from capitals.42 fig. Antiquaries are not agreed as to the origin of this molding. This form has been called the keel molding. a fragment from Rivaulx Abbey. or afforded a more effective drip in strings and weather- ings. may be traced from one form to the other through such gradual changes. forms are probably identical. ing close to the edge. Ely. we find . but was soon modified by having a slight sinkBarnwell. But it is more probable that It it was derived from the pointed bowtell. exhibits the scroll form on the interior order. Byland. beautifully molded doorway at Northborough. 1270. Fig. stood more isolated. as in uncut.

York. 33). as at fourteenth Elsworth. and Tintern Abbey. from 6. fig. ' llllL 7. as in some of the bases at Tintern Abbey Wm St. anciently or double-ressant. 1 and 10. shadow was desired it but this can hardly be considered as a is to criterion of date. and down century. jjlf 2 . from St.2*| which the pointed bowtell Hil _ Jt* St. from . > \ \aulx Abbey are an early | example. as in 43 PL. how closely allied the two Jj| <Wm forms are. § JSt> r Tintern. and those in the choir arches of Ei' ^^^^^^^k f. J|jj| that the is with- i|» ^ll |j| Ilk drawn surface placed Jm ** Warmington. : . as to the middle of the at Warmington. ™^ uppermost. Northants. XVIII. Cambridge. ^Ujimli' IS jj| ^mm-- The scroll-edge is somein- times. Though the under edge rounded. constitute the ™™ double-ogee. Cambridge. XIV. verted. so that their respective to fillets are at / right angles each other. Elsworth. Hr' ^mBi might naturally be J ° expected. The annexed examples.* —one of the commonest * Professor "Willis says this molding is sometimes called a brace. York. near Cambridge. Two |||L rolls-and-fillets conjoined at their bases. fig. which is a and in this case it will be observed that pairs off with a pointed bowtell. . Northants. show also. (PL. Mary s. figs. as be found both in early work. in a position in P. though so rarely. Michael's. which we immediately obtain the form in regular scroll-molding it . of it is of the scroll-molding is usually frequently to be found cut square where sharpness . as it was called.EAKLY ENGLISH MOLDINGS the edge to one side. Mary's Abbey.

PL. And must be particularly observed as the real division. porch at . The capitals hear the two moldings in question are marked in outline. the inner doorway of the south 12. Proceedings of the Archseological Institute.) . 6. We there find a hollow of three-quarters of a circle. number copy They are by far the most difficult of all to with exactness. Early English arch-moldings are so easy to distinguish all others. intention fig. when does occur. And the same may be constantly observed in the common arrangement PL. from Bottisham. of pure Early English detail. fig.44 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. in which most of the forms already enumerated will be found to recur. 1845." p. II. VII. these hollows its fig. from figs. accurately formed with the compasses. from the irregular and capricious forms of the curves and undercuttings feet across. 3. of the rich and complex examples on a reduced numerous deep and dark hollows constitute the most characteristic difference between the moldings of this and those of the succeeding style. resemblance to a printer's bracket ("History of Winchester Cathedral. But the extravagant is display of deep cavernous undercutting lost in Decorated moldings. Lincolnshire and PL. renders it . or to give a great of examples. that it is not necessary either to say more in explanation of their peculiarities. 1. Deopham fig. and apparently the result of accident it rather than fig. See also PL. is a decorated molding of sufficiently common form the occurrence (as in the belfry shafts archway at Trumpington). IV. 11. as in PL. PL. VI. Cambridgeshire. fig. It is moldings of the Decorated and Perpendicular styles. 2. 17. in the angle of every receding subarch. where the set together so as to which carry the capitals are double-ogee. 60. V. 14 and 15. fig. of Early English and Decorated piers. r-*-N. fig. IV. the west doorway at Hingham. as in PL. Norfolk. the same from Benington. XVII. rare in Early English. is the west doorway of Llandaff Cathedral. often many The an extremely tedious process to draw any scale. which 12. and their great extent. .

and patient labour invariably evinced in the working of Early English moldings. are truly admirable. however It is little it may attract the attention of ordinary observers. the knots of pierced like and hanging leaves extend filigree some petrified garland or bower of work round the and almost There are arch. The exquisite skill. and the minuteand show a ness with which even the most concealed and darkened parts were executed. and in correcting this Still. an Early English doorway is often a wonderful piece of art. taste. as if they had overgrown their original and proper limits. to admire the floriated boss and the foliaged capital intruding their luxuriance upon the moldings and hollows. of the orders of moldings when they all lie 45 on the chamfer-plane. tendency the Decorated moldings were developed. most pleasing to notice the long trails of dog-tooth . love for the art above the sordid considerations of cost. How beautifully. The Decorated hollows English .EARLY ENGLISH MOLDINGS. dividing the plainer moldings into groups. are circumstances of much interest. The ingenuity that was never at a loss in any difficulty of finish or constructive irregularity. imparting life and vegetation to the very stones ! abundance of doorways of this style which exhibit the most . minimum The deepest hollows are church as all as cleanly and perfectly cut details . as the village most prominent and conspicuous and in the much so as in the most glorious cathedral. that in the Decorated they divide groups. lurking in the dark furrow of a label or chancelled recess see the end of to some inconvenient member got where it rid of by throwing a flower across the point suddenly stops or dies into the wall . too. in the Early English individual members. But there was evidently a feeling that the designs had become weakened by the use of a large number of small members of much the same size massed together so that the eye did not readily distinguish the different groups. are usually of larger size than the Early and there is this general difference in their use.

t the southern fig. accompanying illustration * This and trations of that church. or rather across. 2. both on a an inch to one Fig. is from the east window of Castle Kising Church. In the very beautiful Priory. II. PL. whose arch-moldings extend The west fronts of several . triplet of the Eefectory an arch-mold from the choir of Ripon Minster. delightful varieties in their forms always. t From 10 from the same. yet never." These latter examples (6. nail-head as the by cutting incisions on side. Weale's Quarterly Papers. II. and groupings . . a doorway in the cloisters at Peterborough fig.of our cathedrals have Early English doorways of amazing magnificence. Fig.46 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. often of different sizes. a doorway immediately opposite. Norman each shows. fig. would be 3. fig. Some examples occur at Bolton and Furness five or six feet in width. 7. the Chapter The entrance doorway of example of the House at Lichfield is a very fine molding of this style.* fig. 5 is a ruined doorway at Bivaulx Abbey. shape and planes of projection. 6 foot. Many trails of the more elaborate groups of Early English moldings contain several successive of this decoration.' Abbeys. But almost every cathedral and every it ruined abbey will supply good specimens. Vol. fig. 9 is borrowed from Brandon's " Analysis of Gothic Architecture. Bowman's illus- . is Plate XVIII. a is west doorway at Binham the curious variety of dog-tooth set in hollows of such depth. 10) show the method of insert- ing the tooth ornament in. 8. molding is The of an evident development f^plll|| Dog-tooth. so that useless to multiply illustrations. the same. are taken from Mr. PL. Norfolk. in the south scale of half aisle of the nave. from Beaulieu Abbey. 7. hollows. that the eye cannot tooth the \\\/^j§ i/^jilfjJ! | fathom the point of attachment. . VIII.

much greater geometrical precision observed in drawing both the hollows and the may be projecting mem- bers than prevailed in the preceding style. met with of much earlier or later date expected from other characteristic marks in the building and there are not a few instances in which. And this may be done with a considerable it degree of certainty by practice and attention. and the size of the . with the addition of some new members. and. so that. 1272-1377. this science does not appear capable of more than general treatment .DECORATED MOLDINGS. DURING THE REIGNS OF THE FIRST THREE EDWARDS. as it were. The eye must be familiarized to the profile and general appearance of moldings of different dates. Generally. 47 SECTION VI. DECORATED MOLDINGS. and several important modifications of grouping. The student will bear in mind that the details of Decorated moldings are in great measure identical with those of the preceding style. without the aid of such marks. will be And effect. it would be impossible to say whether a molding is of the fourteenth or the fifteenth century. may discern at a glance the style to which any example belongs. the latter found to produce an entirely different though in description the distinction may appear very trifling. it analyzing the group. are Sometimes moldings than we should have . without dismembering. then. though there is quite enough of uniform system to enable us to apprehend the broad distinctive principles which obtained in the different periods. In fact. of examining the separate details. though can hardly be asserted that all the differences of style admit of being reduced to unvarying and infallible rules.

is members somewhat larger. and wide shallow casements of the Perpendicular period. XVII. very slightly from those of pure Early English so slightly. Rich Decorated moldings are of rather rare occurrence. Early English arch-moldings have sometimes a monotonous effect. irregular. effect. but also in kind . bowtells. which brought about the surrender of the its and many varieties. that these moldings took the characteristic turn roll-and-fillet.48 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. rated moldings is essentially different. great A many of the finest buildings in this style scarcely afford as good examples of molding as small and humble churches of the Early English age. that frequently the . Segments of circles. and. 10 in fact. secondly. only just enough is hollowed away at the sides to develop the outline. first. It was not until the Flowing. the moldings of arches and jambs . In the Geometric-Decorated age (that first in the reign of the differ two Edwards). and fanciful members. in size. little : as possible. 3. an avoid- ance of strong and violent contrasts of light and shade. for the ogees.). and there was a softness of blending. 2. Very often plain chamfers are used in . though much less striking. and there parts. 9. The reason is. Now the composition of Deco- roii-and-fiiiet.Decorated era (that is. so that tbe entire group looks like a mere alternation of dark and \ light. numerous members do not vary materially in size . during the reign of Edward III. a delicacy and gentleness of grouping. is. were much used. which imparted a more pleasing. both concave and convex. is no extravagant isolation of small and unimportant undercutting The roll-and-fillet is formed with as figs. as in PL. indeed. For the not only do the members vary deep hollows are principally confined to the inner angles. which is but imperfectly remedied by the free use of quaint. repeated with little change several Ww§ Decorated Jill times over. I between two deep hollows. that each stands WgUm. that they cannot alone be taken as decisive of this or that date.

outer surface of the wall. VII. is one degree richer than this. the sunk and the hollow chamfer of two or more orders. while minor parts. 19. entirely omitted. These are : m ><. which. without any edge-lines to relieve them. 20. Trumpington. sedilia. as it were. so that the jamb-moldings are. PL. which Decorated may generally be referred it though there are many examples which difficult might be to assign to any one of them. and windows. and separated from or recessed behind it only by a single order with a plain or hollow chamfer. the plain chamfer of two orders perhaps most commonly found. ever rich their tracery may be. a window at Hingham. Norfolk. doorways. such as bases. 5) is Windows how- especially are often singularly meagre in their moldings. doorways. capitals. and pier-arches . * In the churches of Norfolk and Suffolk this is the rule. sepulchral recesses.— DECORATED MOLDINGS. indeed. as figs. It is in this kind of work that style. fig. two orders being intro- duced in the monial. and the like. The monials stand near the PL. and the east window at so. for the best moldings in the Decorated In arches. and stopping short of that ulterior process. There appear to be three moldings distinct kinds to . the monials and tracery often consist of merely chamfered planes.: a The plain. exception. have fine and elaborate details. I. we must look (PL. 1. form only a step preparatory to molding. though of equally plain character. all 49 the windows. the tracery of good Decorated windows stands quite flush with the wall. VII. properly speaking.* And again. fig. from the scarcity of stone in those parts. fig. Frequently. 20 and 21. and not the i E .

" The plain or hollow chamfer is extremely common style. 16. The wave -I ^Bllfe this style.-. 12. the Early English method. molding. PL. twenty-three inches. in kind. three-quarter hollow. 11. figs. fig. described in : —" A Thus PL. bined. roses. VII. c — the belfry-arch at Deopham. fig. 9. Their distinctive peculiarity con- in the repetition of the same members varieties fig. And as they rarely occupy it any other position than the chamfer-plane. is similar ^%?v. divided by three-quarter hollows all lying in the chamfer-plane of 43° . ornamental leaf-work disposed at regular inter- . and PL. 8. 4. might be double-ogee order between .. and both of these are exceedingly It is not common moldings in unusual to find these two varieties comfig. Norfolk. 14. are sometimes intermixed. them as virtually the plain chamfered edges of class their flat sists slightly relieved from and naked form. i ''[ . In such cases there are often trails of ball-flowers. effect. 12 a door- — way 3. is either left solid. 6. PL. or have no imposts or jamb-shafts). or other quatrefoil paterae. A succession of double ogees. Ely. or quarter-circles. in each order. other words thus of the chamfer 11. VI. XVII. II. divided by hollows of three- quarters of a circle. Mary's. VI. total width across. in the Early Decorated The inner angle which divides the orders (and which has been called the re-entering angle). or cut into a deep Of this latter arrangement. nearly resembling. in principle and arrangement. in all jambs and archways (especially if they be continuous. V. as figs. as in diagrams PL. two hollow chamfer orders. with hollows between each member. as we have observed.50 2. seems proper to regard 1. Koll-and-fillet moldings. it which pro- duces a very bold and good might be difficult to name a better example than the west doorway of St. though. MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. PL. at Attleborough. Here the chamfers are hollow. as in Norfolk.

VII. 10 is H/ . and the neck single is wider from the hollows between the less deeply undercut. PL. a doorway at Burfield. Eutland. 3. PL. Sometimes moldings of are combined with those of the third. VII. vals. but not always. DECORATED MOLDINGS. of Bolton Abbey. the priest's door at Hingham. fig. fig. over. 3. Early English and the Decorated In the later style the fillet "is broader.£/h from the beautiful Decoi-ated archway of the south porch at Over. XX. PL. bridge. Cambridgeshire. XVII. fig. VI. of this second kind. the chancel door at Willingham. 8. a many informs a member of very monument in the choir In large size. Norfolk . 1. The second kind style . PL. not set square on the roll. 2 . PL. and it is perhaps the most perfect and beautiful of is. Suffolk. XX." 7. is generally. 15. as in the west at Trumpington Church. early in the all.. . 7. There however. While moldings of the second kind are generally borne by b 2 . Church. a perceptible difference in the shape of the roll-and-fillet. and the gently bulging ogee Je t e 00 ate d F 1 curvature predominates throughout. The members doorway fig. 12. fig. Fig. is generally one fl member "of the group. fig. stances the roll-and-fillet as PL. a window-jamb. figs. . . the roll-and-triple-fillet. is in this case usually fall in squares (that on the wall-planes and soffit-planes in succession). 10. 11. XVII. PL. fig. ranged upon rectangular lines. dtjyjjk members. being The ar- capricious and irregular forms of the earlier style are no longer found. from Grantham this class "wll window-jamb. V. fig. as PL. is Fig. are all a monument is. VII. from the south porch of Bottisham Church. near Cambridge fig. 17. V. 51 and repeated in rows in two or more of the chamfers. ham. 8 . See PL. near CamFig. 5 is from a doorway at Langof the Geometric age. at Boston. and PL.

This is properly the character of the ogee itself. at Attleborough. XVII. are seldom found in ancient moldings. Exceptions. now engaged and jamb-shafts. as in the Early English style (though in. ascertained by measuring the two Sometimes the group appears to have been designed on the principle of a series of squares. as a roll-and-fillet. PL. fig.— 52 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. fig. where they constantly occur. the untouched portions of the rectangular nook) almost invariably stand at right angles with each other." p. as seen in PL. Sometimes a fig. Moldings are either simple or compound. fig.e. the chamfer-plane that is.* except in pier-arches. VII. " Analysis of Gothic Architecture. which is formed by a segmental inward curve conjoined continuously with a similar outward * In doorways the moldings borne by the jamb-shafts always lie on the rectangular planes. that if the sides of the re-entering is angle are equal. It is not uncommon one member of a double ogee considerably larger than the It other. must be particularly observed that in the third class of fillets Deco- rated moldings the on each side of the three-quarter hollows (i. 12. 68. the angle of the chamfer-plane sides of the central nook. 3. A compound molding either composed of . PL. it the diagonal of a square. VII. 4. is a pier-arch at Trumpseries ington . is A simple molding a plain single form. the wall). such as PL. two or more distinct parts. the principle of which is shown at PL. of four or five of these together. one at Hingham. fig. So. Thus. 3. 3. 2. in which case they are stopped by the capitals. complete in itself. as a bowtell or threeis quarter round. V. a. gives a very to find deep and rich effect to a doorway. those which are continuous on the chamfer-planes. fig. in forms an angle of 45°. V. and not detached from. We may further observe on PL. VII. as PL. fig. those of the first third are almost always continuous. VI. 3. is PL. . VI. a double ogee or involves a profile of reflex or double curvature. Norfolk. the west doorway fig. or those of one order of different size from the others..

" § 16. being simply somewhat less undercut. as PL. 17. * Professor "Willis calls this the stuelled the term ivave to the ogee. PL. and in PL. or later Decorated. The latter is not improbable on the analogy of the earlier and later (that is. . The formation of this detail may the be traced either to ordinary edge-roll Tib \M Triply filleted roll. forming a central . c. 333. |_ It composed of two ogee curvatures. XXIV. chamfer. sometimes projecting forward beyond the edges.* figs. the square fillet. It occurs in \~] the sedilia at Elsworth Church. 18.shaft into a rectangular nook. and elsewhere. 17. the form is shown in the accom- panying outline sometimes found. IV. and rounded) forms of the roll-and- Indeed. near Cambridge. 10.. to which era its use was principally confined. Scarcely any method of molding is and so common in. considered as undeveloped.DECORATED MOLDINGS. the other half being . 9. or to the Sll Edge-roll. quently occurs with a hollow between. from represented in is its gently undulating outline. Varieties of wave . bourhood of Oxford. Halt roll-andfillet. PL.molding . 53 Of the same kind is a very important and universal called the Decorated form. this style. the edges at the points of junction being rounded instead of sharp and abrupt. especially of the Flowing. but usually in the same plane with them. curve." from Garsington Church ._ bulge or entasis. " Buildwas of Potter's Abbey" English). Inigo Jones applied See "Architectural Nomenclature. which may be compound ogee. half of a triply filleted roll. several (Early There are modifications of it. or merged in the block or to the insertion of a quarter. or so It fre- characteristic of. fig. VII. fig. or the It is wave-molding. VII. and is represented in the " Guide to the Neighp. 19.

Isle of Ely. 1 and 2. PL. surface b. V. flat fig. VII. and PL. 50. fig. much more in default common in Decorated work. uncut on each side. circa 1240. in an archway at Croxden Abbey. sunk between two raised fig. It is also wider is. a. 17. and the central entasis less is so faint bulging. It will be seen that the early form involves the equilateral. a window-jamb from This appears to Quy Church. near Camhave arisen from cutting down to an end of the angle. fig. and shallower in early than in late work . 3. as the edges PL. By cutting the central hollow an angle (as shown in the shaded part). are either sharp. and in the east window of the south aisle at Bottisham. that the side hollows are less deep.54 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. 11 PL. the wavy line as to fig. It may be called down a double wave-molding. the latter in Perpendicular. 13. bridge. Another variety is shown in PL. 5. 16. of other proofs. V. XIX. a very good specimen engraved in the " Oxford Guide. Cambridgeshire. be scarcely different from the plain chamfer. fig. left fig. This molding occurs in the Decorated belfry- arch at Stretham. It is not of is may be termed common occurrence the . XIX.* Sometimes. 2. indeed. The former It most common in so Decorated. 8. It is generally a mark of Transition to Perpen- A rare to form is exhibited in PL. fig. or there is a small width of as the chamfer-plane . VII. 281. And sometimes we lowest order of find nothing more than a VII. in the form approximating to the outline diagram in p. In this the concaves is is are sometimes slightly undercut. VII. the later the obtuse triangle. . that this form was not unknown in Early English architecture. XX. edges. a double ogee would be the result. XIX. PL." p. figs. 16. Cambridgeshire. figs. be taken as a presumptive evidence of the style. and the sunken This very chamfer. fig. 23. as PL. XX. See PL. It is clear from PL. dicular. that its occurrence may. one member. instead of scooping out in an ogee curve. from Headington Church. a doorway from Landbeach case Church. The formation is shown in PL. It also occurs. 1. * fig.

DECORATED MOLDINGS. is found in Decorated work. is (fig. The ogee molding difficult to it is is a form its so extensively used. In fig. it seems extremely to decide how form was introduced from' this or that suggestion. in England at whatever may be the case in the Komanesque edifices in other countries. scarcely. 11 . occurs in least. PL. it actually corresponds to a perfect roll-and-fillet in the ^ monial. the always suggests to . mind the idea of one side of a roll-and-fillet the convex portion being much larger than the concave. 2). 10. is . XVI. 3 being the fall same church. XVII. from the north porch of Bottisham Church. this latter case. where. in Classic be regarded literally as half of that member. as PL. however. fig. the earliest But in forms would be found of Classic character with actually trace the its large concave portion. 1. if ever. 9. whenever the ogee occurs in Decorated moldings. of course. or short the rectangular plane. because they would otherwise have been too large. figs. so common part identical form with this difficult of a monial far the 3). or a roll-and-fillet. style Its occasional appearance in the Early English it is has been already mentioned. between two wave-mold- ings. Since. that it might be supposed was thence imported into the Gothic. VII. the quirked ogee (see edifices. 2. 2. the rolls-and-fillets within. general the ogee easily and leading curve is so In respect of its origin.. of. from the outer archway of the south porch inner) of the (fig. It is believed that the ogee Norman architecture. Cambridgeshire fig. formation whereas the we can roll-and- gradual from . PL. however. It should be especially noted that it very sparingly used. it prevalent in the Classic styles. 55 A plain bowtell. in In its most ordinary position a window-jamb. that its almost impossible to do more than point out characteristics. and so explain fully in origin and varied relations. in fig. were there not abundant opportunities of self-development presented by the varieties of the roll-and-fillet. and here it must.

therefore. PL. 5. are the principal forms found in : Decorated moldings 1. is The bowtell. Roll-and-triple-fillet. So also PL. a very fine fig. but rather sparingly.— . l*^ 7. 14. The following. rather it than refer to an imitation of uncongenial Classic details. it was extremely common in Perpendicular. in which the bowtell occupy- ing the centre forms an engaged shaft. . and PL. PL. Norfolk. at PL. fig. and the hollow gradually gaining in importance in later work so that for it would not perhaps be saying too much to vindicate Gothic architecture the self-development of the ogee. . 8. fig. Norfolk . When this is the case. in Decorated work. and perhaps it is not of sufficiently frequent occurrence to render a particular term desirable. circa 1360—80. VII. <mm ^ m I ' 5^m : I «jj . 16. This detail is the most usual in Transition to Perpendicular. 9. / gjj • jflnP 2. Ogee and fillet. 6. or three-quarter round. VI. Norfolk . fig. fig. date. or swelled chamfer. fig. name to the form shown in PL. It is difficult to give a fig. MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. 4. a fragment from Rivaulx Abbey. VII. or double ressant. 8 6 - Scro11 molding. 13. fig. a door- way at Deopham. VII. 14. and PL. Other minor varieties might be added of forms which are principally found in Decorated work. is a doorway of Transition Swanton Morley. ti^k. Rife The roll-and-fillet. Plain or hollow chamfer. V. a window Hing- ham. VII. &^m^W _ Vi Double ogee. or ressant lorymer. Wave-molding. 56 fillet. VI. Sunken chamfer. as PL. 2. archway at at Hardingham. Sometimes a semicircle sunk in the chamfer-plane is found. V. 18. b. having at first the roll the predominant portion. used.

Thus the outer edge represents the actual profile of the jamb. to detail of Decorated moldings of the second See also PL.' 9. from Stoke Golding. 4.the fig. and so that. II. is a sure indication of approach to Perpendicular. 1. is .3. When a window has primary and secondary monials. a window at Fen Stanton. VI. the monial-members may be represented by lines across. figs. as in PL. V. VI. 5. for jamb . position with the sunken semicircle. parallel with the wall-plane. a small tongue- shaped member projects from the inner side of the principal roll-and-fillet. 3. The moldings course.* Sometimes the bowtell seen in juxtafigs. extremely fig. fig. PL. fig. inner jamb 14. In PL. A combination in common in labels and capitals is shown PL. of the east window at Heckington PL. 15. as in figs. But the plain roll appears in PL. This occurs also in jambs and arches. 1. fig. as being identical in detail. of members constituting the separate sub-arches for the face of the smaller * All the examples in PL. fig. which this example belongs. may of course be also taken to represent one side of the monials. V. VI. is 5. the group . 1. VII. 5. are Late Decorated. 6. . This should be noticed as a very characteristic class. 48. V. 4. V. show the method are. as merged into one another. coincident in every part of the tracery in the corresponding parts or planes of the and monials. except in very advanced work. figs. XVII. The occurrence of the small three-quarter round.DECORATED MOLDINGS the fillet 57 is seldom wanting. and PL. which. fig. PL. 14. the fig. V. is part of a window in the chancel at Boston . . PL. all of which are late in the style. same 15. architects generally in these examples. Leicestershire. it is obvious that they carry distinct planes or orders of moldings. of of principal and secondary monials. XVI. draw double monials. 14. Yet these orders are not always of the same nature as those we have before described as such —namely. as PL. 1. 5. In drawing the section of a window- jamb. shortness' sake.

The plane the monial in which the outer moldings of the jamb lie is seldom coincident. follow the principle of continuous archways. bat this point must be See PL. the second- '<fm W l < ary a single shaft. attended to in copying moldings. 5 PL. falls monial often within or behind that of the larger only by a single retiring step. with that on which members are arranged. for this would in most cases give too great thickness to the monials themselves. doorways. but different members of it.. it stilted bases in the jamb. . 58 -MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. or fig. In Decorated windows the face of the monials flat is generally roll- edge or is fillet . !i mary monials j carry a triple. as in the last example. as has small at the west end of King's College Chapel. but in round. In these cases the moldings tracery t of the ^^'IjIf Sleaford. they are different in section above the Ordinary windows. especipri- when the < 1 ' JJ M y / - '. 14. 8. on the other hand. follow the *' common law of pierarches and shafted . VIII. that is. XX. Thus. the slope or inclination of which must of course be the same on both sides of each aperture or light. This produces a very fine ally effect. VI. is The difference of inclination sometimes very slight. . Wells Cathedral. some and early is examples a molding carried all furnished with is small in bases resting on the cill. . both the monials combined carry (properly speaking) the same order. capitals. member of a group. a fig. in PL. This roll-tracery very common Perpendicular windows and sometimes. carefully fig. Many Decorated windows have shafts in the jambs and monials both internally and externally.

The interior arch. 2. and the effect is remarkably at Fig. Fig. character of these two examples is rather late . Willis's " Architectural * Called anciently. There fig. The labels or hood-moldings of the date of Edward I. because a strong presumption of coeval date is thence to be derived. of Early English and Geo- metric windows generally borne by a shaft. 1 and 10. as in PL. ture.* except in very Shafts. the soffit at a. not only in the same church. 7 from a monument at Boston. Norfolk. or is 59 rear-rib. and fig 13. 5 is the interior of a window jamb Sleaford. The and they are wiry and poor in their effect. 4 is is the inner doorway of the south porch at Boston. fig. though of rather late Decorated date. from being cut away too deeply and widely from the block surface. betraying the hand of the same This resem- blance should always be attended to. 8. a close resemblance in the a composition of this and of 1. And monuments especially it is were so often inserted subsequently. that to very important compare their moldings with other parts of the same church. sunk in the Hingis surface of the wall. are often undercut by a three-quarter circle. monument artist. and II. Fig. the north doorway at ham . figs. the rear-shaft. 57. doorways at Little Ellingham. in these styles. VI. Nomencla- . PL. is a doorway at Great Ellingham. V. 6. measures three soffit. windows St. at Hardingham. and the south choir-aisle of St. The aisles and clerestory in the nave of Alban's Abbey. in fact. Mary's Church. plain and inexpensive buildings. VI. It closely resembles PL." p. fig. It This latter example un- usually bold and deep. feet across from outer face of the label to the fine. afford most beautiful instances of shafted window- . but in the neighbouring edifices.DECORATED MOLDINGS. 4 is the molding of the pier-arches in the same church. Stafford. Fig. fig. of unusual and decidedly early character. form a very essential part in the composition of the more elaborate. in the same church.

a good and effective composition. The roll-and-triple-fillet produces a fine effect in moldings of this cate. 8 the interior of a window-jamb at Heckington. the south doorway at Langtoft. 23. is . the precinct. is an archway in the cloisters at Peterborough. or Ketton. . Fig.* PL. Fig. * This example is badly copied. It is taken from Yaxley. fig. Its edge-lines are sharp and deli- and the profile beautifully relieved it is by the deep side- hollows with which necessarily connected. Lincolnshire. V. Fig. V. 9 common is plan of a Decorated window. 12 11. Fig. XX. fig. a Decorated window from the chancel Lincolnshire. and is 10 the exterior of the same. immediate neighbour.a 60 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. the celebrated This molding is Andrew's. 21 is a window from the Decorated chancel at Keddington. borough. near Market Deeping. 22. at Over. Lincolnshire its a noble structure. to illustrate the difference in appearance exists between the same molding exhibited in section and in elevation. Suffolk. 16. Abbey. Thurlby. 4. 10 is from Clipsham. and must not be depended upon. Fig. Kutland — window which elegantly enriched by a trail of ball-flowers in is the hollow chamfer of the outer order. shown which in perspective. Peterborough is an effective decorated group. 7. Fig. Fig. is the outer archway of the west entrance to . a groin-rib from Rivaulx . VII. Lincolnshire. is the interior of a window-jamb at Bennington. 5. from Horbling. a very fig 8. PL. fig. Lincolnshire. which almost rivals St. Hunts. PL. in Decorated This also is is a very common form windows. with double jamb-shafts. PL. the molding at the angle of a piscina. a fine doorway from West Keal fig. 13 is one side of the belfry-arch at West Keal. Fig. HeckingIt is ton. style. from a fine Decorated tomb at Ewerby Church. 15. fig. 13 from the outer porch doorway at North- Fig. fig. fig.

from the accession of richard a. Large and coarse members. which a marked is feature of the Perpendicular period. . 1485. wide and shallow hollows. gives a flatness which unpleasing to the eye in comparison with the rectangularly recessed grouping of the two preceding styles. that the student must be careful not to slur predilection over. in indulging any he may have formed for earlier work. there work of it is such a mass of really high art in the this period. cutting channels that the moldings are developed from it Three peculiarities are so * This might fairly be divided by the student into Perpendicular and Tudor. and general shallowness of cutting. perpendicular moldings. The mold- ings of this style frequently die into a basement composed of the simple - uncut in chamfer plane. Vicar's Close. that their general arrangeis ment on the chamfer-plane. ii.. with little of minute and delicate detail. 61 SECTION VII.* 1377 to 1546. commencing the latter with the reign of Henry VII. occupying spaces filled which. in early work.d. debasing influence will at once In the moldings of this style a be perceived in the comparatively meagre save-trouble method of working them. which case the outer edges of each molding of course coincide with it. would have been separate moldings . since it is only by Fireplace. with groups of hard wiry edges in place of rounded and softened forms. Add to these. are all con- spicuous characteristics. to death of henry viii. Wells.PERPENDICULAR MOLDINGS. At the same time.

or hollow. PL. 11. The constant use circle. 2. G2 common 1. the ends are sharp and angular. The casement alluded by which width it is to may undoubtedly be regarded as an elongation or extension of the Decorated three-quarter hollow. and sometimes. VIII. and PL. It is very common XX. however. compares the three plates of Decorated moldings. the most frequent are those represented in PL. 2 and 15. . The bowtell will be observed in every example given in some form or other in almost PL. perhaps generally. The frequency and some varieties of it peculiar to the period. that their absence almost forms the exception to general Tisage. and equal to about one-third of the width 2. fig. and often used as such of the double ogee. VIII. in the chancel of figs. 3. fig. 4. 16. VIII. — MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. 14. of late when wide and shallow. Cambridge. John's College. as in PL. Of many forms which the casement assumes. of bowtells. as PL. The latter result may be observed in the windows of St. Accordingly. sunken but little below the chamfer-plane. 14. The three-quarter hollow also occurs in this style. XX. figs. so stretched as to become flat surface. resembling small shafts. as seen in PL. fig. a window Grantham Church. 3. and PL. and in those of the older portions of St. or external line of the group. IX. he will per- ceive the importance of assigning this feature as a peculiarity . and IX. of three-quarters of a 3. figs. 13. or beads. and if the student . usually occupying the centre of the group. Botolph's Church. fig. it is.. Frequently. These are : A wide shallow casement. to find one or both ends of the hollow returned in a kind of quasi-bowtell. is gained at the sacrifice of depth. Church. IX. in Perpendicular moldings. in the same group with the great casement or central hollow. VIII. or PL. the arch-mold of the nave of Lancaster fig. IX. and of debased when almost or quite a as it were. of early Perpendicular generally a is mark work when the casement deep and narrow. 10.

* fillet c . . fig. 5. 7. Other varieties. * This is one of the commonest and most decisive combinations in Perpendicular moldings. 3. are the double ogee with a bowtell in the centre. 10. and especially the \-/ Perpendicular members. an ogee combined with a quarter-circle. 9 . it . 13. 11 and 12. where the depth of the hollows generally conclusive. For whereas the Decorated ogee. . in than in Decorated moldings. 3. IX. figs. 6. as PL. VIII. PL. both from Bolton Abbey fig. an ogee with a small bead or figs. figs. as PL. as departure 5 but this a from the usual practice. 10. fig. 63 In PL. figs. 8. fig. forming a section more like the letter S— see PL. formed from a plane by sinking a channel on each PL. 1. 17 . of the Perpendicular. an ogee with a bowtell forming one side of the great casement. IX. as in — all contain examples of the cylindrical bowtell. 1. at the base. peculiar to the style. All these may be considered as dis- tinctive criteria of the style. PL. XVI. way in the choir of : Grantham Church and a "doorway in Ripon Minster. fig. . fig. always represents the profile of the half of a roll-and-fillet. as before stated. near Camhridge . It is often side. Occasionally fig. fig. 5. XX. the earlier ib* -^^ vm J||lllllS> form. the Perpendicular appears rather to be composed of a semicircular hollow continued in a bowtell. 16. XX. from a small doorfig. The double ogee the form which is much more common There is in Perpendicular difference. VIII.PERPENDICULAR MOLDINGS. 4 and 5. IX. figs. figs. western doorway at Newtown Church. double ogee. it some assumes in the later style. stands like is an excrescence on the surface of a plane. a small double bowtell forms the central member. b. PL. IX. from Rivaulx Abbey Fig. and the combination exhibited in is 15. ings. as well as from the true principle of moldings. However. too. the . 6. is extremely com- mon in Perpendicular moldin j OP fig. u. 10 and 14 PL.

Sometimes we the roll-and-triple. one of the late Gothic. 16. PL. is very rare in this style it is shown in and it The absence of the roll-and-fillet. of the bowtell mold. The pointed fig.* 10 and 11. it usually springs from the capital of a small bowtell. The form represented in outline in the preceding woodcut is It occurs in Early found in all the styles. the figure Early Other two. prevalent in it style. however. 21. IX. ways and windows. 7. it is size in Perpendicular arch-moldings.. A roll-and-fillet between two ogees II. fig. this is The form of the roll-and-fillet. that of the diagram between figs. window-jamb from the south . VIII. Transition period. 3. XX. that is. other corrupted varieties 16.V Ijjp grams the upper English. In PL. fig. fig.fillet in a debased form as in 'Ijjljl' fig. . with in a the roll or bowtell plain and not filleted. capitals. except in a very corrupted form. properly a late Decorated combination. doorway at Fountains Abbey. however. it in fact. a doorway from Bolton Abbey. exhibited in In the annexed diarepresents the V'^. fillet will of the ogee curve and be found to follow the rules laid down. as in 14 PL. . varieties of the Per- pendicular roll-and-fillet. English work. is also jBjlllI Jjjjl peculiar to the style it is much used in basefind ment moldings and PL. 13. are Two fig. PL. usually rather of dooris small. IP Cambridgeshire. The double ogee is sometimes of large and clumsy In Decorated. was not extensively used. 64 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. near Cambridge. 9. of the before 1400. as in aisle PL. in which. A half roll-and-fillet a frequently occurs. the inner doorway of it is the south porch at Great Shelford. VIII. IV. . the breadth of the The shape. the belfry arch at Haslingfield. VII. 3. When' most remarkable -features in the moldings of the does occur. fig. of the nave at Eipon Cathedral bowtell * is. The debased form fig. and is principally confined to the outer members PL. fig.

PL. IX. however. 65 occurs in the aisle windows at the west end of St. encroaches so is left for much upon the group that room more than a double ogee on the outside" of : and the monial-members on the inside — by which term those moldings of the coincide with the monials.PERPENDICULAR MOLDINGS. 6 F . though the tracery is generally set deeper in the wall than in the preceding style. which form groups of considerable delicacy. is from the west doorway style. represents the almost universal plan of Perpendicular windows. illus- 12 and 18. Saham Toney . are taken from different churches. But the great casement. comprising the first order. especially in earlier examples. to arrest our attention and add to our store of knowledge. near Stamford. without any casement in the angle. we find the double ogee and the monial-members occupying the next. early in the Fig. VIII. in the from the east window same county fig. 4 from Fishtoft. PL. to be said remains on this part of the subject. 5 is . 2 is the same. at Leverton. offer nothing while in the two pre- ceding styles there is ever something singular. or hollow. Lincolnshire. VIII. for many points may be found. 12. from Fig. a larger space is available for the pur- pose. 1. Rich and good Perpendiconsisting cular moldings are not very common. or beautiful. jamb fig. consequently. which either novel or interesting to the view .. fig. Stamford. externally. Window-moldings are usually extremely meagre. But Perpendicular work is by no means to be despised. PL. Having pointed out these facts (which deserved to be regislittle tered as essential and characteristic differences).. little it. fig. or ingenious in the treatment of the moldings. Norfolk. at Uffington. most examples but of three or four very ordinary members. Fig. and trate the remarkable uniformity which prevailed in the use of moldings. 3 the same. from the isolated tower at Dereham. such as the jamb-shafts in deeply recessed doorways. are meant which Sometimes. John's Church. and. figs.

" figs. 5 is from a pier-arch in the noble church of fig. 3 the same from St. Cambridge fig. are borrowed from the " Churches 11 and 16. 9 from an oriel window fig. 17 a pier-arch from Holy Trinity. . 14 from a niche Great Gransden. and fig. 18 the same from Long Melford.* fig. fig. Stamford. is from the east window of . Rutland. 15 the east window at . Albans. IX. 20 the pier-arches of the same church. from the examples given. 7 from Louth. VIII. a window-jamb. 13 the belfry-arch at Haslingfield . 12 a window of . Hampshire form . fig. that in It also appears. 1. fig. . fig. 17 a doorway. 12 from the south Choir Chapel. 8 and 10. more or less fig. near Cambridge . at Grantchester fig." figs. John's Church. 6 the west doorway. . fig. fig. 66 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. while it is seldom undefinable in Decorated moldings. fig. from Byhall. Martin's. from Histon. . All Saints . Yorkshire. The two moldings. the " Analysis of Gothic Architecture. 13 at an arch in Sepulchre's Church St. coln fig. fig. common fig. St. Martin's. Skirlaugh. PL. fig. 16 from Great Shelford Colchester . . an angle of 45° and that occasionally. 4 from the Bede House in that town fig. fig. both doorways fig. Fig. and of Yorkshire. many cases the chamfer-plane is either . from Partney fig. Stamford . 16 from St. fig. near Stapleford. fig. . fig. and . near Cambridge St. a window. Lincoln Cathedral . Suffolk fig.. 15 a molding of constant occurfig. tban 11. Stamford . fig. 21 from Louth. 7 a window. 19 a doorway at St. fig. . 14 the south 18 doorway rence . 8 is from the chancel door at fig. 9 the north doorway at Harlton. fig. near Neots . 2 the west doorway of the same . 8 from in Lin- Stewton. . 10 the east window at Chesterton. 10 the south doorway. Brandon's excellent work. 11 from Basingstoke. two parallel planes are taken * for the basis of the arrangement. near Cambridge Skirlaugh. It will be observed that the distinction of the orders is often completely lost in this style. as PL. fig. from Messrs. The former has large sculp- tured paterae in the central casement.

and in author. the annexed cut. In the annexed example from p 2 . and probably the **^ll \:lass and actual effect. of base. as. Norfolk. This may be illustrated by 8 or by PL. the variation of the same feature. 76. In early work the jamb shafts carrying their is frequently formed with detached these capitals elaborate own capitals. figs. 1845. in the arch-jamb of a doorway or window. 3. i'tafto itt ' One principle of composition may sometimes be This is traced in moldings.PERPENDICULAR MOLDINGS. GranteTeste^ch^b Ki«. many other accounts of cathedrals by the same The question of composition involves that of the grouping of molding. capital. the centre being U|| occupied by a different one. Students of the present subject will find a very valu- able series of illustrations West doorway. always produces a very unsatisfactory result to the eye which desiderates the idea of perfect and substantial support. or of the arch and column in an arcade. especially in late ones. and archx molds of the three styles in pp. Overstrand. with a repetition of the same the custom of ending members which commenced the group. An The ° instance may be noticed in the west w window of Grantchester Church. IX. of weakening the jamb." published by the Archaeological Institute. This is a great fault. 77 of Professor Willis's " Architectural History of Win- chester Cathedral. The casement is 67 sometimes so extravagantly hollowed as to give the appearance. and on arch moldings are often arranged. for instance. 6.

. Even in this case the chamfer forming the inner member close to the Priests' door. In this example the square of the stone out of which moldings cut is the are dis- tinctly seen. and it will be noticed that the fore- most of the angles jamb are in position immediately «# 1 below the re- entering angle of the arch- mold. Scale. Heckington. Inner door. Norfolk. Heacham.68 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. 1 in. south porch. Heacham. Scale. to 1 ft. to 1 ft. Lincolnshire. 2 in. in Norfolk this is clearly shown.

This is shown in the annexed . south porch. bridge. 1 in. in the annexed example KiDg's Chapel. Scale. a of the moldings are continuous and When we mon and invariably tinuous. King's College Chapel. door itself is 69 continuous. from College CamSomeindeed. to 1 ft. it get into Perpendicular work we find the fiat case- ment very comwas con- The larger of shafts are smaller and a number members the are as continuous. Lincolnshire but frequently much larger proportion common to both. The same as- sertion of the continuous molding is found in other positions as the styles advanced.PERPENDICULAR MOLDINGS. but we in the frequently find considerable variety jamb and arch-mold. As the styles developed the detached were superseded by still engaged columns. inner door. Cambridge. The Early English columns in an arcade with the detached shafts carried arch moldings which at first sight seem to have but little connection with the shaft as an example. example from Heckington Church. mere beads. they become Portion of Arch and Jamb. times. In Decorated work the plain octagon shaft carries the sub their hollow chamfer or other mold- and main arch-molds with . being the same in the jamb and in the arch-mold.

The real master of his craft never hesitated to make his moldings exactly what he thought best suited for the position they were in. . when we get to later ings. branch out and break into the different forms known under the plastic.70 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. in the name of tracery but beyond this the moldings are wonderfully hands of the master designer. contained in it. will and these so well . much and so was thought of little real artistic effect of what one may term cast-iron regularity. excepting for small shafts which carry a varied arch-mold. but work we find the molding continuous. all the different orders. so as in accompanying diagram. In tracery also the mullion will have or rather sub-orders. and where a member which seemed only in it sufficiently strong tracery a mullion looked heavy in was frequently thinned down.

or footing of and verges. octagonal. was the patin. The . London bably the earliest piece of and by similar Norman architecture in England). the See Professor Willis's "Architectural Nomenplinth. The earliest form of column is the circular. Complex. that is. and these forms are either when composed number of one plain member. when consisting of a core surrounded by smaller shafts. since piers or columns more or less partake of the details of the arch-moldings. A few sections have been given for the purpose in PL. St. . But it is one of such extensive scope that only a few general rules can here he given for dis- tinguishing the styles. clature. Simple. undoubtedly Church. PLANS OF GOTHIC COLUMNS. examples at Waltham Abbey (which. and Decorated * The mediaeval terms for columns. III. Cathedral. support the eastern transept walls at Peterborough Cathedral. Early English. And these simple forms continued in common use throughout the Transitional. Polygonal Norman of vast size strength. as is proved by (pro- those in the ancient chapel in the White Tower. at Norwich Sepulchre's Cambridge. circular. The general plan of the columns which support the nave or other principal arches is either square. chapiters. were respec- tively pillars. And of these the bases and capitals will generally afford the surest indications. or parallelogramic simple or complex. capitals. detached or engaged. diamond-shaped. and piers. whether is Harold's Church or not.PLANS OF GOTHIC COLUMNS. not involving a of aggregate parts. 71 SECTION VIII. columns. and shafts. 39-41.* This subject the forms of falls properly under the head of Moldings. many and other places." pp. early).

Lady Chapel of Fountains Abbey (PL. a beautiful and common device. Thus we though in a heavy and simple form. was brought to a wonderful degree of lightness and elegance. six. and bases worked out in one large A circular are very column. the fig. is that of the square plan. MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. in construction at least. except for tombs and the beds of sepulchral brasses. smaller detached shafts. a regular clustered shaft. and the member also carry- made into a semicircular form. to which they are at intervals attached in reality as well as in appearance. times disposed alternately. which. or in opposite rows. and taking a fine polish. XIX. where the face of the pier was continuous with that of the wall ing the sub-arch was often obtain. but much more sparingly afterwards. more so. Examples common the choir-aisles at Ely. composed of comminuted freshwater shells (whence it is called lumachella marble). by molded bands or or of fillets. during the Early English period. The Purbeck limestone. But or a very common arrangement derived from it . though liable to disintegrate. . being part of the "Wealden formation. where they are some- periods in ordinary parochial churches. it They are so varied in arrangement that would be impossible in this general characteristics^ place to do more than notice their which consist principally in the number of smaller isolated shafts clinging to a central column. With circular columns the vaultcapitals ing shafts were commonly stopped above the corbel. is . . These complex Early English piers are often extremely beautiful . but they by a were frequently brought down to the ground flat with the rectangular plan.72. was much used in the thirteenth century. like the arch it was sometimes and sub-arch. surrounded by four.* of stone than are often some other kind the central pillar. perhaps. forms thus recesses. and many parts of West- * It is a curious fact that the mediaeval English architects appear never to have used any foreign marbles. The clustered capitals piece. These shafts are generally of native marble. and these recesses were cut with angular soon filled with small shafts. 8). or eight. than those of any other style.

PLANS OF GOTHIC COLUMNS. . Mary's Abbey. from All Saints'. with some varieties. Lin17 of colnshire is and fig. minster Abbey. without any central core. rather later in date. era. near York and this is a very common form Early English and Decorated piers. 13 from Ruskington. ^m^-^-^---^ Bowman^s Half of a illustrations of that church. PL. kington Church.\^'^ is wS^ HP Ruskington. Lincolnshire. In this case there is always a fillets midway band the shafts. XIX. Rutland. 40. 5. worked into annular separately to The shafts are not always style. roll-and-fillet set on each which side of a square. after Towards the Geometric 1240. 16. and die into the bell of the capital. York . Fig. 15. from Stretton Church. 11. as in the round nave of the Temple Church. stands in the vestibule of St. X. 12 from St. fig. is PL. and there is a very good example at Exton. fig. the corners of project. Stamford . and in PL. at Lincoln. is Rutland. rence. 17. 8. of constant occurpoints. The annexed from Rus. \M \ former style. III. Peter Gowt's. fig. It forms an ex- in the Chapter House of Furness Abbey. generally four. fig. is an instance of attached shafts so deeply undercut that they have the appearance of complete quisitely graceful feature isolation. and reduced from the section given in Mr. Fig. from Skelton. . The fillets running up the face of each shaft usually pass over or round the astragal. applied. V. as in PL. fig. that is. though usually so in the pure lancet PL. The square being set to the cardinal the addition of the shafts changes the outline to the diamond form. is a beautiful example of the ^>Wg. 73 In some made up of several shafts. placed close together. figs. still The lower part of a similar one. the shafts or . is and are some- times worked into smaller pointed beads. 6 from Grantham is w/ ^jIlP m^^ / Church. as fig. have this kind of compound cases the column is pillar. III. or bonding-stone. .

and became mass the bands. PL. . The construction. real or apparent. almost universal method. and remarkable for the hollow faces. On the east and west sides half. fig. . Fig. 14 is from Utterby. XIX. a plain but good illustration of this fig. The principle which led to this form was the desire to obtain width in the direction of the thickness * Shafts ceased to stand of the wall. without the interruption of any impost. John's.74 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. instead firmly compacted into a — .* in the choir of the This will be seen Temple Church. no longer of any use.which bear the innermost order. 4. therefore. so that a clustered column nelling the surfaces of the lights in reality formed by chan- mass in lines and hollows of graceful and shadows. III. ( iitl III. from St. 14 and 16. fig. where vaulting shafts arealso added on the northern and southern faces. is entirely different. . of the arch . are among the commonest forms in cathedrals but the richness and extent of the great piers it and abbeys would require a volume is to set forth. from Saffron Walden. they were anciently called. Mary's. Essex. Stamford. Lincolnshire. which are seldom found but in small shafts in Perpendicular work. Very good examples exist at Great St. isfrom Attleborough. erected at the above period. being suppressed. Cam- bridge. PL. for the sake of greater strength. including the great casement or hollow. 2. Decorated piers always have their is shafts engaged. III. being usually continuous. the longitudinal direction extending from north to south. began to be generally verges. PL. 15. Perpendicular piers are generally of oblong or parallelogramic plan. as engaged. Norfolk.. or attached to the central mass. PL.shafts are attached. or soffit-moldings. detached or banded into clusters. the rest. figs. 18." p. " Brandon's Analysis. of late Decorated date. the whole dia- metric section being worked out of one block.

if set diamond. re- . figs. 1400. 1 Another form. Still. III. IV. built about. the Martin's. In this they followed the . 19 and 20. In the first case. examples are \ / IP Long Ashton. XIX. This is usually of later date than the parallelbgramic plan. Wood Ditton Church. combined with the least possible bulk. or rather before. the angles are chamfered away face . 7. Ensham Church. is a square. in some late H fo/K churches.wise. near Cambridge. and each face (as in fig. Mary's. PL. a hollow is sunk in the between the shafts. 20). carries an engaged shaft. The example tical is taken from Bowman's " Specimens of Ecclesias- Architecture. the second from St. they become nothing more nor less than exaggerated monials with shafts attached to carry the subarch. occurs not 'infrequently in Perpendicular columns. Swavesey. the angles being cut away into the wave-molding. with a three-quarter circular shaft engaged on each face." PL. not wanting of early Perpendicular character. in the second.PLANS OF GOTHIC COLUMNS. Stamford. PL. which is first shown from in St. Somersetshire. which runs continuously round the arches. In these the or each ground-plan angle (as fig. plan of window monials in fact. as at Swavesey. 75 and the greatest span j& between the columns. however. 19). fig. The nave columns in this church consist of a square. as in Long Ashton Church.

Again. extensive. And they have the peculiar advantage of being more definitely marked. as the be placed upon the top of the bed or . to mistake the details of a Decorated for those of a Perpendicular archway . columns. 1400. 139. The parallelogramic plan is sometimes found in Decorated style. it bent pressure. in which the same principle of formation is exhibited. IX. we may suppose that an upright post planted in the earth was found to sink. The moldings of capitals and bases form not the least in- teresting. by a great superincumThis failure suggested the necessity of a plinth. presents a column of good Decorated date in the crypt at Gran- tham.76 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. on which erect. Ensham Church. given in " The Oxford Architectural Guide. It. but not until the close of the The woodcuts on the previous page represent such a column from "Wood Ditton Church. This arrangement we may often observe in the construction of wooden sheds or rustic homesteads of rude timber-work. than any other kind of moldings. provided it possessed any character at all." p. To go very rapidly through the history of a column. or broad footing of masonry. and immovable. even for an experienced eye. and that from c. SECTION CAPITALS. in the various periods of architecture. might stand firm. but no one moderately acquainted with the subject could hesitate in pronouncing the style of a capital or by no means impossible. or decline from the perpendicular. a great square stone would naturally pillar or post. near Newmarket. and important part of the study.

Transition' Norman Capitals. with a great many others of probably much have square pillars on each side. in the tongue-shaped leaves or other grotesques which are often seen to issue from the circular moldings of Transition-Norman bases. and it is seen in the ordinary form of what has been called the cushion capital. so that we have positive fact to guide belfry arches at us instead of mere theory. necessary . whether arch or entablature. Mary Bishophill Junior. In the Norman period. when the shaft was round. shown in PL. X. the parts immediately below the one and above the other being rounded shape of the shaft. Examples fully as rude as this do actually exist in English ecclesiastical architecture. . worthy of observation. Even in the advanced Early English columns in Westminster Abbey instances of floriated bases may be observed. respectively called the abacus and the plinth (anciently the patin) were square. It was from such an origin that the highly elaborated Gothic base and capital arose. It was felt that these angles were not but the mediaeval builders preferred to decorate what as yet they did not wish to cut away. York.CAPITALS. Barnack and St. off to suit the How this was done in Norman capitals is Cushion Capital. and extend to is the otherwise vacant and superfluous angles of the plinth. The lingering re- luctance to get rid of the square plinth. 77 cushion to receive the superstructure. the highest and lowest members only. The ante-Norman later date. Bolton Abbey. resting upon and surmounted by rude and clumsy blocks of stone. 2. fig.

to of the Classic to the Christian styles. a portion bearing surface unemployed and superfluous. the sides were cut out or curved inwards —a feature some- times seen in Perpendicular octagonal capitals . [form . as soon as the pier-arch. molded and or abacus. But capitals became octagonal and similarly octagonal plinths were retained long after circular capitals had become universal. Classic styles. gular nooks were cut in the angles of the square abacus. But the simple square was sure to undergo some changes. to both kinds . be the primary and essential. before plinths . fig. In the more elaborate and this took place first in capitals. corresponding to the graduation of the sub-arch. as in the accompanying cut. common but in floriated capitals foliage covers the intermediate space. They either cut off or cut out the corners. or involving a sub-arch (PL. in were. more probably. from which was transferred. called the neck or astragal. practical fact. is The upper member. and examples may also be seen in Potter's " Illustrations of Buildwas Abbey. with its accompanying moldings. ^^ That ^^ of the rectanis. by adopting the shape of the shaft. common to both. Gothic capitals floriated. 4). may be divided into two kinds. we obtain the circular capital and base of the first and second Gothic periods. is also Tbe lowest member. and is the relic of the rude impost which it first surmounted the stone post.78 MANUAL OK GOTHIC MOLDINGS." process pi. and. 6. as it member. In the Transi- . the others being only decorative adjuncts. but this method of relieving and lightening the massive impost does not seem to have occurred to the Komanesque builders. by becoming recessed Hy left . From the former came the octagonal. is which otherwise occupied by the overhanging and undercut member called the bell. or. and either by removing angles indefinitely. through the medium This seems. I.

sometimes occur in and in later work the Tudor flower.. seem clearly to be. as in the belfry-arch of Great Shelford. or the Ionic volute Transitional for example. mental moldings. near Cambridge. or crestings of minute battlements (occasionally floriated). Lincolnshire. very closely approaching the . Occasionally (in Norman work commonly) Of some subject is grotesquely sculptured below the abacus. and in the choir of Wingfield Church. while a chained ape one of the capitals (which are Decorated) a fox is laying hold of it behind. Corinthian acanthus. will have is it that On goose. This kind of capital may be called Pictorial. carrying off a The Decorated capitals in Oakham Church exhibit the same design. however. the nail-head. arranged vertically. as in Great St. leaves. Suffolk. in the Decorated twines horizontally. as in interesting Early English capitals in the south transept north porch of Wells Cathedral. overhanging foliage of the being only a shallow kind of surface ornament. 110. But the vine differently and the strawberry leaf is sometimes seen. . the ball-flower. this there is a very curious example at West Keal. floriated In Perpendicular. are set like studs at intervals round the shaft above the neck. or rather transversely. Classical in general features. or capitals are rare . Others. are also frequently found. round the capital. as used in capitals. the Norman capitals at the east end of Canterbury Cathedral. as is well it tion-Norman and Early English." p. and other ornacapitals.* some very and the Or a subject is intermixed with the foliage. since in the Bomanesque we find the style of it. 79 foliage. the is known. more frequently small patera. But of floriated or sculptured work It is it is not at present our of province to speak. from the deep earlier styles. however. very worked. among others. and not unfrequently in parochial churches (as at Barnack). and almost so in their * details. Even angels' heads with spread wings are sometimes found. The dog-tooth.CAPITALS. Cambridge. as the author has suggested in the " Manual of Gothic Architecture. Mary's Church. enough to observe that the origin foliage is probably Classical.

certain groups being borne while the intervening hollows are continued to the ground. the others carried by shafts. And in Perpendicular they become entirely subordinate. the outer being continuous is while in Early English doorways the soffit generally con- tinuous. apparent construction. to receive the at the clusters of arch-molds which are stopped by summit For. as we before remarked. is particularly the case in Perpendicular piers and arches. Hence. 18 Norman and Early English. ." Chap. less important in the apparent work of support. the shafts In Decorated. or even the arm. Here the soffit or innermost moldings are borne by a shaft. There can be little doubt that the influence of both prevailed in the introduction of foliage into Gothic capitals. The moldings would in reality remain in their places as well without as with the bearing shafts. are furnished with quasi-capitals and bases. forming at the same time deep lines of division between the groups of arch-molds above and the separate jamb-shafts below. and not conare not tinued down to the ground. The use of capitals. engaged. of the column. as described in Section VII. they are stand isolated in the latter so far that the hand. i. II. fewer in number. . when the arch-molds wholly identical with those of the either die jamb or column. This. they must away at the spring (in which case they are called discontinuous) or be abruptly stopped by a projecting impost. less prominent. by shafts. mere bowtells. Again. II. and merely decorative. may be passed round them.e. figs. to speak is it constructively. as may be observed in the porches and doorways of King's College Chapel.—"Willis's "Architecture.. in pure Gothic architecture. . as in and 19.* In many cases the moldings are partly continuous and partly stopped by the capitals . is the origin of the foliated capitals rather from the East. 80 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. it from whence was subsequently transferred to other parts of buildings. by an ulterior debasement. In some cases a member of the same projection and diameter as * By what is called decorative. in PL.

or those in which the members have not been worked in village churches. PL. the bell. but the lower edge- . but slightly varied in form and profile. Cambridge- The most certain evidence of date is furnished by the mold- ings of the abacus. both bell. complex and graceful in their members. 1 shows the two uppermost members in their is rudest state. by their reversed or horizontal outlines. out. It be observed that Gothic capitals fig. And these parts are distinctly visible in block capitals. Take. as shire. and figs. they intercept and at the same time form a satisfactory termination to the vertical lines above and below. fig. Gothic capitals consist of three parts the abacus. at will. PL. Such may occasionally be met with fig. and the neck. or the woodcuts on pages 77. Fig. for example. from Great Abington. Cambridge. became entirely is. Lincolnshire . c in the ' same county. Norfolk. and gave a heavy appearance. Small in 11 and 15. will Hera a is the abacus. projection. while in the jambs of doorways and entrance arches.CAPITALS. while. the bowtell is 81 (if continued above this quasi-capital the term be allowable). The earlier forms of the abacus had the upper edge always left square. 3 from fig. X. those of the piers in the nave of Trumpington Church. . The moldings capital or of pier-arches . XII. 16. at first the fillet was large in proportion. 4 from Middle Rasen. and 5 from Walesby. as a may be omitted or added mere matter of decoration. Laceby. and therefore the impost. they seem to bind which form the column. 78. yet judi- ciously subordinate to both arch into one the bundles of shafts and pier. and the under edge rather plainly flat chamfered or cut into a ovolo . Hingham. is A good Gothic capital a feature of remarkable beauty. may generally be reduced to this outline. the shafts themselves. continuous only in very late work and the reason that the idea of a impost is essential to that of an isolated column. b the the neck.



mold gradually became more important, and was frequently cut
into a hollow chamfer,

and sometimes quirked and finished also

with a bead, as at Heacham, Norfolk.



means a



i I s \ I 4
St. Sep.,


Cant. Oath. Blatherwick, Byland. IXorthants. Crypt.

Heacham, Wadenhoe,


abacus was obtained, which held



far into the



style, as


seen at the Eefectory, Eivaulx, &c.

But then they began

to cut

away the upper

edge, the projec-

was made greater, and the under side was cut or hollowed

out, so that



overhang the bell just as the bell does

the shaft, and with the


profile, consisting of

the half of a

The Decorated abacus has the
roll of


with a cylindrical

rather less size below

PL. X.

38 and 39, represent these peculiarities, and an examination

of the sections of the capitals of both styles will
this distinctive

show how

mark is wanting.

In Early English capitals the

fig. 8,


sometimes quite plain, as

17, from Thurlby,


from Frieston, Lincolnshire.

In the reign of Edward

a peculiar molding occurs, something between the two, which


be called an undercut




seen in

fig. 9,

from Stickney, and


from Lincoln Cathedral, and

may be

considered a characteristic of Transition from Early


to Decorated.

The moldings
fig. 5,

of the bell are generally kept within the limits

but in very minute work exceptions are someat


for instance,


Balsal, Warwickshire,

the capitals to the small shafts on the moni-als of some of the

windows have the



quite beyond the abacus.

The woodcut
of the


taken from

Bowman and

Crowiher's " Churches

Middle Ages."


foliage is introduced


projected a long


way even


large capitals,

and a molding


to have

been allowed

the same

when the

was small.



and bases appear frequently

have been



might account

for treating a


where the




In Early English capitals the







moldings, which gives a very handsome






seen in

PL. X.



28, from Tintern


22, from Furness


onMoniafK window.



24, from Bolton.

Capitals occur in their greatest perfection in shafts.




or circular



seldom so

elaborate or so decidedly marked.

In these the abacus


member which affords any sure indication of date. The distinguishing feature of Decorated capitals has been


be the



the abacus,



ninety-nine out of every hundred






Yet some

capitals presenting the






be of

Early English date.

It is believed




Decorated Capital, Grantham.

scarcely ever occurs in pure Deco-

rated work.


bell is

seldom so prominent or so deeply undercut in this

as in the preceding style.


a general

rule, the projection

the relative diameter to that of the shaft) became gradually


both in capitals and bases, as the styles advanced.


above cut furnishes an exception to the rule.
pendicular work, when the shafts became, as

Thus, in Perwere, mere parts

g 2


Decorated capitals preserve the happy

of the entire groups of moldings, both these features

minute and subordinate.

medium between
inutility of

the clumsiness of constructive members, and

mere ornaments.

In this their remarkable

beauty really consists, in that they occupy the truest and most
consistent position as architectural parts of the whole.


respect to their details, the moldings of the bell present the

principal varieties


but these are generally some modification or

corruption of the roll-and-fillet.
part of the bell
as in

Very often the under
entire roll-and-fillet,

composed of an


figs. 3, 8,

and PL. XI.

12, 20.

It is still

more frequently formed by the compound
in the cut, and in

member shown
of forty-three





examples of Decorated




PL. XI. and XII. ten of them have the
others present

bell thus formed,



slight variety of


It is seen in elevation



15, the beautiful capital of the nave-piers at

Decorated capitals seldom have double moldings to the
at least


less frequently

than in the Early English


Three examples are given, PL. XI.


from Yaxley, Hunts,

very early in the style, as appears by the abacus,


fig. 9,

and the annexed


from Harringworth, Northants.

The neck,

or astragal, forms




mining the dates of
the Early English





a heavy and bold annular molding, of a stilted or oval shape, or


more than half

a circle,

PL. X.


Either this

or the semi-hexagon



the prevailing form.
rated neck is almost always the scroll-molding

The Deco-

but both the




Early English forms, with

many others,


be found to occur.
nearly identical in


capitals of both styles are


general character and principles of formation, that a practised

may now and

then be deceived in their date.

And it


here important to remark, that though the vast majority of
capitals in all English buildings will be found to fall in with the

rules laid


in this work, anomalies do occur which present

difficulties in

any attempt to

them and the same



of bases.

Perpendicular capitals present very marked features, which
are seldom liable to be mistaken.

The moldings

are large,
so clearly

angular, meagre, and few.

Neither abacus nor bell

a fact similar to that already stated with regard to

the arch-moldings of this style, that the distinction of orders
generally lost.

Frequently the abacus appears so far blended

into the other part of the capital as hardly to be a separate

member, and the

bell either

wholly vanishes or

is veryis


perfectly developed.

The upper

part of the abacus


sloped off to a sharp edge, like the chamfer of an angle
section of the


molding below resembles the

letter S,

being an

ogee formed by a bold concave returning into a

prominent convex
the capital

(as at



and, above



nearly always octagonal, while that

of the preceding styles is

commonly round.


shaft, however, is circular in Perpendicular

while octagonal capitals only occur in the other
styles in the case of large


columns of
few cases
n n

the same shape,



/. it

we except



Cam b.


Early English arcading shafts with octagonal
transepts at

capitals, as in

Histon, near Cambridge, the west front of

Peterborough Cathedral, and in the choir-aisle of Fountains


The same


which induced the

latter architects to

prefer sharp edges and abrupt lines in their moldings to the

as figs. the 5. undercut of & ill fig. Another form. PL. are from Frieston. and reducible to no certain rule. Perpendicular embattled. Thus in PL. and 12. 8. or neck. is either a ^ & j^ in of deba8fld scroll-molding with the upper edge chamfered. in its however. 7. an arrangement which in the preceding style. 8. however. but not very often. . Its form seems capricious. in stating the It will not be necessary to occupy much space places from which our are taken. m The with its overhanging and moldings having vanished. 22. numerous sections of capitals and bases A few only of the most remarkable shall be thus figs. PL. com- mon to both members. 16. as in the abacus. X. 1 and 2. XY. Lincolnshire. is to the octagonal capital to the rejection The base. and the neck bell of fig. rare The Lancaster Church. of the Decorated scroll-molding. in the Decorated and by omitting the under the ordinary profile of fig. p j ain ^^ is astragal. and octagonal as in below. XIII. 22. Perhaps greater license was taken in general in designing the moldings of this style than in any other. 29. as in figs. generally circular upper members. . in This debasement of the molding is separately shown PL.86 soft MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. figs. is 26. fig. which occurs in the abacus of 'M fig. we see nearly the same form as roll. figs. and blending Decorated forms. the bell remains. 21. as capitals are often PL. 15. by a meagre 3 and Sometimes. 7. resembling a coarse keel-mold. specified. VIII. XII. 20. made them revert of the circular. though the profile is often much the same as in Decorated work. IV. capital is often produced the projection slope. The section of the Perpendicular abacus is a mere corruption figs. we obtain scroll- 15. 21. that shown PL. PL. XIII. 10.

24. * . the style. 15. from Leverton. is 11 from Partney in the — in Lincolnshire. from Arreton. same county. 40 is the most ordinary form in shafts and clustered piers. 15. * for Fig. 11. 4 is a fine capital of very unusual size and depth. and has the double bell Abbey. and almost identical. 13 from Waltham. The sections of Decorated capitals in PL. PL. 6. and 13 . Fig. 22 shown in by studying which. 9 from Sibsey. XI. the latter Fig. 9. fig. 7. 12 Stickford. Of the same date and character from the Chapter House of . is from Aswardby. are from Yaxley . Fig. 26 are from Bolton Abbey. (15 inches in depth) fig. those who are unacquainted with the details of the styles may form a correct idea of the leading It is characteristics of the capitals of this period. a noble capital from Stickney. Lincolnshire. from Furness Fig. 3 is vestry in the church at Boston. 30 from Saffron Walden.* Fig. 18 fig. Fig. 18 is from Kuskington. 14 is is not uncommon in Transition caSindge. foot . Isle of Wight. Cambridgeshire. late in 9. all 10 from Fig. fig. 28 is Fig. are mostly from churches in the neighbourhood of Cambridge. 29 Abbey. Figs. X. 10 is from the are 12 same place. Figs. are all from Lincolnshire. as in more so in than in the next fig. Furness Abbey. 1 PL. 16.' The student many beautiful capitals again referred to Potter's illustrations of this abbey and bases. bell. fig. 87 Here the this bell is of rather unusual form. and 2. 23. figs. Hunts fig. as appears from the undercut scroll-abacus. depth one is 22 from Abington. XII.CAPITALS. in a chapel used as the Fig. perhaps style. PL. Fig. . drawn on a large scale. and remarkable in is its profile. the former from Lincoln Cathedral. is 17. XL figs. from Fletton. 17. 16. from Tintern. 37 is from Bolton Abbey. with the nail-head in the hollow above the elevation of the Fig. 19 from Tintern is fine in its profile. rather late. Lincolnshire. very rich and elevation. of large size from Legburn. of much larger size than usual. fig. figs. This the form of the pier capitals at Heckington.

. XII. . fig. near Stamford. St. XL 28). neck circular. Lincolnshire. Louth . fig. of a moated mansion of the Fifteenth Century. similar feature is the wave molding. from Colchester . PL. 22. This has a battlement above. 19 from Saham An interesting specimen. which in this style should be attended to. Fig. fig. Northamptonshire. from Els worth Hall. in the A same position. fig. John's. 18 is octagonal. to Perpendicular at it occurs at Maxey. 14 from Harston. is from Uffington. fig. 29 from the Bede House. the bell and . PL. fig near Cambridge tishall. . * fig.* Norfolk . in Stamford. is from Long Melford. XIII. and fig. near Cambridge. Martin's. in the Decorated capitals of the nave columns at Dunchurch. fig 13. is from Careby. 23. 19. . figs. all 26 and 27 from 28 from St. PL. and Louth at (see PL. fig. This and the next illustrate the methods of obtaining the plane of the moldings. 1. 12. 13 is from a fine monu- ment Little Shelford. 16. 16 from Dry Drayton.88 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. and the double ogee below. 24. fig. 9. from Fen Ditton is 17 from Mat- Here the abacus Fig. Figs. George's. 8. near Cambridge Toney. very little known. are from St. the abacus. Suffolk . 4 from figs. Norfolk. XII. The rest of the sections in this plate are Perpendicular. Warwickshire. fig.

and consisting only of the single member thus presented to view. by gradually spreading courses.BASES. or hollows. the base often resembles the capital inverted in some instances. and from that arrange- ment those of the subsequent styles are readily deduced. each separated from the next by a plain or molded chamfer. the one might be substituted scarcely for the other with any perceptible change of appearance. or lower step. laid down as they were raised from the quarry. in Norman architecture first adopted a more regular method constructing the footing of a column. the is plinth. In Decorated and Perpendicular columns. in early work. generally square . such and others already mentioned. like the after styles. in consist. but octagonal in later and the base-moldings. slopes. The earliest examples of bases must be looked for in the rude monolith blocks which support the pillars or pilasters in the Ante-Norman churches. X. direct the attention of the will be sufficient to student to the upper members. the plinth usually divided into heights. which the character of a base may be said principally to In shafts. and forming an ornamental junction between the shaft and its essential constructive member. The form are not numerous and as they do not involve it complex moldings. . Often a bold . Of Norman bases varieties of it is not necessary to treat at length. 89 SECTION BASES. as at "Wittering. a series of annular rolls. near Stamford. . These are often mere shapeless lumps. of solid masonry. of at least two distinct members —the plinth. taking the form of the column. or tables. in early work. stages. The Classic pillar was evidently the prototype of all these. Bases consist.

76. which alone remained in the eight massive columns of the circular part. where only a the present bases were cut from a very small piece. not in all From Willis's " Architecture of the Middle Ages. a modification (often trifling with very departure from the Classic) of the Attic base was introduced. however. is divides the shaft from the plinth. A very common form shown in PL. j- and with one from fig. . XXI. A little before the Transition period. Canterbury Cathedral j (date about 1180). XIV. 01 e . from them by If we compare this form with some of the early Italian-Gothic bases. figs. members and diswas known . The moldings of the earliest Norman ally bases are frequently " and gener"little better than scratches upon the surface. fig. 7). 5. a concave above a convex below.1 tJie twelfth century. Cambridge. 4. annular quirked on the under side (as seen iu PL. from the is Chapter House of the same place. The fillet and curve. or first member at the lower exif tremity of the shaft.. with an intervening hollow separated fillets." and Nothing developed approaching isolated to tinct gradations St. Yorkshire. Sepulchre. IU the . derived. Fig. Huntingdon. Mary's. XIV. from the nave of Peterborough Cathedral. 1 and 2. figs."* consist of two reverse curves. 9. and this is more like Classic work than English archif tecture generally. 10 is a little later. fig.90 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS." p." % Canterbury Cathedral has a very French character in the work of William of Sens. from Fountains Abbey. 3. This occurs in St. PL. 3. early part . figs. few inches wide. roll. XIV. from which the Early English is is directly The Attic base given in PL. omitted in most * Willis's " Canterbury. we shall find them rather uppermost identical with than similar to the Classic. Cambridge. St. HelmsloyCh. Sepulchre's. It consists of two rounds. 8. was.

— of f Willis's " Canterbury. shortly after some extensive excavations had revealed a great part of the ground- plan and lower portions of the columns of that once splendid church. the other seems to be derived either from as omitting in figs. as fig. 9. place by another f > 12 •*' . above and below the hollow. and the form in in fig. so that it is capable of containing water. or even by an IIIIIIf IPPwK* u interposed square edge. the 10. V ("" similar roll. which may often be observed standing in exterior bases. ordinary Early English base 12). of the Attic base. and extended from half to three-quarters of a circle. It is found in the Transition work of William of Sens at Canterbury. the bases of the choir columns in Eivaulx Buildwas * The bases of the pointed Nornian columns in the nave Abbey are nearly identical with this. is The first. by cutting example off 3. 15.BASES. Here we most distinctly recognise the peculiar feature fig. See Potter. and JSm. . the chief peculiarity of which consists in the intermediate hollow being cut downwards rather than sideioays. from Peterborough Cathedral. 6. 7. X.* This example leads us at once (fig. altogether. or plinthiform member. A valuable of the base is fig. 12 . in place of the descending three-quarter It must be perfectly remembered that first this water-holding base is contemporary with the dawn of the Transition style. " 91 cases . 1160 or 1170. XIV. PL." p. and by far the most common. and as may commonly early as be met with in pointed Norman work.e. 76. to the was very much vogue. i. iBI JBm ttmJlm thus bringing the or from supplying rolls its into contact. The filleted rolls on each side. f There are two kinds of Early English bases. taken from the great central piers of Byland Abbey. are naturally formed the feather edges seen in Transition fig. the form given in PL. fig. the side-hollow of circle 1 — the lateral semicircle. hollow 11. as fig.

30. fig. omitted in the upper roll. XXI. or even triple. tbis intermediate roll is rather smaller. Hence was at once derived the ordinary Decorated base. 7 is from York Cathedral. for the Fig. 33. 4. seldom found except in tbe more advanced or the Early Englisb. 25. Generally. Sometimes the fig. 18. The examples given 28 and 29. a fine piece of detail. is remarkable omission of the hollow in in elevation. Fig. in is the base a pier Lincoln Cathedral. from the beautiful Galilee at Ely. and little Abbey. the former from Tintern. * These engravings are slightly incorrect. annular double. some distance. from Furness Abbey. 16. In fig. In very rich Early English bases there are often double hollows between filleted rolls — after the analogy of the double row of moldings to the bell in capitals. is Fig. fillet is as PL. is an example. of great richness and considerable spread. often a depressed inwardly. Tbis It is base occurs almost invariably in Westminster Abbey. as fig.* The spread of the base generally equals that of the capital. 20. form. 26. 35. the hollow again approaches that of the is Attic base. from the shaft not standing true in the centre. from Ely. . Fig. PL. of XIV. of the most ordinary from the revestry or chapter-room at Kipon Cathedral. 27 from Skelton. figs. 34. great 18. and have all been elaborately polished. the upper member. the latter from Furness Abbey. fig. occur other series of very bold single.92 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. Fig. or nearly so. will convey a correct idea of the general appearance. Peterborough Cathedral. lights florid period of when geometric windows of two or more had begun to supersede the single lancet. near York. XIV. from Lincoln Cathedral. at rolls. And below these. where the bases are worked out of hard Purbeck marble. figs. PL.

from St. near Cambridge) or a the nave-piers at Trumpington it under-edge. . 45. mark of late or florid Early English. with which it usually stands flush. is bers between which the deep hollow worked out of the block. and internally with dust and found to be. moss. 93 this. 40. or because the hollow was exter- nally apt to be filled up with standing water. an elegant base from the library of York Cathedral. House fig. or earth. from Coton. Fig. is also to be remarked that the which forms the lower of the two memis placed. 35. as PL. 17. from Fishtoft. commonest Decorated bases 35 . but of lead. by which the shaft is fastened. plane. either from the and complex work of the latter. The plainer form 10. is that shown in PL. by a quirk or angular nook. from the doorway in the same place . 39. as fig. One of the fig. There is something extremely elegant in the form of . the more usual kind of Early English base over. or the part of the base below clear. where a marked difference in this part is observable. 37. XIV. This is almost invariable and it is mentioned particularly with reference to Decorated bases. 43 is from the nave-pillars at Bottisham. In fig. at Wells . so that it overhangs base of the beautiful central column in the Chapter fig.. Here we usually find either the scroll-molding flat . more- which everywhere pre- hoth in (figs. XXI. 21) may possibly have gradually difficult superseded the more elaborate. York. of rolls being generally three. the cut away. it much In Early English bases large spreading roll. Not few modifications of this form occur but they are seldom very complex. as fig. 16. as the uppermost a is fig. it and the capital of this period. or in the same . 5. ing had dirt. 15. but often only two. the number 34. generally a fig. surprising to notice the uniformity vails and it is. . found in work of the thirteenth century. from 42. (fig. Mary's This is Abbey. as it will almost invariably be Probably the desire of forming a better weatherinfluence in the change.BASES. when fig. 11. Lincolnshire. 39 there are four .

fig. 38 is from the arcade in the Lady Chapel at Ely. XV. which in fig. and 42. or raised above the floor. in what might be called the inverted wave-molding. Perpendiculav. or polygonal. Transition to fig. is member stands six or even The lower part of Decorated bases sometimes octagonal. the base-moldings are raised a considerable height from the floor. 33. 3. the principle of stilting the bases may be seen. as it were. the next style (PL. figs. Decorated bases are often stilted. 44 is from Boston. worked in Purbeck marble. XV. is PL. Compare PL. Here the lower It is . scooped out in the middle. and the to the moldings approximating Decorated profile. 1 6. This form is not unusual late in the style. . Ely). partially developed 41. it is from the chancel at Over. is sometimes. as before described. member is the roll-and-fillet. 36 (from the Lady Chapel. is from the nave-piers at Tintern — already noticed as a specimen of the inverted scroll- molding. PL. a Decorated base from the nave of a Perpendicular base from York Cathedral. is not uncommon. Instead of the three half-rounds which ordinarily constitute the Decorated base. as those under the western tower at Ely. Fig. as in the columns which . the uppermost eight feet from the ground. Ripon . upper member fig. one member. XIV.94 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. 40. This is seen in PL. with fig. with the plinth formed by graduated stages or tables. in This principle was carried to an extravagant excess . near Cambridge fig. 8. the plinth being very large and high. figs. XXI. generally the second. the next style in some instances. XIV. support the octagon at Ely fluted or hollow-chamfered. but often the first. of un- usual profile . from Over and Histon its an of example which retains a singular trace in the side hollow of the Attic base. Hence the bell-shaped base of and 2) was immediately derived. and sometimes these faces are In the Decorated columns support- ing the vault of the Lady Cbapel at Wells. so as to form an ogee curvature. In the choir at * the Temple Church (1240).

octagonal. But few examples of Decorated bases have been any important varieties sufficiently frequent occurrence to render given. It will be particularly is observed that the lower part almost invariably octagonal. according to the rules already laid down. . especially in shafts. This ogee curve seems to be derived from the several rolls which we have seen variation to avoid were used repetition. in the bases. are the two forms. They are very chaste and elegant often standing but a little above the floor-line. of figs. because from the forms described are not of it necessary to illusin profile . that some pure Decorated bases may occasionally be found which would have been equally correct in a Perpendicular column. though sometimes. an inspection of the capital. . trate them. From the great size and height of the best examples. and forming with it the contour of a double ogee in section. Cathedral. 1 and from Crosby Hall. and thus of modest and unpretending contour. being a natural It does not appear to occur in early. they are not so . The bases of Perpendicular columns are various . as Lancaster. decisive of Decorated work. are PL. the upper being generally round. $he capital always is. 2. and give a representation the correct most ordinary kind. but rather in degrees of richness and the number of gradations than in difference of form in the principal characteristic is members.BASES. however. will readily remove it. So similar. often rest- ing on a cushion-like member. XV. The prevailing- a large bell-shaped spread in the upper part. 95 The sharp under-edge is of the second member in the former example a peculiar feature. They are for the most part of decided character and where any difficulty occurs in determining their date. or geometric Decorated.

. At the end of the Fotheringhay contract it is covenanted that the mason. Colchester fig. 17 from Haslingfield fig. thus. sloping off Almost every Perpendicular base has either one or more by a hollow ledgement or -chamfer. but may fairly be taken in the more limited one of a basement. 96 . clature. This passage shows that the legement-table was immediately above the ground-table. Kent. . All Perpendicular bases have an annular of capitals." § 39 The word leggement simply implies lying but as all tables are horizontal the epithet cannot be in this case applied in its general sense. or by a second bell-shaped slope. XV. "The ground of the same body and isles to be maad within the erthe under *he ground-table-stones with rough stone and fro the ground-table-stone (to the legements and alio the remanent of the said body and isles unto the bight of the said Quire. and the wall thereto wythyn and without as it ought 8 to be well and duly made. W. . 17. Horwode. then he shall haf vj 11 xijj iiij d . — full . as 5. Stamford fig. * resembling the neck This is the uppermost member. 15. 13 from All contains enough specimens stances. is often the The following note : taken from Willis's "Architectural Nomenor horizontality . which I shall . ' easily engraved iu a small space. PL. figs. Edward's. . . 14. 21 from s Heme. . and we may therefore assign b. . . however. The ancient name' for the lower member was the ground-table* (especially when for applied to mural basement moldings). in adjoining example. to the- — ground-table." etc. to the legement-table. from Louth . Cambridge fig. to begin. as I shall show. and d. stages. 18 from Holy Trinity. with clene hewen Asshler altogedir in the outer side unto the full hight of the said Quire and all the inner side of rough stone except the bcncli-table-sloncs." The directions for these members in the body of the contract are unfortunately interrupted by an illegible portion. venture to supply as follows : XXXIII. in which. . the whole mass of which lies on the ground below the wall and this is confirmed by the two examples of Fotheringhay and Eton. 6. the basement moldings are described under this epithet. Saints'. fig. shall be paid by instalments as the work rises. 5 .— — MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. to guide the student under ordinary circumis Fig. roll. 20 from St. " when he hath hewyn and set his ground-table stones and his Ugements. as figs. 16.

18. . 14 from St. figs. 1 and 2. from Colchester St. fig. is and perhaps few to that of will prefer the contour of PL. and is not found in the same isolated form in any other style. 4 from the Lady Chapel. "VIII. Carbrook 7 from Saham . . 29 or 32. XIV. . fig. Stamford fig. is . This feature almost invariable. 10 from Mattishall .. 9 from Norwich Cathedral fig. There is a peculiar naknedess in the straight unbroken line of the lower or ground-table. abruptly from the floor to the height of two feet and more. BASES. XV. PL. as in the interior of King's College Chapel. John's. 16 from Albans . 1 5. 11 from Swanton Morley fig. XV. fig. . 8 from Dereham . 97 21. It is singular that edge lines occur less in Perpendicular than in any other bases. or the debased scroll-molding. as in is PL. figs. as in PL. Peterborough fig. 15. fig. 22 from Saffron Walden. fig. debased roll-aud-fillet shown in PL. rising. Fig. fig. . as it does. — all in Norfolk figs. fig. but the bell of remarkably graceful form. XV. almost every point being carefully rounded off. 12. 6 from fig.

which.OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. Classical is principally distinguished from Gothic architecture and the importance of them that all will be felt when it is remembered masonry is made up of successive layers. and are almost essential to the feeling of repose. They consist of pro- jecting ledges of stone. seem reducible to no certain rule. the varieties and peculiar characteristics of the styles being as well hitherto described.98 MANUAL. used as dividing lines to set off one particular portion as distinct from another. and seemingly insignificant. tower-stages. hardly claim a place in laying do. series of PL. being in fact very. Yet. defined in details Of the immense diversity of forms only for capricious some of the most ordinary can be enumerated . details. the character is generally maintained. contains a moldings of this sort (for hood- moldings and string-courses must be classed together. and in cornices. It has been before observed that string-courses may be regarded as the successors of the horizontal lines by which .from the other). . XVI. as they. though the form may be arbitrary. HOOD-MOLDINGS AND STRING-COURSES. divided into three parts. breaking playfully from the horizontal. parapets. irregularities constantly occur. or the one continued . so that they • form a most genuine piece of decorative construction. Sometimes. round buttresses and other angular projections . often identical. This is by no means an unimportant branch of the study of such as in any Gothic moldings. and other parts of edifices. Though subordinate. they are of the greatest possible importance in imparting a character to a building. illustrating the three styles. both within and without . SECTION XI. they rise in graduated and rectangular heights.wn the principles of a system. carried below windows.

h 2 . XVI. The as specimens of the kind. and 9. especially in windows. one of the commonest forms. The upper edge is often left square. figs. PL. Giles's. and.than eleven of this form. 99 . and the like.* at St. of Potter's work on Buildwas Abbey. Cambridge. and playing the most fantastic tricks before again descending relieves a string-course at once naked masonry. . PL. Two or three only are given in figs.. The commonest Early English. They follow the of same changes as the * Rebuilt in the South Aisle new Church. Not less. 10 and 12 may also very often be found. and of course adapts to this end. viz. 6. plain half-hexagon. In most cases.HOOD-MOLDINGS AND STRING-COURSES. instead of being weathei*ed off. XIX. weathering. XVL. 8. 18. are given in PL. latter is from the chancel- arch. Figs. is frequently found. Norman profile string-courses are generally of heavy and massive In most — full of edges or hard chamfered surfaces. strings are those given in 13. Sometimes carried over a doorway or round an arch into the wall . 8. 15. erected before the year 1100. as it were. grooved or worked on the middle of the outer face similar to that in fig. some sculptured decoration of the chevron. by it. shadows caused by undercutting the lower surface. or square is bead with chamfered angles. said to have any real use but they form a decorative finish of too important a kind to be neglected with impunity. and binds into a whole the geemjngly detached portions of a rambling and irregular construction. as the billet. its it forms a real drip or upper surface especially Hood-moldings. when used internally. the the hatched or serrated molding. passing into some interrupting projection. The. 25. The semi-hexagon. nothing baffled side . reappearing on the other now starting aloof into a window-label. now dying now. cases they are adorned with style. cannot he . and the wide but shallow form presents an though not relieved by the dark appearance suiting well with the massive character of the work and the low relief decoration. 7. with varieties scarcely perceptible and merely accidental. 22.

Stamford. 11 from Furness Abbey 19 from Eivaulx latter is curious . Over. 20. from Furness.* PL. fig. in which even the characteristic Perpenfig. com- in late Decorated buildings. Fig. roll-and-fillet complete. of capitals. The rounding style. its late fig. . 53. of the upper edge is began in this the most all is but the undercutting striking characteristic of this. of the upper side. Decorated. 28 generally marks the time of Edwards frequent and II. In this respect a i so string-courses follow the prin- ciple of the abacus of capitals. 25 has the scroll-molding. near Cambridge 45 from Bottisham. Fig. It is peculiarly elegant. Fig. figs. House at Wells. 26 the Both are equally common in Decorated I. The same remark applies to fig. 71).. 44. Fig. 24 fig. styles . may * Early English strings are often continued from the abaci which perhaps accounts for this fact. are common. as of other moldings of the style. XVI. a half-round next below the same as is in the abacus of capitals of this period. 17 from Tintern 21 from Byland. very Fig. is characteristic two the angular or chamfered of the last this peculiarity is also very —although mon Tradition strings. dicular ogee of 4 occurs. Fig. or of the first The rounded form weathering. fig. is from All Saints'. 100 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. and of frequent occurrence. 36. . work. Decorated form 35 or 48. is The most perhaps also very figs. Figs. 23 is from Lincoln Minster. Fig. The from form (see fig. Early English. 43 is from the vestibule of the Chapter early in the style. though the date is about 1200. 49. on abaci of capitals of which several successive forms are given page 77. as fig. 50 is from fig. 52 and 55. 41 is gene- rally found in Transition to Perpendicular. characteristic. Fig. . The scroll-moldiDg with it.

Norfolk. and thus the exact angle can readily be transferred to paper. Fig. are so 60. is left quite indefinite. mark i of the style. double ogee. without this. or even overhangs. Sometimes a foot-rule fig. 32. as PL. same another example. and II. In copying string-courses. as in 66. 77. may be bent against the wall and the under part. 62.. a small bowtell in the lowest part. and This i others. as in figs. occur principally in the time of Edwards I.. XVI. The angles of the chamfers can best be attained by bending a piece of lead across them. is common variety. has already been remarked. already described. Fig. Embattled string-courses occur now and then in this style. 61. . Perhaps the most ordinary forms are PL. 51. 16. it is better to draw the parts of the wall above and below perpendicularly on the paper. 68. A semicircle sunk in the fig. under side of half a square proalso a jecting diagonally. is p t Perpendicular Strings. from Grantham Church. nuare. Perpendicular strings and hood-moldings are generally marked by the sloping plane figs. PL. 57. as in the cornice of the aisles at Cromer Church. 71. therefore be pronounced late in the style. 64. but also because the as" fig. under fillet. often occur. and the combination of the ogee with the figs. XX. 59.HOOD-MOLDINGS AND STRING-COURSES. 18 is a string-course from the place. is more or less clearly developed. . to be said on the subject . 78 exhibits the peculiar Perpendicular form already pointed out. as 67. 56. yet. 44. rather a characteristic fig. 71. which. 61. of the upper surface. not only for a guide to show the direction of inclination or projection. figs. as in 58. and indeed ought. they will generally merous as they be found to recur with Usually there is tolerable uniformity. 68. XVI. The details of it the parts underneath to varied as to render like a almost impossible give anything complete account of them. as figs. Much more might. 101 it Undercuttings. wall often recedes above the string. The 60. as fig.



of moldings, were

the intention of the writer to attempt any-

thing like a complete essay.

For example, there yet remain
Basements, weatherings of

wholly unnoticed several important cases of the application of

moldings in Gothic architecture.

cappings of parapets

and battlements, plans of and other wood-work,


groin-ribs, timbers of roofs,


many and

interesting varieties of ornamental

moldings, are

well deserving of the closest attention.

But a great book

a great

as a philosopher of old has



has been the wish of the author rather to win

the attention of the reader, by pointing out the way to copy and
observe, than to deter

him by

the uninviting form of a grave
it is

and heavy book.

Quite enough has been said,


to illustrate the really essential principles of the science.


no one need



difficulty or perplexity in

recognizing the

details of the styles,


will take the trouble to apply the rules


in this little work.






In studying the history and development of moldings in the
ancient buildings in this country there is




of great

interest to the antiquary, but that interest is very




when the student

feels that



learning not only what

has been done heretofore, but,
for designs






his alphabet,


himself make in the future.
of designing

Whatever building he may have the opportunity

so sure to find himself requiring

some ornament of

kind, that the study of the subject will assist
his design to a successful issue.'


in bringing

Whatever the

class of building



whether he


wishing to make

it effective






its solid character, or

its delicacy of








render this by the

broad moldings of the Norman period,

or the deeply cut and sharply defined molding of the Early

English period, or the softer and rounder outlines of the
Decorated, or

he chooses

later work, his

knowledge of what

has been done, and his experience of the


more surely than anything
work as
will. produce




to set out such

the effect he is aiming

Whether, again, he limits his aims
whether he uses his study
has powers to do
his knowledge of
so, or




to enable


to design, as far' as



he indulges in mere inventing,

what has been done must be of value
things to be considered in
it is



of the


designing a

the use



Mr. Euskih

brings an example of what I mean, though


a very simple


illustrates the ordinary square angle,

and shows that


order to prevent the probable chipping and breaking of


a fine edge, the angle was simply rounded

but, as

he says, this

was not Art



was only when the angle was

treated further,

1 M A m
either as a simple bead or a




more enriched molding, that the
and yet the use of
would have a


of the artist stepped in



to obtain a surface that

chance of

retaining its form without damage.





of the

ordinary exterior




throw the water

off the building

and prevent

running down and staining the wall

and care should be taken


do this

—a care

not always thought of in modern


Take, again, the case of the ordinary Arcade found in almost
.every church.


wall carrying the

main roof

is to

be pierced

so as to extend the area of the floor into the aisles

if this


done simply by leaving square piers and rectangular arches,
the value of


space would



and therefore the

columns were reduced in section and the strength maintained

by making them

solid stone instead of

mere walling.




of the Artist

comes when


column has

be enlarged

at the base so that there is the

same support from the founda-

and where the

capital is

formed to receive the arch, and

again where the arch

divided into its various parts to

of of

work harmoniously with the


The manner

accomplishing these ends


be varied immensely.


the methods used in ancient work are described above, and the
object of the Artist is so to bring all these parts together, that




while gaining the utmost utility the design forms one harmo-

nious whole.

In order

to obtain

this there are one or two points


should be carefully studied.

In the


place, moldings should

be designed with a careful attention to the position from which
they will be most commonly seen.
surface of the base

To say

that the upper

and the lower

side of the capital should be

those molded seems too obvious to need pointing out

but the

same principle should be carried out where
obvious, and where



not quite so

requires a




it effective.

As an

instance of this in

old work, I

may mention

a purlin which was

taken down in Pembroke College, Cambridge.




natural tendency of the draughtsmen in

would be to

set out the


symmetrically, the roll being placed so that the hollow molds

on each side were alike


but the Artist who built Pembroke

noted the fact that the upper side would be




than the lower when viewed

from the


and therefore

widened the upper side thus.
Other instances
the thought
chiefly seen
will continually occur,



of where





from should be continually pre-




question of

scale, is also

a most imporidea, until they

tant consideration.

Few have any

have been

startled with the appearance of their finished work,

how small

a molding looks
eye, that

when executed and placed

a few feet from the

had seemed very

when on

the drawing-board.


nothing but actual measurement of executed work, new or

old, will ever fix this

on the mind.



preliminary difficulty

overcome, there


remains that of 'whether the work will be coarse from an over
attempt to be bold, or weak from a too intense desire to bo

106 refined.


steer clearly

between these


know when

to allow

scope and emphasize a feature by a


over boldness,

and when

draw attention by an exceeding

delicate treatment,

the knowledge of the Artist which study and experience alone

can give.


principles of design are beyond the scope of

this little book, but

has been thought well to note a few

points that

may be

useful to the student and those

in future

their career, in the



when they look back

years on their early work, they


find that they have learnt to discover

by study and observation what others have had
the experience of failure in obtaining


the results they were




. Paternoster Bow. Gurney & Ja-dkaaa.Plate 1 J.if.. London.ZelX&tji.i! sc..

Cherry Hinton— Cambridgeshire — Chancel Arch. —Arch Mold. Friesland. 5. 21. Benet's. 2. 15. Lincolnshire Norman Pier Arch. Mary's. 1190. Clee. 1. do. Great Grimsby. — 14. Fig. . do. Lincolnshire. Waterbeach. Little Casterton — Transition Norman Arch. St. of Thirteenth-Century of Sub-arch. 12. Broach Stop. 6 enlarged. 24. Rutland. 9. Fig.Chamfered. 22. Little Casterton. 17. Early English Pier Arch. of Chamfer. 16. Adel. Tintern 19. Chamfered Window. Abbey —Respond. Skirbeck. St. Little 7. Cambridgeshire c. — 10. 4. Diagram of Pointed and Side Filleted Bowtell. Example Example Diagram Do. do. . 8. —Groin Eib. 25. Lincolnshire 18. Ely. 11.PLATE I. 6. Plain Saxon "Window (Diagram). Bobertsbridge Abbey — Groin Bib. Casterton Horningsea. near Leeds. 19 enlarged. 23. 20. Lincoln Cathedral — Doorway in Precincts. 13. Lincoln. 3. Clee.



Paternoster Row . &uni«y * Jaiiceoii.Plate 11 4 i m# f- j § ul Ulsii 3Hifii_ London. 15. Over. Middle Basen Early English Pier Arch. Madingley. Cherry Hinton. Doorway. Chancel Arch. do. 6.— PLATE II. Cambridgeshire North Door. do. Great Grimsby. Clement's — South Doorway. 18. Langtoft. do. Chancel Door. South Porch. do. Lincolnshire Doorway. c Wall Plane. 17. 13. 1. 14. St. 5. 3. Jamb. Diagram of Planes a Chamfer Plane. 9. Tintern Abbey— Groin Bib. Cherry Hinton— Inner Door. Trumpington. 2. Ludborough. South Porch. All Saints' 16. —Pier Arch. do. Over. Do. . Stamford. Pier Arch. Do. . b Soffit Plane. do. 11. — — — Interior. 7. 19. Cambridge. Do. 8. Cambridgeshire —Doorway. Window Jamb. Cambridgeshire. do.



Paternoster Row. .Ze A' i.If. J ^HW J.:r jr London.: Gurney & Jackson.S3 Plate Fiji m ml im • l _ m mm K 1 * ' A HI 1 k Hi V '..

16. Histon. Common form of Decorated Pier. Ely Cathedral Pier Arches. St. York Fragment. St. Martin's. Lincoln. St. Euskington.PLATE III. 5. 4. Peter Gowts. . 6. 18. Robertsbridge Abbey Groin Rib. 9. 20. Plymouth Belfry Arch. 2. 17. 1. Stamford. near York. do. 14. do. Cambridgeshire Northants Chancel Arch. 3. 19. Louth Early English Doorway. do. — — — — — — — 8. Eobertsbridge Abbey Groin Bib. Lincolnshire. John's. Norfolk. Skelton. St. Stamford. Furness Abbey Chapter House. — — —Arch over Piscina and Capital. Tintern Abbey Fragment. St. 15. 11. Utterby. All Saints'. 7. Mary's. 12. Attleborough. Wittering. Choir. 13. Mary's Abbey. 10.



. Paternoster Row. jOP^'lS Lon&tm: Girrney* Jaclnjoiv.BARXT EWGLISH.

3. —Doorway. Diagram Diagram of possible first formation of Fillet. . Do. variety of Scroll Molding. — 10. 21. 8. Scroll Molding. — Chancel Doorway. Boll and Triple Fillet. of common form. Broad 20. Fleur-de-lis Molding. Barnack Early English Arch. 15. — — 6.) 13. 4. 9. 17. Lincolnshire Lincoln Cathedral. Norfolk. Beymerston. 12. Trumpington Belfry Arch. Yaxley. 18. . Glastonbury— c. Lincoln Cathedral Arcade. 22. Ludborough. Peterborough Cathedral— Groin Bib. 2. 5. 1200— Groin Bib. 19. 16. Barholme semi-Norman Arch. Diagram Do. Do. of Boll Fillet. — — and do. Diagram of first sketch of Mold. 11. Do. 7. 1. Fillet. Diagram of Boll Molding.PLATE IV.} 14. Hunts Furness Abbey Groin Bib. Do.



DECORATED. Paternoster Row. Lantfon: Oaww * Jackson. .

Lincolnshire — Interior of Window Jamb. Northborough. 1. 2. 8. 12. — 4. Norfolk — Boston Heckington. Attleborough Doorway. 6. —Belfry Arch. — — 13. 5. West Keal. do. East Window. 10. 3. —Inner Doorway. 11. Northants—Window Jamb. Benington. Interior of Window Jamb. 17. Great Ellingham Doorway. Decorated Pier. Hingharn —Window. do. Inner Jamb. Variety of Decorated Pier. Attleborough.PLATE V. Hingharn. do. Stretham. Boston Monument. Lincolnshire 14. Variety of 16. —West Doorway. Do. Exterior Jamb of Window. 7. Norfolk Chancel Doorway. Cambridgeshire. 9. Benington. South Porch. . Ewerby— Monument. 15.



.ff.DECORATED J.ZcfiTctucso- London. tc Jackson. Qurncy . . Paternoster Row.

Boston East Window. South Porch. Double Ogee and Hollow. Stoke Golding. Deopham Inner Doorway. 8. Norfolk 2. Pier Arch. Norfolk Do. 6. Ellingham. Do. 5. Deopham Doorway. 12. Lincolnshire South Porch. Sleaford do.PLATE VI. Soffit). 4. — — — (a. Benington. — Doorway. 10. Double Ogee and Hollow. Boston—Pier Arch. 14. Boston Monument in Church Hingham North Doorway. 9. Hingham. Leicestershire. Little 11. 3. —-Window Jamb. — — — — — 15. Norfolk Archway. 7. 1. —West Door. 13. Hardingham. . Little Ellingham. Norfolk Doorway.



.Qurney tc Jackson.DECORATED. London. Paternoster Row.

15. Groin Eib. 22. Mold. —Window. Pier Arch. Lincolnshire — a Shallow Wave — . 3. 16. Suffolk — Chancel Window. Fen Stanton. Eivaulx Fragment. 18. West Keal Doorway. 21. Eivaulx. 9. Cambridgeshire Window in Chancel. 11. Hunts 8. Clipsham. 23. Trumpington West Doorway. Northborough Outer Porch Doorway. Horbling. 7. Peterborough Outer Archway. Llandaff Cathedral — — — 6. — — — — — 19. 2. 12. Hunts Window. —East Window. Yorkshire Fragment. 4. 17. 20. Swanton Morley. _ Do. Hingham. Diagram. west entrance Yaxley. Thurlby. South Doorway. Butland. Langtoft. West Doorway. do. 13. c Deopham Belfry Arch.PLATE VII. Over. Keddington (or Ketton). Lincolnshire — Piscina. Double Chamfer. Northants Doorway. Do. 1. Northborough. b Sunken Chamfer. — — to precincts. Window. Trumpington do. 10. Wave Molds and Hollow. Lincolnshire. 5. Norfolk. 14-.



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Lincoln— Oriel Window. Norfolk —West Doorway in isolated Tower. Cambridgeshire East Window. 13.PLATE VIII. Saham Toney. St. do. — 20. 16. Chesterton. 4. 9. — — — — Long Melford. Martin's. 3. Doorway. 18. — do. —West Doorway. Neots. Great Shelford. Cambridge Arch. 17. Great Gransden. 19. South Porch. do. 21. do. Holy Trinity. Suffolk-Pier Arch. 15. Sepulchre's. 5.' Hunts Niche. Dereham. 1. Fishtoft. St. Cambridgeshire East Window. Louth. Colchester Pier Arch. Pier Arch. East Window. Leverton. 6. near Stamford 2. 10. Doorway. Inner Doorway. Louth. Staplefprd. Stewton. Stamford — Doorway. 14. —West Doorway. 8. Lincoln Cathedral South Choir Chapel. Uffington. 7. near St. Partney. . Window Jamb. do. do. do. Lincolnshire. 12. Do.



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23. do. Kuskington. Do. 13. 12. 30. 16. . 8. ' < Do. Great Abington. Bolton Abbey. 1. Do. Bolton Abbey. Tintern Abbey. Tintern Abbey. do.. Early English Abacus. 22. 5. Lincoln Cathedral. Lincolnshire. 9. 38. Frieston. do. Early English Capital. Yorkshire. do. Middle Basen. 26. Isle of Wight. 19. 18. Furness Abbey. 7. Decorated Abacus. 24. 17. Laceby. Arreton. 28. Saffron Walden. 39. Essex. 3. Furness Abbey. Do.. Lincolnshire. Cambridgeshire. do. do. 37. do. 40. Stiekney.PLATE X. Walesby. 10. do. Diagram of rudimentary Capital. 4. 29. Thurlby. Chapter House.



«K. . BE C ORATED CAPI TAL S £ITJ..'J«. Rov . toiidon: \XBCBxy k Jackaon PateragaJSP.eZe.

2. Legburn. Hunts. Cambridgeshire. 4. Hunts. Sibsey. 18. 6. 7. . 11. 13. Waltham. 9. Fletton. Lincolnshire do. Partney. do. Abingtbn. 22. Yaxley. do. do. do. do. 1. Louth. do. Leverton. 10. 3. • Boston. Stickford. do. 12. Aswardby. Do. do. 28.PLATE XI. — Chapel used as Vestr* Do.



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Norfolk Nave Piers. Trumpington. Stamford. — Capital of do. 1st. 19. do. Careby. Uffington. Martin's. do. John's. Northamptonshire. 24. Bede House. — 16. Nave Monument. George's. J 26. 23. Cambridgeshire Little Shelford.PLATE XII. 22."\ 27 28. 29. -I do. Pier. Hinghan. 14. do. 15. Maxey. Lincolnshire. J-St.' St. 13. 11. .



London: Qurxicy 6c Jackeon.. Paternoster Row .PERPENDICULAR CAPITALS.

Long Melted. Dry Drayton. Mattishall. Saham Toney. Elsworth Hall. do. 16. 17. 14. Fen Ditton. J 13.PLATE XIII. Louth. do. Norfolk. Suffolk. 9. 19. k 2 . 18. Lincolnshire. 4. 1. 12. Cambridgeshire. do. do. Harston. }-Colchester.



: G-urney & Jackson . .fT. Paieraooter "Raw. se.Ze 7&uj£.Bate XIV J. London.

Do. do./ 5. 41. . Central Column. Choir Columns. Ely Cathedral— Lady Chapel." Canterbury Cathedral. — — — Boston. 26. Cambridgeshire Nave Piers.' Lincolnshire. 44. 39. 27. Bottisham. '37. do. Furness Abbey. By land Abbey v 7. 29. St. Ely Cathedral— Lady Chapel. 30. a /Attic i}' 4. Furness Abbey. Ely Cathedral. Chapter House. Base of Great do. Central Piers. 36. Tintern Abbey. 40. Lincoln Cathedral 18. Peterborough Cathedral. Do. Trumpington Nave Pier. Fishtoft. Wells Cathedral Doorway. near York. Do. 33. 20.PLATE XIV. 42.\Italian Gothic Bases. Do. 45. Base. 17. 8. Bivaulx Abbey — - — 16. 28. do. do. Mary's Abbey. Over and Histon. York. Coton. Skelton. 35. Tintern Abbey Nave Piers. — Piers. 6. from Willis's " Architecture of the Middle Ages. 3. Ely Cathedral— Galilee. Cambridgeshire. 43. — 38. Cambridgeshire. 9.



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Cambridgeshire Chancel. St. Walden. 5. 12. St. Dereham. Swanton Morley. do. 11. Mattishall. Norfolk. St. Saffron . 13. Cambridge. 16. — — 6. do. 1. 18. Crosby Hall. 8.PLATE XV. Heme. Alban's Abbey. Stamford. 4. John's. Norwich Cathedral. 9. Essex. 15. Norfolk. 2. 21. Edward's. Carbrook. 22. Holy Trinity. 7. do. Over. Louth. Haslingfield. 20. 14. 3. Cambridgeshire. Sahara. Peterborough Cathedral Lady Chapel. Colchester. Kent. All Saints'. do. Do. 17. do. Colchester. Colchester. 10.



London. Paternoster Row. jr.ZeJJ!ewx:.STRINGS -AND LABELS.3. J. .: Qurnajr tk Jaeltoon..

&c. / 'd ^ .PLATE XVI. from various sources. Hood Molds. Examples of Strings.



Plate XV11 LanSaa. Paternoster Row.: Quinsy it Jackson. ..

Grantham South Aisle Window. Cambridgeshire — — — — — — — . Grantham. Eutland Doorway. Over. 10. Langham. Bottisham. 4. 3. Grantham. Do. 1. Lincolnshire South Aisle Window. Cambridgeshire South Porch. do. South Porch. Inner Doorway. 6. Grantham -Window Jamb. South Porch.PLATE XVII. 2. Do. do. 9. 5. 8. Lincolnshire South Aisle Window. North Porch.



.: G-u. Paternoster Row.ey A Jackson.Plate XVM1 London.rn. .

Norfolk. Buined Doorway.PLATE XVIII. Peterborough Cathedral —Doorway Nave Doorway : opposite in Cloister South : Aisle of half-inch scale. 3. Do. do. Bivaulx Abbey. Castle Bising. East Window. Beaulieu Abbey South Transept Befectory. 4. 5. do. 1. 7. half-inch scale. 2. Bivaulx Abbey— Window Jamb. Norfolk — — — 10. Castle Bising. . 6. Bipon Cathedral Choir. Do. 8.



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^Diagrams showing the formation
Bottisham, Cambridgeshire
Saffron Walden, Essex.
Stretton, Eutland.

of the



3. 4.

— East Window,

South Aisle.



Grantham, Lincolnshire. Do. do. Crypt. Fountains Abbey Lady Chapel.



: Currier & Jackson. Patornoatoi- Row. .T. London.Tvrnbuil sc.

Peterborough Cathedral Archway in Cloister. 10! 11. 15. Grantham. Cambridgeshire Chancel Door. 18. 3. 7. 6. 14.PLATE XX. 16. WOlingham. Lancaster Arch Mold of Nave. do. Bipon Cathedral Window Jamb. Newton. Do. . South Aisle. 4. Bolton Abbey Monument. near Cambridge West Doorway. 12. Grantham. 17. — — — — — — — — — — . Grantham Choir Doorway. 1. 2. Bolton Abbey. 5. Eivaulx Abbey. Bolton Abbey Doorway. 13. 9. do Guy. Landbeach. Cambridgeshire Doorway. Grantham Chancel Window. Ripon Cathedral. Window.



.. . Paternoster Row.TurnbuZL jo. Qupn«y & Jackson. Louden.Plate XXI T.

Rutland. — 9. do. Ripon Cathedral. Seaton. Moroot. 6. Do. . do. Do. Nave. 8. Do. do. Ripon Cathedral Revestry or Chapter Room. Fountains Abbey. 2. 1. 5. 10. Chapter House.PLATE XXI. York Cathedral—Library. do. 7. 4.


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