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Sheet 1 of 33 112463150.xlsx.ms_office.

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Dr. Kasikci
Design of a 220 kv T/L ENGINEERING MAKES THE DIFFERENCE
A B C D E F

4-Oct-12 1:49 AM

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Original Date: March 1, 1997


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INTRODUCTION Is a Turkish Electrical Engineer and has been working as consultant to Karachi Electric Supply Company (KESC) on behalf of Lameyer International GmbH, Consulting Engineers. Born in 1940, graduated from Istambul Technical University in 1964. He worked in Turkish Electricity Authority as Project Manager for their 400 KV System. His overseas experience includes: 1-Abu Dhabi-Design of 220 KV OHL Transmission Lines 2-Saudi Arabia 400 KV Transmission Lines Makkah-Jeddah-Medinah. 3-Pakistan 220KV and 132KV Transmission (5th. And 6th. Power sector) Projects. 4-Philippines 230 KV and 500 KV Transmission Systems. row 20 He did his Doctrate on Insulation of Overhead Lines in Poluted Environment. He delivered a lecture on " Complete Design of a 220 KV Double Circuit Overhead Line on Tubular Poles" in an IEEEP Symposium'96. I was the Chair of the technical session. While giving my preding comments, I promised to the audience that the longhand computations presented by Dr. Kasikci had a great educational value. I offered to computerise it for my younger colleagues. I did that in Symposium'97. The worksheets here are a recreation of that. I had electronic file of the version that I displayed in a software exhibition called Softec'97 held onOct. 26-27, 1997 at FAST Lahore. and have re-organized thatversion into this new format. I have to add one comment. Dr. Kasickci's calculations. He did not account for the secondary moments. I also did not include because it was HIS work.And also because the calculation scope was estimation. So one could add some percentage in price. and be comfortable. If I live long enogh, I will Insha-Allah make a try on that as well. row 30

I actually used his model to make a cost estimation of a temporary line , which was latter constructed exactly as estimated And probably is still standing after 10-12 years. If possible I will include that as well as another template., because it uses Octagonal Poles. Particularly because it included design of cros-arm (Hexagonal window) analysed using SAP 90-A FEM program as a preprocessor.

Sheet 2 of 33 112463150.xlsx.ms_office.xls

Dr. Kasikci
Design of a 220 kv T/L ENGINEERING MAKES THE DIFFERENCE
A B C D E F

4-Oct-12 1:49 AM

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Original Date: March 1, 1997


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ORIGINAL TITLE

"Dr. Kasikci"
Version Beta2 This version is 2.0 Dated October 30, 2009 row 40

A Computer Tool for Transmission Line Computations

By Engr. Abdul Aziz


Now Retired
Director Technical ICC (PVT) LIMITED 242 A Anand Road Upper Mall Lahore Current Contact 36-Tariq Block New Garden Town Lahore-54600 Phone: 042-359-4837-8 email: Engr.Abdul.Aziz@TLEngr.com Presented in

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Symposium'97
March 5-6, 1997 at Karachi Sheraton The Institution of electrical and electronics Engineers Karachi Local Centre row 70

Sheet 3 of 33 112463150.xlsx.ms_office.xls

Dr. Kasikci
Design of a 220 kv T/L ENGINEERING MAKES THE DIFFERENCE
A B C D E F

4-Oct-12 1:49 AM

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Original Date: March 1, 1997


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ASSUMPTIONS The Computer Model is based on following assumtions: 1-Computations are made for a proposed D/C 220KV line in KESC System. 2-This line uses 2X400 mm2 HD Cu. Conductor 3-The earth wire is OPGW 4-The line is a short line 25km in length From Pipri-West 2 to Deh Kharkaro 5-The environment is highly polluted and corrossive 6-For Thermal rating the line runs E-W in clear sun conditions 7-Assumed Thermal limit of copper = 3 Amp/mm2 8-Skin effect causes a 3.7% increase in Resistance of the conductor 9-Equal Vertical phase spacing and no X-arm offset 10-CFO is computed for a line attanuation of 0.0

row 80

11- Following color coding is used for the convenience of user: Note 1: This color is used to indicate that the input has to be made manually after examining the data or computation. Note 2: this color is used to indicate that this is not linked to its calculation. Note3: This color is used to indicate a computation in Data and not entered manually Note4: This color is used to mark tables that are auto-looked in computations Note5: Elements of data used in text that requires to be manually changed Note6: OPGW Data was not available and hense not linked Note7: References where quoted are shown in Blue text

row 90

REFERENCES Following engineering literature has been refered in the computations by NO shown against each: 1-The Fujikura Cable Works - Doc. 804 - Corrosion of Conductor Material 2-ALCOA - Current - Temperature Characteristics of Conductor 3-ABB- ABB Switchgear Manual- 9th edition- pages 88-100] 4-Westinghouse - T&D Reference Book row 100 5-John J. Grainer-Power System Analysis- page 201 6- EPRI- Transmission Line Reference Book 345KV and above 7-Extra High voltage AC Transmission Engineering 8-Design of Steel Transmission Pole Structures ASCE 72- Second Edition 9-VDE 0210 DEC 985-English Translation distributed by BSI (British Standards Institution) COMMENTS 1-Dr. Kasikci had done long hand calculations typed in MS Word. His data was scattered on all pages. I orgaanised the data in one place. This presented difficulty of classification. Each item of data can be assigned to multiple headings. But as DATA may require to be changed, it is betteer to place each item on once in the data section, even if classification is not rational. 2-Generally all calculation results are c;lose enough to Dr. Kasikci's results. row 110 3-I do not have access to actual drawings of the pole and so I have used estimated top diameters of sections. In the end it was close enough. 4-All drawings were made in autocad by my drafting staff. On revision I have changed most of them to XL native format, enabling me to include dimensions and data by reference to numerical values automatically. 5-Goal seek add in was used in solving cubic equation for sag tension and for CFO. The procedure has been explaned, reference to XL 2007 at the first usage only. Engineer reader will find it very intuitive and not a big deal. Only the name is BIG. 6-Some calculations and some of their data is changed as a result of calculation. In that case a cheque has been provided to print OK if data matches. 7-Computed location of CG of wind projected area does not agree with Dr. Kasikci's but I have confirmed from other of his unpublished calculations that he does use the trapizoid formula used here by me. 8-Main dimensions computed here differ slightly, but I have continued to use thos of Dr. Kasikci's. Normally one could iterate and arrive at a match. But mechanical design (also electrical design) is not exact science and slighty conservative guesses are better than absolutely accurate. Moreover the effortr invilved in iterating is not justified, taking into account physical limitations of construction. row 121 Number cruching is just a tool and not the goal of ENGINEERING. 9-VDE was specified standard for load cases. This is very soft on broken wire conditions and thus the earth wire peak has not been checked for Broken Wire case. But ASCE and IEC standards doi require these checks, and give complicated ways to compute. I will use ASCE and IEC elswhere in other templates. 10-Wind on pole sections and design of each pole section has been given on separate worksheets for ease and tracability of formulas and data. In actual printing, that will waste a few pages, and may result is cutting more trees for paper usage. 11-4 piles are used for foundation. The main reason is that a single pile foundation cannot be relied upon to take up the TORSION resulting from Broken wire case. I have included a more detailed account by including another template elswhere for pole foundation design. That template was originally in LOTUS 2.0, designed by Mr. Azhar Bhatti, CEO of Azhar accociates- An independent design firm. My thanks are due to him. row 130 I will acknowledge that again in the relevent template. 12-I have not taken any great pain in selection of graphics in header as my main attention is towards proving computational tool.

Sheet 4 of 33 112463150.xlsx.ms_office.xls

Dr. Kasikci
Design of a 220 kv T/L ENGINEERING MAKES THE DIFFERENCE
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DATA

A- General Data
V v P f PF L A Nominal Line voltage Maximum operating Voltage Power to be transmitted Frequency Cos Line length Phase Arrangement Conductor Area Allowable Current Density No of Conductors/phase Bundle spacing Earth wire Rulling Span 220 KV 245 kV 1000 MW 50 hz 0.85 25 km (1,2,3),(3',2',1') Vertical 400 mm2 Cu 0.003 KA/mm2 EXPERIENCE 2 400 mm OPGW 250 m

row 20

B-Conductor Data
CONDUCTOR Stranding Operating temperature Overall Dia D Area of cross section A o DC Resistance at 20 C Coeff. of Resistance a AC Resistance r Unit Weight w1 Ultimate Tensile St. UTS Final Mod. of Elasticity E Coeff. of Lin. Exp. b OPGW Overall Dia Area of Cross Section Unit Weight 61/2.89 50 26 400 0.04464 0.00392 0.0154 3.6 15440 11213 mm Deg C mm 1.02362 in mm2 Ohm/km ohm/deg C W/1000ft kg/m (including spacer dampers) kg kg/mm2

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o 1.70E-05 per C

Data not linked with computations as yet

row 40

B1-Limiting Conditions for Conductor Tension:


Every day temperture Minimum Temperature p= Maximum Wind load on conductor
0 30 C 0 5 C 2 89 kg/m

row 50 1-At Everyday Temperature Final Tension to be 18% of UTS (in order to have better performance against wind induced viberations.) 2-At minimum temperature, final tension to be 25% of UTS under the maximum wind load on projected area of conductor.

C-Data for Thermal Rating


Wind Velocity Every-day air Temperature ta Max. Cond. Temperature tc Coefficient of emissivity e Latitude of Karachi Azimuth of Line Zt Coeff. of solar absorption a 2 30 80 0.5 25 270 4.712389 0.5 ft/sec C o C
o

row 60

Degrees Karachi Degrees Radians

D-Data for Reactance Calculation


Equal Vertical Phase spacing Length of X-arm Tip to pole-Centre 6.2 m 4.5 m row 70

Sheet 5 of 33 112463150.xlsx.ms_office.xls

Dr. Kasikci
Design of a 220 kv T/L ENGINEERING MAKES THE DIFFERENCE
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E-Data for Radio Interference


Average Height of Mid Conductor 18 m

Canada USA France Germany Italy UK

Data for some lines in europe and America 380 kV OHL 2 x 28.14 mm Dia Cond. 500kV OHL 2 x 41.9 mm Dia Cond. 420 kV OHL 2 x 26.4 mm Dia Cond 380 kV OHL 4 x 21.0 mm Dia Cond 380 kV OHL 2 x 29.7 mm Dia Cond. 420 kV OHL 2 x 27.7 mm Dia Cond

Ec = Ec= Ec= Ec= Ec = Ec=

18.00 16.90 19.00 15.70 15.00 19.60

kv/cm kv/cm kv/cm kv/cm kv/cm kv/cm

row 80

F-Data for Corona Loss


p m Atmospheric Pressure Every Day Temperature Surface Factor 760 mm Hg o 30 C 0.85

G-Data for Sag Tension


Every Day Temperature Wind Pressure on conductor Minimum Temperature Maximum Temperature Tension Limits: 1-Final Tension at every day temp 2-Final Tension at min.temp and wind 30 89 5 80
o

C kg/m2 of projected area C o C


o

row 90

18% of UTS MAX 25% of UTS MAX

H-Data for Insulator Swing


Wind Span Weight Span Length of Insulator String inc. Hardware Weight of Insulator String inc. Hardware Wind on insulator String inc. Hardware 250 250 4200 260 100 mm mm mm kg kg row 100

I-Data for CFO


No of Gaps per circuits Desired Total Probability of flash over Standard deviation of flash-over strength s Stress Voltage S Standard deviation of flash-over strength ss Wet Wheather Factor 300 0.001 0.05 2.0 0.02 1.1 Switching p.u. p.u. p.u.

row 110

J-Data for Main Dimensions of Poles


CFO 577 kV k ( additional cleance to metal) 150 mm Angle of deviation of insulator 30 Degrees Live metal clearence 1600 mm Average Half Pole width 500 mm Max For shielding of conductor Add to Cross Arm 750 mm Height above pole-top (OPGW LOCATION) 300 mm Ground clearence 8000 mm Width of cross arm at tip 200 mm NOTE: Dr. Kasikci did not design the cross arms. The width at tip is assumed by me as I do not have access to the drawings any more and I need the tip dimension for Computation of Cross-Arm spacing (Vertical configuration)

row 120

K-Data for Loading of Poles


Angle of Deviation Loading case I Loading case II Loading case III Max. Tension (Pull) in Ground Wire Max. Tension (Pull) in Conductor 5 Degrees 0 Wires Broken 2 Conductor Broken On one circuit 1 G Wire Broken and 1 Conductor Broken 1737 kg 3860 kg row 130

Sheet 6 of 33 112463150.xlsx.ms_office.xls

Dr. Kasikci
Design of a 220 kv T/L ENGINEERING MAKES THE DIFFERENCE
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L-Data for Wind on Pole


Pole Width at bottom Pole Width at top No of sections Length of Section 1(Top) Length of Section 2 Length of Section 3 Length of Section 4 (Bottom) Maximum Wind velocity (Vm) Reference wind velocity (VR) Ground reference factor Dynamic reference Pressure 1300 300 4 11.5 9.5 10.15 10.45 39 26.2 0.67 43 mm mm m m m m m/sec m/sec kg/m2 row 150 row 140

M-Data for Pole Design


STEEL Standard ASTM A572 Allowable Axial Stress Allowable Bending Stress Outside Pole Dia( distance accross flats) Sec 4 at bottom of Pole= Thickness of pole Section 4 Estimated Weight of Section Outside Pole Dia Section 3 Thickness of pole Section 3 Estimated Weight of Section Outside Pole Dia Section 2 Thickness of pole Section 2 Estimated Weight of Section Outside Pole Dia Section 1 Thickness of pole Section 1 Estimated Weight of Section GR 65 2 4570 kg/cm 4570 kg/cm2 1300 mm 10.32 mm 4950 kg row 160 Do3 = t3 = 1200 mm 9.53 mm 3180 kg 906 mm 8.73 mm 2340 kg 632 mm 74 mm 1530 kg row 170

Do4 = t4 =

Do2 = t2 =

Do1 = t1 =

NOTE: Weight of Cross Arm(s) included in pole section where applicable SF = Safety Factor FOR POLE DESIGN 1.25 Estimated Weight of Pole 12000 kg WITHSTAND FACTOR (FOUNDATION) 1.8 END OF DATA

Sheet 7 of 33 112463150.xlsx.ms_office.xls

Dr. Kasikci
Design of a 220 kv T/L ENGINEERING MAKES THE DIFFERENCE
A B C D E F

4-Oct-12 1:49 AM

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Original Date: March 1, 1997


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POWER TRANSMITTED Cos

0.85 0.554811 Radians 31.8 degrees

Since the subject line is not far from sea, being in severally corrossive atmosphere, the copper conductor is selected to withstand against corrosion (See Ref 1). On the other hand, due to relatively short line length, the dominating factor for maximum power transmission capacity is the thermal limit of the conductor. Copper has far higher thermal limit, than all the other conductors. Therefore having voltage level of 220 KV, and due to corrona considerations, a twin conductor of 400 mm2 copperhas been found the most efficient. row 20 We know from experience that bare OHL copper conductors can carry approximately 3 Amperes per mm 2. 2 Selecting 2 X 400 mm copper conductors is detailed below. Two circuits will transmit ( 1000 MW + 619.74 MVAr) = 1176.47 MVA One circuit will transmit ( 500 MW + 309.87 MVAr) = 588.24 MVA For One Circuit Current per phase: I = ( 588.24 MVA) / ( 3 X 220 KV) = 1.544 KA = 1544 A Allowable Current Density in 400 mm2 Cu 3 Amp/mm2 row 30 Actual Current Density = 1544 Amp /(2X 400 mm2) = 1.93 Amp/mm2 This is 64 % of allowable When transmitting 588.24 MVA with one circuit we are using 64 % of maximum transmission capacity of the circuit. During trippage or maintainence of one circuit, out of the two circuits, the remaining Circuit under operation can transmit: S= 3 x 220 KV x((2 X 400 mm2) X 0.003 kA/mm2)= = 915 MVA This is not very far from desired power transmission of 1176 MVA and this will be a very row 40 Short period of time untill the maintenance will be completed.

POWER TRANSMITTED ENDS

Sheet 8 of 33 112463150.xlsx.ms_office.xls

Dr. Kasikci
Design of a 220 kv T/L ENGINEERING MAKES THE DIFFERENCE
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THERMAL RATING ( Sea Reference 2 ) Kc= 80 Ka= 30 K= 1/2(Kc+Ka) Air density rf 0.06665 Absolute viscosity of Air mf 0.0481 Thermal Conductivity of Air Kf 0.008695 Wind velocity V 7200 Conductor Dia D= 0.085302 Fundamental Heat Balance equation qc+qr=qs+I2r + + 273 = 273 = 353 Kelvin 303 Kelvin 328 Kelvin (Table 6-5A) (Table 6-5A)

lb/cuft lbs/hr.ft Watts/sq.ftoC (Table 6-5A) ft/hr ft (1)

row 20

I=((qc+qr-qs)/r) (1a) A-Computation of Forced convection Heat Loss: for values of D0 rfV/mf=0.1 to 1000 Where D0 is conductor Dia in ft. We can use the equation: qc=[1.01+.371(D rfV/mf)0.52]kf(tc-ta) for values of D0 rfV/mf=1000 to 18000 qc=0.1695[D rfV/mf]0.6kf(tc-ta) (3) Now D0 rf V / mf = Equation 2 applies qc= row 30 851.0 20.04377 Watts/ft. of Conductor (2)

B-Computation of Radiated Heat Loss:


qr=0.138 De [(Kc/100)4-(Ka/100)4] (4) qr= 5.014 Watts/ft. of Conductor

C-Computation of Solar Heat Gain:


qs=aQs(sin q) A'
q=cos-1[(cos Hc)cos(Zc-Zt)] Projected area of conductor A= Altitude of sun H c= Azimuth of sun Z c= 0.085302 88 1.53589 180 3.141593 96.4 1.570796 90 4.112 1.54E-05 1166 2332 889 2.9 3 Acceptible sq.ft/linear ft. Degrees Radians Degrees Radians Radians Degrees Watts/ft. of Conductor (5) row 40

Table 6-6A 12:00 Noon Table 6-6A 12:00 Noon Table 6-6B for Hc=90 row 50

Total solar and sky radiated heat Qs= Effective angle of incidence of sun's rays q= qs= r= I= Ibundle= S1=

Computed Thermal Limit as per equation (1a) above


Ampers Ampers MVA Amp/mm2 Amp/mm2 row 60

Thermal Limit of one circuit: Thermal limit as computed Assumed Thermal limit [Assumption 7]

THERMAL RATING ENDS

Sheet 9 of 33 112463150.xlsx.ms_office.xls

Dr. Kasikci
Design of a 220 kv T/L ENGINEERING MAKES THE DIFFERENCE
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LINE CONSTANTS

A-Computation of Resistance
DC Resistance at operating temperature Rdct= Rdc20[1+a(t-20)] 0.04989 Ohms/km/cond Rac50= 1.037XRdc50= 0.051736 Ohms/km [Skin effect causes 3.7% increase in resistance] Rac50 For phase 0.0259 Ohms/km/phase For the full length of line; R= 0.6467 Ohms Rdc50=

B-Computation of Inductive Reactance


(Reference 3) Conductor Radius ro GMRc=.7788 ro row 20
R

0.013 m 0.0101 m Factor .7788 from Reference 4 Equivalent radius re=(nGMRCRn-1) Where R=Radius of circle passing through conductors for n>1, R= S/(2Sinp/n) n=no of conductors in the bundle S= bundle spacing in m R= 0.2 m re= 0.0636 m

K1
row 30

The inductive reactance (XL) for symetrically transposed line for double circuit operation is: XL=.0628[Ln (dd'/rcd") +1/4n] d=3(d12 x d23 x d31) d'=3(d12' x d23' x d31') d"=3(d11' x d22' x d33') d12 d23 d31 d= d12' d23' d31' d'= d11' d22' d33' d"= 12.83 m 10.24 m 15.3 9 15.3 7.81 m 10.9 10.9 9
3 1'

ohm/km meters meters meters


1 3'

row 40

6.2 m 6.2 m 12.4 m


2 2'

K2

row 50

XL= 0.296 XL For Ful length of line The line series impedance Z12=R+jXL =

7.395 Ohms 0.6467+7.3945j ohms row 60

C-Computation of Capacitance to earth


Cb=24.14/Log(d/re) x 10-9 Cb 1.16E-08 Farads/km

For full length of Line

Cb

2.889E-07 Farads

D-Computation of Shunt Capacitive Admittance


y'12=j x (2 P f) Cb Half y'12 0.0000907579067335444j 0.000045379j Mho Mho row 70 LINE CONSTANTS END

Sheet 10 of 33 112463150.xlsx.ms_office.xls

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Design of a 220 kv T/L ENGINEERING MAKES THE DIFFERENCE
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T/L REPRESENTATION A-The Nominal PI representation The normal P representation of one phase will be as follows: Z12= 0.6467+7.3945j Ohms V2= V/ 3+j 0.0 = 127017 (Reference)

The line series admittance y12 =

1/Z12 = 0.01174-0.13421j V1 at the sending end can be computed as follows: V1= A x V2 + B x I2 A=[1+y'12 x Z12/2] B=Z12 (Reference 5 ) I2 is the value of current at the receiving end.

Mhos row 20

I2 is computed as follows: 1176 MVA is to be transmitted by the two circuits 588.24 MVA is to be transmitted by the one circuit Active and Reactive Power flow = P12-Jq12 = 500000000-309872169.201551j Active and Reactive Power flow in one phase = 1/3(P12-jQ12) =p12-jq12= I2 =(p12-jq12)/V2 A=[1+(j y'12 Z12)/2] B=Z12= The status of voltage at sending end is: V1= AV2 + BI2 U1= 3 x V1 MVA 166666667-103290723j = 1312.2-813.2j = 0.99983+0.00001j = 0.6467+7.3945j Ohms VAr Amperes row 30

= 133857.21425+9178.43663j

volts row 40

D U%= 5.63% Thus the voltage at the sending end (Pipri West No.2) must be 5.63% higher than the voltage at the receiving end (Deh Kharkro), while two circuits of the line was transmitting a total of 1176 MVA.

= 231847.496040633+15897.5185772113j volts = 231847+15898j volts = 232392 3.92 o Volts

Z12
row 50

Y'12 2

Y'12 2

v 1

K3
row 60 T/L REPRENTATION ENDS

v 2

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RADIO INTERFERENCE (Reference 6 & 7) Emc = Where: Emc V n r R S req Hm Ht Hb We get: V Emc Etc Ebc Vx

[ + (n-1) x r /R] /[n x r x Ln(2 x H x S/(req x (4 x H2 + S2)))]


= = = = = = = = = = = Surface voltage gradient of the middle phase conductor at underside of conductor Maximum operating voltage between phase and neutral [KV] V/ 3 = 245 kV number of conductors in bundle = 2 Radius of conductor = 0.013 m Radius of Circle throgh sub-conductors = 0.2 m Spacing between Phases = 6.2 m Equivalent radius = 0.06363772 m Average Height of Middle Phase Average Height of Top Phase Average Height of Bottom Phase = = = 18 m 24.2 m 11.8 m

row 20

= = = =

Max. Op. Voltage Phase to Neutral 1269.375 = kV/m 1267.577 1274.613 = = kV/m kV/m

= = = =

141.45 kV 12.69 kV/cm 12.68 kV/cm 12.75 kV/cm

For Middle Phase For Top Phase For Bottom Phase row 30

Gradient is at acceptable level


CONCLUSION (Entered Manually- Please check yourself) All above gradients are well below documented data from other countries/utilities. See table below:

Country kV OHL CANADA 380 U.S.A 500 FRANCE 420 GERMANY 380 ITALY 380 U.K 420

ConductorColumn1 config. 2 x 28.14 mm Dia 2 x 41.90 mm Dia 2 x 26.40 mm Dia 4 x 2.00 mm Dia 2 x 29.70 mm Dia 2 x 27.70 mm Dia

E 18.00 16.90 19.00 15.70 15.00 19.60

Units kV/cm kV/cm kV/cm kV/cm kV/cm kV/cm

row 40

row 50

row 60

row 70

RADION INTERFERENCE ENDS

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CORONA LOSS (Reference 7) Pc = Where: Pc f d Vn Vo Where: m r re d Thus: Vo Therefore: Pc = 139.5312 kV(rms) = = = = Surface factor Radius of cond Eqt. Radius GMD = = = = 0.85 1.3 cm 6.36 cm 781 cm 241/d (f+25)(Vn-Vo)2[re/d]1/2 x 10-5 kW/km per phase = = = = = Corona power loss (kW/km per phase) System Frequency .392 p/(273+t) Nominal Phase to neutral voltage 21.1 x m x d x r x ln(d/re)[1+0.3/ (rd)]

= = =

50 Hz 0.9832 127.02 kV kV(rms) row 20

2.60 kW/km per phase For full line length For three phases = = 65 kW 195 kW

row 30

row 40

row 50

CORONA LOSS ENDS

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SAG TENSION TENSION VERSUS SPAN CALCULATION p= 89 Conductor pull at p kg/m2 wind pressure (w2) 0.026 X 2.314 kg/m 89 P

row 20

w1=

3.6

kg/m w2 =

(w12 + P2)
4.28 kg/m

3860 kg

Max working Tension for Pole design

row 30 +5 C with 89 kg/m wind


o 2

Tension

T1 =

o 2779.2 kg at 30 C Still air

row 40 +80 o C Still air Span (m)

50

100

150

200

250
row 50

Following Weill formula is used for sag-tension computatios:

T23 + T22 x
Where: T2 T1 w1 w2 E b A S

[ (w12 x E x A)/(24 x T12) x S2 + (q2-q1) x b x A - T1] - (w22 xE x A)/24 x S2 = 0


= = = = = = = = Tension to be computed for temperature q2 and Conductor Unit wt. w 2 Known Tension for temperature q1 and Conductor Unit wt. w 1 Unit weight of conductor in kg/m for known tension condition Unit weight of conductor in kg/m for tension to be found Final Modulus of Elasticity in kg/mm2 Coefficient of Expansion of conductor per degree celsius Cross sectional area of conductor in mm2 Span in meters

row 60

Let us find maximum tension at Minimum Temperature :w1 = 3.6 kg/m 2 E = 11213 kg/mm 2 A = 400 mm T1 = 2779 kg EDS o q1 = 30 C ED Temp o q2 = 5 C Min. Temp o b = 1.70E-05 per C 2 w2 = 4.28 kg/mm

row 70

Sheet 14 of 33 112463150.xlsx.ms_office.xls

Dr. Kasikci
Design of a 220 kv T/L ENGINEERING MAKES THE DIFFERENCE
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4-Oct-12 1:49 AM

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G 250 H 200 I

S = m Choos multiple values Coefficients of Weill equation are computed as: The above Weil formula can be written as:

aT23 + bT22 + cT2 + d = 0


a b = =
1 1 1 1

[ (w12 x E x A)/(24 x T12) x S2 + (q2-q1) x b x ExA - T1]


14915.8 0 7859.438 0 2371.154 -1549.048 0 0

c d

= =

row 80

(w22

xE x A)/24 x S

-2.14E+11 -1.37E+11

-7.7E+10 -3.42E+10

Using the built in Goal Seek tool of excel

T2 = Fucntion to be zero

3416 0

3475 0.00000

3593 0

3854 0.00000

NOTE:To apply goal seek to determin value of T 2 that will make the function nearly equal to zero, Place the cursor at the relevent value of the function. Invoke goal seek and proceed step wise as shown below: Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 row 90

row 100

Step 4- Klick OK to dismiss this box

You will see in step 4 that goal seek succeeded to get the result of the function nearest to zeero as you wanted. I have done this on XL 2007 but similar facility is available in XL 2003 on which I had started originally.

row 110

Now Let us now find minimum tension at Maximum Temperature repeating the above steps :o q2 = 80 C Max. Temp w2 = 3.6 kg/m Bare Wt. Coefficients of Weill equation are computed as for the same spans as above: a= 1 1 1 b=

row 120

[ (w12 x E x A)/(24 x T12) x S2 + (q2-q1) x b xEx A - T1]

20634.4

13578.1

8089.78

4169.58

c=

d = - (w22 xE x A)/24 x S2
Using the built in Goal seek tool of excel T2 Function From above two important figures have been found: 1. Maximum working tension for pole 2. Minimum tension at 80 oC and 250 m span The maximum sag= 11.01 m

-1.5E+11 -9.7E+10 -5.4E+10 -2.4E+10 2555 0.01166 2458 0.00043 2291 0.00375 1984 0.00000

= =

3854 kg 2555 kg row 130

SAG TENSION ENDS

Sheet 15 of 33 112463150.xlsx.ms_office.xls

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INSULATOR SWING Maximum swing angle of Insulator string is computed as follows:

tan a
Where:

(W CON W INS / 2 G CON G INS / 2


Angle of Insulator swing Wind on conductor in wind span kg Wind on insulator String Weight of insulator string 0.523659 Radians 30 Degrees OK This is maximum swing angle of the insulator. kg kg Weight of Conductor in wt. span kg 1064 100 1800 260

a W con W ins G con G ins

= = = = = = =

row 20

row 30

W ins

G ins W con

G con

row 40

row 50

row 60

INSULATOR SWING ENDS

Sheet 16 of 33 112463150.xlsx.ms_office.xls

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Design of a 220 kv T/L ENGINEERING MAKES THE DIFFERENCE
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CFO

Critical Flash Over Voltage (CFO)


From Probability considerations Approximate Manual method (Reference 6) For number of gaps 300/circuit

1 0.00000333 (300 x 1000)


row 20

Where: Eq. 11.18.2 reference 6

Refering to fig 11.17.6 of reference 6. From the curves there we get: Y = 4.504 Eq. 1.18.2 above forms a quadratic equation of the form: 2 a X + bX + c = 0 Where: a b c = = = -0.949285 4 -3.967542 row 30

The solution is given by: -b/2a ((b2-4ac))/2a Left hand part Right hand part Thus CFO

= = =

2.106849 -0.509221 2.62 p.u. row 40

CFO= 523 kV For wet wheather CFO = 576 kV This is almost equal to that given in DATA for determining main dimensions

row 50

row 60 CFO ENDS

Sheet 17 of 33 112463150.xlsx.ms_office.xls

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Lever arm for wind pressure


ENGINEERING MAKES THE DIFFERENCE
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LOCATION OF WINDLOAD ON POLE SECTIONS wind will SEE projected area of the pole section- IN THE FORM OF A Trapezium as shown below:

b1

row 20

row 30

Xb

b row 40 Ref: The Engineers' Manual Second Edition Twentieth printing By Ralph G. Hudson, S. B. PUBLISHED BY John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York 1917 1944

xb

h (b1 2 b ) 3 ( b b 1)
h m xb m 6.433 5.032 5.311 5.295 Dr. Av.Dia Dr. Kasikci Kasikci 5.200 0.47 0.45 4.300 0.77 0.70 4.550 1.05 0.93 4.700 1.25 1.16 row 50

Calculations are tabulated below: b1 Pole Sect. b m m 1 0.3 0.632 2 0.632 0.906 3 0.906 1.200 4 1.200 1.300 NOTE1: NOTE 2:

11.5 9.5 10.15 10.45 41.6 None of the value of CG location agrees with Dr. Kasikci computation. The average dia also does not agree.

row 60

LOCATION OF CG ENDS

Sheet 18 of 33 112463150.xlsx.ms_office.xls

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Sheet 19 of 33 112463150.xlsx.ms_office.xls

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Design of a 220 kv T/L ENGINEERING MAKES THE DIFFERENCE
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MAIN DIMENSIONS (Reference 6) The relation between CFO and Live metal clearence CFO .83l - 30.4
3 2

is shown on page 336 fig. 11.5.1

442l - 30.4 l + .83l 3


2

.83/.83

l + 442l - CFO = l 3 - 30.4/.83 l 2 + 442/.83 l - CFO/.83 l 3 - 30.4/.83 l 2 + 442/.83 l - CFO/.83 l 3 - 36.62651 l 2 + 532.5301 l - CFO/.83

0 = = = 0 0 0 row 20

CFO = 577 kV The Cubic equation can be solved by using Goal seek Tool in Excel as follows: a = 1 b = -36.62651 c = 532.5301 d = -695.1807

1.44 m

Function = -1.25E-06 Due to unforseen material projections, this distance is increased by judgment Thus

row 30

1600 mm

This will be used in dimensioning the pole Now Computing length of bottom cross arm:

Bottom Cross Arm row 40 30 Degrees = 4200 X COS30 3637

150

row 50 1600 386 4200 X Sin30 = 2100 Average width of Section 2

200

row 60

lx

2100 + 200 + 150 + 1600 + 386

= 4550 mm Length of Bottom cross arm = 4550 mm All the six cross-arms may be of same length

row 70

Sheet 20 of 33 112463150.xlsx.ms_office.xls

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Design of a 220 kv T/L ENGINEERING MAKES THE DIFFERENCE
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Computing Cross Arm spacing S (here in vertical configuration) S = 4200 + 1600 + 150 + 100 = 6050 mm

row 80 400

4200

S 6050 mm

row 90

1600

1600 150 100

Middle Cross Arm

row 100

row 110

row 120

Sheet 21 of 33 112463150.xlsx.ms_office.xls

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Design of a 220 kv T/L ENGINEERING MAKES THE DIFFERENCE
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Now computing height of earth-wire peak (Refering to diagram below): Angle of insulator swing = From geometry as shown here: 30 Degrees

row 130

l +l
1

lx
=

4550
2

(h + 300) X Sin30 + 4200 X Sin30 =

l +l
1

++ 750

5300 mm

5300 - 4200 XSin 30 h - 300 Sin 30


h= 6100 mm

row 140

300

30

row 150

row 160 750

4200 row 170 30

row 180

Thus the main dimensions are: Length of each Cross Arm Height of Earth Wire Peak Cross Arm Spacing (verticle) Top Hamper Pole length below bottom cross arm: Add /2Tip 100 Insulator 4200 Max Sag 11008 Ground Cl. 8000 Length computed y Dr.Kasikci MAIN DIMENSIONS END

4550 mm 6100 mm 6050 mm 18200

Distance to GL from POLE TOP 41.6 m C.L. of Top Cros Arm 35.5 m C.L. of Middle Cross Arm 29.45 m C.L. of Bottom Cross Arm 23.4 m row 190

mm mm 23208 mm 41408 mm 41600 mm

Sheet 22 of 33 112463150.xlsx.ms_office.xls

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Design of a 220 kv T/L ENGINEERING MAKES THE DIFFERENCE
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POLE LOADING LOADING CALCULATION: POLE TYPE : 2PT-220 Normal Condition kg 329 2060 334 1164 152 673

WC HC HA P

G C G C G C G C

Weight of Ground Wire Weight of Conductor Wind on Ground Wire Wind on Conductor Angle Load of Ground Wire Angle Load of Conductor Pull of Ground Wire Pull of Conductor

Abnormal Condition kg 164 1160

76 337 1737 3860

row 20

NOTE: Ground Wire Calculations are not fully linked with data With the above figures Loading trees can be made as follows: 329 329 1737 486 2060 2060 1837 2060 2060 1837 1837 2060 2060 1837 1837 673 673 2060 2060 673 337 row 40 2060 1160 1837 673 337 3860 152 2060 1160 3860 row 30

Wind on pole DW 76 CASE I S.F 1.25 673 2060 673 2060 673 2060

164 DW

No Wind

row 50 CASE II S.F 1.25 337 2060 673 row 60 2060 673

1160

3860

No Wind DW row 70 CASE III S.F 1.25

POLE LOADING ENDS

Sheet 23 of 33 112463150.xlsx.ms_office.xls

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Design of a 220 kv T/L ENGINEERING MAKES THE DIFFERENCE
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WIND ON POLE SECTION 1 Section 1 Top L Sec dt db dSec ZtSec GTSec R CXTC ATC (ATC )SF

= = = = = = = = = =

Length of the section Dia at Top of Section Dia at Bottom of Section Average Dia of Section Height of CG of Section Gust Response Factor Reynolds number Drag Coefficient Wind on Section Wind including SF Dr. Kasikci's value

= = = = = = = = = =

11.5 m 0.3 m 0.632 m 0.47 m 36.53276 m 4.16699 1.98E+06 0.75 720.2 900.2 kg 864.1 kg

row 20

row 30

row 40

WIND ON POLE SECTION 1 ENDS

Sheet 24 of 33 112463150.xlsx.ms_office.xls

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Design of a 220 kv T/L ENGINEERING MAKES THE DIFFERENCE
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WIND ON POLE SECTION 2 Section 2 L Sec dt db dSec ZtSec GTSec R CXTC ATC (ATC )SF

= = = = = = = = = =

Length of the section Dia at Top of Section Dia at Bottom of Section Average Dia of Section Height of CG of Section Gust Response Factor Reynolds number Drag Coefficient Wind on Section Wind including SF Dr. Kasikci's value

= = = = = = = = = =

9.5 m 0.632 m 0.906 m 0.77 m 25.63208 m 3.916428 3.17E+06 0.75 922.7 1153.4 kg 1045.0 kg

row 20

row 30

row 40 WIND ON POLE SECTION 2 ENDS

Sheet 25 of 33 112463150.xlsx.ms_office.xls

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Design of a 220 kv T/L ENGINEERING MAKES THE DIFFERENCE
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WIND ON POLE SECTION 3 Section 3 L Sec dt db dSec ZtSec GTSec R CXTC ATC (ATC )SF

= = = = = = = = = =

Length of the section Dia at Top of Section Dia at Bottom of Section Average Dia of Section Height of CG of Section Gust Response Factor Reynolds number Drag Coefficient Wind on Section Wind including SF Dr. Kasikci's value

= = = = = = = = = =

10.15 m 0.906 m 1.2 m 1.05 m 15.76116 m 3.596921 4.15E+06 0.75 1239.8 1549.8 kg 1357.0 kg

row 20

row 30

row 40

WIND ON POLE SECTION 3 ENDS

Sheet 26 of 33 112463150.xlsx.ms_office.xls

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Design of a 220 kv T/L ENGINEERING MAKES THE DIFFERENCE
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WIND ON POLE SECTION 4 Section 4 Bottom Section L Sec = Length of the section dt db dSec ZtSec GTSec R CXTC ATC (ATC )SF = = = = = = = = = Dia at Top of Section Dia at Bottom of Section Average Dia of Section Height of CG of Section Gust Response Factor Reynolds number Drag Coefficient Wind on Section Wind including SF Dr. Kasikci's value

= = = = = = = = = =

10.45 m 1.2 m 1.3 m 1.25 m 5.294667 m 2.971835 4.48E+06 0.75 1251.9 1564.9 kg 1423.0 kg

row 20

row 30

row 40 WIND ON POLE SECTION 4 ENDS

Sheet 27 of 33 112463150.xlsx.ms_office.xls

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Design of a 220 kv T/L ENGINEERING MAKES THE DIFFERENCE
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WINDLOAD ON 2PT-220- WITH 400MM2 CU.COND.

0.3

WIND 900.2

Pole Section 1 dSec1 = 0.47 row 18 ZtSec1 = 36.53 11.5

Slip joint

WIND 1153.4

Pole Section 2 dSec2 = 0.77 row 30 ZtSec2 = 25.63 9.5

Slip joint row 40 41.6 Pole Section 3 dSec3 = 1.05 ZtSec3 = 15.76

36.53 10.15 WIND 1549.8 row 50

30.1

25.63 Slip joint row 60 Pole Section 4 dSec4 = 1.25 ZtSec4 = 5.29 m

20.6 15.76 WIND 1564.9

10.45

10.45

5.29

row 70

NOTE: ALL DIMENSIONS IN METERS WIND LOAD ON POLE ENDS

1.3

Sheet 28 of 33 112463150.xlsx.ms_office.xls

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LOADING CASE 1- 2PT-220- WITH 400MM2 CU.COND. 411.25 0.3 608 Pole Section 1 dSec1 = 0.47 ZtSec1 = 36.53 2296 11.5

2575 900.2 WIND 2296

2575

2575 2575 Slip joint 2296 WIND 1441.7 2575 2296 2296 2296 41.6 2575 9.5 Pole Section 2 dSec2 = 0.77 ZtSec2 = 25.63

Slip joint Pole Section 3 dSec3 = 1.05 ZtSec3 = 15.76

35.5

36.53 10.15 WIND 1549.8 29.45

30.1

23.4 25.63 Slip joint

20.6 15.76 WIND 1564.9

Pole Section 4 dSec4 = 1.25 ZtSec4 = 5.29

10.45

10.45

5.29

NOTE: ALL DIMENSIONS IN METERS LOADING CASE 1 ENDS

1.3

Sheet 29 of 33 112463150.xlsx.ms_office.xls

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Design of a 220 kv T/L ENGINEERING MAKES THE DIFFERENCE
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DESIGN OF POLE SECTION 4 All Loads have been multiplied by SF = Load Case 1 Summary HORINZONTAL LOADS: Load Ultimate Lever Moment Designation Load kg arm (m) kg-m HG+HGA 608 41.6 25272 HC+HCA 4593 35.5 163033.8 HC+HCA 4593 29.45 135249 HC+HCA 4593 23.4 107464.5 HSec1 900.2 36.53 32887 HSec2 1441.75 25.63 36955 HSec3 1549.76 15.76 24426 HSec4 1564.92 5.29 8286 Mz = 533573 MY = 0 Transverse Shear 19841.64 Longitudnal Shear 0 VERTICAL LOADS WG 411.25 WC 15450 WP 15000 W = 30861

1.25

row 20

row 30

SECTION 4- BOTTOM
SECTION POPERTIES: D = Flat to Flat OD = t = Thickness = A = Stress Area = I = Moment of Inertia= Z = Section Modulus = BENDING STRESS: 130 1.032 428.5658 909845 13997.62 cm cm cm2 cm4 cm3

row 40

fb fa f

2 3812 kg/cm

AXIAL STRESS: = =
2 72.01 kg/cm

fa + fb = 3883.90 kg/cm2 Stress is Safe

row 50

row 60 DESIGN OF POLE SECTION 4 ENDS

Sheet 30 of 33 112463150.xlsx.ms_office.xls

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Design of a 220 kv T/L ENGINEERING MAKES THE DIFFERENCE
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DESIGN OF POLE SECTION 3 All Loads have been multiplied by SF = Load Case 1 Summary HORINZONTAL LOADS: Load Ultimate Lever Moment Designation Load kg arm (m) kg-m HG+HGA 608 31.15 18923.63 HC+HCA 4593 25.05 115042.1 HC+HCA 4593 19 87258 HC+HCA 4593 12.95 59472.88 HSec1 900.2 26.08 23480 HSec2 1441.75 15.18 21889 HSec3 1549.76 5.31 8231 Mz = 334296 MY = 0 Transverse Shear 18276.73 Longitudnal Shear 0 VERTICAL LOADS WG 411.25 WC 15450 WP 8812.5 W = 24674

1.25

row 20

row 30

SECTION 4- BOTTOM
SECTION POPERTIES: D = Flat to Flat OD = t = Thickness = A = Stress Area = I = Moment of Inertia= Z = Section Modulus = BENDING STRESS: 120 0.953 365.3148 660830.5 11013.84 cm cm cm2 cm4 cm3

row 40

fb fa f

2 3035 kg/cm

AXIAL STRESS: = =
2 67.54 kg/cm

fa + fb = 3102.78 kg/cm2 Stress is Safe

row 50

DESIGN OF POLE SECTION 3 ENDS

Sheet 31 of 33 112463150.xlsx.ms_office.xls

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Design of a 220 kv T/L ENGINEERING MAKES THE DIFFERENCE
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DESIGN OF POLE SECTION 2 All Loads have been multiplied by SF = Load Case 1 Summary HORINZONTAL LOADS: Load Ultimate Lever Moment Designation Load kg arm (m) kg-m HG+HGA 608 21 12757.5 HC+HCA 4593 14.9 68428.25 HC+HCA 4593 8.85 40644 HC+HCA 4593 2.8 12859 HSec1 900.2 15.93 14343 HSec2 1441.75 5.03 7255 Mz = 156286 MY = 0 Transverse Shear 16726.96 Longitudnal Shear 0 VERTICAL LOADS WG 411.25 WC 15450 WP 4837.5 W = 20699

1.25

row 20

row 30

SECTION 4- BOTTOM
SECTION POPERTIES: D = Flat to Flat OD = t = Thickness = A = Stress Area = I = Moment of Inertia= Z = Section Modulus = BENDING STRESS: 90.6 0.953 275.0962 282190.3 6229.365 cm cm cm2 cm4 cm3

row 40

fb fa f

2 2509 kg/cm

AXIAL STRESS: = =
2 75.24 kg/cm

fa + fb = 2584.11 kg/cm2 Stress is Safe


row 50

row 60

DESIGN OF POLE SECTION 2 ENDS

Sheet 32 of 33 112463150.xlsx.ms_office.xls

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Design of a 220 kv T/L ENGINEERING MAKES THE DIFFERENCE
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DESIGN OF POLE SECTION 1 All Loads have been multiplied by SF = Load Case 1 Summary HORINZONTAL LOADS: Load Ultimate Lever Moment Designation Load kg arm (m) kg-m HG+HGA 608 11.5 6986.25 HC+HCA 4593 5.4 24799.5 HSec1 900.2 6.43 5791 Mz = 37577 MY = 0 Transverse Shear 6100.214 Longitudnal Shear 0 VERTICAL LOADS WG 411.25 WC 5150 WP 1912.5 W = 7474

1.25

row 20

row 30

SECTION 4- BOTTOM
SECTION POPERTIES: D = Flat to Flat OD = t = Thickness = A = Stress Area = I = Moment of Inertia= Z = Section Modulus = BENDING STRESS: 63.2 7.4 1329.602 528416.2 16722.03 cm cm cm2 cm4 cm3

fb fa f

2 225 kg/cm

row 40

AXIAL STRESS: = =
2 5.62 kg/cm

2 fa + fb = 230.33 kg/cm Stress is Safe

row 50 DESIGN OF POLE SECTION 1 ENDS

Sheet 33 of 33 112463150.xlsx.ms_office.xls

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Design of a 220 kv T/L ENGINEERING MAKES THE DIFFERENCE
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DESIGN OF FOUNDATION Foundation Loads including withstand factor: Vertical Load V 44.4 TONS Overturning Moment M 768.3 TON-M Horizontal Shear S 28.6 TONS The foundation for these poles were actually designed by another Turkish engineer Dr. Kerhan. Dadasbilge, who studied soils of Karachi and decided the basis for design of foundations. Thus Dr. Kasikci adopted the parameters and methodology developed by Dr. Dadasbilge as follows: Soil parameters used for the geotechnical calculations are for disintegrated rock: Density (natural) Density (under water) Angle of internal friction Cohesion Design skin friction in bed rockF Also he observed that bottom of borehole cannot be cleaned properly with bailers. Therefor both compression and uplift forces have to be taken by the skin friction only. Here are his calculations: Pile diameter 0.9 Pile diameter 0.8 Perimeter 2.5133 h Depth in bedrock 9 Total surface in rock 22.619 Q(90) Ultimate pile capacity 226.19 fy forReinforcement 4 Min. Reinforcement 56.55 With 4 piles per footting pile spacing L is calculated as follows: d m m m m m2 tons t/cm2 cm2 Nominal in rock in rock row 30

1.85 1.1 35 0 10

ton/m3 ton/m3 Deg. ton/m2 ton/m2

row 20

Grade 60-ASTM

M 2Q(90)

1.70 This is a reasonable spacing

row 40

DESIGN OF FOUNDATION ENDS