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A PROJECT REPORT ON
SUBMITTED BY: JYOTIRAJ THAKURIA B.TECH (2nd YEAR, MECH.) IIT ROPAR
Welding is a fabrication or sculptural process that joins materials, usually metals and thermoplastics, by causing coalescence. This is often done by melting the workpiece and adding a filler material to form a pool of molten material (the weld pool) that cools to become a strong joint, with pressure sometimes used in conjugation with heat or by itself to produce the weld. Until the end of the 19th century, the only welding process was forge welding, which blacksmith has used for centuries to join iron and steel by heating and hammering them. Arc and Oxyfuel welding were among the first processes to develop late in the century, and resistance welding followed soon after. Welding technology advanced quickly during the early 20th century as World War I and World War II drove the demand for reliable and inexpensive joining methods. Following the wars, several modern welding techniques were developed like Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) as well as semi-automatic and automatic processes such as Gas Metal Arc Welding (MIG or MAG), Tungsten Inert Gas Shielded Arc Welding (TIG), Submerged Arc Welding (SAW), Flux Cored Arc Welding, Electroslag Welding. Development continued with the invention of Laser Beam Welding, Electron Beam Welding, Electromagnetic Pulse Welding and Friction Stir Welding. Today, Robot Welding is commonplace in industrial settings. In most welding procedures metal is melted to bridge the parts to be joined so that on solidification of the weld metal the parts become united. The common processes of this type are grouped as fusion welding. Heat must be supplied to cause the melting of the filler metal
and the way in which this is achieved is the major point of distinction between the different processes. The method of protecting the hot metal from the attack by the atmosphere and the cleaning or fluxing away of contaminating surface films and oxides provide the second important distinguishing feature. For example, welding can be carried out under a shield comprising of a mixture of metal oxides and silicates which produce a glass-like flux, or the whole weld area may be swept clear of air by a stream of gas such as argon, helium or carbon dioxide which is harmless to the hot metals. In the solid phase joining such melting does not occur and hence the method can produce joints of high quality.
Leather Apron It is used to protect the operator’s clothes from burning due to spatter. It also act as a shield to the harmful UV rays. Leather Hand Glove It is used to protect the operator’s hand from burning due to spatter and to handle hot job. It also acts as an insulator. It also act as a shield to the harmful UV rays. Arm Sleeve It is used to protect the user’s clothes and arm from spatter.It also act as a shield to the harmful UV rays. Black Glass It is used mainly in oxyfuel welding. It is a black glass which absorbs the harmful UV rays and protects the user’s eyes from exposure to those rays and spatter. Fire Arrester It is mainly used in Oxyfuel welding. It only allows outflow of gases and prevents inflow, thus protects from explosion.
bent or accidently ejected wire feeded during MIG welding. Welding Goggle (black) It is used during welding or cutting with Oxyfuel welding. It is used to increase the pressure of the gas. it protect our eyes from small hot bits of slag during chipping. Spark Lighter It is used to initiate the combustion of acetylene with oxygen to give the high temperature flame during Oxyfuel welding Cylinder Key It is used to tighten the contact tip holder in Oxyfuel welding. Gas Diffuser It is used to control the characteristics of a fluid at the entrance to a thermodynamic open system. . Gas Nozzle A gas nozzle is designed to control the direction and to increase its velocity as it exits. It is used to converge (concentrate) the outflowing gas so that the flame could be sharp enough. Wire Brush It is used to clean the job before welding otherwise there will be more spatter (spatter is caused by dirty oily jobs) and also after removing the slag. Wire Cutting It is used to cut damaged. Chipping Goggle (white) It is worn during removal of slag from the job.
Hose Clamp It is used to clamp the hose of acetylene and oxygen pipes in Oxyfuel welding. fillet weld throat. excess weld metal. replace hot welded jobs etc. Tong It is used to handle hot job during chipping. misalignment. . angle of preparation. Chipping Hammer It is used to remove slag from the job after welding. Electrode Holder It is used to hold the electrode during Arc welding. It handle is insulated and protects the user from shocks. etc. Gas Welding Blow Pipe It is used to blow the gas mixture of acetylene and oxygen and to regulate the gas flow according to requirement of the flame depending on jobs. It has 5 to 6 holes from which flames come out. Welding Gauge It is instrument to measure welding characteristics like undercut. Screw Driver It is used to tighten any nuts and bolts. fillet leg length. Contact Tip Holder It is part from where flame comes out in oxyfuel welding.
tee. The five basic types of weld joints are the butt. lap. corner. and edge.The weld joint is where two or more metal parts are joined by welding. as shown in figure 3-6. .
. and micro-cracks. This occurs because the spot is heated above the materials upper critical temperature and then essentially quenched. Distortion Porosity & Blow Holes Slag Inclusion Under Cut Incomplete Penetration Excessive Penetration Crater Crack Spatter Lack Of Fusion Arc strike cracking occurs when the arc is struck but the spot is not welded. but if the arc is struck outside of the weld groove then it must be welded over to prevent the cracking. This forms martensite. Usually the arc is struck in the weld groove so this type of crack does not occur. which is brittle.
such as shielded metal arc welding.Welding methods that involve the melting of metal at the site of the joint necessarily are prone to shrinkage as the heated metal cools. The following pictures describe various types of welding distortion: Transverse shrinkage Angular distortion Longitudinal Fillet shrinkage distortion Neutral axis distortion There are two types of inclusions: linear inclusions and isolated inclusions. since the final product is not the desired shape. or chipping. This defect usually occurs in welds that require multiple passes and there is poor overlap between the welds. To prevent slag inclusions the slag should be cleaned from the weld bead between passes via grinding. Linear inclusions occur when there is slag or flux in the weld. Shrinkage then introduces residual stresses and distortion. wire brushing. flux-cored arc welding. It can also occur if the previous weld left and undercut or an uneven surface profile. Slag forms from the use of a flux. . The poor overlap does not allow the slag from the previous weld to melt out and rise to the top of the new weld bead. and submerged arc welding. Distortion can pose a major problem. To alleviate certain types of distortion the workpieces can be offset so that after welding the product is the correct shape. which is why this type of defect usually occurs in welding processes that use flux. but it can also occur in gas metal arc welding.
Lack of fusion is the poor adhesion of the weld bead to the base metal. and electrode manipulation. arc length. Another reason is if a poor technique is used that does not deposit enough filler metal along the edges of the weld. incomplete penetration is a weld bead that does not start at the root of the weld groove. Undercutting is when the weld reduces the cross-sectional thickness of the base metal. causing the edges of the joint to melt and drain into the weld. Incomplete penetration forms channels and crevices in the root of the weld which can cause serious issues in pipes because corrosive substances can settle in these areas. which reduces the strength of the weld and workpieces. this leaves a drain-like impression along the length of the weld. One reason for this type of defect is excessive current. These types of defects occur when the welding procedures are not adhered to. possible causes include the current setting. A third . electrode angle.
these pores may vary in size and are generally distributed in a random manner. 3) Severely clogged gas nozzle or damaged gas supply system (leaking hoses. etc. 2) Excessive shielding gas flow. As seen in Figure 10-4. Atmospheric contamination can be caused by: 1) Inadequate shielding gas flow. excessively oxidized work piece surfaces. The most common causes of porosity are atmosphere contamination. Other causes include too small of an electrode angle. This can cause aspiration of air into the gas stream. excessive arc length.reason is using an incorrect filler metal. because it will create greater temperature gradients between the center of the weld and the edges. fittings. inadequate deoxidizing alloys in the wire and the presence of foreign matter. a dampened electrode. and slow speed. Pores can occur either under or on the weld surface. Porosity is gas pores found in the solidified weld bead. However. .) 4) An excessive wind in the welding area. it is possible that porosity can only be found at the weld center. This can blow away the gas shield.
FUSION WELDING i) RADATION ii) THERMOCHEMICAL iii) ELECTRICAL a. ARC GAS SHIELDED NON CONSUMABLE o CARBON ARC o ATOMIC HYDROGEN o TIG o PLASMA ARC COMSUMABLE FLUX SHIELDED MANUAL METAL ARC SUBMERGED ARC CONTINUOUS COVERED ARC .CLASSIFICATION OF WELDING 1. ELECTRON BEAM b. RESISTANCE ELECTROSLAG c.
FRICTION WELDING c. DIFFUSION WELDING ii) COLD a. ROLL WELDING e. PRESSURE WELDING i) HOT a. INDENTATION b. ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE LAP JOINT SPOT SEAM PROJECTION BUTT JOINT UPSET FLASH b. ROLL BONDING . GAS PRESSURE WELDING d. FORGE WELDING f. FLUX CORED ELECTRODE STUD WELDING 2.
versatile and popular welding methods used. most gas welding is performed by keeping this inner zone tip just above the metal to be welded so that maximum temperature is available for welding. heat is produced by burning a combustible gas. Salient points about oxyacetylene welding: 1. EXPLOSIVE GAS WELDING Gas Welding is one of the most oldest. The flame. The maximum temperature at the tip of inner cone reaches up to 3000-3500°C. which can lead to greater residual stresses and weld distortion. you will find the oxyfuel process adaptable to brazing. Therefore. and heat treating all types of metals Depending on the ratio of O2 to acetylene. most commonly acetylene. cutting. Filler materials are used to supply additional material to the weld zone. Once you learn the basics of gas welding. In the oxyfuel gas welding process . The heat is obtained by combustion of acetylene and oxygen. causes slower weld cooling. ULTRASONIC d. Here primary combustion occurring in the inner zone gives: C2 H2 + O2 → 2CO + H2 + Heat And the second reaction in the outer zone gives: 2CO + H2 + 1.5O2 → 2CO2+ H2O + Heat 2. mixed with oxygen to produce a welding flame temperature of about 3100oC.c. Gas welding is widely used for welding pipes and in maintenance and repair work because of the ease in transporting oxygen and fuel cylinders. since it is less concentrated than an electric arc. three flame are obtained: . though it eases the welding of high alloy steels.
Then a stream of pure oxygen is added to the torch (or the oxygen content of the oxyfuel mixture is increased) to oxidize the iron. In this type of flame acetylene decomposes into carbon and hydrogen and the flame temperature gets reduced.1. Most gas welding operations are carried out by this flame. When ferrous metal is cut. When the ratio in mixture is less than 1 a carburizing flame is obtained. A neutral flame is obtained when the ratio of oxygen and acetylene is 1. Fe + O→ Fe +Q 3Fe + 2O2→Fe3O4+ Q 4Fe+3 O2→2Fe2O 3+ Q Because these reactions cannot take place below 815°C oxyfuel flame is first used to raise the metal temperature where burning can be initiated. Joining operations such asbrazing and soldering which require lower temperature generally use this flame . An oxidizing flame is obtained when this ratio is more than 1. actually burning of oxygen takes place according to one or more of the following reactions. 2. The liquid iron and iron oxides are then expelled from the joint by the kinetic energy of the oxygen gas stream. This type of flame is not suitable for welding of steels since excess oxygen present reacts with carbon in steel and is generally used for welding of copper and its alloys. . 3. Metal is merely melted by the flame of the oxyfuel gas torch and blown away to form a gap or kerf.
and need of preheating ahead of the cut. you will find that arc welding is often more practical and economical than gas welding. A distinct advantage of arc welding over gas welding is the concentration of heat. characteristic of arc welding. Low carbon steel from 5 to 75 mm can be cut. Shielded metal arc welding (fig. oxyfuel produces a relatively large heat affected zone and thus associated distortion zone. sometimes causing heat distortion. If the work is already hot due from the other processes. is an advantage because less heat spread reduces buckling and warping. This heat concentration also increases the depth of penetration and speeds up the welding operation. The concentration of heat. 3-3) is performed by striking an arc between a coated-metal electrode and the base metal.The process is suitable when edge finish or tolerance is not critical because low rate of heat input. ARC WELDING Arc welding is a process that uses an electric arc to join the metals being welded. supply of oxygen through a small diameter pipe is needed to continue cut. In gas welding the flame spreads over a large area. This is called Oxygen Lance Cutting. Once the arc has been established. filler metal. A workpiece temperature of 1200°C is needed to sustain the cutting. therefore. The source of heat in arc welding is produced by the arcing of an electrical current between two contacts. Theoretically heat generated due to burning of Fe is sufficient to continue cutting however due to losses additional heat supply is needed. the molten metal from the tip of the electrode flows . and shielding. All arc-welding processes have three things in common: ma heat source.
The main advantages of shielded metal arcwelding are that high-quality welds are made rapidly at a lowcost. The shield of inert gas prevents atmospheric contamination. In gas shielded arc welding. therefore the process is called shielded metal arc welding. The primary gases used for this process are . shielding it from contamination. thereby producing a better weld. The coating from the electrode forms a covering over the m weld deposit.together with the molten metal from the edges of the base metal to forma sound joint. The primary difference between shielded metal arc welding and gas shielded arc welding is the type of shielding used. both the arcand the molten puddle are covered by a shield of inert gas. This process is known as fusion.
and the techniques you use to fabricate them. the controlling factors are the types of metal you are joining.” Gas shielded arc welding is extremely useful because it can be used to weld all types of ferrous and nonferrous metals of all thicknesses. Now that we have discussed a few of the welding processes available. or carbon dioxide. which one should you choose? There are no hard-and-fast rules. a mixture of these gases is used. and weld various types of joints using the proper welding techniques.helium. cost involved. You will also hear these called “TIG” and “MIG. Study this information carefully because it allows you to follow welding instructions. No matter what welding process you use. nature of the products you are fabricating. argon. . gas welding is widely used for maintenance and repair work in the field. there some basic information you need to know. In general. In some instances. you should probably choose gas shielded metal arc welding to repair a critical piece of equipment made from aluminum or stainless steel. 3-4) and gas metal arc welding (GMAW). On the other hand. read welding symbols. The remainder of this chapter is devoted to this type of information. Because of its flexibility and mobility. The processes used in gas shielded arc welding are known as gas tungsten arc welding(GTAW) (fig.
GMAW is the most common industrial welding process. as well as alternating current. sometimes referred to by its subtypes metal inert gas (MIG) welding or metal active gas (MAG) welding. GMAW was soon applied to steels because it allowed for lower welding time compared to other welding processes. and pulsed-spray. preferred for its versatility. can be used. The automobile industry . Today. Originally developed for welding aluminum and other non-ferrous materials in the 1940s. is a semi-automatic or automatic arc welding process in which a continuous and consumable wire electrode and a shielding gas are fed through a welding gun. spray. Further developments during the 1950s and 1960s gave the process more versatility and as a result. each of which has distinct properties and corresponding advantages and limitations. but constant current systems. The cost of inert gas limited its use in steels until several years later. short-circuiting. speed and the relative ease of adapting the process to robotic automation. A constant voltage. it became a highly used industrial process. direct current power source is most commonly used with GMAW. called globular. There are four primary methods of metal transfer in GMAW.Gas metal arc welding (GMAW). when the use of semi-inert gases such as carbon dioxide became common.
However. and copper alloys. The weld area is protected from atmosphere contamination by a shielding gas(usually an inert gas such as argon). The process grants the operator control over the weld than competing processes such as SMAW. GTAW is most commonly used to weld thin sections of stainless steel and non-ferrous metals such as aluminum. high quality welds. though some welds known as autogenous welds do not require it. Unlike welding processes that do not employ a shielding gas. GMAW. such as shielded metal arc welding. allowing for stronger. GTAW is comparatively more complex and difficult to master and it is significantly slower than other welding processes . and a filler metal is normally used.in particular uses GMAW welding almost exclusively. A constant-current welding power supply produces energy which is conducted across the arc through a column of highly ionized gas and metal vapors known as plasma. magnesium. TIG Welding Gas tungsten arc welding is also known as tungsten inert gas(tig) welding. is an arc welding process that uses a nonconsumable tungsten electrode to produce the weld.
In general. resistance welding are efficient and cause little pollution. the resistance and heat are high and melted metal tend to squeeze out of the weld.Resistance Welding involves the generation of heat by passing current through the resistance caused by contact between two or more metal surfaces . .000 A) is passed through the metal. At high pressure. for a given set of conditions. the resistance decreases and heat is less and smaller weld formed provides lower weld strength. Small pools of molten metal are formed at the weld area as high current (1. At low pressures. two opposing solid cylindrical electrodes are pressed against the joint and two metallic sheets to be welded.00.000A – 1. but their equipment are costly. Spot Welding is a popular resistance welding used to join overlapping metal sheets. Thus. optimum electrode current and electrode pressure are indicated. Here.
limited workpiece deformation. manganese oxide. Weld strength is significantly lower than other welding methods making the process suitable for only certain application. When molten the flux becomes conductive and provides a current path between the electrode and the work. high production rate. calcium fluoride and other compounds.The advantage of the method include effective energy use. It is extensively used in automobile industry with the help of industrial robots. easy automation and no required filler materials. . silica. this thick layer of flux completely covers the molten metal thus preventing sparks and spatter as well as suppressing the intense ultraviolet radiation and the fumes are part of the shielded metal arc welding(SMAW) process. Submerged Arc Welding(SAW) SAW is a common arc welding process. It requires a continuously fed consumable solid or tubular (flux cored) electrode. The molten weld and the arc zone are protected from atmospheric contamination by being “submerged” under a blanket of granular fusible flux consisting of lime.
The process is normally limited to the flat or horizontal fillet welding position(although horizontal groove position welds have been done with special arrangements to support the flux).(5 kg /hr.) have been reported compared to 10 lb. The process is frequently used in high volume application with the help of robots. Although current ranging from 300 to 2000A are commonly utilized. allowing for narrow deep welds and high welding rates. The beam provides a concentrated heat source. Laser beam welding has a high power density (of the order of 1 MW/ cm^2)./hr. .deposition rates approaching 100 lb. however semi-automatic(handheld) saw guns with pressurized or gravity flux feed delivery are available. Constant voltage welding power supplies are most commonly used.) for shielded metal arc welding. LASER BEAM WELDING Laser Beam Welding is a technique used to join multiple pieces of metal through the use of laser.Saw is normally operated in the automotive or mechanized mode./h(45 kg/hr. however constant current systems in combination with a voltage sensing wire feeder are available. Currents up to 5000A have also been used.
MASTER TIG AC/DC-3500W .
Make Input Output Frequency KEMPPI 3ph 50/60 Hz 400V±10% TIG DC.3A/10V-350A/24V TIG AC-10A/20V-350A/24V 60Hz-200Hz PROMIG-5200 WELDING SET .
C. MSF-57 KEMPPI 440v-AC 440V@100% ED 0-25m/min IP-23 4 roll feed .V KEMPPI 3ph-400±15% @80% = 520A @100% = 440A 65V FAST MIG WELDING Set Model Manufacture Input Load Capacity Wire feed speed Degree protection Feeding Mech.Make Input Output O.
C. SIGMA-500c(Programmable) Make Input Output Curent range O.V Weight MIGATRONIC(DENMARK) 3ph±15% 500A at 60% 40A-500A 83V 71Kg Submerged Arc Welding Power Source(DC) .
5mm/min 20-72m/min Plasma Cutting Machine .4mm-4mm 0.R ADOR FONTECH LTD.V.Make Input Output O.C O.V.5-2. 3ph-415 ±15% 100A-800A 71V 20-25V Submerged Arc Welding (Welding Tractor) Input Welding Wire Wire feed rate Welding speed 110 V DC 2.
5-4. Size Quality cut Air pressure PLA-cut 50DP 415v.C Wt. 10kva 10amp-50amp 250V 23kg 490x270x37(mm) 8mm 3.Machine Input powerOutput power O.0kg MIG –MAG Welding Set . 50Hz-3ph.V.
50Hz AC @5% duty cycle 30kva @100% duty cycle 21kva Transformer: natural Air electrode .Make Input Output Spot Welding Machine KEMPPI 380-415V 50-60Hz. 3ph 40amp/12V Model Input Heating Cooling BSW-30P 415V.2ph.
2 1.2 1.9 3.0 A B C BUTT JOINT FILLET JOINT CORNER JOINT MAG MAG MAG FLAT H&V H & V.D .2 100-120 100-110 100-120 15 14 15 3.0 4. E SPEED mm V. M/Min 1.WELDING APPROVAL TEST LOCATION TYPE OF JOINT PROCESS WELDING POSITION WIRE CURRENT VOLTAGE WIRE ᶲ AMPS.
2MM -DO80-90A 100120A -DO350 450 . 5. 2.2MM -DOHORIZONTAL VERTICAL UPWARD DOWNHAND/FL AT OVERHEAD VERTICAL DOWNWARD 220240A 90-100A VOL TAG E 2628 2022 2022 1820 2224 SPEED 480 -DO- 3.15MM 1. AB A*B* FILLET CORNE R FILLET BUTT FILLET CORNE R MAG MAG 3 TO 16MM -DO1. 4. CD EF E*F* MAG MMA W MAG -DO2 TO 16MM 3 TO 16MM -DO3. N LOCATIO N TYPE OF PROCESS RANGE OF APPROVA L SIZE OF WELDING ELECTROD POSITION E WELDING PARAMETERS FOR REFERENCE CURREN T 1.WELDING APPROVAL TEST FIGURE S.
6 2.2 4.0/1.078 0.037 0.4 9.5 MATERIAL THICKNESS WIRE FEED SPEED TRAVEL SPEED SHIELDING GAS .3 1.050 0.0 3. 0. 0.9 1.3 AVERAGE PEAK BACKGROUND ARC CURRENT CURRENT CURRENT VOLTAGE (ELECTRODE) (A) (A) (A) (POSITIVE) 50 150 20 16 60 160 20 17 70 180 20 18 80 200 25 19 90 250 35 21 120 250 150 22 150 250 200 23 120 275 90 24 200 350 150 26 GA 22 20 18 16 14 11 3/16 1/4 3/8 IN.2 1.9 0.2 1.250 0.126 0.275 MM 0.2 1.3 1.8 6.031 0.FILLET 6.9 0.035 MM 0.063 0.2 MM DOWNHAND/FL AT -DO2224 -DO- VARIABLE FREQUENCY VARIATION MATERIAL THICKNESS ELECTRODE DIAMETER IN.188 0. GH BUTT MAG 2 TO 4 MM 1.2 1.9 1.8 0.
4 9.375 MM 0.0 3.2 FILLET OR SQUARE GROOVE FILLET OR SQUARE GROOVE VEE GROOVE VEE GROOVE FILLET 1 IN.125 0. FOR MILD CARBON AND LOW ALLOY STEELS. MM IPM 165 FLOW CHF 40-50 1/16 1.6 30 35 32 40-50 40-50 40-50 .6 3/16 4.2 4. FILLET EQUAL TO THICKNESS.4 1/16 1.8 1 1/16 1.078 0.4 2 2 1 1/16 1. USE ROOT OPENING ½ MATERIAL THICKNESS.6 3/32 2./MIN MM/MIN IN.4 6.4 6.8 6.250 0. OF PAS S ELECTRODE DIA WELDIN G CURREN T AMPSDC 300 ARC VOLTAG E ELEC.031 0.9 1.188 0.GA. 22 20 18 16 14 11 3/16 ¼ 3/8 IN 0.3 1.037 0.050 0.8 0./MIN MM/MIN FT^3/MIN 75 1900 30 760 20 90 2300 30 760 20 115 2900 30 760 20 80 2000 20 500 25 120 3000 20 500 25 200 5000 15 375 25 240 6000 10 250 25 215 5500 9 225 25 300 7500 8 200 25 LITRES/MIN 9 9 9 12 12 12 12 12 12 NOTE: FOR SQUARE GROOVE OR FILLET. POS 24 WIRE FEED TRAVE L SPEED IPM 35 SHIELDING GAS IN 1/8 MM 3.6 2. SHIELDING GAS 95% + 5% OXYGEN MIG/MAG WELDING VARIATION MATERIAL THICKNESS TYPE OF WELD NO.5 FLOW IN.063 0.6 350 325 375 400 450 350 25 24 25 26 29 25 230 210 260 100 120 230 32 40-50 1/4 1/4 1/4 6.
4 1/16 1.1 3/4 19.1 DOUBLE VEE GROOVE DOUBLE VEE GROOVE FILLET FILLET FILLET FILLET 4 1/16 1.6 2.6 3/32 2.4 30 24 26 40-50 40-50 40-50 3/4 19.5 9.7 12. 1) FOR FILLET WELDS.1 24.4 9.4 400 325 375 400 450 350 425 325 375 375 400 450 425 350 425 325 375 350 400 450 425 26 24 25 26 29 25 27 24 26 26 26 29 27 25 27 24 26 25 26 29 27 100 210 260 100 120 230 110 210 269 250 100 120 110 230 105 110 210 230 100 120 110 32 24 28 20 20 40-50 40-50 40-50 40-50 40-50 1/2 12. MATERIAL THICKNESS INDICATES FILLET WELD SIZE.4 24 40-50 5 4 7 6 1/16 3/32 1/16 3/32 1.5 9.4 1.4 350 425 350 425 25 27 25 27 230 110 230 110 24 26 24 26 40-50 40-50 40-50 40-50 NOTE : USE ONLY IN FLAT AND HORIZONTAL FILLET POSITION.7 VEE GROOVE VEE GROOVE FILLET FILLET 3 1/16 1. .6 3/32 2.5 9.4 1/16 1.4 1/16 1.6 3/32 2.1 24.7 3 3 3 3/32 2.1 19.7 12.6 24 40-50 4 3/32 2. 2) SHIELDING GAS IS ARGON PLUS 1% TO 5% OXYGEN.1 3/4 3/4 1 1 19.6 24 40-50 1/2 1/2 1/2 12.5 FILLET VEE GROOVE VEE GROOVE FILLET FILLET 1 2 2 2 1 3/32 2.1/4 3/8 3/8 3/8 3/8 6.6 2.
HANDLING STAINLESS STEEL WHILE WELDING .
Avoid putting scratch. Use only stainless steel wire brushes that never have been used on carbon steel. DON’Ts 1. Avoid stainless steel’s contamination with grinding dust. 8. dirty gloves. 3. Avoid use of only compressed air to blow away dirt and welding slag. Protect the stainless steel from grinding sparks. Shop dust. Tools: hammers. Stack stainless steel on wood or non-metallic material. 9. Electrode should be dry when used. rust or scale. 7. 6.DO’S 1. 5. Clean before welding to remove the effects of: a. 4. Always use the specified electrode & wire dia. oil. 6. Rising temperature under . Avoid walking on stainless steel with dirty shoes or hob nail boots. 8. lubricants. Avoid stacking of stainless steel with sheets/components directly on floor. 2. dent marks on stainless steel sheet. b. Avoid stacking of stainless steel with ferrous metal. Avoid removing of the protective poly firm from the stainless steel sheets unnecessarily. welding spatter. Slag removal is important. 5. for different welding. Stack stainless steel and carbon steel separately. Clean the sheet before doing any process with clean cloth. 4. 3. 9. 7. 2. Handle stainless steel with clean gloves to guard against finger marks. backing bars c. Hydrocarbons: Grease.
11. Protect the surface of stainless steel. 12. Avoid leaving stainless steel sheets on the floor exposed to traffic. Avoid scratching the electrode on stainless steel surface to start the arc. 13. Avoid using off-cuts of sheets for filling welding gaps. 15. Clean oxides to avoid further progress of corrosion. 12. 14. Avoid putting ignition marks Avoid uneven/rough grinding. slag inclusion. 14. 10. cut. lack of fusion. Clean the welding spatter after welding.10. Placing tack welds in an improper sequence can lead to distortion of sheets. and unfinished welding seam increase risk of pit and crevice corrosion. 15. Lifter’s that portion should be stainless steel or nylon which touches the SS. 11. Use correct parameter for good welding. Corrosion resistance improves when ground surface becomes smooth. . Avoid number of beads as overheating of stainless steel causes rust. 13.
Jane. Steven R. Schmid (2001). J. Hicks. Henderson. Upper Saddle River.G.. (1953). Helzer (2005). Balchin (2002). New Jersey: Pearson Education. Health and Safety in Welding and Allied Processes. ISBN 0-8311-3130-6. Lincoln Electric (1994). ISBN 0-87170-780-2. Cary. Serope. ISBN 99949-25-82-2. Scott C. Manufacturing Engineering and Technology. The Procedure Handbook of Arc Welding.K Garg. TTC library . Blunt. Cleveland: Lincoln Electric. ASM International (2003). ISBN 0-201-36131-0. New York: Reinhold Publishing Corporation. Trends in Welding Research. ISBN 0-13-113029-3. Metallurgical Dictionary. New York: Industrial Press. Kalpakjian. John (1999). Prentice Hall. ISBN 1-85573-5385. Howard B. Cambridge: Woodhead. New York. Ohio: ASM International. Modern Welding Technology. Materials Park. Welded Joint Design. Nigel C. Workshop technology &manufacturing process bu S.
I wish to thank Mr. R. basic manufacturing processes and the management system implied here at RCF.Rail Coach Factory. For those engineering students who wish to have good industrial exposure. Being here for training has been a great experience and I Believe that whatever I got to learn here will surely help me in the future. . Tarlok Singh Bhullar and Act Apprentices for supporting me with their knowledge and expertise and infusing with in attitude of a dedicated professional.) and Mr.C Nasa (chief instructor of welding dept. It is a place where excellence has not just been pursued but created too. R. Kapurthala happens to be in the league of the best production premises throughout Asia.K Sharma(chief instructor TTC). this is the place to be. I am also grateful to the various experts who rendered typical and very useful information on the various aspects of coach design & manufacturing. I appreciate the planned manner in which TTC is being run.
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