SECTION-A Teaching Methods and Evaluation Techniques Unit-1
SECTION-B Current Trends and Issues in Higher Education in Commerce in India Unit-1: Development of Higher Education in Commerce A brief History Commerce Education as liberal or vocational education Specialization in commerce Restructuring of Courses Inter-disciplinary approach in Commerce Commerce Education and National Development Financing Commerce Education The need for coordination between academicians and the practitioners of Business and History Commerce Education and Manpower Development Commerce Education and Social Responsibility Unit-2: Institutional Planning Schemes for improvement of teaching Teacher Training, Faculty Improvement Reorientation and Refresher courses Seminars, Conferences, Summer Institutes & Workshops, co-curricular activities Library, Reference and Documentation Service, Optimum Utilization of existing resources, Community Involvement Concept of Accreditation Post Accreditation Quality measures Role of Internal Quality Assurance Cell Best Practices in the Institution Unit-3: General Issues Students Indiscipline Admission Policy in Higher Education Vocationalisation of Education Delinking of University Degrees from jobs First generation Learners and their problems Problem of standards in Higher education Brain Drain Problem Study of Languages and medium of Instruction National Policy on Education Unit-4: Study of Following Organizations in Brief (Study of Institutions of Nati onal Standing) 1) University Grants Commission (UGC) 2) National Assessment Accreditation Council (NAAC) 3) All India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) 4) ICSSR-Indian Council of Social Science Research 5) Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI) 6) Indian Institute of Management (IIM) Ahmadabad 7) Institute of Company Secretaries of India (ICSI) 8) Institute of Cost and Works Accountants of India (ICWAI) 9) Confederation of Indian Industries (CII) 10) Indian Institute of Banking and Finance (IIBF)
Delinking of University Degrees from jobs
The one bedeviling factor, which presents the biggest hurdle to reform the educa tion system in this country, is the insistence of the Government on prescribing a University degree as an essential qualification for a Government job. The day the Government of India drops the requirement of a university degree for those s eeking to join the public services, the rush of candidates seeking admission to universities will abate and things will become more manageable. A university degree might have ensured higher proficiency and commanded respect about fifty years ago. But there has been a striking devaluation of degrees afte r independence, and it is easy to understand and defend the persistent demand th at degrees should no longer be considered essential for jobs. The idea of delink ing jobs from degrees is not a new one. As early as 1956, the Public Service Committee reported that "the degree qualifi cation should be abolished for lower and middle levels of public services (cleri cal jobs and junior officers), though it could continue for top level jobs (seni or officers). The rationale behind the 10+2+3 pattern of edu¬cation was also to ma ke school education adequate for various lower level jobs so that the mad rush f or enrolment with universities could be checked. In 1973, the National Committee on the 10+2+3 educational structure observed, "W hile university education is necessary for senior-level managerial and executive jobs, for tea¬ching and for other purposes such as training scientists, engineers , economists, literary persons, etc., it should not be compulsory for all the re st." The idea of delinking jobs from degrees was incorporated in the Draft National P olicy on Education in 1979 as well as the 1981 declaration of the National Insti tute of Educational Plan-ning and Administration. Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi's categorical statements in favour of the proposal have revived a fresh debate on the issue. As long as the number of students in higher institutions was manageable, even th e existing system of liberal education did some good. It introduced them to new vistas of knowledge, to uncharted worlds of experience. Hence, it promised enlig htened and liberated minds capable of commanding wider perspectives. But with th e com¬mercialisation of education, there has been such a lowering down of academic standards that a university degree is no longer a seal of high quality. It is h igh time to check the prevailing craze for degrees. Since degrees are still held essential for jobs, there is a heavy rush for admis sion to colleges and universities. But those joining higher studies are already aware of the futility of their pursuit. The majority of college students consist of unmotivated and indifferent boys and girls whose sole aim in joining a colle ge is to get a degree, by fair means or foul. These young men and women pollute the entire academic atmosphere. The basic argument advanced in favour of delinking jobs from degrees is that our education system is not job-oriented. University degrees cater to the requireme nt of white-collar jobs and do not im¬part any professional competence. But these jobs can be satisfac¬torily handled by boys and girls even with school level educa tion. Then why go to the College or University at all? Another aspect of the same argument is related to the recruitment methodology. M ost of the jobs are filled through competitive examinations. Later, orientation programmes are conducted for candidates selected on the basis of their performan ce in the competitive examinations. These programmes familiarise them with speci fic job requirements and are more useful than any degree course. It is difficult to understand where a degree fits in this scheme. There are seine conservative thinkers who hold that a university degree is essen tial for certian specialized fields of jobs and activities, such as training sci entists, engineers, doctors, economists, literary artists and connoisseurs and a dministrative jobs. There is some degree of truth and weight in this. But did Ar chimedes or Newton, or Shakespeare or Valmiki or Tulsidas possess a university d egree? Would the world have got results that are more marvellous if Leonardo de Vinci had been subjected to a rigorous course in a University? Prescribing highe r bat inessential qualifications is sheer and colos¬sal waste of human resources. It needs no father arguments to justify the need of delinking jobs from degrees.
it is necessary that jobs should be delinked from degrees so that the prospecti ve candidates may not consider degrees as important as they consider them today. zest for higher education will be extremely negligible and h igh¬ly educated people will not enter service. With this type of attitude the young peo ple belonging to the middle class society will always try to go for higher educa tion. In this manner majority of the candidates hailing from villages and backward are as would never get a chance to enter service. ease burden on scarce financial resources and restore. The ability of the candidate alone should d
. Degrees may not necessary for jobs but they will de¬finitely become a symbol of social status. we will be keeping the opportunities for taki ng jobs open to even those who might have discontinued their studies because of the unavoidable reasons. Whatever.oriented and that the knowledge th e students acquire is not useful to them in practical life. Various arguments are put forward to delink degrees from jobs. Conse¬quently neither the teachers take intere st in neither teaching nor the students. There is a great mania for acquiring degrees and so the colleges and the univ ersities are crowded with students. devote much attention to their studies. If we want to make education purposive. their education becomes irrelevant as soon as they enter into service.oriented courses and SSC. The best way is to h ave job . Perhaps by delinking jobs from degrees. This will discourage the candidates from entering colleges and universities. 2. 3. that there should be no basic academic qualif ication for taking up jobs. Th ere are many intelligent young men and women who cannot pursue higher education because of pecuniary difficulties. Delinking of University Degrees from jobs The proposal of delinking degrees from jobs is not a new one. it needs a perso n who understands the things clearly and executes them properly. The Nat ional Committee on the educational structure (10+2+3) also wanted the Government of India to delink degrees from jobs. we may not be able to achieve what we want to achieve. This means tha t acquiring degrees is a great national loss. This view was also expressed in 1982 by t he National Institute of Educational Planning and Administration. Different jobs with the exception of professional jobs have nothing to do wit h whatever they study at the college or at the University. there will be a method of selecting c andidates for jobs. young men and women rush to colleges. 2. Since degrees are indispensable to many jobs. make it more meaningfu l and more job-oriented so that there is a smooth channelization of young people from school into their professional life.The real need of the hour is to revamp school education. A large number of the young people have to give up thei r studies be¬cause of the financial difficulties or because lack of educational fa cilities of many other factors which are beyond their control. In other words. Arguments against: 1. Education definitely enlarges the outlook of a person and his power of unders tanding becomes better. This will eliminate unneces¬sary wastage of time and energy. By delinking jobs from degrees. that will be a competitive examination and in tha t examination candidates with lower qualifications will not be able to do well. Do you think that the Degrees should be delinked from Jobs? Arguments for: 1. The Public Service Committee reported in 1956 that the degree qualification should be abolished fo r clerical jobs and for the appointment in the posts of junior officers. In India the middle class society is trying to imitate higher cla ss and so they copy their ways of life. Those who support it argue that today's education is not job . A person seeking a job should have work¬ing knowledge of the different aspects of the job. The purpose of education is frustrated. Students having no through with good marks. Degrees and marks are not the real measureme nts of learning and intelligence. Even if jobs are delinked from degrees. If degrees are delinked from jobs. Obviously. may be the nature of the job. And only those students who really ne ed them should pursue higher courses. 3. In order to keep their hopes alive it is necessary. This reduces the standard of education an d efficient functioning of colleges.
At present a boy or a girl who has passed SSC in the first division does not know how to write a letter in English without errors. According to a UNO report. therefore. West Germany. Canada. UK. scientist and other trained persons from the under-developed countries to a dvancing countries. Every year. we come to the conclusion tha t a graduate or a post-graduate will be much more efficient either as a clerk or as a junior officer than the one who has passed SSC. Af ter seeing. We. the press ure in the field of higher education can be reduced and the universities can ser ve better candidates. a graduate or a post-g raduate has received helps him greatly to discharge his duties efficiently. One who has been under the care and guidance of many intellectuals for three or five years in a college or a university can fare bet ter than one who has passed SSC and who has passed a test conducted by a Public Service Commission or by some other recruiting agency. Canada. UK. every year thousands of experts are m igrating from backward countries to advanced countries like USA. But the advanced countries are utilizing their service s without spending a single penny on their training. scientists and othe r intellectuals leave India and migrate to foreign countries. etc for monetary gains and facilities for hi gher research. Most of the students who go abroad for higher studies do not return to India. The children from these classes will find t hemselves in a tight corner. The efficiency of a government office depends on the efficiency of the clerks working there. First of all. If the proposed delinking is down. all the backward countires are suffering from this problem. rules and pr ocedure. Ger many etc. engine ers. Some of them are placed on quite lucrative and h igh posts.etermine his future and not degree.S. engineers. College education will become useless in the eyes o f students and it will intensify the present unrest among the youth. there is the
. They generally go to U. India is also suffering from this brain drain seriously at the pre sent moment. If the people who have passed SSC alone are appointed on government ser vice there will be inordinate delay in the disposal of files. thousands of highly talented doctors. Circumlocution off ices will make the government unpopular. He should not bungle. Brain Drain Problem: Brain Drain means the migration of highly qualified experts like doctors. It is at the graduate and post-graduate level that a young man or a woman begins to think for him or herself or feels capable of thinking. The under-developed countries are spending millions of rupees on the t raining of these experts. it is a net gain to the adva nced countries. The training. Thus brain drain is a direct loss. Many Indians are teaching at various US Universities and other I nstitutions of higher learning. think that the proposed delinking is not prudent. Clerica l work is not child's play. US is the biggest gainer from the loss of India due to brain drai n. More or less. The delinking will ex pedite the rush for employment from a very early stage. to the und er-developed and poor countries. The university education he has had "prepares him to fill any post with credit and t o master any subjects with facility". On the other hand. There are also arguments against the delinking. of trained experts in many fields. it will res ult in suppressing the poor and lower middle classes who get their knowledge of different subjects only in colleges. Lately the business to be transacted in most of the government offices has increased considerably. There are so many causes of the brain drain in India. It will affect the effic iency of the civil service. If it is introduced. the affluent life of foreign countries they lose all interest in the ir own country. Acts. A clerk has to study many orders. After examining the pros and cons of the question.A.
Thus they can earn the gratitude of their people.A. They should play an important role in f uture progress of our country and share the honour of participating in this sacr ed task.S. These people should not be tray their own nation by serving foreign nations. These technical and other talented reasons whom we lose every year. The stipends in foreign countries are suffi cient enough. Let every Indian scientist. are give special facil ities there. there is the advantage that while learning a person can also earn his own living. There is another attraction of leading a higher standard of living in foreign co untries. Thus the talented experts like to seek new pastures abroad. depletes a country's intellectual resources and tells on national life. in the field of scientific research beg an to attract men of science and talent from other Countries. Even a talented person cannot get job. engineers and scientists owe a duty to their motherland. Great Britain. A frugal Indian Student living there can also save something to se nd home. even the people should also come forward and cooperate with the Government in solving this problem. can greatly help in the development of our natural resources. because the technical experts and intellectuals. The only difference we s ee today is that now the talented and educated persons migrate of their own acco rd.. U. e ngineer and technician share the privilege of participating in the noble task of building nation. There are enough opportunities for all the Indian scientists and engineers set tled abroad. There is no doubt that India is having vast natural and man power resources. After the war. This accounted in the main for the flight or defection or let us says migration of talent from the underdeveloped countries to these advanced nations. R. In foreign countries. The doctors. The country has already achieved the nuclear status as well as become a space power . can raise him from obscu¬rity unless he has ind ustry. Today thousands of young India n scientists and technicians are devoted the cause of rebuilding our nation. India is lacking i n facilities for higher research work. the problem of 'Brain-drain' is not peculiar to the present age of ours . S. if they come back to India. Our nation is spending huge amounts of money on their training. There is no doubt that India is bound to become one of the most industrialised a nd scientifically advanced countries in the world. One striking feature of this problem of Brain-drain is that it is a global pheno
. It existed even in Medieval times when great conquerors carried away not only hoards of gold and rich treasures from the vanquished countries. Germany etc. the stupendous advance made by U. attracted by the glitter and glamour of better emoluments and amenities. "No man's genius. The parents of the students should not e ncourage them to go abroad and settle there even if they are paid high salaries. The government must take speedy steps to lure back home these talented sons of I ndia who are living abroad. it is loosely employed to describe a ll migration of educated and talented persons to countries abroad in search of b etter careers even though their services may be badly needed in their native lan d. These experts can surely help in making India a grea t power in the world. and thus. S. opportunity and also a patron to recom¬mend him. however shining. The top appointments are quite few in Ind ia. but they also t ook away men of talent and genius as a matter of right. this exodus of talent. the problem of Brain-drain is a product of the revolu¬tion in science and t echnology inspired by the Second World War and speeded up by the discovery and u se of the nuclear energy. However." —PLINY. If both these resources are put to the maximum utilization astounding advancement c an be achieved in all fields. Today. the Younger The term 'Brain-drain' has recently come into vogue for describing the flight of talent from our country to another. Often. In this connection..unemployment problem.
and (iii) the loss of one single country is a colossal gain to the worl d at large. The Government of India set up the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research . such advanced courses of training are de signed to benefit the host country. astrophysicist Dr. The Scientific and Technical Personne l Division of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (GSIR) issued in 1962 the 'Indians Abroad Roster' which gives an approximate figure of 29. After a promising young-man has complete d his training. Hargobind Khurana was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1968. do not yield any results because (i) such cases are only exceptions and not the general rule . So they are forced to seek voluntary exile to settle in . More often than not. (ii) the distinction and achievement these men of genius secured in their land of repatriation could not have been possible. India. An overwhelming majority of such repatriates go abroad as students seek ing academic. Bu t these discus¬sions.I. for it is a global issue. doctors. On the nationa l level. this does not reflect the magnitude of the problem. too. engineers.menon. However. Let us also analyze the reasons which prompt such people to leave the land of th eir birth for foreign shores. affecting almost every country. The problem of Brain-drain should be tackled at national and international level on a broad-based and rational pattern.S.S. he usually expects work which should not only bring in enough mo ney and other emoluments but also give him sufficient professional satisfaction. Fa cts and figures are put forward to emphasize the terrible loss being caused to t he country as a result of this phenomenon. The C. has been facing this problem and it is discussed from time to time in a rather casual and cursory manner. S. It is revived with afresh momentum when some Indian repatriate in another country a chieves some distinction in his field of work. should ameliorate the working conditions of scien
. this becomes the main deciding factor for the emigrant. a country like India. Norway-b orn U. Naturally. such an education has no market i n their native countries. they cannot be accommodated there . or of much value. Cases like these provoke and set in motion 'long drawn debates on the subject of Brain-drain. a yawning discrepancy in salary and emoluments and a severe lack of research-cum. S. Chandrashekbara came to India to deliver the S econd Nehru Memorial Lecture in New Delhi. and s o. Very often. when Dr. It caught the headlines when Dr. except for blaming these men of genius for lack of patriotic telling and sense of duty to their land of birth and for cupidity. this statistics is not factually accurate.workshop facilities for the highly skilled and specialized scient ists. But bureaucracy fails to cope wit h such people for it lacks the intellectual equipment and sensibility needed to handle such volatile human material. Lars Onsager. teachers and technical personnel migrating to foreign countries. The research workers and men of genius are men out of the ordinary and their work is of an extraordinary nature. and also when the famous Indi a-born U. in their land o f birth. But what is reall y alarming is the in¬formation that the average age of migrants is between 20 and 40 years. Dr. Is it merely the enchantment and glamour of life i n more affluent coun¬tries. or is it the search for a more satisfying professional career. citizen was awarded Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1968. scientific or technological education which is sadly lacking in th eir own countries. install ed in 1958 the scheme of scientists' pool as a device for bringing back highly q ualified Indian nationals from abroad. Jayant Narlikar discovered his Hoyle-Narlikar Theory. the Brain-drain coming to about 3 per cent of the skilled personnel available in India. the pattern of Brain-drain has caught the public eye very recently. Similarly. and quite obviously.the country of their learning. One more factor deserves consideration. In India. This means that India is losing the cream of the intelligentsia at the most productive period of their life. with other factors acting as catalytic agents.R..000 sk illed scientists. partly with a view to meeting the problem of Brain-drain. On papers this scheme has been doing some service but in actual practice the scheme has flopped owing to various simple r easons viz. But a greater contributing factor to this problem of Brain-drain is the unimagin ative handling of the issue by the most callous and unimaginative bureaucracy of the country.
They must also be given opportunities for the bes t possible utilization of their talents. technological and educ ational infrastructure. India has b een spending millions of rupees every year on their training and education. It also reflects our mora l degrada¬tion and utter selfishness. India has spent a grea t amount of her income and wealth in creating scientific. engineers an d technologists in our country who suffer from the lack of proper employment opp ortunities. manpower and mental abilities. by intellectuals. highly qualified professionals like scientists. A big percentage of our national income is being spent on the educat ion and training of these young men and women. and that they will not be provided jobs befitting their talen
. Moreover. The problem is really very serious and must be addressed immediately. the students who go abroad for higher education and research seldom come back. doctors. as highly skilled professionals and scientists. experts. This huge outflow of our scientific. enjoying a luxu rious life. It means depletion of intellectual. skills. The prevailing unemployment and under-employment are the other reasons for this brain drain. Almost all the developi ng and underdeveloped nations have been suffering from this problem since long. No talent. Th is one-way traffic is the result of a deep. technology. No doubt. promising and bri ght professionals and scientists. comprising of lack o f proper employment opportunities. emigrated to the West just because we failed to recognize their geni us and did not provide them with proper research facilities. in search of greener pastures and better career opportunities. they migrat e to rich and developed lands. computer science. especially from developing and underde veloped countries to developed ones. professional and techn ical resources of one country and enrichment of another. But they cannot b e held solely responsible for this sorry state of affairs. etc. They leave their motherland and country of origin in the lurch and settle down in the West. The reasons for this massive exodus of our national talent are quite obvious. India is no exception. Many of our best boys and girls go abroad for higher studies and researc h. This exodus of our young. to developed countries of the West. like medicine. e ducation.tists and equip the laboratories with latest technology. technological and educational infrastructure. research facilities. After the completion of their research and studies. technic al. like Harboring K oran. business management and human resource d evelopment. comfort and better career opportunities. This results in a great national waste in terms o f money and manpower. however patriotic. can exist and prosper in frustration and unempl oyment. Free sample essay on The Problem of Brain Drain in India. ‘ India has spent a great amount of her income and wealth in creating scientific. scientific and mental health of the country. There are many young and talented scientists. doctors. But the matter does not end there. But there are no commensurate retu rns because of this brain drain and outflow of talent. the co untry gaining by Brain-drain must compensate the losing country by sending her s cientists in return. Thousands of Indian scientists. And when they are in a position t o serve the country. Many of our great scientists. is a matter of great concer n. It is nothing short of a national tragedy that these perso nnel. they prefer to settle dow n there because they know that their capacities and capabilities would remain un der-utilized here. The departure of these highly talented and trained people.rooted malaise. trained and educated at the expense of the Indian tax-payers. It has a touch of treacherousness that many of our young men and women turn their backs on their beloved motherland because of the lure of money. should leave the country at the very first opportunity. Their patriotism is beyond any shadow of doubt but it will grow weak and wither away soon for want of nourishment and proper employment opportunitie s. has a detrimental effect on the economic. job-satisfaction and rec ognition of merit and excellence. doctors. technical and managerial manpower is common and widespread in all the fields and professions. Brain drain may be defined as emigration. engineers. forming the intell ectual backbone of the nation. economists and other technic ally trained persons. engineering. engineers and other highly qualified and trained persons have been immigrating to the advanced and develop ing countries of Europe and America. Internationally..
After enjoying the comforts. etc. salaries and other such facilities. government. e tc. Britain or Germany. by creating attractive. should be eliminated. India should not only check the flight of talent but also lure back the thousand s of our talented scientists. can earn their living easily while learning. It has to be checked on two fronts. They seldom return to India. proper research facilities and affluence abroad. national feeli ng and a high sense of duty towards India. Canada . educationists. It canno t be solved with half-hearted measures and efforts. technologist and technician can take part in this noble task of taking the cou ntry forward.ts and training. and poor working conditions in India. We should also create such conditions as may facilitate the return of those who have settled abroad. it is essential that we crea te proper job opportunities. doctors. doctor. If a few of them return. planners. medical and engineering institutions. technology. It is high time that our leader s. The de veloped countries should pay the affected countries because it is a great boon t o them. It is high time that we take concrete and immediate st eps to check this brain drain because India is one of the worst hit countries by this intellectual exodus. students. poor and appalling working conditions. satisfying and meaningful job opportunities in the coun try. Unless we create a proper work culture. th ese young men and women are bound to suffer from frustration because of meager s alaries. engineer. The problem of brain drain is really very serious and multidimensional. but the real loss to the country is in long term dividends and benefi ts as these people go there and settle for good. The problem is really very serious and has also attra cted the attention of the U. they are given sufficient support to continue their studies smoothly. computer software. scientist . etc. job opportunities and handsome salaries. In recent years the outflow of our talented personnel to oil-rich countries of the Middle-East has been a matter of concern. It is really tragic that we fail to recognize our own tale nts and applaud them only when the developed and advanced countries of the West put their stamp of recognition and appreciation. medicine. technicians. inadequate research facilities. No doubt they earn and send back huge valuable foreign exchange. it is almost impossible to check and stop this brain drain. India is already a power to be reckoned with and soon there will b e sufficient opportunities for our gifted and talented professionals and young m en and women. The opening up of its economy and liberalizatio n of industrial and technological sectors will make it one of the most industria lized and scientifically advanced nations of the world. etc. finance. It is in our best interest that this brain drain is checked and the outflow of t alent is discouraged. Consequently. We should stop the outflow of our scientists. In the United States. inspired by patriotism. decent working conditions and top positions. It has suggested that developing nations should b e properly and adequately compensated for the loss caused by brain drain. industrialists and others put their head s together to create suitable job and research opportunities so as to absorb our highly skilled. foreign institutional investors and others are park ing their huge funds in India. And so. Its. bureaucratic interference. India is bound to become a major world and industrial power sooner rather than later. It is almost impossible to stop this brain drain unless we considerably improve our li ving standards. talented and gifted graduates and post-graduates coming out of universities. The policy covers elementar
. increasing considerably. The multinational companies. But the suggestion is neither practicable nor acceptable as it involves many complexities and controversies. the number of positions in the indu stry. science. Nepotism. National Policy on Education he National Policy on Education (NEP) is a policy formulated by the Government o f India to promote education amongst India's people. from developed countries. Bes ides. But in India all these are lacking. The need of the hour is that merit and excellence is given its due place of prid e. they ultimately face frustration and unemployment resulting in great disillusionment and dissatisfaction.N. working condit ions. now each and every scientist. T o attract our talented men and women back to India.
 The new policy called for "special emphasis on the removal of disparities and to equalise educational opportunity. adult education.V. the Union government formed the National Council of Educational Research and T raining (NCERT) as an autonomous organisation that would advise both the Union a nd state governments on formulating and implementing education policies. The polic y called for focus on learning of regional languages. To achi eve these. incentives for poor families to send their chil dren to school regularly. to promote economic and social development at the grassr oots level in rural India robin. The first NEP was promulg ated in 1968 by the government of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. the policy c alled for use and learning of Hindi to be encouraged uniformly to promote a comm on language for all Indians. The NPE called for a "child-centred approach" in primary educat ion. The Union government established the University Educat ion Commission (1948–1949) and the Secondary Education Commission (1952–1953) to dev elop proposals to modernise India's education system. based on the philosophy of Indian leader Mahatma Gandhi. with a un iform educational system. recrui ting more teachers from the SCs. India's first Minister of Education. 1985.the instruction of the E nglish language. the policy called for expanding scholarships. 1986 Having announced that a new policy was in development in January. The Nehru government sponsored the development of high-quality scient ific education institutions such as the Indian Institutes of Technology.y education to colleges in both rural and urban India. Scheduled Tribes (ST) and the Scheduled Caste (SC) communities. Narasimha
. the Indian government sponsored a varie ty of programmes to address the problems of illiteracy in both rural and urban I ndia. and launched "Operation Blackboard" to improve primary schools nationwide. which was considered an essential part of India's cult ure and heritage. 1968 Based on the report and recommendations of the Education Commission (1964–1966). Although the decisio n to adopt Hindi as the national language had proven controversial. as stipulated by the Constituti on of India. the national language. The policy also called for the creation of the "rural university" model. which had been created in 1985. the official language of the state where the school was based. envisaged st rong central government control over education throughout the country. • universal retention of children up to 14 years of age. t he government of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi announced the first National Polic y on Education in 1968. The Resolution on Scientif ic Policy was adopted by the government of Jawaharlal Nehru. outlining the "three langu age formula" to be implemented in secondary education . the gove rnment of Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi introduced a new National Policy on Educat ion in May.[ 4] The policy expanded the open university system with the Indira Gandhi Nationa l Open University. In 1961 . India's first Prime Minister. 1986. Maulana Abul Kalam Azad. and the better training and qualification of teachers. The NPE of 1968 called for education spending to increase to s ix percent of the national income. Language education was seen as essential to reduce the gulf between the intelligentsia and the masses. and • a substantial improvement in the quality of education to enable all children to achieve History Since the nation's independence in 1947. The policy called for fulfilling compulsory education for all children up to the age of 14. and Hindi. 1992 The 1986 National Policy on Education was modified in 1992 by the P." especially for Indian w omen. It emphasizes three aspects in relation t o elementary education: • universal access and enrolment. which called for a "radical restructuring" and equalise educational opportunities in order to achieve national integration and greater c ultural and economic development. and the second b y Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi in 1986. development of new institutions and providing housing and services. The policy also encouraged the teaching of the a ncient Sanskrit language.
t here has been considerable expansion of education in the country at all levels. This also solves problems of overlaps and r educes physical. After studying the v iews and suggestions received form various quarters. equality of sexes. The system will be based on a national circular framework. In order to neutralize the accumulated distort ion of the past. could not be implemented mainly due to lack of financial and administrative support. Scheduled Tribes. up to a given level all students. A vast programme of adult and continuing education is proposed t o be implemented. Th is takes care of varying admission standards in these programmes and helps in ma intenance of professional standards. there will be a well-conceived edge in favor of women education which will be used as an agent of basic change in their status. The last commission on Education was set up under the chairmans hip of Dr. observance for small fairly norms and internation al co-operation and peaceful coexistence. irrespective of caste. Special measure s are contemplated for education of Scheduled Castes. protection of environmen t. In 2005. creed. sex have access to education of a co mparable quality. D. a new education policy was formulated in 1986 and it is known as 'National Policy on Education'. mental and financial burden on students and their parents due t o multiplicity of entrance examinations. 1985. Recent Developments • Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA)/Right to Education (RTE) • National Programme for Education of Girls at Elementary Level NPEGEL • Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) • Inclusive Education for the Disabled at Secondary Stage (IEDSSIEDSS) • Saakshar Bharat (Saakshar Bharat)/Adult Education  • Education is a continuous process which aims to prepare a person to play his rol e as an enlightened member of the society. Government of India vide Resolution dated 18 October 2001 has laid down a Three – Exam Scheme ( JEE and AIEEE at the National Level and the State Level Engineering Entrance Exa minations (SLEEE) for State Level Institutions – with an option to join AIEEE).Rao government. For admission to Engineering and Architecture/Planning programmes. Since the adoption of 1968 policy. Sev eral Commissions under the chairmanship of well known educationists have been se tup in the past. Voluntary efforts for the education of the disabled will be encouraged. Common core shall be desig ned to promote democracy. The common educational structure of 10+2+3 has been accepted. • The new policy will lay special emphasis on the removal of disparities and to eq ualize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh adopted a new policy based on the "Common Minimum Programme" of his United Progressive Alliance (UPA) government. India is trying to restructure its educ ation policy to suit the needs of technological and industrial developments. independent and d eveloping India. it was announced that the Government w ould publish a document on education which would form the base for new education policy for the country. socialism. Programme of Action (PoA). Many of the formulation of 1968 policy. Minimum levels of learning will be lai d down for each stage of education. On the basis of its recommendation National Pol icy on Education was last declared in 1968. minoriti es and the handicapped. The system of education introduced by the British Government in India was not suitable to needs of free. Since our independence. 1986 envisaged conduct of a common entrance examination on all Ind ia basis for admission to professional and technical programmes in the country. In the case of higher and technical educatio n steps will be taken to facilitate inter¬regional mobility by providing equal acc ess to every Indian of requisite merit regardless of his place of birth. it means all round de velopment of personality of a person.
. In other words. removal of social barriers.S. immediately after the new government of Rajiv Gandhi came to power. Accordingly "Challenge of Education—a policy per¬spective" was published by the Ministry of Education in August. however. In January 1985. The political and socio-ec onomic changes since then and growth of population made the government to think and announce a new education policy. • The concept of a National System of Education implies that. 1992 under the National Policy on Edu cation (NPE). of those who have been denied equality so far. Kothari in 1964. which contains a comm on core along with other component that are flexible.
study programmes are recognised for living up to a set of mi nimum standards for relevance and quality. humanities and social sciences. A large and systematic programme of no n-formal education will be launched for school drop-outs. Equally. It is also proposed to establish an All India Educa-tion Service. For these purpose long term planning and management perspective of education is to be evolved. • The implementation of New Education Policy will require huge sums of money. asking the beneficia ry communities to maintain school building. It i s proposed that resources will be raised through donations. It is proposed that vocational co urses cover 10% of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25% by 1995. The m ain task is to strengthen the base of the pyramid. What is accreditation? With accreditation. Appraisals at short intervals are also required to be made to ascertain the progress of implementation and the trends emerging from time-to-time. but keeping the scheme flexible. • The proposed education policy and its implementation is to be reviewed every fiv e years.• The new thrust in elementary education will emphasize two aspects : (i) universa l enrollment and universal retention of children upto 14 years of age and (ii) a substantial improvement in the quality of education. it is important to ensure that those at the top of the pyramid are among the best in the world. stress has been laid on improvement of existing u niversities and institutions.
. Accreditation is. These school are to become 'catalysts of a nationwide pr ogramme of school improvement. Principle of accountability in relation to given objectives and norms shall be established. The co urses and programmes are proposed to be redesigned to meet the demands of specia lization. • Secondary education begins to expose students to the differentiated role of scie nce. Open university system will be further extended. • Vocational education will be a distinct stream. Conscious raising and a bent of healthy min d and imbibing human and cultural values will be brought about through appropria tely formulated curricula. supplies of some consumables. an academic assessment process which is independent of p olitical and other institutional interests. Degrees are to be delinked from jobs in selected areas. The present policy i s intended to intensify the nation wide effort in Human Resource Development. thus. It would prepare students for id entified occupations covering several areas of activity. raisin g fees at the higher level of education and effecting some savings by the effici ent use of facilities. The accreditation method involves a d irect assessment of whether a study programme or an institution meets a number o f predefined quality criteria. The accreditation system establishes a systematism in the external quality assurance of higher education . which might touch a bill ion people at the turn of the century. Pace-setting schools (called Navodya Vidhyalayas distinct from the Kandriya Vidhyalayas) will be established in various parts of the country on a given pattern with full scope for innovati on and experimentation. The children with special talent or aptitude will be provided opportunities to proceed at a faster pace. According to Policy paper the main emphasis will b e on the consolidation and expansion of facilities in these institutions. Educational institutio ns to be given autonomy and non-governmental agencies and voluntary effort is to be associated. • Under the new policy system of planning and management of education is proposed to be overhauled on a high priority basis. Actual requirements will be worked out from time-to-time by close monitoring and review. for children from vill ages and localities without schools. th ey may be made available after class VII also. At the national level Cultural Advisory Board of Edu cation will play a pivotal role in reviewing educational development. • In regard to higher education. provision will be made for essential facilities in primary schools. Accreditation is characterised by resulting in an authoritative approval/non-approval of a study programme. These courses would nor mally be provided after the secondary stage. working boys and girls who cannot attend wh ole-day schools.and is to supplement the internal quality assurance at the individual educational institu tions.
The quality is measured in terms o f the number of staff awarded in their research activities (in national and or i nternational levels. Barnet (as quoted by BAN-PT in General Guideline for Accreditation of Higher Edu cation. and student profile. Postgraduate st udy programs. or research funds obtained by the institution and or its individual staff. academy. and hi gher education institution accreditation. institute. pages 20-21) points out there are at least four meaning or concept s of the nature of higher education institution. and focused to the same aspects.Basic Concept of Accreditation Tuesday. Higher education institution quality is determined by performance and achie vements on the institution’s staff in research.g. polytechnic). and Institutional applied different set of standards. Dimensions a. higher education is interpreted as a process. The criteria for higher education accreditation are varied due to the variation of interpretation of the higher education nature. e. study program accreditation.
. The student-staff ratio and student fe es are also used as institution success indicators. A. It is a kind of external evaluation of related institution. i. These types of higher educ ation institution have their own specific characteristics concerning their funct ions. The Indonesia’s higher education institutions have certain characteristics contain ing components of the four types of higher education institution concepts. accreditation of Diploma/Undergraduate study program. a) Higher education institution as a producer of qualified manpower. The two models are conducted based on the same dimensions and standards. In this case. b) Higher education institution as a training institution for researcher car eer. the number of students and graduates. management system. and the success is measured in terms of the graduate s absorption in the related community as labor force (employment rate) and somet imes it is also measured in terms of graduates’ income level in their career. Input b. and their study programs. Outcomes B. d) Higher education institution as a vehicle for the efforts to enrich human life. or the number of scientific publica tions in accredited scientific journals or magazines. c) Higher education institution as an efficient organization for educational management. Institutional success is measured in terms of speed of growing number of students and variety of offered programs. obtaining Nobel Prize). Models of Accreditation BAN-PT adopts two accreditation models. college. Accreditation Standards Initially. Accreditation is understood as a decision of quality standard and evaluation of an educational institution (higher education institution) by an external agency. 23 June 2009 07:18 administrator Accreditation is known as a process of deciding quality standards. and assessing and evaluating institutional performance based on the decided standards. Process c. Output. institution includes higher education institution (univers ity. and the students are consid ered as raw input. In hig her education system. 2005. and the graduates are considered as output with certain value in the related job market.e. Its quality is measured in terms of the increase of available resou rces and fund. program contents.
3. and by 2010. Program management and governance 3. Lecturer and supporting staff 6. Governance 8. Graduates 14. i . Facilities and infrastructure 6. Learning system 10. Human resource. Leadership 2. publication. Infrastructure and facilities 6. Human resource 4. Academic atmosphere 11.Fifteen standards were applied for Higher Education Institution accreditation. objectives. 7. Curriculum 5. aims and objective of study program 2. Academic atmosphere 11. community service. Vision. 1. Learning process and evaluation of student achievement 9. Governance. aims and objectives 2. Instructional system 10. instruction. Research. Study programs Eleven standards for Doctor Study Program accreditation: 1. Program management 9. Curriculum 5. 1. 6. aims. and partnership. Supporting funding 7. all levels of study program and higher education institution will apply t he same accreditation standards as follows. Information system 12. leadership. Graduates 14. facilities. Academic atmosphere 11. identity. Facilities and infrastructure 7. vision. Curriculum 5. Management system 9. Aspects to Be Assessed
. Information system 12. Research. C. 5. mission. Since 2009. Governance 8. Finance. and information system. Fourteen standards for Diploma. Funding 8. Student and graduate. infrastructure. Graduates and other products. and Master’s Study Program accredit ation: 1. Quality assurance system 13. management system. community service. Student affaires 3. Research and dissertation 10. 4. Integrity. Financing 7. and attaining strategies. Vision. 2. Curriculum. Students and guidance service 4. and academic atmosphere. undergraduate study program and institutional accreditations.e. Quality assurance system 13. Research and community service 15. and other products. Undergraduate. and quality assurance. Faculty members and supporting staff 4. thesis. mission. Students affairs 3. mission.
Efficiency. effectiveness. and adequacy. The following diagram shows elaborated aspects. institutional managem ent. is degree of capability to employ available resources for obtaining optimum results. instructional process. process. Academic atmosphere shows conducive climate for academic activities. and equity. ership reflects degree of management capacity and capability es for optimum program goal attainment.There are five aspects that should be assessed in both study program and institu tional accreditation. interaction between students and lecturers. and optimum goal attainment. Feasibility reflects of input. Lead to organize resourc degree of accuracy as seen from normat of threshold requir
Sustainability. which should be considered in ac creditation assessment. and efficiency. including continuity.e. and Improvement of ratio of primary to upper primary school to at least 1:2. academic atmosphere. reflects degree of attainment ement needed for undertaking a program. Equity reflects degree intention to provide fair and equal opportunities for eve ry one to participate in the program. research. including girls and persons belonging to Sc heduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. It includes punctuality. Consultancy and Extension • Infrastructure and Learning Resources • Student Support and Progression • Governance and Leadership • Innovative practice Schemes for improvement of teaching The goals and objectives of Education for All in India are as follows (MHRD. Effectiveness is degree of capability to attain expected program objectives . measured by t he existence of concrete products. Punct uality shows degree of exactness in spending time to accomplish program activiti es. selectivity. as well as program objectives ive ideal measures. measured by the acquisition of expected output and outcome. Relevance is degree of relationship between study program objectives. relevance. baser on consideration of available capacity. feasibility. Study Program Accreditation Model • NAAC has identified the following seven criteria to serve as the basis of assess ment procedures: • Curricular Aspects • Teaching-learning and Evaluation • Research. and productivity. The whole model of Study Program Accreditation is illustrated as follows. including leadership. and between lect urers and lecturers to optimize student learning process. Adequacy. between students and students. instructional activities. Productivity refle cts degree of success of instructional process in utilizing input. sustainability. Selectivity shows degree of program management capa bility to select input.
. Ann ual Report: 1997-98): Access Universal enrolment of all children. Continuity refle cts program persistency guaranteed by adequate input. Institutional Management. i. Provision of primary school for all children within one kilometer of walking dis tance and of facility of non-formal education. output/out come with societal needs at the surrounding environment and global society. and output. and decision of priorit y of expected output and outcome.
maps. to assist in the working of primary education to oversee its functioning. The main objectives of DPEP progra mme are as follows: Emphasizing the local area planning with district plans being formulated in thei r own right instead of being derived from a state plan project document. so that supply of inputs is matched by demand side interventions to promote participation. Annual Repo rt: 1993-94): A building comprising at least two reasonably large all-weather rooms with a dee p varandah and separate toilet facilities for boys and girls. Intensify training in the use of teaching-learning equipment's. The scheme is recently revised so as to: Provide flexibility to schools in providing teaching-learning materials relevant to their curriculum and local needs: To relate the scheme with micro planning wherever undertaken. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan: A Progranne for Universal Elementary Education in India Education Guarantee Scheme & Alternative and Innovative Education & All other Sc hemes of Elementary Education In India Management of Education Status of Incentive Schemes & No Detention Policy National Programme of Nutritional Support to Primary Education (Mid-Day Meals Sc heme) Comptroller and Auditor Gererals Report on National Programme of Nutritional Sup port to Primary Education (Mid-Day Meals Scheme) Parliamnetary Standing Committee Report on Human Resource Development(NEW) Status of EFA: Projection Exercises
. a nd Emphasizing capacity building and networking of district. The Government of India has initiated a number of schemes to achieve the goals o f EFA amongst which the scheme of Operation Blackboard (OB) is the most prominen t one. and Improvement of school facilities by revamped Operation Blackboard. More focussed coverage would initially focus on primary stage (Classes I-V and i ts NFE equivalent) with stress on girls and for socially disadvantaged groups. toy s and equipment for work experience. Monitoring Local level committee. Infusing greater rigor and professional inputs in planning and appraisal. The main objectives of OB Scheme (1987) are as follows (MHRD. a number of externally funded projects and programmes are also curr ently under implementation amongst which the World Bank assisted District Primar y Education Programme is the most prominent one. The programme that was launched in 1994 in 42 districts of seven states is currently under implementation in ab out 150 districts spread over fifteen states. and introduction of this concept at the middle stage on a large sc ale. charts. and Improvement of the monitoring system for universalisation of elementary educatio n. states and national le vel institutes in the fields of education management and social services to prov ide the resource support for the programme. More focussed targeting in educationally ward districts and districts where tota l literacy campaign have been successful. At least two teachers in every school. and Extend the scheme to upper primary schools. to be extende d to upper primary level also. with due representation to women and teachers. In addition. Achievement Achievement of minimum levels of learning by approximately all children at the p rimary level. as far as possible one of them a women. a nd Essential teaching-learning material including blackboards.Retention Reduction of dropout rates between Classes I to V and I to VIII to 20 and 40 per cent respectively.
The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyaan (SSA) The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyaan is also known as the Education for All movement or 'E ach One Teach One'. To achieve these objectives. • Children complete eight years of elementary schooling by 2010. This helps individuals to plan for their career as well as pla y a useful part in building a new society with progressive values. It states that "The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of six to fourteen years in such a manner a s the State may. with the active participation of the community in the management of schools. It empowers citizens with analytical abilities. It was introduced in 2000-2001 as the flagship programme run by the Government of India. The Right to Education has also been enshrined as a Fundamental Right by the Con stitution of India. Education Guarantee Centre. • Focus on elementary education of satisfactory quality with emphasis on education for life. by law. By Mahatma Gandhi Education is a tool that can play a vital role in improving the socio-economic c ondition of the nation. These are: • All children in school. One of the most fu ndamental and promising of these schemes is the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (External website that opens in a new window). Education for All Illiteracy is our sin and shame and must be liquidated..Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan. These centres impart district elementary education plans. determine.External website that opens in a new window. skill s and capacities. This scheme is framed to provide useful and relevan t elementary education for all children in the age group of six to fourteen by 2 010. All effo rts to support pre-school learning in ICDS centres or special pre-school centres in non ICDS areas are made to supplement the efforts of the Ministry of Women a nd Child Development. Education involves not only textbook learning but also a growth of values. • Bridge all gender and social category gaps at the primary stage by 2007 and at t he elementary education level by 2010. Aim of SSA The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan aims to bridge social. The framework of SSA includes appointment of teachers." To promote literacy among its citizens. educat ion results in changing both individual lives as well as that of the entire comm unity for the better. Alternate School or 'Back-to -School' camp by 2003. • Universal retention by 2010. their training. leads to better confidence levels and fortifies one with will power and goal setting com petencies. Objectives of SSA The SSA programme is an endeavour to provide an opportunity for improving human capabilities of all children. strategies have been framed that include active inv olvement of local community groups and institutional capacity building for setti ng up of block level resource centres. The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan had been set with specific targets. the Government of India has launched sev eral schemes such as the Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya Scheme (External websi te that opens in a new window). The education sector has been of vital importance to the Indian Government which has been regularly formulating provisions and schemes for promoting elementary education. Mid-day Meal Scheme (External website that opens in a new window) and the National Program for Education of Girls at Elementary Level (NPEGEL) . regional and gender gaps. through the provision of community-owned quality e ducation in a mission mode. motivatin
. Hence.. • All children complete five years of primary schooling by 2007.
satellite systems. the following: • Multi-channel learning • Educational television
. principals. such as videoc onferencing. Role of Private Sector in SSA Though the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan is being administered through government and go vernment aided schools. teachers.to demonstrate policies. planners. infant mortality and nutritional status of children. and technology specialists must make many decisions in the areas of: technical. (This section also provides articles describing the benefits that can be derived from the use of ICT in education. display. however. success and failure . especially with regard to l ife expectancy. like. To do this effectively. etc. i ncluding issues to be considered. Recently. as well as the equipment and services associated with these technologies. strategies and practical measures in the use of technolog ies. scholarships. video. in the universalization of elementary education. articles and case studies are pr ovided which offer guidelines for integrating ICT into educational programmes. telephone (both fixed line and mobile phones). refers to forms of t echnology that are used to transmit. terms and systems. It is intended to hel p educators. In addition. the government entered into an agreement with the World Bank (External website that opens in a new window) for assistance to the tune of US $ 600 million to fund the second p hase of the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan. This section contains articles. some private unaided schools are also actively involved in contributing towards universal elementary education. Provision of b asic education also improves the standard of living. this is a complex task similar to not just learning a new language. create. and in what direction te chnology in schools should be heading. and common mistakes to be avo ided).drawn from all over the world . educators. policy makers and researchers all seem to agree on the potential of ICT to have a significant and positive impact on education. but learning how to teach in a new language. This section looks at the tools themselves. fina ncial. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan is a valuable endeavour of the Government of India. policy makers. individually or combined. Social justice and equity are by th emselves a strong argument for providing basic education for all. share or exchange i nformation by electronic means. reports and links to online journals and website s which explore the ways ICT has impacted on education. to the machines that students work on in the classroom. information and communication technologies (ICT). Technologies at Work Stories of exploration. from the satellites that link nation s. store. drinking wate r facilities and so on. e-mail and blogs. This broad definition of ICT includes such techn ologies as radio. For many. training. provision of toilets.g parents and students. Role of ICT in Education Broadly speaking. which strives to help citizens to rea lise the importance of elementary education. 'An Educated India is A Progressing India' Padhega India Tohito Badhega India What is ICT? The term. pedagogical and infrastructure requirements. computer and network hardware and software. curriculum developers and others find thei r way through the often confusing maze of ICT tools. education planners. DVD. Wha t is still being debated. Topics will include. Realizing educational objectives of the "information age" requires integrating m odern forms of information and communication technologies (ICT) into education. provision of incentives. The programme also aims to open new schools in areas having inade quate schooling facilities and strengthen existing school infrastructure through the construction of additional class rooms. television. uniforms. is the precise role ICT should play in educat ion reform and how best to ensure that potential is fulfilled. lessons learned. t extbooks.
These forms of ICT have been used in three main ways: • Direct class teaching. • School broadcasting. to being more engaging. interacti ve programmes which incorporate issues relevant to the learners. • General educational programming which provide general and informal educational o pportunities. the Indira Gandhi National Open University broadcasts television & v ideo conferences courses. Another example is the "Farm Radio Forum". Educational tel evision programmes are often accompanied by printed materials and other resource s to enhance learning and interaction. any radio or television programme with educational value can be considered a "general edu cational programme". by bringing ready-made lessons to remote schools and learning centres whic h have few resources and teachers.Studies suggest that IRI projects have had a p ositive impact on both access to and quality of formal and non-formal education. where broadcast programming provides complementary teaching andlearning resources not otherwise available. including Interactive Radio Instruction (IRI) and televis ed lessons. Televised lessons can be used to supplement other course material or can be stan d-alone lessons.• Educational radio • Web-based instruction • Libraries for exploration • Practical activities in science and technology • Use of the media • Targeted use of technologies in areas such as: early childhood development. In India . design and data management • Technologies for school management Technologies Today Review of what is available in the different areas of technology for learning: • Instructional materials • Audio. low density populations. IRI also serves to expand access to educa tion. on particular topics and aimed at specific levels. How have radio and TV broadcasting been used in education? Radio and television have been used widely as educational tools since the 1920s
. Radio and television Radio and television have been used in education since the early 20th century. adult literacy. fo r example. IRI consists of broadcasting lessons to classrooms on a daily basis. radio and television ca n also be used to broadcast general educational programmes. Educational broadcasting is widespread in the Asia-Pacific region. a Canadian educational radio discussion forum. women’s education. It is also a cost-effective means of delivering educational content to a large number of people. Such lessons have progressed over the years from simply being t elevision programmes showing teachers talking. One example is "Sesame Street" an educational television pr ogramme for children from the United States. visual and digital products • Software and content-ware • Modes of connectivity • Media • Educational web sites Technologies Tomorrow A glimpse into the future of technologies to excite the imagination of practitio ners and decision makers and assist them in planning for the future. provide regular. The radio l essons. Basically. and workforce upgrading • Technologies for teacher preparation and career-long training • Technologies for policy planning. not only on the basis of what is available but also what is coming. structured assistance to teachers and serve to improve the qua lity of teaching and enhance learning. Aside from being used for broadcasting specific lessons. at particular levels.
Banglad esh and Nepal rolled out their own IRI projects in the 1990s. developed around specific learning objectives at particular lev els of Maths. school broadc asts are often a result of a partnership between the Ministry of Education and t he Ministry of Information. offering children an in tegrated education. Courses are aired over University-owned stations from 6 am to 12 noon." I RI projects have been implemented in India and other south Asian Countries. is geared to national curricula and developed for a range of subject areas.This consists of "ready-made 20-30 min ute direct teaching and learning exercises to the classroom on a daily basis. In developing countries. to reach more of their respective large populations. shifti ng from a "talking heads" approach to more interactive and dynamic programming t hat "link[s] the community to the programme around the teaching method. What differentiate s IRI from most other distance education programs is that its primary objective is to raise the quality of learning . The design of the programme has undergone many changes through the years. and Indira Ghandi National Open University have made extensive use of radio and television. like direct class teaching. Extensiv e research around the world has shown that many IRI projects have had a positive impact on learning outcomes and on educational equity. For these institut ions. And with its economies o f scale. Pakistan. where broadcast programming provides complementary teaching and learning resources not otherwise available 3. Centrally produced television programs are beamed via satellite throughout the c ountry on a scheduled time to schools. Students are also given supplemental print materials. it has proven to be a cost-effective strategy relative to other interve ntions. 2. broadcasts are often accompanied by printed materials and audio cassettes. both for direct class teaching and for school broad casting. Often deployed with print materials. The stra tegy meant combining community issues into the programs. There are three general approaches to the use of ra dio and TV broadcasting in education: 1. Th e radio lessons. where broadcast programming substitutes for teach ers on a temporary basis. science. Each hour focuses on a different subject and teacher-led activities.and the 1950s. respectively. involving the community at large in the organization and man agement of the school and stimulating students to carry out community activities . school broadcasting. covering the same secondary curriculum as that offered in ordinary schools. are i ntended to improve the quality of classroom teaching and to act as a regular. direct class teaching. IRI was first implemented in Thailand in 1980." Assessments of Television programs have been encouraging: drop out rates are slightly better than those of general secondary schools and significantly bette r than in technical schools. school broadcastin g is not intended to substitute for the teacher but merely as an enrichment of t raditional classroom instruction.and not merely to expand educational acces s . Japan’s University of the Air was broadcasting 160 television and 160 radio course s in 2000. Universitas Terbu ka in Indonesia. School broadcasting is more flexible than IRI since teachers decide how they will integrate the broadcast materials into their classes. st ructured aid to poorly trained classroom teachers in under-resourced schools. health and languages in national & state curricula. But unlike direct class instruction. Students are exposed to a variety of teachers on televis ion but have one home teacher at the school for all disciplines in each grade.
. school broadcasting. the 44 radio and TV universities in China (including the China Central Radio and Television University). and online tutorials. Each course consists of 15-45-minute lectures broadcast nationwide on ce a week for 15 weeks.and it has had much success in both formal and non-formal settings. cassettes and CD-ROMS. In Asia. Indonesia. In A sia. face-to-fac e instruction. Large broadcasting corporations that provide school broadcasts include the British Broadcasting Corporation Education Radio TV in the United Kingdom a nd the NHK Japanese Broadcasting Station. general educational programming over community. national and internation al stations which provide general and informal educational opportunities The most notable and best documented example of the direct class teaching approa ch is Interactive Radio Instruction (IRI).
If designed and implemented properly. . These new ways of teaching a nd learning are underpinned by constructivist theories of learning and constitut e a shift from a teacher-centered pedagogy—in its worst form characterized by memo rization and rote learning—to one that is learner-centered.500 colleges and universities in the United Sta tes. among others) has an annual enrollment of more than 100. And like any other educational tool or mode of educational delivery.tha t afford non-formal educational opportunities for all types of learners. th ere is some evidence that educational opportunities are being opened to individu als and groups who are constrained from attending traditional universities. The Farm Radio Forum. Some notable examples that have a global reach are the United States-based television show Sesame Street. ICT-supported learning encourages interaction and cooper ation among students. IC Ts do not work for everyone. ICT-supported education can promote the acquisition of the knowledge and skills that will empower stude nts for lifelong learning. documentary programs. Compare that with the 14 milli on combined enrollments of the 3. the Universitas Terbuka of Indonesia. Raising quality The impact of educational radio and television broadcasts on the quality of basi c education remains an under-researched area. ICT-supported learning provides learners the opportunity to work with people from different cultures. analysis and construction of new information. Research has shown that the appropriate use of ICTs can catalyze the paradigmati c shift in both content and pedagogy that is at the heart of education reform in the 21st century. ICT-enhanced learning is also “just-in-time” lear ning in which learners can choose what to learn when they need to learn it. Each of the 11 so-called mega-universities. It models learning done throughout the learner’s lifetime by expanding the lea rning space to include not just peers but also mentors and experts from differen t fields. the all-information telev ision channels National Geographic and Discovery. which began in Canada in the 1940s and which h as since served as a model for radio discussion programs worldwide. In this way.n ews programs.the Indira Gandhi National Open University of India. work on real-life problems in-depth. an d in contrast to memorization-based or rote learning. ICT-enhanced learning mobilizes tools for examination.. and experts regardless of where they are.8 million. ICTs—especially computers and Internet technologies— enable new ways of teaching and learning rather than simply allow teachers and student s to do what they have done before in a better way. everywhere in the same way. Enhancing access It is difficult to quantify the degree to which ICTs have helped expand access t o basic education since most of the interventions for this purpose have been sma ll-scale and under-reported. making learnin g less abstract and more relevant to the learner’s life situation. is another e xample of non-formal educational programming. Apart from modeling real-world interactions.000. the Chin a TV University System. • Collaborative learning. • Does ICT-enhanced learning really work? The educational effectiveness of ICTs depends on how they are used and for what purpose. and the University of South Africa. quiz shows. and the radio programme Voice of America. the biggest and most well-established op en and distance institutions in the world (which include the Open University of the United Kingdom. Learners therefore learn as they d o and. but what little research there is suggests that these interventions are as effective as traditional classroom inst
.General educational programming consists of a broad range of programme types . etc. teachers. In a se nse. while at the primary level there is little evidenc e that ICT-based models have thrived. educational cartoons. thereby helping to enhance learners’ teaming and communicative skills as well as their global awarene ss. • Active learning. any radio or TV programming with informational and educational value can be considered under this type. whenever appropriate. calculat ion and analysis of information. a nd together they serve approximately 2. When used appropriately. ICT-enhanced learning prom otes increased learner engagement. In higher education and adult training. thus providing a platform for student inquiry.
ruction. Abul Kalam Muhiyuddin Ahmed Azad known as Abul Kalam Azad. Kolkata. since technology use is fully integrated into the la rger learning system. results in increases in learning in the traditional curriculum and basic skills areas. demonstrate greater retention. Russell. for the coordination. as well as higher test scores in some subjects compared to traditional instruction alone. It provides recognition for universiti es in India. Research likewise suggests that the use of computers. pointing out that the large number of articles on ICT-base d distance learning does not include original experimental research or case stud ies. There is as yet no strong evidence that thi s new learning environment fosters improved learning outcomes. assessments of the use of computers. Delhi. much of the research on which these claims are based are methodologically flawed. Radhakrishna and it recommended that the UGC be re constituted on the general model of the University Grants Commission of the Unit ed Kingdom. Banaras and.
The University Grants Commission (UGC) of India is a statutory organisation set up by Union government in 1956. After independence. Its headquarters are in New Delhi. Moreover.
. it is very difficult to isolate the technology variable an d determine whether any observed gains are due to technology use or to some othe r factor or combination of factors. History UGC was recommended in 1945 and formed in 1946 to oversee the work of the three Central Universities of Aligarh. Of the many educational broadcast projects. given adequate teacher training and support. in any case. determination and maintena nce of standards of university education. Hyderabad. and six regional centres in Pune. In contrast. and related technologies. others claim that such generalizatio ns are in conclusive. Natural Resources and Scientific Res earch on 28 December 1953. Findings provide stro ng evidence of the project’s effectiveness in raising the quality of education as demonstrated by increased scores on standardized tests as well as improved atten dance. In 1947. combined with traditio nal instruction. Specifically. in his comprehensive review of research. the Interactive Radio Instr uction project has been the most comprehensively analyzed. Other critics argue that dropout rates are much higher when instruction is delivered at a distance via ICTs. the Internet and related techn ologies for distance learning have been equivocal. Guwahati and Bangalore. the University Education Commission was set up in 1948 under the Chairmanship of S. and are better motivated to learn when they work with compute rs. Students also learn more quickly. and provides funds for government-recognised universities and colle ges. as measured through standa rdized testing. the Internet. can indeed facilitate the transformation of the learning environment into a learner-centered one. What does exist a re qualitative data based on observations and analysis of student and teacher pe rceptions that suggest a positive impact on learning. the Minister of Education. for drill and practice. Bhopal . the Committee was entrusted with the responsibility of dealing with all the then existing Universi ties. and for instructional delivery. But these studies are criticized for being mostly exploratory and descriptive in na ture and lacking in empirical rigor. One of the most critical problems in trying to assess the effectiveness of compu ters and the Internet as transformational tools is that standardized tests canno t capture the kinds of benefits that are expected to be gained in a learner-cent ered environment. There have also been many studies that seem to support the claim that the use of computers enhances and amplifies existing curricula. research shows that the use of computers as tutors . UGC was formally inaugurated by late. But there are those who claim that these represent modest gains and. claims that there is "no significant difference" between th e test scores of learners taking ICT-based distance learning courses and those r eceiving face-to-face instruction. However.
D are gi ven five percent relaxation. the NAAC was established in 1994 with its headq uarters at Bangalore. The UGC's mandate includes: • Promoting and coordinating university education. However. Feroze Shah Road and the South Campus of University of Delhi as well. Kolkata. by an Act of Parliament i n 1956. Consequently. The head office of the UGC is located at Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg in New Delhi. determination and maintenance of standards in institu tions of higher education. History NAAC was established in 1994 in response to recommendations of National Policy i n Education (1986). with two additional bureaus operating from 35. as a statutory body of the Government of India. the UGC has decentralised its operations by setting up six regional centres at Pune. Bhopa l. dis bursing grants to the universities and colleges. • Serving as a vital link between the Union and state governments and institutions of higher learning. Hyderabad. In order to ensure effec tive region-wise coverage throughout the country.However UGC was formally established in November 1956. It has made NET qualification mandatory for teaching at Graduation lev el and at Post Graduation level since July 2009. Accreditation for higher learning over Universities under the aegis of Universit y Grants Commission is overseen by following sixteen autonomous statutory instit utions : • All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) • Distance Education Council (DEC) • Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) • Bar Council of India (BCI) • National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE) • Rehabilitation Council of India (RCI) • Medical Council of India (MCI) • Pharmacy Council of India (PCI) • Indian Nursing Council (INC) • Dental Council of India (DCI) • Central Council of Homoeopathy (CCH) • Central Council of Indian Medicine (CCIM) • Rehabilitation Council • National Council for Rural Institutes • State Councils of Higher Education • Council of Architecture National Assessment and Accreditation Council The National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC) is an organization that assesses and accredits institutions of higher education in India. It is an auto nomous body funded by University Grants Commission of Government of India headqu artered in Bangalore. Accreditation process
. • Framing regulations on minimum standards of education. Guwahati and Bangalore. This policy was to "address the issues of deterioration in q uality of education". examination and research in u niversities. • Advising the Central and State governments on the measures necessary for improve ment of university education. • Monitoring developments in the field of collegiate and university education. • Determining and maintaining standards of teaching. and the Plan of Action (POA-1992) laid out strategic plans for the policies including the establishment of an independent national accredi tation body. Professional councils UGC currently conducts NET for the appointments of teachers in colleges and univ ersities. those with Ph. UGC's Mandate The UGC has the unique distinction of being the only grant-giving agency in the country which has been vested with two responsibilities: that of providing funds and that of coordination.
2. & T ech. AICTE is responsible for proper planning and coordinated developm ent of the technical education and management education system in India. under Department of Higher Edu cation. Town and Country Planning. Technical Education. Indraprastha Estate . Mumbai. Bhopal. Vocational Educatio n. Greater input of management education and professional communication ski lls. the promotion of qualitative improvement of such education in relation to planned quantitative growth and the regulation and proper maintenance of norms and standards in the technical education system and for matters connected therewith. teaching of design methodo logies. Once completed an d published an on-site visit of the peer team for validation of the self-study r eport is done with recommendations of the assessment. Chennai. adviser is the bureau head who is assisted by technical officer s and other supporting staff. Established in November 1945 first as an advisory body and later on in 1987 given statutory status by an Act of Parliament. stated verbatim reads: To provide for establishment of an All India council for Technical Education wit h a view to the proper planning and co-ordinated development of the technical ed ucation system throughout the country. Hotel Management and Catering Technology. All India Council for Technical Education The All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) is the statutory body and a national-level council for technical education. namely. fundi ng in priority areas. Hyderabad and Gurgaon. 4. namely: • Faculty Development (FD) Bureau • Undergraduate Education (UG) Bureau • Postgraduate Education and Research (PGER) Bureau • Quality Assurance (QA) Bureau • Planning and Co-ordination (PC) Bureau • Research and Institutional Development (RID) Bureau • Administration (Admin) Bureau • Finance (Fin) Bureau • Academic (Acad) Bureau For each bureau. Unive
. formulation and maintenan ce of norms and standards. Pharmaceutical Education. the final decision is made by the Executive Committee of the NAAC. Greater emphasis on design oriented teaching. The multidiscipline technical officer and staff of the Council are on deputation or on contract from government departments. Lastly. Information Technology. 3. The AICTE has its headquarters in Indira Gandhi Sports Complex.. It is assisted by 10 Statutory Boards of Studies. The AIC TE accredits postgraduate and graduate programs under specific categories at Ind ian institutions as per its charter. and Tech.Accreditation from NAAC is a three part process consisting of the preparation an d submission of a self-study report by the unit of assessment. UG Studies in Eng. Management Studies. Architecture. Greater exposure to industrial and manufacturing processes. quality assurance through school accreditation. problem solving approach. Ch andigarh. vice-chairman and the member secretary. 52 of 1987 . Current objective In order to improve upon the present technical education system. monitoring and evaluation. Kanpur. PG and Research in Eng. The AICTE Act. Guwahati. AICTE bureaus he AICTE comprises nine bureaus. New Delhi. plus it has regional offices at Kolkata. maintaining parity of certifica tion and awards and ensuring coordinated and integrated development and manageme nt of technical education in the country as part of the AICTE Act No. the current obj ectives is to modify the engineering curriculum as follows: 1.. Exclusion of outmoded technologies and inclusion of the new appropriate and emerging technologies. Bangaluru. Objectives AICTE is vested with statutory authority for planning. Ministry of Human Resource Development. which has the offices of the chairman.
etc.rsity Grants Commission. academic institutions. Plans for closing n 2009. and to estab lishing the National Board of Accreditation (NBA) as an independent body. This later led to reforms in the way the AICTE approves institutes. the University Grants Commission (UGC). A
. the Union Minister of Education formally communicated his intentions of closing down AICTE and related body.