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HUMAN BEHAVIOR IN ORGANIZATION

(AS PARTIAL REQUIREMENT OF THE COURSE) WRITTEN CASE ANALYSIS ON GEORGE AND HIS MANAGEMENT STYLE Submitted by: Jimmy Q. Arroyo Jr. and Walter P. Gonzalbo MBA (BA560)

I. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The problem we have identified in the given case of George was regarding George and his management style which inevitably led to the inefficiency of the employees of the Lending Institution. Based on the given case where the issues between George, Cecile and the rest of the employees of the Evaluation Division including the management as well were discussed, we came up with a list of Georges management style problems which indeed affected his performance as the Head of the Evaluation Division as well as the problems formed after the first evaluation result which prompted George to comment on the teams effort which Cecile took with a negative reaction and later causing further domino effects.

. The list consists of the following: 1. Cecile took the comment which was intended for all the staff of the

evaluation division negatively and started becoming unreceptive to suggestions and comments. 2. her duties/job. 3. George started becoming irritated with the poor improvement on the Cecile could no longer be counted upon external functions for inputs, only

performance of his staff and became unapproachable.

4. didnt deserve. 5. affected. 6. developed. 7. 8.

George treated everyone the same way as the guilty one to which they

Everyone started disliking George and their performances became

Undesired atmosphere and hostility among workers and the management

Ceciles performance worsened. George aggravated everything by the way of dealing with the problem

with indifference, sternness, and unapproachability. All of these specific problems contributed to the over-all inefficiency, low performance and the hostile atmosphere of the employees particularly that of the Evaluation Division. Therefore, we decided that the main problem here deals with problem in Georges management style particularly in relation to his approach in dealing with Ceciles low improved performance and the rest of the problems that sprouted thereafter as stated in the given case. Thus, we came up with the statement of the problem which is, What should the Top Management do with regards to the problem on Georges management style brought about by the abating performance of his Evaluation Division staff?

II. OBJECTIVES Having determined the problem regarding Georges case, we came up with the following objectives:

1. To be able to establish positive transformation and improvement with regards to the personality development of the every employee of the lending institution particularly with their working ethics. 2. To be able to improve the working atmosphere and unity between all the employees of the Evaluation Division as well as within the entire Lending Institution. 3. To be able to build an open communication between the employees of the lending institution and promote harmonious interrelationship as well. 4. To be able to look on the employees needs and see that they are comfortable in their working environment. 5. To be able to improve the working performance of the employees of the Lending Institution and amend policies regarding the efficient accomplishment of their duties and tasks. 6. To be able to encourage the employees of the Lending Institution to develop their flexibility skills in accomplishing external tasks which are not defined in their job description. 7. To be able to set and amend better corporate standards and policies as well as Code of Ethics and Conduct for the compliance and development of the employees working attitude, ethics and performance.

III. ALTERNATIVE COURSES OF ACTION Based on the objectives derived from the case of George, we formulated several alternative courses of action which are enumerated below, and considered in every alternative herein are the respective advantages and disadvantages of each alternative. ACA #1. Set a conference between the Heads of the Company and the Board of Directors/President regarding the issues/problems contributing to the overall inefficiency of the

employees of the Lending Institution addressing the smallest details such as the case not just of George but also that of Cecile to come up with the best solution to each of these problems. After having that conference, they should conduct separate meetings with George, with Cecile, and with the staff of the Evaluation Division so as to better address the issues concerned without spreading the information and humiliating a particular employee in front of his/her co-workers in which case, the mainly affected persons are George and Cecile. The leaders of the Company should be the prime advocate in solving the problem since they have the highest authority and wisdom in handling this kind of matters. Thus, they have the best wisdom in dealing with problems such, but on the other hand, the decision should be with strict confidentiality and alienation of personal motives mainly against George or Cecile so as to avoid jeopardizing the credibility and integrity of the Company as well as avoiding the issue of making biased decisions. ACA #2. Conduct more effective Seminars involving and focusing on the

improvement/development of the personality and skills development of each individual employee of the Company implicating and adjusting the values inherent on each and every employee likewise, leadership and management training for the managers and heads off the different units and departments of the Lending institution. This alternative presents a huge aid in the transformation of ones personality and on the way one deals with other people especially if the desired seminar focuses on both the external and internal improvements and practically being applied to the social interaction between people particularly those of working in larger organizations and companies. Applied to Georges case, this will be beneficial not just to him but to all the employees of the Company, although we know that some seminars tend to be boring when the speaker doesnt know how to relate with his/her audience and useless when it will not be practiced by the person receiving the information. Effective and efficient seminars particularly

referring to personality and attitude enhancement as well as leadership and management development will really be beneficial in such a way that whatever knowledge one gains from it then he/she will implicate this in his/her life and learn to practice this over and over until he/she will get used to it and probably become fruitful in the end and even contribute to the organizational commitment not just to George but to the rest of the employees of the Company. Also, the seminars should also focus on helping the employees likewise to the officers of the company to reach a higher level of cognitive moral development, high internal locus of control, and effective and efficient leadership and management skills. With seminars which also focus on the better means and ways to communicate with other people, there is a better chance for George to control himself and ride along with other people when conversing with them most especially during confrontations where diplomatic approach should be applied and with Georges case, it would allow him to gain rapport and better approach when dealing with his subordinates particularly during crisis or problematic times. ACA #3. Conduct investigative queries and Feedback-gathering on all the employees of the company as well as open-forums through open door policy where the other employees can voice out their insights, comments and suggestions regarding the certain issues concerning and affecting the performance of the entire company or institution. This alternative pertains to the gathering of information by means of queries or feedback from the employees of the institution. One negative side for this alternative is the bias feedback which could somehow influence the wrong decisions of the Top Management, but with careful and bias-free analysis of the feedbacks gathered, the Top Management can critically establish and impose credible results. Open-forums also generates debate within two opposing forces, its normal so it doesnt give in to the negative implication but it will rather alleviate the positive effect which is through open-forums, everybody will get the

chance to voice out their problems and concerns regarding an issue in which case, problems regarding Georges working relationship and management skills with the rest of the employees of the institution will be addressed, reconciled and solutions can be obtained basing on the different views of each employee of the company. ACA #4. The Institution should conduct wellness and socializing programs which will enable the employees of the company particularly to that of the employees of the evaluation division to have more interactive and social participation and bonding with their fellow employees within the Institution. This alternative also possesses both advantage and disadvantage. Looking at Georges case, he does seem to be have difficulty in dealing with his co-workers now that discord had been built due to the fact of indifferences between their personalities much more to the values and attitudes each one possesses and the different perceptions and communication-message interpretation which definitely triggered the widening of the barrier or gap between him and his coworkers. In contrast, acquaintance parties and socializations will help the employees to strengthen the bond of their relationship with their fellow employees. It will give them the necessary opportunity to adjust and get acquainted with each other. In Georges case, it will really be beneficial since it will allow him to get in touch with the normal way of living while establishing a better relationship with his subordinates once more. ACA #5. The Top management should also reinvent and implement better ways of communicating with the employees of the Institution and vice versa. There should be strict implementation of the use of Memorandum or Special Orders from the Top Management and applied also down to the rank and file employees whenever there are orders and policies to be implemented. There are even other forms of communication that will be applicable to the Institution. The most popular and efficient is through the use of multimedia such as the internet,

the Institutions online system, the teleconferencing, high-technology message/bulletin boards, and the like. These forms of communication will allow better, fast and operational mean of communicating between the top management, the heads/managers, and the rank and file employees of the Lending Institution. Though there must be strict policies to be implemented so as to avoid the abuse of usage of this kind of alternatives. ACA #6. There should also be the implementation of job redesign particularly job enlargement and job enrichment. Employees should also be given a chance to expand their knowledge on other fields of the work as well as to do other external functions which will be relevant and beneficial to the unit itself. The disadvantage to this alternative is that it needs to reconsider the capabilities of an employee to adapt to such field as well as it consumes time regarding the coping ability and familiarity to the new field of assignment/work. The advantage to this is the interest of the employees to learn the specifics of the new field or work thus eliminating the boredom of the previous work. Another is that the employee will become more efficient and flexible since learning a new field allows one to gain sufficient knowledge which may aid him/her and the company itself during the process and will be further high-lightened by self-exploration of other fields of interest that are beneficial to the institution as a whole. ACA #7. Motivational alternatives might also be helpful in the case of George. Though it seems that the situation had turned worse due to the effects of Ceciles resentment to her head, George who also did became worse in terms of his management and leadership style; certain motivational techniques can still be applied. Aside from the previously mentioned motivational alternatives, some of the alternatives which will also be applicable to this scenario are the attitude, affiliation, achievement, competence, incentive and fear motivation. The Top management including the finance manager should seek and implement even simple ways to boost the morale of

his employees particularly with George and Cecile who definitely affected the greatest. With it comes the recognition for achievements done by Cecile and the continuation of inspiring and alleviating her determination to succeed and always go for achievement. Though this may seem impossible with Cecile due to the previous damage caused on her part, it may still be useful in ways that gradually, the effects of this alternative will take effect positively over Cecile. Likewise, it would also do well for George since positive motivation will also boost his self-esteem and allow him to better polish his managerial and leadership skills. ACA #8. Another alternative implies that aside from the Top Management, the manager or heads of the respective units and divisions should learn how to identify ethical attitudes which are crucial for the organizational operations. By defining what are the necessary ethical attitudes which will be beneficial to the company, they in return provide a strong and pertinent basis for the development of the employees working capacity and productivity. In connection to this, they will have better foundation in supervising their employees since they equip themselves with familiarity as to the manner of approach to dealing with whatever values and attitude every employee of their unit is displaying and they should be able to generate effective and efficient sanctions and penalties which will serve as punishment to violations committed by their staff with the approval of the Top Management although the abuse of power should be monitored to avoid bias and complications. ACA #9. The last alternative would be to provide an amended Institutionalized Code of Ethics and Conduct which will be implemented and complied by all employees of the institution. The disadvantage with this alternative shows the possibility of non-compliance by the employees of the company but with strict supervision, there should be the true compliance at the least effect. Upon reorientation to the facts and issues regarding the proper working behavior and attitude through the guidance of such Code of conduct and Ethics, the institution will be guided with its employees

development in the typical behavior and working attitude. The Code of Ethics and Conduct serve as great foundation and basis for supporting and reinforcing specific ethical attitudes and behavior beneficial and desiring for a company to adapt with.

IV.

CONCLUSION We therefore conclude that like the previous cases, there can be no sole alternative choice of action which will solve the main problem and the specific issues attached to it. It is only by combining the various alternatives that the Top Management can create a very effective and efficient solution to the problem on Georges case where due to the misinterpretation of Cecile who took the impression negatively, caused the low improvement on the performance of their team which further resulted to the change and deficiency in the management style of George, which later caused more domino effects to the division and to the institution as well. This can be achieved through the amendment of the companys rules, policies, and code of ethics and through the use of motivational methods to manage the effectiveness and efficiency of their employees thus avoiding the occurrence of the issues which causes the existence off the complex problem within the institution. Each alternative has its own advantages and disadvantages which can affect in the decisionmaking of the Top Management from the finest details up to the larger picture since the entire scope of the problem is comprised of the multiple identified causes. When it comes to cases such as this, there should be careful analysis as to what alternatives to use in order to come up with an effective and efficient solution. Even though there are certain disadvantages to every alternative, when it comes to making solutions, every alternative should be reconsidered but with strict

monitoring to ensure that the disadvantage attached to every alternative will be avoided and possibly be eliminated. It is clearly evident that the Top Management should always develop the skill of understanding their employees with regards to their behavior, attitude, perception, values, ethics, their strengths and their weaknesses. Along with it comes the Ability to modify and regulate the behavior of their employees through the use of 4 kinds of Behavior Modification, the implementation of the various kinds of Motivational Methods and Techniques, and through other work-related goals and approaches which will aid in the development and improvement of not just the personality aspect of the employees of the institution but also with regards to their working performance and with the heads/managers with their skills in leading and managing their subordinates. These alternatives will also provide a better working atmosphere which will be conducive for all the employees as well as for the better communication and performance of every individual employee. In the end, the Top Management will be able to determine that their employees are motivated if their employees look for better ways to do a job, they are more quality-oriented, and are more productive. Despite the problem of George which caused further domino effects, the Top Management can still find the best solutions to dealing and resolving this problem by means of amending the policies and applying the motivational ways to manage the problematic situation as well as managing their employees to still work effectively and efficiently. The top management should therefore reconsider the concern for people and concern for production since being leaders of the institution, they should balance the two behavioral dimensions in accomplishing tasks and achieving their goals in order to better manage and lead their subordinates since the most effective way to lead and manage is by considering the balance between the concern of the needs, interest and areas of personal development of the employees and the concern of the concrete objectives,

organizational efficiency and high productivity of the institution. The same thing applies to George and the rest of the heads and managers of every unit/division/department, they should learn to adapt and practice the Team style kind of leadership which focuses on the two basic concerns for people and productivity equally in order to succeed and achieve their goals for the institution in the most effective and efficient way. As leaders themselves, they should have primary traits such as emotional stability and composure, admittance of error, good interpersonal skills, and intellectual breadth since the group performance depends on the leadership skills, management style, and the situational favorableness. Still it implies that these are just solutions to the problems of the company, it will still be the end decision of the employees if they will become motivated and compliant or not. But then again, there are no pertinent problems which does not have perfect solutions.

V.

PLAN OF ACTION Based on the Alternative Courses of Actions and from our Conclusion, we established our Plan of Action which are as follows: First and foremost, the Top Management should hold a conference or Board meeting to finally address the issues concerned and brainstorm their ideas, suggestions and recommendations to the problem. Along with the discussion, they must include in the conference the following plan of action, goal-setting, amending the institutions rules, regulation, policies, sanctions, and Code of Ethics, job redesign, motivational methods and leadership/management issues. For the Top management to amend their Code of Ethics and Conduct again the same principle will be applied to amending the Codes of conduct and ethics since the Top Management should

still reconsider certain aspects and matters which could very much affect their final decision on this subject. After undergoing the process of amending the Code of Ethics and Conduct, the PAD thru the HRMD should issue a Memo Coming from the President/CEO addressed to the Companys Unit/Group Heads regarding the implementation of the Amended Code of Ethics and Conduct which will then be complied by all the employees with the proof of signing a Compliance of Code of Conduct Agreement, duly approved by the respective Heads, altogether with the Code of Conduct Compliance Recommitment Certificate of each employee of the company which consist of the commitment of the employees to abide to the terms of the company and report any violation of the Code as well as understanding that violating the agreement set thereto will be subjected to sanctions and penalty under the laws and regulations of the company. With this, the Top

Management should also consider that the organizational culture they will establish will support and reinforce specific ethical behavior. The Heads will then submit the Certification of Conducted Reorientation of Code of the Company and the Recommitment Compliance Certificate of the employees to the Area/Regional Head and retain copies of the said documents for records purposes and shall be available anytime for audit purposes. The Area/Region Head will then submit Certifications based on the certifications submitted to them and forward the same to the ERD on their compliance with the foregoing requirements not later than a month and a half. With regards to identifying and generating new policies and rules for the company, first and foremost, the Top Management should identify the need for the policies and rules. The Top Management may want to have the necessary policies and procedures to ensure a safe, organized, convivial, empowering, nondiscriminatory work place. Yet, they do not want to write a policy for every exception to accepted and expected behavior. The Policy development involves and is relevant for the many employees and not for the few exceptions. There should be bias-free

contingency plan in making these policies so as to avoid the negative impression that there seems to be favoritism and unfair treatment with the employees and they have to consider their employees needs and see to it that their employees will be comfortable with the working environment within the corporation. On an online article we read, we found out some appropriate guidelines to see whether a policy is needed, and here are the summary of some of the guidelines included for making and creating policies: if the actions of employees indicate confusion about the most appropriate way to behave (dress codes, email and Internet policies, cell phone use), if guidance is needed about the most suitable way to handle various situations (standards of conduct, travel expenditures, purchase of company merchandise), when needed to protect the company legally (consistent investigation of charges of harassment, non-discriminatory hiring and promotion), to keep the company in compliance with governmental policies and laws (FMLA, ADA, EEOC, minimum wage), to establish consistent work standards, rules, and regulations (progressive discipline, safety rules, break rules, smoking rules), and to provide consistent and fair treatment for employees (benefits eligibility, paid time off, tuition assistance, bereavement time, jury duty). In making new policies there are certain steps to follow: The Top Management has to determine that a policy is necessary. They should also reconsider gathering information regarding making policies from all available sources particularly online which provides websites with testing policies and even law firm consultations.

After gathering information, they can now develop and write the Policies intended for the company using simple words and concepts which will clearly be understood by the employees complying with it.

This will be followed by the review of the policies, such as through small pilot group feedback-gathering then rewrite the policies based on the feedbacks gathered and consider the use of open forums and open-door policies for the voicing out of the employees opinions on certain policies to be created.

The policies created should then and there be supported by the entire Management which also identifies and conforms to the ordinary employees expectations.

After which, the policies should then be reviewed and approved by the legal consultant/officer of the company so as to compensate for the legal implications and for appropriate wording.

Then implement the policies with the Management acknowledging questions and queries from the employees and be distributed with transparency through a paper/document to which the employees acknowledges receipt, countersigned with all the necessary information stated.

The Top Management should also decide how they will communicate the policies in the future (documentations, etc)

and finally, interpret and integrate the policies and if the policies differ from that of the practice of the entire company then it will be time for rewriting, reviewing and amending of the policies again.

These policies will also be supported by the crucial identification of the Top Managers on the ethical attitudes and issues necessary for the organization/company.

Using Job Redesign will also be applicable to the employees of the institution so as to further enhance the companys flexibility and achievements through its employees. Particularly with the case of Cecile, Job Enlargement which is to increase in the number of similar task assigned to a job as well as Job Enrichment which is the inclusion of opportunities for achievement and other motivators in a job by making the job itself more challenging would then be applicable. This alternative should then be done with certain motivational technique such as by giving incentive or by a well-compensated and fair evaluation which would surely help in boosting the selfactualization of the employees thus making their performances level-up and achieve the goals of the institution in the fastest pace as required by the Top Management. Implementing motivation to the problem involves considering three elements in motivation which are the Creativity, Cashing in on whatever opportunity an employee encounters, and Learning from ones failure. Creativity is present in motivation in the sense that if an employee is creative and believes that his/her ideas will contribute and be useful, then no matter how small it is, the employee will still be, motivated to do the job as this will be the key to success. Cashing in on the opportunities that an employee come across with will help him/her survive only when that employee is proactive towards the windows of opportunities, after all survival of the fittest instinct will come out naturally. Lastly, is the element of learning from ones failure. It is through accepting the fact that even as an employee fails, he/she will still learn from it and still manage to be motivated to do better and defeat his/her failure. This would really be applicable for the plight of Cecile since she does really need to be motivated in order for her to improve her performance. Secondarily to George since based on the given case, he allowed himself to be consumed with his irritation which later on affected his management style and became the trigger to the teams loss in the improvement and performance. With this kind of motivation, it will be up to their own will and

determination to succeed and overcome the obstacles they are facing. Other people will serve only as medium to motivate them into realizing these three keys to success. When motivating an employee, there are certain factors that the Heads of the institution should strictly be careful of with their employees as these factors inherent in an employee will affect the ability to motivate their employees. Such factors are: Laziness, Fear of failure, Low self-esteem, Procrastination, Lack of adequate time, Excessive consideration for what people will say, and Low morale. Boosting the self-confidence of employees will also help in their development particularly through the regulation and modification of their behavior, the use of positive reinforcements, negative reinforcements, extinction and punishment will likely be applicable depending on the necessity of the situation. Seminars and trainings should also be spearheaded by the Top Management through the HRM and Planning Management as these seminars/ trainings will be very vital in the reformation and reorientation of their employees as to their expected changes with their working career particularly with their mastery of the field of work and their personality development. This alternative can also be further enhanced thru Yoga sessions, wellness activities and even through Music and Meditation since these methods will really boost up the positive aura of a person, particularly inspirational songs as it is evident in recent surveys and experimentations, thus creating a balance with his/her personality giving them perfect advantage and positive outlook as to their working environment. Managers and Top executives should also help their boost their employees morale particularly that desire for achievement and success as this will be very advantageous with their institutions growth and success. Even a simple pat at their employees backs or a simple congratulatory

acknowledgement will definitely make a big effect on their employees rather than making negative comments with the performance thus benefiting not just the employee but the institution itself as well as boosting the desire of their employees to continue and strive to always excel and succeed. They should always remember that every person has his/her own way of interpreting the message they are trying to relate so it would be best to take caution with whatever they are going to say, act or do. Simple things and actions can do great changes. And finally, the Management should also conduct social programs and activities such as gatherings, socializations, outreach programs, anniversary parties, wellness activities, sports fest, and tree-planting activities. Some of these programs can be done on intervals of 3 months the least though some can be done only annually or semi-annually. The Top Management should release a Memorandum which will encourage and invite the participation of all employees of the company to best achieve the programs goal of interactive participation and getting to be more acquainted with each and every employee of the company thus developing values such as unity, friendliness, open-mindedness, cooperation, understanding, etc... After all the processes and methods have been accomplished, the Top Management should then monitor the developments within the company and check for improvements if there are better results then assess the results and if the goals are still not met, then they should call for another conference and amend the policies and motivation techniques until all their goals and requirements are satisfied. That would be the process for the long-term solution to this problem. For the short term solution, this would include the involving and setting of the Top Management for meetings with the concerned persons. First, they should call for a meeting with George alone, and then followed by another meeting with Cecile, and a third meeting with the rest of the staff of the evaluation division. During these meetings, the agenda would be to hear the sides

of the story and upon gathering the necessary data and information; the Top Management will now be able to decide amongst them what to do to solve this problem. Finally, they can call for the last meeting which will be pursuing the goal to conciliation between the parties involved and make an agreement which will be compensating the welfare of all the parties involved thus even temporarily, they will make a solution to cool down and start solving the problem on a step by step basis. Also, the Top management should spearhead seminars and trainings which would (1) focus on the personality development of each employee of the evaluation division including George. This would be particular with the attitudes, ethics, preparation for them for stress and problematic periods in their work; (2) focus on the leadership skills and management styles of the heads and managers particularly George. This should develop their understanding of the employees strengths and weakness as well as in balancing the needs and concerns of the employees in line with the goals, high-productivity and organizational efficiency of the Lending institution; and finally (3) focus on the rapport and communication skills between the employees of the institution particularly with the case of George dealing with his staff despite the existence of problems and lapses in the performance of each staff and through the use of media and other forms of communication in order to further enhance and improve their communication skills. Lastly, after the long term and short term solutions have been applied, the Top Management can now asses and evaluate the results to see whether there is effectiveness in the improvement and developments with the over-all performance and working ethics of the employees like George, Cecile and the rest of the staff of the Evaluation Division.