2001 INTERIM

DESIGN SPECIFIC

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S T D - A A S H T O SRCH LRF-D-SI-ENGL 1918

Ob39dO4 0 0 5 7 4 7 0 2 9 0 W

2000 INTERIM

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M

ENGL 1998

Ob39804 0048478 570 U

DESIGN SPECIFIC

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AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications-SOIo Units

2001 Interim Revisions
As Approved by the AASHTO Subcommittee on Bridges and Structures

May 2001
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Published by the American Association of State Highway and TransportationOfficials 444 North Capitol Street, N.W., Suite 249 Washington, DC 20001

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www.transportation.org
O 2001 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. All Rights Reserved. Printed in ntd the U i e States of America. This book, or parts thereof, may not be reproduced in any form without written
permission of the publishers.

ISBN: 1-56051-159-1

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STD.AASHT0 S R C H LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998

Ob39804 0048480 129

AASHTO Executive Committee 1997-1998
Voting Members

Officers: President: David L. Winstead, Maryland Vice President: Dan Flowers, Arkansas Secretary-Treasurer: Clyde Pyers, Maryland Regional Representatives: Region I: Anne Canby, Delaware Glenn Gershaneck, Vermont Region II: Elizabeth S. Mabry, South Carolina James C. Codell, III, Kentucky Region III: Charles Thompson, Wisconsin James Denn, Minnesota Region IV: Dwight M. Bower, Idaho Thomas R. Warne, Utah
Nonvoting Members

Immediate Past President: Darre1 Rensink, Iowa AASHTO Executive Director: Francis B. Francois

111
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STD-AASHTO S R C H LRFD-SI-ENGL

1998

Ob39804 0048483 Ob5

HIGHWAY SUBCOMMITTEE ON BRIDGES AND STRUCTURES 1998
DAVID POPE, WYOMING, Chairman JAMES E. ROBERTS, CALIFORNIA, Vice Chairman DAVID DENSMORE, Federal Highway Administration, Secretary

ALABAMA, William F. Conway ALASKA, Steve Bradford, Ray Shumway ARIZONA, William R. Brucsch, F. Daniel Davis ARKANSAS, Dale Loe CALIFORNIA, James E. Roberts COLORADO, Stephen Horton CONNECTICUT, Gordon Barton DELAWARE, Chao H. Hu D. C., Donald Cooney FLORIDA, Jerry Potter GEORGIA, Paul Liles HAWAII, Donald C. Ornellas IDAHO, Matthew M. Farrar ILLINOIS, Ralph E. Anderson INDIANA, Mary JOHamman IOWA, William A. Lundquist KANSAS, Kenneth F. Hurst KENTUCKY, Stephen E. Goodpaster LOUISIANA, Norval Knapp, Wayne Aymond MAINE, James E. Tukey MARYLAND, Earle S. Freedman MASSACHUSETTS, Alexander K. Bardow MICHIGAN, Sudhakar Kulkarni MINNESOTA, Donald J. Flemming MISSISSIPPI, Wilbur F. Massey MISSOURI, Allen F. Laffoon MONTANA, William S. Fullerton NEBRASKA, Lyman D. Freemon NEVADA, William C.Crawford, Jr. NEW HAMPSHIRE, James A. Moore NEW JERSEY, Harry A. Casper, Jr. NEW MEXICO, Jimmy D. Camp NEW YORK, James O'Connel1 NORTH CAROLINA, William J. Rogers NORTH DAKOTA, Steven J. Miller OHIO, Brad W. Fagrell OKLAHOMA, Robert J. Rusch OREGON, Terry J. Shike PENNSYLVANIA, Scott Christie PUERTO RICO, Hector Camacho

RHODE ISLAND, Kazem Farhoumand SOUTH CAROLINA, Randy R. Cannon SOUTH DAKOTA, John Cole TENNESSEE, Ed Wasserman TEXAS, Richard Wilkison U.S. DOT, David Densmore, (FHWA), Nick E. Mpras (USCG) UTAH, P. K. Mohanty VERMONT, Warren B. Tripp VIRGINIA, Malcolm T. Kerley WASHINGTON, Myint Lwin WEST VIRGINIA, James Sothen WISCONSIN, Stanley W. Woods WYOMING, B. Patrick Collins ALBERTA, Dilip K. Dasmohapatra BRITISH COLUMBIA, Peter Brett MANITOBA, W. Saltzberg MARIANA ISLANDS, Elizabeth H. Salas-Balajadia NEW BRUNSWICK, G. A. Rushton NEWFOUNDLAND, Peter Lester NORTHWEST TERRITORIES, Jivko Jivkov NOVA SCOTIA, Al MacRae ONTARIO, Ranjit S. Reel SASKATCHEWAN, Lorne J. Hamblin MASS. METRO. DIST. COMM., David Lenhardt N.J. TURNPIKE AUTHORITY, Wallace R. Grant PORT AUTHORITY OF N.Y. AND N.J., Joseph K. Kelly N.Y. STATE BRIDGE AUTHORITY, William Moreau BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, Wade Cosey U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTUREFOREST SERVICE, Nelson Hernandez MILITARY TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT COMMAND, Robert D. Franz U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERSDEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, Paul C. T. Tan

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S T D - A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1778

Ob37804 0048482 T T l I

FOREWORD
The first broadly recognized national standard for the design and construction of bridges in the United States was published in 1931 by the American Association of State Highway Officials (AASHO), the predecessor to AASHTO. With the advent of the automobile and the establishment of highway departments in all of the American states dating back to just before the turn of the century, the design, construction and maintenance of most U. S. bridges was the responsibility of these departments and, more specifically, the chief bridge engineer within each department. It was natural, therefore, that these engineers, acting collectively as the Subcommittee on Bridges and Structures, would become the author and guardian of this first bridge standard. This first publication was entitled Standard Specijkations for Highway Bridges and Incidental Structures. It quickly became the defacto national standard and, as such, was adopted and used by not only the state highway departments but also other bridge-owning authorities and agencies in the United States and abroad. Rather early on, the last three words of the original title were dropped and it has been reissued in consecutive editions at approximately four year intervals ever since as Standard Speczjkations for Highway Bridges, with the 16th Edition appearing in 1996. The body of knowledge related to the design of highway bridges has grown enormously since 1931 and continues to do so. Theory and practice have evolved greatly, reflecting advances through research in understanding the properties of materials, in improved materials, in more rational and accurate analysis of structural behavior, in the advent of computers and rapidly advancing computer technology, in the study of external events representing particular hazards to bridges such as seismic events and stream scour, and in many other areas. The pace of advances in these areas has, if anything, stepped up in recent years. To accommodate this growth in bridge engineering knowledge, the Subcommittee on Bridges and Structures has been granted the authority under AASHTO's governing documents to approve and issue Bridge Interims each year, not only with respect to Standard Specijkations but also to incrementally modi@ and enhance the twenty-odd additional documents on bridges and structures engineering that are under its guidance and sponsorship. In 1986, the Subcommittee submitted a request to the AASHTO Standing Committee on Research to undertake an assessment of U.S. bridge design specifications, review foreign design specifications and codes, consider design philosophies alternative to those underlying Standard Specifications, and to render recommendations based on these investigations. This work was accomplished under the National Cooperative Highway Research Program, an applied research program directed by the AASHTO Standing Committee on Research and administered on behalf of AASHTO by the Transportation Research Board. The work was completed in 1987, and, as might be expected with a standard incrementally adjusted over the years, the Standard Specifications were judged to include discernible gaps, inconsistencies, and even some conflicts. Beyond this, the specification did not reflect or incorporate the most recently developing design philosophy, load and resistance factor design (LRFD), a philosophy which has been gaining ground in other areas of structural engineering and in other parts of the world such as Canada and Europe.

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STD-AASHTO SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL

1978

Ob39804 0048983 938 I

From its inception until the early 197Os, the sole design philosophy embedded within Standard Specifications was one known as working stress design (WSD). WSD establishes allowable stresses as a fraction or percentage of a given material's load-carrying capacity, and requires that calculated design stresses not exceed those allowable stresses. Beginning in the early 1970s, WSD began to be adjusted to reflect the variable predictability of certain load types, such as vehicular loads and wind forces, through adjusting design factors, a design philosophy referred to as load factor design (LFD). Both WSD and LFD are reflected in the current edition of Standard Specifications. A further philosophical extension results from considering the variability in the properties of structural elements, in similar fashion to load variabilities. While considered to a limited extent in LFD, the design philosophy of load and resistance factor design (LRFD) takes variability in the behavior of structural elements into account in an explicit manner. LRFD relies on extensive use of statistical methods, but sets forth the results in a manner readily usable by bridge designers and analysts. The principal recommendation of the assessment completed in 1987, therefore, was the development of an entirely new LRFD bridge design standard. A multi-year, exceptionally comprehensiveNCHRP project to accomplishthis goal was subsequently approved by the AASHTO Standing Committee on Research. Once underway, NCHRP Project 12-33 took five years to complete, and resulted in this document, the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. Under the frequent review of the AASHTO Highway Subcommittee on Bridges and Structures and its twenty Technical Committees, the specifications were developed by a team of more than 50 members, including some of the best bridge engineering talent in the U.S. and elsewhere, guided by a distinguished project panel. The effort included the incorporation of state-of-the-art knowledge, and the cooperation and input of industry groups. It has passed through five successive drafts, painstaking reviews, and it has been systematically tested in trial designs in bridge design division of fourteen AASHTO member departments, as well as informally tested in many others. It represents a major step forward in improved bridge design and more accurate analysis methods, which will lead to bridges exhibiting superior serviceability, enhanced long-term maintainability, and more uniform levels of safety. A discussion of the evolution of the specifications and commentary, including the genesis of the NCHRP project, the research participants, the review process for the specifications, and selected major technical advances in the specifications, is presented in NCHRP Research Results Digest 198 (available from the Transportation Research Board). With the advent of these specifications,bridge engineers now have a choice of two standards to guide their designs, the long-standing AASHTO Standard Specificationsfor Highway Bridges, and these alternative, newly adopted AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, and its companion AASHTO LRFD Bridge Construction SpecrJications.
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S T D - A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL L998 D Ob39B04 0046484 87q I

AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications
Second Edition System International Units (SI) Edition

Preface
The AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specìjkations has the following 14 sections and an Index:
1.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 1o. 11. 12. 13. 14.

Introduction General Design and Location Features Loads and Load Factors Structural Analysis and Evaluation Concrete Structures Steel Structures Aluminum Structures Wood Structures Decks and Deck Systems Foundations Abutments, Piers and Walls Buried Structures and Tunnel Liners Railings Joints and Bearings

Tables of Contents precede each section. References are listed following each section. Equations, figures and tables are denoted by their home article number and an extension, for example 1.2.3.4.5-1, but when they are referenced in their home article or its commentary they are identified only by the extension. For example, in Article 1.2.3.4.5, Equation 1.2.3.4.5-2 would simply be called “Equation 2.” When this equation is referenced anywhere else other than its home article, it is identified by its whole nomenclature, in other words, “Equation 1.2.3.4.5-2.” The same convention applies to tables and figures.
System International Units (SI) Edition

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S T D . A A S H T 0 SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 Ob39804 0048485 700 I SECTION I (SI) . TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 SCOPE OF THE SPECIFICATIONS

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1 .1
1-1

1.2 DEFINITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 DESIGN PHILOSOPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.2 Limitstates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.2.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.2.2 SERVICE LIMIT STATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.2.3 FATIGUE AND FRACTURE LIMIT STATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.2.4 STRENGTH LIMIT STATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.2.5 EXTREME EVENT LIMIT STATES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.3 Ductility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.4 Redundancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.5 Operational Importance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1. 3
1-3 1-3 1-3 1-4 1-4 1-4 1-4 1-4 1-6 1-6

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S T D = A A S H T O S R C H LRFD-SI-ENGL
Section 1 Introduction (SI)
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5978

Ob37804 0 0 5 7 4 7 2 O b 3 U

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SPECIFICATIONS
1.1 SCOPE OF THE SPECIFICATIONS

COMMENTARY
c1.1

COPYRIGHT 2002; American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office

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The provisions of these Specifications are intended for the design, evaluation, and rehabilitation of both fixed and movable highway bridges. Mechanical, electrical, and special vehicular and pedestrian safety aspects of movable bridges, however, are not covered. Provisions are not included for bridges used solely for railway, railtransit, or public utilities. For bridges not fully covered herein, the provisions of these Specifications may be applied, as augmented with additional design criteria where required. These Specifications are not intended to supplant proper training or the exercise of judgment by the Designer, and state only the minimum requirements necessary to provide for public safety. The Owner or the Designer may require the sophistication of design or the quality of materials and construction to be higher than the minimum requirements. The concepts of safety through redundancy and ductility and of protection against scour and collision are emphasized. The design provisions of these Specificationsemploy the Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) methodology. The factors have been developed from the theory of reliability based on current statistical knowledge of loads and structural performance. Methods of analysis other than those included in previous Specifications and the modeling techniques inherent in them are included, and their use is encouraged. The commentary is not intended to provide a complete historical background concerning the development of these or previous Specifications, nor is it intended to provide a detailed summary of the studies and research data reviewed in formulating the provisions of the Specifications. However, references to some of the research data are provided for those who wish to study the background material in depth. The commentary directs attention to other documents that provide suggestions for carrying out the requirements and intent of these Specifications. However, those documents and this commentary are not intended to be a part of these Specifications. Construction specifications consistent with these design specifications are the AASHTO LRFD Bridsie Construction Specifications.
1.2 DEFINITIONS

Curved girders are not fully covered and were not part of the calibration data base. The term "notional" is often used in these specifications to indicate an idealization of a physical phenomenon, as in "notional load" or "notional resistance." Use of this term strengthens the separation of an engineer's "notion" or perception of the physical world in the context of design from the physical reality itself. The term "shall" denotes a requirement for compliance with these Specifications. The term "should" indicates a strong preference for a given criterion. The term "may" indicates a criterion that is usable, but other local and suitably documented, verified, and approved criterion may also be used in a manner consistent with the LRFD approach to bridge design.

Bridge - Any structure having an opening not less than 6100 mm that forms part of a highway or that is located over or under a highway. Collapse - A major change in the geometry of the bridge rendering it unfit for use

1-1
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S T D - A A S H T O S R C H LRFD-SI-ENGL.
Section 1 - Introduction (SI)

1998

m

OL398fl4 0057L173 T’TT

m

Component - Either a discrete element of the bridge or a combination of elements requiring individual design consideration. Design - Proportioning and detailing the components and connections of a bridge. Design Life - Period of time on which the statistical derivation of transient loads is based: 75 years for these Specifications. Ductility - Property of a component or connection that allows inelastic response. Engineer - Person responsible for the design of the bridge Evaluation - Determination of load-carrying capacity of an existing bridge. Extreme Event Limit States - Limit states relating to events such as earthquakes, ice load, and vehicle and vessel collision, with return periods in excess of the design life of the bridge. Fixed Bridge - A bridge with a fixed vehicular or navigational clearance. Force Effect - A deformation, stress, or stress resultant (¡.e., axial force, shear force, torsional, or flexural moment) caused by applied loads, imposed deformations, or volumetric changes. Limit State - A condition beyond which the bridge or component ceases to satisfy the provisions for which it was designed. Load Factor - A factor accounting primarily for the variability of loads, the lack of accuracy in analysis, and the probability of simultaneous occurrence of different loads, but also related to the statistics of the resistance through the calibration process. Load Modifier - A factor accounting for ductility, redundancy, and the operational importance of the bridge.
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Model - An idealization of a structure for the purpose of analysis. Movable Bridge - A bridge with a variable vehicular or navigational clearance. Multiple-Load-Path Structure - A structure capable of supporting the specified loads following loss of a main loadcarrying component or connection. Nominal Resistance - Resistance of a component or connection to force effects, as indicated by the dimensions specified in the contract documents and by permissible stresses, deformations, or specified strength of materials. Owner - Person or agency having jurisdiction over the bridge. Regular Service - Condition excluding the presence of special permit vehicles, wind exceeding 90 kmlh, and extreme events, including scour. Rehabilitation - A process in which the resistance of the bridge is either restored or increased. Resistance Factor - A factor accounting primarily for variability of material properties, structural dimensions and workmanship, and uncertainty in the prediction of resistance, but also related to the statistics of the loads through the calibration process. Service Life - The period of time that the bridge is expected to be in operation Service Limit States - Limit states relating to stress, deformation, and cracking.

1-2

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STDmAASHTO SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998
Section 1 Introduction (SI)

-

Ob39804 0048488 4LT I

SPECIFICATIONS

COMMENTARY

Strength Limit States - Limit states relating to strength and stability. 1.3 DESIGN PHILOSOPHY 1.3.1 General C I .3.1

Bridges shall be designed for specified limit states to achieve the objectives of constructibility, safety, and serviceability, with due regard to issues of inspectibility, economy, and aesthetics, as specified in Article 2.5. Regardless of the type of analysis used, Equation 1.3.2.1-1 shall be satisfied for all specified force effects and combinations thereof.

The res.;tance G, components and connections is determined, in many cases, on the basis of inelastic behavior, although the force effects are determined by using elastic analysis. This inconsistency is common to most current bridge specifications as a result of incomplete knowledge of inelastic structural action.

I.3.2 Limit States
1.3.2.1 GENERAL Each component and connection shall satisfy Equation 1 for each limit state, unless otherwise specified. For service and extreme event limit states, resistance factors shall be taken as 1.O, except for bolts, for which the provisions of Article 6.5.5shall apply. All limit states shall be considered of equal importance.

C1.3.2.I
Equation Iis the basis of LRFD methodology. Assigning resistance factor cp = 1.O to all nonstrength limit states is a temporary measure; development work is in progress. Ductility, redundancy, and operational importance are significant aspects affecting the margin of safety of bridges. Whereas the first two directly relate to physical strength, the last concerns the consequences of the bridge being out of service. The grouping of these aspects on the load side of Equation 1 is, therefore, arbitrary. However, it constitutes a first effort at codification. In the absence of more precise information, each effect, except that for fatigue and fracture, is 5 estimated as 1 percent, accumulated geometrically, a clearly subjective approach. With time, improved quantification of ductility, redundancy, and operational importance, and their interaction and system synergy, may be attained, possibly leading to a rearrangement of Equation 1, in which these effects may appear on either side of the equation or on both sides. NCHRP Project 12-36 is currently addressing the issue of redundancy.

I qi yi Qi s cp R = R, : ,
for which:

(1.3.2.1-1)

For loads for which a maximum value of yi is appropriate:

rli =

40 T)R

vi

(I. 3.2.1-2)

For loads for which a minimum value of yi is appropriate:

q.=-

'

'113%

5

1.0

(1.3.2.1-3)

where:

Y i =

c p =

resistance factor: a statistically based multiplier applied to nominal as specified Sections 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, I , 12 I and

rli =

discussion purposes, the girder bridge data used in the calibration of these Specifications was modified by multiplyingthe total factored loads by q = 0.95, I 1.05, .O, and 1.10. The resulting minimum values of ß for 95 combinations of span, spacing, and type of construction load modifier: a factor relatingto ductilityr were determined to be approximately 3.0, 3.5, 3.8, and redundancy, and operational importance 4.0,- respectively. . A further approximate representation of the effect of rl values can be obtained by considering the percent of 1-3
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STD.AASHT0 SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 M Ob39804 0048489 356
Section I Introduction (SI)

-

SPECIFICATIONS

COMMENTARY random normal data less than or equal to the mean value plus A u, where A is a multiplier, and o is the standard deviation of the data. If A is taken as 3.0, 3.5, 3.8, and 4.0, the percent of values less than or equal to the mean value plus A u would be about 99.865 percent, 99.977 percent, 99.993 percent and 99.997 percent, respectively.

qo = a factor relating to ductility, as specified in Article
I .3.3

qR = q, =

a factor relating to redundancy as specified in Article 1.3.4 a factor relating to operational importance as specified in Article 1.3.5

Qi

= forceeffect = nominal resistance
factored resistance: (PR, C I .3.2.2 The service limit state provides certain experiencerelated provisions that cannot always be derived solely from strength or statistical considerations. C I .3.2.3 The fatigue limit state is intended to limit crack growth under repetitive loads to prevent fracture during the design life of the bridge.

R ,

R, =

1.3.2.2 SERVICE LIMIT STATE The service limit state shall be taken as restrictions on stress, deformation, and crack width under regular service conditions. 1.3.2.3 FATIGUE AND FRACTURE LIMIT STATE The fatigue limit state shall be taken as restrictions on stress range as a result of a single design truck occurring at the number of expected stress range cycles. The fracture limit state shall be taken as a set of material toughness requirements of the AASHTO Material Specifications. 1.3.2.4 STRENGTH LIMIT STATE Strength limit state shall be taken to ensure that strength and stability, both local and global, are provided to resist the specified statistically significant load combinations that a bridge is expected to experience in its design life. 1.3.2.5 EXTREME EVENT LIMIT STATES The extreme event limit state shall be taken to ensure the structural survival of a bridge during a major earthquake or flood, or when collided by a vessel, vehicle, or ice flow, possibly under scoured conditions.
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C I .3.2.4 Extensive distress and structural damage may occur under strength limit state, but overall structural integrity is expected to be maintained.

C I .3.2.5 Extreme event limit states are considered to be unique occurrences whose return period may be significantly greater than the design life of the bridge. C i .3.3 The response of structural cc,npownts or connections beyond the elastic limit can be characterized by either brittle or ductile behavior. Brittle behavior is undesirable because it implies the sudden loss of loadcarrying capacity immediately when the elastic limit is exceeded. Ductile behavior is characterized by significant inelastic deformations before any loss of loadcarrying capacity occurs. Ductile behavior provides

1.3.3 Ductility
The structural system of a bridge shall be proportioned and detailed to ensure the development of significant and visible inelastic deformations at the strength and extreme event limit states prior to failure. It may be assumed that the requirements for ductility are satisfied for a concrete structure in which the resistance of a connection is not less than 1.3 times the

1-4
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STD.AASHT0 SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL i1998 m Ob39804 O048490 078 I
Section I Introduction (SI)

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SPECIFICATIONS maximum force effect imposed on the connection by the inelastic action of the adjacent components. Energy-dissipating devices may be accepted as means of providing ductility. For the strength limit state:

COMMENTARY warning of structural failure by large inelastic deformations. Under repeated seismic loading, large reversed cycles of inelastic deformation dissipate energy and have a beneficial effect on structural survival. If, by means of confinement or other measures, a structural component or connection made of brittle materials can sustain inelastic deformations without significant loss of load-carrying capacity, this component can be considered ductile. Such ductile performance shall be verified by testing. In order to achieve adequate inelastic behavior the system should have a sufficient number of ductile members and either:
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0

For all other limit states:

Joints and connections that are also ductile and can provide energy dissipation without loss of capacity, or Joints and connections that have sufficient excess strength so as to assure that the inelastic response occurs at the locations designed to provide ductile, energy absorbing response.
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Statically ductile, but dynamically nonductile response characteristics should be avoided. Examples of this behavior are shear and bond failures in concrete members and loss of composite action in flexural components. Past experience indicates that typical components designed in accordance with these provisions generally exhibit adequate ductility. Connection and joints require special attention to detailing and the provision of load paths. The Owner may specify a minimum ductility factor as an assurance that ductile failure modes will be obtained. The factor may be defined as:

ci=-

A"
AY

(C1.3.3-1)

where:

A, - deformation at ultimate

Ay- deformation at the elastic limit
The ductility capacity of structural components or connections may either be established by full- or largescale testing or with analytical models based on documented material behavior. The ductility capacity for a structural system may be determined by integrating local deformations over the entire structural system.

1-5
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0.95 for components and connections for which additional ductility-enhancing measures have been specified beyond those required by these Specifications

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1.00 for conventional designs and details complying with these Specifications

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I for nonductile components and connections .O5

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Section I Introduction (SI)

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STDgAASHTO SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL L998

Ob39804 0048491i TU4 I

SPECIFICATIONS

COMMENTARY The special requirements for energy dissipating devices are imposed because of the rigorous demands placed on these components.

1.3.4 Redundancy

C I .3.4

Multiple-load-path and continuous structures should be used unless there are compelling reasons not to use them. Main elements and components whose failure is expected to cause the collapse of the bridge shall be designated as failure-critical and the associated structural system as nonredundant. Alternatively, failurecritical members in tension may be designated fracturecritical. Those elements and components whose failure is not expected to cause collapse of the bridge shall be designated as nonfailure-critical and the associated structural system as redundant. For the strength limit state:

For each load combination and limit state under consideration, member redundancy classification (redundant or nonredundant) should be based upon the member contribution to the bridge safety. Several redundancy measures have been proposed (Frangopol and Nakib 1991).

qR

2

I for nonredundant members .O5

= 1.O0for conventional levels of redundancy
Z

0.95 for exceptional levels of redundancy

For all other limit states:

1.3.5 Operational Importance

C i .3.5

This article shall apply to the strength and extreme event limit states only. The Owner may declare a bridge or any structural component and connection thereof to be of operational importance. For the strength limit state:
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Q,

2

1.O5for important bridges
1.O0 typical bridges for

=
2

Such classification should be based on social/survival and/or security/defence requirements. The commentary to Article 3.10.3 provides some guidance on selecting importance categories as they relate to design for earthquakes. This information can be generalized for other situations. Three levels of importance are specified in Article 3.10.3 with respect to seismic design: "critical," "essential," and "other." For the purposes of this article, bridges classified as "critical" or "essential" in Article 3.10.3 should be considered of "operational importance."

For all other limit states:
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0.95 for relatively less important bridges

Q,

=

1.00

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STD.AASHT0 SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL
Section 1 Introduction (SI)
REFERENCES

-

1998

Ob39804 0048492 940

m

Frangopol, D. M., and R. Nakib. "Redundancy in Highway Bridges." Enciineerins Journal, AISC, Vol. 28, No. 1, 1991, pp. 45-50.

COPYRIGHT 2002; American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office

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SECTION 2 (SI) -TABLE OF CONTENTS 2.1 SCOPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2 DEFINITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-1 2-1 2-3 2-3 2-3 2-3 2-4 2-4 2-4 2-4 2-5 2-5 2-5 2-5 2-6 2-6 2-6 2-6 2-6 2-7 2-7 2-7 2-7

I I

2.3 LOCATION FEATURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.1 Route Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.1.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.1.2 WATERWAY AND FLOODPLAIN CROSSINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.2 Bridge Site Arrangement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.2.1 GENERAL . . . . ............................................................. 2.3.2.2 TRAFFIC SAFETY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.2.2. I Protection of Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.2.2.2 Protection of Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.2.2.3 Geometric Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................ ........................................ 2.3.2.2.4 Road Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.2.2.5 Vessel Collisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.3 Clearances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.3.1 NAVIGATIONAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.3.2 HIGHWAY VERTICAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.3.3 HIGHWAY HORIZONTAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.3.4 RAILROAD OVERPASS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.4 Environment . . . ................................................................ 2.4 FOUNDATION INVESTIGATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.2 Topographic Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.6 HYDROLOGYAND HYDRAULICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6.2 SiteData . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6.3 HydrologicAnalysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6.4 HydraulicAnalysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6.4.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . .........................................................
2-i

2 .16 2-16 2-17 2 .18 2 .19 2-19
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2.5 DESIGN OBJECTIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . .......................................... 2-7 2.5.1 Safety . . . . ........... .................................................. 2-7 2.5.2 Serviceabili ......................................... 2-8 2.5.2.1 DURABILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ......................................... 2-8 2.5.2.1.1 Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.2.1.2 Self-Protecting Measures .... ............................. 2-8 ....... 2.5.2.2 INSPECTABILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.2.3 MAINTAINABILITY .................................................... 2-9 2.5.2.4 RIDEABILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10 2.5.2.5 UTILITIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.2.6 DEFORMATIONS . . . . ................................................. 2-10 . . . . . . 2-10 2.5.2.6.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11 2.5.2.6.2 Criteria for Deflection . . . . . . . . . . . 2-12 2.5.2.6.3 Optional Criteria for S tios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.2.7 CONSIDERATIONOF FUTURE WIDENING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .................................. 2-13 2.5.2.7.1 Exterior Beams on Multibeam Bridges 2.5.2.7.2 Substructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.3 Constructibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.4 Economy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-14 2.5.4.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 1 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-14 2.54.2 ALTERNATIVE PLANS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-14 2.5.5 Bridge Aesthetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) 2.6.4.2 STREAM STABILITY . . . . . . . . . ............................... 2.6.4.3 BRIDGE WATERWAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6.4.4 BRIDGE FOUNDATIONS ................. 2.6.4.4.I General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6.4.4.2 Bridge Scour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6.4.5 ROADWAY APPROACHES TO BRIDGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............ 2.6.5 Culvert Location, Length, and Waterway Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6.6 Roadway Drainage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .................................. 2.6.6.1 GENERAL ............. 2.6.6.2 DESIGN STORM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6.6.3 TYPE, SIZE AND NUMBER OF DRAINS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6.6.4 DISCHARGE FROM DECK DRAINS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _. 2.6.6.5 DRAINAGE OF STRUCTURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-19

2-22 2 - 23 2-24 2-24 2 - 24 2 - 24 2-25 2 - 25

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S T D - A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL

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0637804 0048475 b5T I

Section 2 General Design and Location Features (SI)

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SPECIFICATIONS

COMMENTARY
c2.1

2.1 SCOPE
Minimum requirements are provided for clearances, environmental protection, aesthetics, geological studies, economy, rideability, durability, constructibility, inspectability, and maintainability. Minimum requirements for traffic safety are referenced. Minimum requirements for drainage facilities and self-protecting measures against water, ice, and waterborne salts are included. In recognition that many bridge failures have been caused by scour, hydrology and hydraulics are covered in detail.
2.2 DEFINITIONS

This section is intended to provide the Designer with sufficient information to determine the configuration and overall dimensions of a bridge.

Aggradation - A general and progressive buildup or raising of the longitudinal profile of the channel bed as a result of sediment deposition. Check Flood for Bridge Scour - Check flood for scour. The flood resulting from storm, storm surge, andlor tide having a flow rate in excess of the design flood for scour, but in no case a flood with a recurrence interval exceeding the typically used 500 years. The check flood for bridge scour is used in the investigation and assessment of a bridge foundation to determine whether the foundation can withstand that flow and its associated scour and remain stable with no reserve. See also superflood. Clear Zone - An unobstructed, relatively flat area beyond the edge of the traveled way for the recovery of errant vehicles. The traveled way does not include shoulders or auxiliary lanes. Clearance - An unobstructed horizontal or vertical space. Degradation A general and progressive lowering of the longitudinal profile of the channel bed as a result of long-term erosion. Design Discharge - Maximum flow of water a bridge is expected to accommodate without exceeding the adopted design constraints. Design Flood for Bridge Scour - The flood flow equal to or less than the 100-year flood that creates the deepest scour at bridge foundations. The highway or bridge may be inundated at the stage of the design flood for bridge scour. The worst-case scour condition may occur for the overtopping flood as a result of the potential for pressure flow. Design Flood for Waterway Opening - The peak discharge, volume, stage, or wave crest elevation and its associated probability of exceedence that are selected for the design of a highway or bridge over a watercourse or floodplain. By definition, the highway or bridge will not be inundated at the stage of the design flood for the waterway opening. Detention Basin - A stormwater management facility that impounds runoff and temporarily discharges it through a hydraulic outlet structure to a downstream conveyance system. Drip Groove - Linear depression in the bottom of components to cause water flowing on the surface to drop.
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Five-Hundred-Year Flood The flood due to storm and/or tide having a 0.2 percent chance of being equaled or exceeded in any given year.

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2-1
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Section 2 General Design and Location Features (SI) General or Contraction Scour - Scour in a channel or on a floodplain that is not localized at a pier or other obstruction to flow. In a channel, generallcontractionscour usually affects all or most of the channel width and is typically caused by a contraction of the flow.

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STD.AASHT0 SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998

= Ob39804

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004849b 59h I

Hydrology - The science concerned with the occurrence, distribution, and circulation of water on the earth, including
Hydraulics The science concerned with the behavior and flow of liquids, especially in pipes and channels.

precipitation, runoff, and groundwater.
Local Scour - Scour in a channel or on a floodplain that is localized at a pier, abutment, or other obstruction to flow. Mixed Population Flood Flood flows derived from two or more causative factors, e.g., a spring tide driven by hurricane-generated onshore winds or rainfall on a snowpack. One-Hundred-Year Flood - The flood due to storm and/or tide having a 1 percent chance of being equalled or exceeded in any given year. Overtopping Flood - The flood flow that, if exceeded, results in flow over a highway or bridge, over a watershed divide, or through structures provided for emergency relief. The worst-case scour condition may be caused by the overtopping flood. Relief Bridge An opening in an embankment on a floodplain to permit passage of overbank flow. River Training Structure Any configuration constructed in a stream or placed on, adjacent to, or in the vicinity of a streambank to deflect current, induce sediment deposition, induce scour, or in some other way alter the flow and sediment regimens of the stream. Scupper - A device to drain water through the deck. Sidewalk Width Unobstructed space for exclusive pedestrian use between barriers or between a curb and a barrier. Spring Tide - A tide of increased range that occurs about every two weeks when the moon is full or new. Stable Channel - A condition that exists when a stream has a bed slope and cross-section that allows its channel to transport the water and sediment delivered from the upstream watershed without significant degradation, aggradation, or bank erosion. Stream Geomorphology The study of a stream and its floodplain with regard to its land forms, the general configuration of its surface, and the changes that take place due to erosion and the buildup of erosional debris. Superelevation A tilting of the roadway surface to partially counterbalance the centrifugal forces on vehicles on horizontal curves. Superflood - Any flood or tidal flow with a flow rate greater than that of the 100-year flood but not greater than a 500year flood. Tide - The periodic rise and fall of the earth's ocean that results from the effect of the moon and sun acting on a rotating earth. Watershed - An area confined by drainage divides and often having only one outlet for discharge; the total drainage area contributing runoff to a single point. Waterway - Any stream, river, pond, lake, or ocean. Waterway Opening - Width or area of bridge opening at a specified stage and measured normal to principal direction of flow.

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Section 2 - General Design and Location Features ( I S)

SPECIFICATIONS
2.3 LOCATION FEATURES

COMMENTARY

2.3.1 Route Location

2.3.1.1 GENERAL The choice of location of bridges shall be supported by analyses of alternatives with consideration given to economic, engineering, social, and environmental concerns as well as costs of maintenance and inspection associated with the structures and with the relative importance of the above-noted concerns. Attention, commensurate with the risk involved, shall be directed toward providing for favorable bridge locations that: Fit the conditions created by the obstacle being crossed; Facilitate practical cost effective design, construction, operation, inspection and maintenance: Provide for the desired level of traffic service and safety; and Minimize adverse highway impacts. 2.3.1.2 WATERWAY AND FLOODPLAIN CROSSINGS Wateway crossings shall be located with regard to initial capital costs of construction and the optimization of total costs, including river channel training works and the maintenance measures necessary to reduce erosion. Studies of alternative crossing locations should include assessments of:
0

C2.3.1.2 Detailed guidance on procedures for evaluating the location of bridges and their approaches on floodplains is contained in Federal Regulations and the Planning and Location Chapter of the AASHTO Model Drainaae Manual (see Commentary on Article 2.6.1). Engineers with knowledge and experience in applying the guidance and procedures in the AASHTO Model Drainaae Manual should be involved in location decisions. It is generally safer and more cost effective to avoid hydraulic problems through the selection of favorable crossing locations than to attempt to minimize the problems at a later time in the project development process through design measures. Experience at existing bridges should be part of the calibration or verification of hydraulic models, if possible. Evaluation of the performance of existing bridges during past floods is often helpful in selecting the type, size, and location of new bridges.
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The hydrologic and hydraulic characteristics of the waterway and its floodplain, including channel stability, flood history, and, in estuarine crossings, tidal ranges and cycles; The effect of the proposed bridge on flood flow patterns and the resulting scour potential at bridge foundations; The potential for creating new or augmenting existing flood hazards; and Environmental impacts on the waterway and its floodplain.

0

o

o

Bridges and their approaches on floodplains should be located and designed with regard to the goals and objectives of floodplain management, including: 2-3

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S T D m A A S H T O S R C H L R F D t S I - E N G L 1778 IB Ob37804 0057'i7-1 b 4 5
Section 2 General Design and Location Features (SI) SPECIFICATIONS Prevention of uneconomic, hazardous, or incompatible use and development of floodplains; Avoidance of significant transverse and longitudinal encroachments, where practicable; Minimization of adverse highway impacts and mitigation of unavoidable impacts, where practicable; Consistency with the intent of the standards and criteria of the National Flood Insurance Program, where applicable; Long-term aggradation or degradation; and Commitments approvals. made
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COMMENTARY

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environmental

2.3.2 Bridge Site Arrangement

I I The location and the alignment of the bridge should I be selected to satisfy both on-bridge and under-bridge I trafic requirements. Consideration should be given to I possible fUtUre VariatiOnS in alignment or width O the I f waterway, highway, or railway spanned by the bridge. 1 Where appropriate, consideration should be given to 1
2.3.2.1 GENERAL future addition of mass-transit facilities or bridge I widening.

C2.3.2.1 Although the location of a bridge structure over a waterway is usually determined by other considerations than the hazards of vessel collision, the following preferences should be considered where possible and practical: Locating the bridge away from bends in the navigation channel. The distance to the bridge should be such that vessels can line up before passing the bridge, usually eight times the length of the vessel. This distance should be increased further where high currents and winds are prevalent at the site. Crossing the navigation channel near right angles and symmetrically with respect to the navigation channel. Providing an adequate distance from locations with congested navigation, vessel berthing maneuvers or other navigation problems. Locating the bridge where the waterway is shallow or narrow and the bridge piers could be located out of vessel reach.

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2.3.2.2 TRAFFIC SAFETY 2.3.2.2.1 Protection of Structures Consideration shall be given to safe passage of vehicles on or under a bridge. The hazard to errant vehicles within the clear zone should be minimized by locating obstacles at a safe distance from the travel lanes. 2-4
COPYRIGHT 2002; American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office

C2.3.2.2.1

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S T D - A A S H T O S R C H LRFD-SI-ENGL
SPECIFICATIONS

I m A

Section 2 - General Design and Location Features (Si)

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COMMENTARY The intent of providing structurally independent barriers is to prevent transmission of force effects from the barrier to the structure to be protected.

Pier columns or walls for grade separation structures should be located in conformance with the clear zone concept as contained in Chapter 3 of the AASHTO Roadside Desian Guide, 1996. Where the practical limits of structure costs, type of structure, volume and design speed of through traffic, span arrangement, skew, and terrain make conformancewith the Roadside Design Guide impractical, the pier or wall should be protected by the use of guardrail or other barrier devices. The guardrail or other device should, if practical, be independently supported, with its roadway face at least 600 mm from the face of pier or abutment, unless a rigid barrier is provided. The face of the guardrail or other device should be at least 600 mm outside the normal shoulder line. 2.3.2.2.2 Protection of Users Railings shall be provided along the edges of structures conforming to the requirements of Section 13. All protective structures shall have adequate surface features and transitions to safely redirect errant traffic. In the case of movable bridges, warning signs, lights, signal bells, gates, barriers, and other safety devices shall be provided for the protection of pedestrian, cyclists, and vehicular traffic. These shall be designed to operate prior to the opening of the movable span a'nd to remain operational until the span has been completely closed. The devices shall conform to the requirements for "Traffic Control at Movable Bridges," in the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Street and Hiahwavs or as shown on plans. Where specified by the Owner, sidewalks shall be protected by barriers. 2.3.2.2.3 Geometric Standards Requirements of the AASHTO publication A Policy on Geometric Desiqn of Hiahwavs and Streets shall either be satisfied or exceptions thereto shall be justified and documented. Width of shoulders and geometry of traffic barriers shall meet the specifications of the Owner. 2.3.2.2.4 Road Surfaces Road surfaces on a bridge shall be given antiskid characteristics, crown, drainage, and superelevation in accordance with A Policv on Geometric Desian of Hiahwavs and Streets or local requirements. 2.3.2.2.5 Vessel Collisions Bridge structures shall either be protected against

C2.3.2.2.2

Protective structures include those that provide a safe and controlled separation of traffic on multimodal facilities using the same right-of-way.

Special conditions, such as curved alignment, impeded visibility, etc., may justify barrier protection, even with low design velocities.

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I vessel collision forces by fenders, dikes, or dolphins as

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specified in Article 3.14.15, or shall be designed to withstand collision force effects as specified in Article 3.14.14.

The need for dolphin and fender systems can be eliminated at some bridges by judicious placement of bridge piers. Guidance on use of dolphin and fender systems is included in the AASHTO Hiqhwav Drainaqe Guidelines, Volume 7; Hvdraulic Analvses for the
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S T D - A A S H T O S R C H LRFD-SI-ENGL
Section 2 - General Design and Location Features ( I S)

SPECIF1CATIONS

COMMENTARY Location and Desian of Bridaes; and the AASHTO Guide Specification and Commentarv for Vessel Collision Desian of Hiahwav Bridqes.

2.3.3 Clearances

2.3.3.1 NAVIGATIONAL Permits for construction of a bridge over navigable waterways shall be obtained from the U S . Coast Guard and/or other agencies having jurisdiction. Navigational clearances, both vertical and horizontal, shall be established in cooperationwith the U S . Coast Guard.

C2.3.3.1 Where bridge permits are required, early coordination should be initiated with the U.S. Coast Guard to evaluate the needs of navigation and the corresponding location and design requirements for the bridge. Procedures for addressing navigational requirements for bridges, including coordination with the Coast Guard, are set forth in the Code of Federal Requlations, 23 CFR, Part 650, Subpart H, "Navigational Clearances for Bridges", and 33 U.S.C. 401, 491, 511, et seq. C2.3.3.2 The specified minimum clearance should include
150 mm for possible future overlays. If overlays are not

2.3.3.2 HIGHWAY VERTICAL The vertical clearance of highway structures shall be in conformance with the AASHTO publication A Policv on Geometric Desian of Hiahwavs and Streets for the Functional Classification of the Highway or exceptions thereto shall be justified. Possible reduction of vertical clearance, due to settlement of an overpass structure, shall be investigated. If the expected settlement exceeds 25 mm, it shall be added to the specified clearance. The vertical clearance to sign supports and pedestrian overpasses should be 300 mm greater than the highway structure clearance, and the vertical clearance from the roadway to the overhead cross bracing of through-truss structures should not be less than 5300 mm. 2.3.3.3 HIGHWAY HORIZONTAL The bridge width shall not be less than that of the approach roadway section, including shoulders or curbs, gutters, and sidewalks. Horizontal clearance under a bridge should meet the requirements of Article 2.3.2.2.1. No object on or under a bridge, other than a barrier, should be located closer than 1200 mm to the edge of a designated traffic lane. The inside face of a barrier should not be closer than 600 mm to either the face of the object or the edge of a designated traffic lane. 2.3.3.4 RAILROAD OVERPASS Structures designed to pass over a railroad shall be in accordance with standards established and used by the affected railroad in its normal practice. These overpass structures shall comply with applicable federal, state, county, and municipal laws:

contemplated by the Owner, this requirement may be nullified.

Sign supports, pedestrian bridges, and overhead cross bracings require the higher clearance because of their lesser resistance to impact.

C2.3.3.3 The usable width of the shoulders should generally be taken as the paved width.

The specified minimum distances between the edge of the traffic lane and fixed object are intended to prevent collision with slightly errant vehicles and those carrying wide loads. C2.3.3.4 Attention is particularly called to the following chapters in the Manual for Railwav Enaineerinq (AREA 1991):
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Chapter 7 - Timber Structures, Chapter 8 - Concrete Structures and Foundations,

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COPYRIGHT 2002; American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105, User=, 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.

wetlands. Loadings. and the provisions of the National Flood Insurance Program shall be assured. A subsurface investigation.Highway-RailroadCrossings. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. . removal of embankment stabilizing vegetation. impacts to estuarine tidal dynamics shall be considered. codes.4 Environment C2. Pier protection. as a minimum. federal and state regulations concerning encroachment on floodplains. Chapter 15 .5.e. historic sites. and wildlife habitats. shall be conducted in accordance with the provisions of Article 10.Steel Structures. soil and rock erosion.5 DESIGN OBJECTIVES 2. Such studies shall include the history of the site in terms of movement of earth masses.3. where appropriate. meet the specifications and design standards of the American Railway Engineering Association. ¡. 0 0 0 2.4. geomorphology is a study of the structure and formation of the earth's features that result from the forces of water.5.3. 2-7 -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- n I 'O0 1 COPYRIGHT 2002. fish.4. For purposes of this section.C I A S H S R C H LRBD-SI-ENGL TO i q w E ~ I L ~ ~ A U o w i t 3 L i IJT uL I COMMENTARY 0 m Section 2 . 0 Chapter 9 .Clearances. Minimum requirements to ensure the structural safety of bridges as conveyances are included in these Specifications.General Design and Location Features (SI) SPECIFICATIO NS Regulations. and AASHTO.4 to provide pertinent and sufficient information for the design of substructure units.1 General Stream. and. and Blast protection.4 The impact of a bridge and its approaches on local communities.~ D . User=. and meandering of waterways. and other aesthetically. and ecologically sensitive areas shall be considered. the Association of American Railroads.S . consequences of riverbed scour.1 The primary responsibility of the Engineer shall be providing for the safety of the public. degradation.3. 2. or lateral migration. this involves evaluating the streams' potential for aggradation. Waterproofing. environmentally. and Chapter 18 .4 FOUNDATION INVESTIGATION 2. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.. Stream geomorphology. 2. including borings and soil tests. 2. The philosophy of achieving adequate structural safety is outlined in Article 1.2 Topographic Studies Current topography of the bridge site shall be established via contour maps and photographs. The type and cost of foundations should be considered in the economic and aesthetic studies for location and bridge alternate selection. and standards should. The provisions of the individual railroads and the AREA Manual should be used to determine: Clearances.1 Safety C2. Compliance with state water laws.fluvial.

due to structural continuity and the absence of expansion joints.5. the single most prevalent bridge maintenance problem is the disintegration of beam ends. including air-entrainment and a nonporous painting of the concrete surface or cathodic protection. 2. piers. Wood components shall be treated with preservatives. bearings. and abutments due to percolation of waterborne road salts through the deck joints. Protection shall be provided to materials susceptible to damage from solar radiation and/or air pollution. Prestress strands in cable ducts shall be grouted or otherwise protected against corrosion. analysis of continuous decks is no longer a problem.1 The intent of this Article is to recognize the significance of corrosion and deterioration of structural materials to the long-term performance of a bridge. or otherwise coated. concrete cover. These Specifications permit the use of discontinuous decks in the absence of substantial use of road salts.1 DURABILITY 2. tend to "freeze" due to the accumulation of corrosion products and cause maintenance problems. The potential consequences of the use of road salts on structures with unfilled steel decks and unprestressed wood decks should be taken into account. Because of the general availability of computers. Experience indicates that.2.2 Self-Protecting Measures Continuous drip grooves shall be provided along the underside of a concrete deck at a distance not exceeding 250 mm from the fascia edges. Economy. probably as a result of construction tolerances and/or tilting. shall be protected by an appropriate combination of epoxy andlor galvanized coating.5. Other provisions regarding durability can be found in Article 5. C2. cadmium-plated. Structural steel shall be self-protecting.S T D . Where the deck is interrupted by a sealed deck joint. C2. Experience appears to indicate that a structurally continuous deck provides the best protection for components below the deck. all joints should be considered subject to some degree of movement and leakage. from the perspective of durability. User=. will usually favor the application of continuous decks. or chemical composition of concrete.2 Serviceability COMMENTARY 2. Attachments and fasteners used in wood construction shall be of stainless steel.2. Consideration shall be given to the durability of materials in direct contact with soil and/or water. which may be expected to be exposed to airborne or waterborne salts. or have longlife coating systems or cathodic protection.2.1. .5. other than bearing seats. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. this minimum slope shall be increased to 15 percent.1. For open deck joints.1. Reinforcing bars and prestressing strands in concrete components. with or without slotted bolt holes.12. Transverse saw-cut relief joints in cast-in-place concrete decks have been found to be of no practical value where composite action is present.5.A A S H T O S R C H LKFD-SI-ENGL Section 2 General Design and Location Features ( I S) 1998 0b3788'1 ciO57YBIl 076 - SPECIFICATIONS 2. shall have a minimum slope of 5 percent toward their edges.2.2 Ponding of water has often been observed on the seats of abutments.5.1 Materials The contract documents shall call for quality materials and for the application of high standards of fabrication and erection. the bearings shall be protected against contact with salt and debris. Stringers made simply supported by sliding joints. or steel that is galvanized. pedestals. Other than the deterioration of the concrete deck itself. 2-8 -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- COPYRIGHT 2002.5.2. The 15 percent slope specified in conjunction with open joints is intended to enable rains to wash away debris and salt.1. Aluminum products shall be electrically insulated from steel and concrete components. In the case of open deck joints. aluminum. malleable iron. regardless of location. all top surfaces of piers and abutments. density.

3 Maintenance of trafic during replacement should be provided either by partial width staging of replacement or by the utilization of an adjacent parallel structure.3 MAINTAINABILITY Structural systems whose maintenance is expected to be difficult should be avoided. Construction tolerances.2. with regard to the profile of the finished deck. where relative movement may occur.5. and prestressing strands in the deck. shall be indicated on the plans or in the specifications or special provisions.2.5.4 RIDEABILITY The deck o the bridge shall be designed to permit f the smooth movement of traffic. repair.STD. 2-9 -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- COPYRIGHT 2002. Where the climatic and/or traffic environment is such that the bridge deck may need to be replaced prior to the required service life. Areas around bearing seats and under deck joints should be designed to facilitate jacking. and overlays may be used to protect black steel.2.2. C2. and the structure shall be designed for jacking forces specified in Article 3. shall be provided where other means of inspection are not practical. and disintegrate. larger openings at interior diaphragms. 2.5. for many smaller bridges. . As the rotation center of the superstructure is always below the surface. access to permit manual or visual inspection.5. catwalks. Edges of joints in concrete decks exposed to traffic should be protected from abrasion and spalling. if necessary. Inaccessible cavities and corners should be avoided. These recommendations should be used in bridges designed under these specifications.2 The Guide Specifications for Desian and Construction of Seamental Concrete Bridaes requires external access hatches with a minimum size of 750 mm x 1200 mm.5. causing the wearing surface to crack. including adequate headroom in box sections. posttensioning ducts. 2.2. Measures for increasing the durability of concrete and wood decks include epoxy coating of reinforcing bars. 2. On paved roads. shall be provided to the inside of cellular components and to interface areas. C2. either provisions shall be shown on the contract plans for the replacement of the deck or additional structural resistance shall be provided.3. The number of deck joints shall be kept to a practical minimum. covered access holes. no expansion device was provided at the "fixed joint". and venting by drains or screened vents at intervals of no more than 15 O00 mm. Where practical.AASHT0 SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 Section 2 General Design and Location Features (SI) - Ob39804 0048503 55b I SPECIFICATIONS Wearing surfaces shall be interrupted at the deck joints and shall be provided with a smooth transition to the deck joint device. and replacement of bearings and joints. Cavities that may invite human or animal inhabitants shall either be avoided or made secure.4. Jacking points shall be indicated on the plans. User=. Microsilica and/or calcium nitrite additives in the deck concrete. a structural transition slab should be located between the approach roadway and the abutment of the bridge. Steel formwork shall be protected against corrosion in accordance with the specifications of the Owner. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. cleaning. waterproofing membranes. The plans for prefabricated joints shall specify that the ioint assemblv be erected as a unit. and provision for lighting. leak. and the wearing surface was simply run over the joint to give a continuous riding surface. walkways.2 INSPECTABILITY Inspection ladders. COMMENTARY In the past. the "fixed joint" actually moves due to load and environmental effects.

As early as 1905. 2-10 COPYRIGHT 2002. even if self-limiting and not a potential source of collapse. However.1 General Bridges should be designed to avoid undesirable structural or psychological effects due to their deformations.5. and to compensate for thickness loss due to abrasion. but the problem is a difficult subjective one.~ S T D . 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.6 DEFORMATIONS 2.A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 Section 2 General Design and Location Features (SI) - Ob39804 0048504 492 I SPECIFICATIONS Where concrete decks without an initial overlay are used. The few examples of damaged stringer connections or cracked concrete floors could probably be corrected more effectively by changes in design than by more restrictive limitations on deflection.7.5 UTILITIES Where required.5. both the historical study and the results from the survey indicate clearly that unfavorable psychological reaction to bridge deflection is probably the most frequent and important source of concern regarding the flexibility of bridges. velocity. consideration should be given to providing an additional thickness of 10 mm to permit correction of the deck profile by grinding. except for orthotropic plate decks.5. If dynamic analysis is used. On the other hand. COMMENTARY C2. there are as yet no simple definitive guidelines for the limits of tolerable static deflection or dynamic motion. Since publication of the study. 2. rather than deflection. live load deflection limits were prescribed for the same purpose. -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- . it shall comply with the principles and requirements of Article 4.1 Service load deformations may cause deterioration of wearing surfaces and local cracking in concrete slabs and in metal bridges that could impair serviceability and durability.2.5. In a study of defiection limitations of bridges (ASCE 1958) an ASCE committee found numerous shortcomings in these traditional approaches and noted. It is now generally agreed that the primary factor affecting human sensitivity is acceleration. User=. attempts were made to avoid these effects by limiting the depth-to-span ratios of trusses and girders. there has been extensive research on human response to motion. or the rate of change of acceleration for bridge structures.6. any large deviation from past successful practice regarding slenderness and deflections should be cause for review of the design to determine that it will perform adequately. Thus. and starting in the 1930s. provisions shall be made to support and maintain the conveyance for utilities.2.2. While deflection and depth limitations are made optional. those characteristics of bridge vibration which are considered objectionable by pedestrians or passengers in vehicles cannot yet be defined.6. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. 2.2. The limited survey conducted by the Committee revealed no evidence of serious structural damage that could be attributed to excessive deflection. for example.

When investigating the maximum absolute deflection. Their desire for the continued availability of some guidance in this area. often stated during the development of these Specifications. the design cross-section should include the entire width of the roadway and the structurally continuous portions of the railings. the vehicular load shall include the dynamic load allowance.1. and all supporting components should be assumed to deflect equally.2 Criteria for Deflection The criteria in this section.3. shall be considered optional. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. For composite design. Additional guidance regarding deflection of steel bridges can be found in Wright and Walker (1971). and For skewed bridges. a right cross-section may be used.. many owners and designers have found comfort in the past requirements to limit the overall stiffness of bridges. and 9 in Ritter (1990).6. The live load shall be taken from Article 3.2 should apply. The provisions for orthotropic deck shall be considered mandatory. User=.6. and median barriers. a radial cross-section may be used.1. but do not encourage. including the dynamic load allowance. In applying these criteria.2.6.4. 8. for which the criteria are required. If an Owner chooses to invoke deflection control. I The provisions of Article 3. Despite this. other than the provisions applying to orthotropic decks and the provisions required by Article 12. COPYRIGHT 2002. When investigating maximum relative displacements.5.Section 2 General Design and Location Features (Si) - SPECIFICATIONS -| COMMENTARY Among current specifications.6. Designers were permitted to exceed these limits at their discretion in the past.1-1 should be used. the number and position of loaded lanes should be selected to provide the worst differential effect. IM. except for orthotropic decks.2. Calculated deflections of structures have often been found to be difficult to veriïy in the field due to numerous sources of stiffness not accounted for in calculations.9 for precast reinforced concrete three-sided structures. have resulted in the retention of optional criteria. The live load portion of Load Combination Service I of Table 3. the following principles may apply: C2. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- 2.14. the Ontario Hiahway Bridue Desian Code of 1991 contains the most comprehensive provisions regarding vibrations tolerable to humans. all design lanes should be loaded. this is equivalent to saying that the distribution factor for deflection is equal to the number of lanes divided by the number of beams.2. the use of past practice for deflection control.5.5. and for curved and curved skewed bridges. sidewalks.2 These provisions permit. . 2-11 Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. Additional considerations and recommendations for deflection in timber bridge components are discussed in more detail in Chapters 7. For a multibeam bridge.

. . . . . The intent of the relative deflection criterion is to protect the wearing surface from debonding and fracturing due to excessive flexing of the deck. used. . . Excessive deformation can cause premature deterioration of the wearing surface and affect the performance of fasteners. . . . . .5mm. . . members that sag below a level plane present a poor appearance and can give the public a perception of structural inadequacy. . the limits in Table 1 shall be taken to apply to overall depth unless noted. . . . . . . both in mm. . . . . . . . . . . . .. .2. . . . . For steel I-shaped beams and girders. . may I editions of the Standard Specifications for Hiqhway be considered in the absence of other criteria. .3 Traditional minimum span-to-depth ratios for If an Owner chooses to invoke controls on span-todepth ratios.. Span1800. in which S is the slab constant depth superstructures. . .2. | || | |||| || | ||||||| || | || ||| ( I From a structural viewpoint. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . contained in previous span length and L is the span length. .2. . . . . the provisions of Articles 6. .3 Optional Criteria for Span-to-Depth Ratios C2. . .. . . The following provisions shall apply to orthotropic plate decks: 0 Vehicular load on deck plate 0 Vehicular load on ribs of orthotropic metal decks ... Where I Bridges. . the limits in Table I . . 10. . In the absence of other criteria. . Span/300. . Span/425. . . . . . -| | | || --- . . but limits on the latter have not yet been established. . . . 2.Section 2 .5 mm relative deflection limitation is tentative. . . . . . . . . shall apply. . . to crack and break..5. . . . . . and Vehicular load on wood planks and panels (extreme relative deflection between adjacent edges) . . Vehicular and/or pedestrian loads Vehicular load on cantilever arms . . .. . . . . . . large deflections in wood components cause fasteners to loosen and brittle materials. .6.5 mm. 2. ..5. . aluminum. . . In addition. Deflections from moving vehicle loads also produce vertical movement and vibrations that annoy motorists and alarm pedestrians (Ritter 1990). . 2-12 COPYRIGHT 2002. . . such as asphalt pavement. . general . . .10. .. . .. . . .General Design and Location Features (SI) SPECIFICATIONS In the absence of other criteria. . 0 Spaní300. 0 2. regarding the control of permanent deflections through flange stress controls.1O. 0 Span/l000.. and Vehicular load on ribs of orthotropic metal decks I (extreme relative deflection between adjacent 1 ribs) . and/or concrete construction: 0 COMMENTARY Vehicular load. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. . . . . the following deflection limits may be considered for steel. .6. Span/375. the following deflection limits may be considered for wood construction: 0 Vehicular and pedestrian loads . User=. The 2. are given in Table 1 with some modifications. . . Span/1000. .5 and 6. and Vehicular andlor pedestrian loads on cantilever arms . . American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. .

-- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- .5.3-1 Traditional Minimum Depths for Constant Depth Superstructures - reinforcement CIP Box Beams I 2. C2.6.STD-AASHTO SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 Section 2 General Design and Location Features (SI) - Ob39804 0048507 LTL I SPECIFICATIONS COMMENTARY Table 2.1 Exterior Beams on Multibeam Bridges Unless future widening is virtually inconceivable.2 Substructure When future widening can be anticipated.1 This provision applies to any longitudinal flexural members traditionally considered to be stringers. the load-carrying capacity of exterior beams shall not be less than the load-carrying capacity of an interior beam. consideration should be given to designing the substructure for the widened condition. 2-13 COPYRIGHT 2002.7 CONSIDERATION OF FUTURE WIDENING 2.5.2.5.7. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.2.2.2. User=. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.7.5. beams or girders.7.2. 2.5.

5. serviceability. indication of the need thereof shall be indicated in the contract documents.4.3 Constructibility Bridges should be designed in a manner such that fabrication and erection can be performed without undue difficulty or distress and that locked-in construction force effects are within tolerable limits. considering that the bridge 2-14 COPYRIGHT 2002. Details that require welding in restricted areas or placement of concrete through congested reinforcing should be avoided. C2. span lengths.4. however.2 ALTERNATIVE PIANS In instances where economic studies do not indicate a clear choice. and erection constraints.5. and present an appearance of adequate strength. Temporary falsework within the clear zone should be adequately protected from traffic.4.5. and aesthetic value.Section 2 General Design and Location Features (Si) - STDOAASHTO SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 W Ob39804 0048508 038 I COMMENTARY C2. at least one feasible method shall be indicated in the contract documents. When the method of construction of a bridge is not self-evident or could induce unacceptable locked-in stresses. such as availability of material. Lowest first cost does not necessarily lead to lowest total cost. For prominent bridges. Movable bridges over navigable watetways should be avoided to the extent feasible. Designs for alternative plans shall be of equal safety. fabrication.5. designs that are selfsupporting or use standardized falsework systems are normally preferred to those requiring unique and complex falsework. maintenance.5.1 2. the Owner may require that alternative contract plans be prepared and bid competitively. | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- . additional cost to achieve improved appearance is often justified. be graceful in form. User=. location. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. and materials shall be selected with due consideration of projected cost.5 Significant improvements in appearance can often be made with small changes in shape or position of structural members at negligible cost.1 GENERAL Structural types. and/or replacement. repair. shipping. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. Climatic and hydraulic conditions that may affect the construction of the bridge shall be considered.3 SPECIFICATIONS 2. The cost of future expenditures during the projected service life of the bridge should be considered. 2. including inspection. Cost comparisons of structural alternatives should be based on long-range considerations.5.5. the effect of such trends should be projected to the time the bridge will likely be constructed.4 Economy All other factors being equal. Where movable bridges are proposed. If the design requires some strengthening andlor temporary bracing or support during erection by the selected method. 2. Regional factors.5 Bridge Aesthetics Bridges should complement their surroundings. -- | || | || ||| | || If data for the trends in labor and material cost fluctuation are available. at least one fixed bridge alternative should be included in the economic comparisons. C2. 2. shall be considered.5.

Superstructure type. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| Several procedures have been proposed to integrate aesthetic thinking into the design process (GottemÕeller 1991). engineers should seek excellent appearance in bridge parts in the following order of importance: 0 Horizontal and vertical alignment and position in the environment. they determine the appearance of a bridge. Comprehensive guidelines for the appearance of bridges are beyond the scope of these Specifications. etc. The bridge fulfills its function with a minimum of material and minimum number of elements. arch-type structures should be preferred. Transverse web stiffeners. . girder. The following guidelines should be considered: O Components are shaped to respond to the structural function. for example. Consequently. Where the interface of different structural types cannot be avoided. 0 0 o 2-15 Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. The use of the bridge as a support for message or directional signing or lighting should be avoided wherever possible. all elements should come from the same family of shapes. Pier form should be consistent in shape and detail with the superstructure. The bridge is seen as a single whole. Alternative bridge designs without piers or with few piers should be studied during the site selection and location stage and refined during the preliminary design stage. The size of each member compared with the others is clearly related to the overall structural concept and the job the component does. arch. O O O O O Abrupt changes in the form of components and structural type should be avoided. The application of extraordinary and nonstructural embellishment should be avoided. preserving views through the structure. O O Attention to details. Because the major structural components are the largest parts of a bridge and are seen first. Components are slender and widely spaced.AASHT0 SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1978 Section 2 General Design and Location Features (SI) - = 0639804 0048509 T74 9 COMMENTARY will likely be a feature of the landscape for 75 or more years.. should not be visible in elevation. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.e. Engineers may resort to such documents as the Transportation Research Board's Bridae Aesthetics Around the World (1991) for guidance. They are thick where the stresses are greatest and thin where the stresses are smaller. the structural system should be selected to provide an open and uncluttered appearance. User=. Pier placement.. with all members consistent and contributing to that whole. and The bridge as a whole has a clear and logical relationshipto its surroundings. a smooth transition in appearance from one type to another should be attained. other than those located at bearing points. ¡. such as deck drain downspouts. The most admired modern structures are those that rely for their good appearance on the forms of the structural component themselves: O SPECIFICATIONS Engineers should seek more pleasant appearance by improving the shapes and relationships of the structural component themselves. O O O O | | || --- COPYRIGHT 2002. For spanning deep ravines. O O If the use of a through structure is dictated by performance and/or economic considerations.STD. should not be overlooked. The function of each part and how the function is performed is visible. such as shapes with rounded edges. Abutment placement and height.

American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office .6. Evaluation of bridge design alternatives shall consider stream stability. This document contains guidance and references on design procedures and computer software for hydrologic and hydraulic design. scour potential. C2. These studies should be performed by the Engineer with the knowledge and experience to make practical judgments regarding the scope of the studies to be performed and the significance of the results obtained.1 The provisions in this Article incorporate improved practices and procedures for the hydraulic design of bridges. tidal dynamics (where appropriate) and consistency with established criteria for the National Flood Insurance Program. depth.6. "Location and Hydraulic Design of Encroachment on Floodplains". then use that information as a guide in judging the importance of various elements in the appearance of the structure. and flood hazard posed by. the temporary structure. haunched. hydraulic. Detailed guidance for applying these practices and procedures are contained in the AASHTO Model Drainage Manual. Perspective drawings of photographs taken from the important viewpoints can be used to analyze the appearance of proposed structures. The appearance of standard details should be reviewed to make sure they fit the bridge's design concept. Hydrologic. Piershape. which is a companion document to the AASHTO Model Drainage Manual. The design of bridge foundations is best accomplished -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- 2 . and with the complex physical processes involving the actions and interactions of water and soil during the occurrence of predicted flood flows. Abutment shape. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. Models are also useful. tapered. stream velocities. It also incorporates guidance and references from the AASHTO Drainaae Guidelines. The Owner may permit revised design requirements consistent with the intended service period for. Temporary structures for the Contractor's use or for accommodating traffic during construction shall be designed with regard to the safety of the traveling public and the adjacent property owners. User=. flow distribution. Surface colors and textures: and Ornament. o 0 The Designer should determine the likely position of the majority of viewers of the bridge. as well as minimization of impact on floodplain natural resources. ¡.1 General Hydrologic and hydraulic studies and assessments of bridge sites for stream crossings shall be completed as part of the preliminary plan development.16 Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. Information on the National Flood Insurance Program is contained in 42 USC 4001 -4128. The detail of these studies should be commensurate with the importance of and risks associated with the structure. Subpart A. flood hazards..6 HYDROLOGY AND HYDRAULICS 2.STDgAASHTO SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL Section 2 General Design and Location Features (SI) - 1998 = Ob39804 0048530 79b I SPECIFICATIONS COMMENTARY 0 Superstructure shape. and stream stability studies are concerned with the prediction of flood flows and frequencies. backwater.e. COPYRIGHT 2002. Contract documents for temporary structures shall delineate the respective responsibilities and risks to be assumed by the highway agency and the Contractor. The National Flood Insurance Act (see also 44 CFR 59 through 77) and 23 CFR 650. scour. 2. 0 0 Parapet and railing details.

Procedures or references for analysis of tidal waterways. The AASHTO Model Drainaae Manual also contains guidance and references on: 0 Design methods for evaluating the accuracy of hydraulic studies. O O O The assessment of hydraulics necessarily involves many assumptions.2 A site-specific data collection plan shall include consideration of: O Collection of aerial and/or ground survey data for appropriate distances upstream and downstream from the bridge for the main stream channel and its floodplain. User=. and Procedures for hydraulic design of bridge-size culverts. Subpart A. Guidance on estimating flood flow peaks and volumes. Encroachments. and urban watersheds. including requirements for the design of Interstate highways as per 23 CFR 650. . the 500-year flood or other superfloods. safety criterion that may be expected to be difficult to reproduce. local scour.STD. Evaluation of stream stability. hydraulic. Location and design of bridges to resist damage from scour and hydraulic loads created by stream current. | | || ---| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| 0 0 0 0 Use of recommended design procedures and software for sizing bridge watetways. and such projections oíten change as a result of new experience. and geotechnical engineers. road overtopping. and other river training works. Calculation of magnitude of contraction scour. e. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. regulated streams. and long-term natural and manmade changes in surface conditions.2 Site Data C2. Estimation of roughness elements for the stream and the floodplain within the reach of the stream under study. Key among these assumptions are the roughness coefficients and projection of long-term flow magnitudes. ice. immediate past weather conditions. guide banks. The ability to statistically project long recurrence interval floods is a function of the adequacy of the database of past floods. and countermeasures thereto.. but highly variable. The above factors make the check flood investigation of scour an important. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.6. and debris.17 COPYRIGHT 2002.6. Subsurface borings.g. unless all of the Designer's original assumptions are used in a postdesign scour 2 . Design of relief bridges.AASHT0 SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1798 Section 2 General Design and Location Features (SI) - = Ob39804 00485L1 b 2 2 I SPECIFICATIONS COMMENTARY by an interdisciplinary team of structural. including elements of a data collection plan. 0 o 0 0 2. Sampling of streambed material to a depth sufficient to ascertain material characteristics for scour analysis. The runoff from a given storm can be expected to change with the seasons.

the spring and tide range.a check flood of a magnitude selected by the Owner.3 Hydrologic Analysis The Owner shall determine the extent of hydrologic studies on the basis of the functional highway classification.3 The return period of tidal flows should be correlated to the hurricane or storm tide elevations of water as reported in studies by FEMA or other agencies.6. If the events tend to be independent. bank erosion.6. and projections available at the time of the original design. including high water from streams. For assessing flood hazards and meeting floodplain management requirements . If mixed population flows are dependent on the occurrence of a major meteorological event. and flood control structures and operating procedures.S T D * A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1798 Section 2 General Design and Location Features (SI) - 0637804 OOq8512 5b7 U COMMENTARY investigation. those original assumptions must be reasonable given the data. To satisfy agency design policies and criteria design floods for waterway opening and bridge scour for the various functional classes of highways.historical floods. as appropriate. as appropriate for the site conditions and the perceived risk. For assessing risks to highway users and damage to the bridge and its roadway approaches . tides. The following flood flows should be investigated. SPECIFICATIONS o Factors affecting water stages. and in estuarine crossings. detention basins. including observed scour. Particular attention should be given to selecting design and checking flooding discharges for mixed population flood events. For example. Obviously. Existing studies and reports.the overtopping flood andlor the design flood for bridge scour. as might be the case for floods in a mountainous region caused by rainfall runoff or snow melt. including those conducted in accordance with the provisions of the National Flood Insurance Program or other flood control programs. Available historical information on the behavior of the stream and the performance of the structure during past floods. flow in an estuary may consist of both tidal flow and runoff from the upland watershed. 2-18 COPYRIGHT 2002. For assessing catastrophic flood damage at high risk sites .the check flood for bridge scour. the Designer should evaluate both events independently and then consider the probability of their occurrence at the same time. . To calibrate water surface profiles and to evaluate the performance of existing structures . 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. o o 0 2. in the hydrologic studies: o C2. User=. conditions. This is likely to be the case for flows in an estuary. For investigating the adequacy of bridge foundations to resist scour . American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. and the flood hazards at the site. and Possible geomorphic changes in channel flow.low or base flow information. the relative timing of the individual peak flow events needs to be evaluated and considered in selecting the design discharge. the applicable federal and state requirements. reservoirs. and o 0 0 0 o o To evaluate environmental conditions . and structural damage due to debris or ice flows. such as a hurricane.the 100-year flood.

19 Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. or in equilibrium.2 STREAM STABILITY Studies shall be carried out to evaluate the stability of the waterway and to assess the impact of construction on the waterway. COPYRIGHT 2002. For stream crossing near confluences. O For unstable streams or flow conditions. vertical and lateral movements of the stream. User=. special studies shall be carried out to assess the probable future changes to the plan form and profile of the stream and to determine countermeasures to be incorporated in the -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- 2 . 2. or transitional.6. flow distribution.6. The following items shall be considered: O Whether the stream reach is degrading. and The effect of geomorphic changes on existing structures in the vicinity of. The effect of any proposed channel changes. and caused by. COMMENTARY 2. or control devices to protect the bridge from existing or anticipated future stream conditions. taking into account whether the stream is straight. meandering. the proposed structure. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office .S T D .A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 W Ob39804 0048513 4 T 5 Section 2 General Design and Location Features (SI) - SPECIFICATIONS Investigation of the effect of sea level rise on tidal ranges should be specified for structures spanning marinelestuarine resources.6.1 GENERAL The Engineer shall utilize analytical models and techniques that have been approved by the Owner and that are consistent with the required level of analysis.4. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. the effect of the main stream and the tributary on the flood stages. velocities.4 Hydraulic Analysis 2. O The effect of natural geomorphic stream pattern changes on the proposed structure. O O O The effect of aggregate mining or other operations in the channel. and the effect of the foregoing conditions on the hydraulic design of the bridge. Location of favorable stream crossing. aggrading. Potential changes in the rates or volumes of runoff due to land use changes.4. braided.

Clearances between the flood water elevations and low sections of the superstructure to allow passage of ice and debris. Where bridges are subject to inundation. and Evaluation of capital costs and flood hazards associated with the candidate bridge alternatives through risk assessment or risk analysis procedures. I General The structural. Need for protection of bridge foundations and stream channel bed and banks. buoyancy. ice. dikes.6. their accuracy shall be determined.1 To reduce the vulnerability of the bridge to damage from scour and hydraulic loads. and drifts.6. and bridge lengths for consistency with design objectives. Location of hydraulic controls affecting flow through the structure or long-term stream stability.6. 2. limit the number of piers in the channel. and align piers with 2-20 COPYRIGHT 2002.4. and streamline the superstructure to minimize the area subject to hydraulic loads and the collection of ice.4. or at a future time. alignments. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.4. . Utilize continuous span designs. for the safety of the bridge and approach roadways. Where practical. debris. or debris impacts or accumulations. -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- C2.6. 2. and other river training devices to reduce the turbulence and hydraulic forces acting at the bridge abutments. and geotechnical aspects of foundation design shall be coordinated and differences resolved prior to the approval of preliminary plans. streamline pier shapes. guide banks. hydraulic.4. consideration should be given to the following general design concepts: Set deck elevations as high as practical for the given site conditions to minimize inundation by floods.3 BRIDGE WATERWAY The design process for sizing the bridge waterway shall include: 0 COMMENTARY C2.4.6. User=. Changes in flood flow patterns and velocities in the channel and on the floodplain. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.4 BRIDGE FOUNDATIONS 2.3 Trial combinations should take the following into account: Increases in flood water surface elevations caused by the bridge.4. Utilize relief bridges. 0 Where use is made of existing flood studies. and The evaluation of trial combinations of highway profiles.4. Provide for venting and draining of the superstructure. Anchor superstructures to their substructures where subject to the effects of hydraulic loads. provide for overtopping of roadway approach sections.~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ _ _ _ ~ STDmAASHTO SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 3998 Section 2 General Design and Location Features (SI) - = Ob39804 0048534 333 I SPECIFICATIONS design. The evaluation of flood flow patterns in the main channel and floodplain for existing conditions.

The extreme event limit state shall apply. The recommended procedure for determining the total scour depth at bridge foundations is as follows: O For the design flood for scour. C2.spanning wetlands. Estimate the long-term channel plan form changes over the service life of the bridge.4. Where significant ice or debris buildup is unavoidable. Determine the combination of existing or likely future conditions and flood events that might be expected to result in the deepest scour for design conditions. Estimate the long-term channel profile aggradation or degradation over the service life of the bridge. adjust the existing channel and floodplain cross-sections upstream and downstream of bridge as necessary to reflect anticipated changes in the channel profile and plan form. SPECIFICATIONS 2. Locate piers beyond the immediate vicinity of stream banks. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. The design flood storm surge. The recommended procedure is to evaluate scour due to the specified flood flows and to design the foundation for the event expected to cause the deepest total scour. the stability of bridge foundation shall be investigated for scour conditions resulting from a designated flood storm surge. and low tailwater conditions near stream confluences dictate the use of a more severe flood event for either the design or check flood for scour.4. Locate their foundations at the appropriate depth if there is a likelihood that the stream channel will shift during the life of the structure or that channel cutoffs are likely to occur.6. The added cost of making a bridge less vulnerable to damage from scour is small in comparison to the total cost of a bridge failure. due to ice or debris jams.6. the Engineer may use such flood event. scour at bridge foundations is investigated for two conditions: | | || --| ||||||| If the site conditions. or mixed population flood shall be the more severe of the 100-year events or from an overtopping flood of lesser recurrence interval. Design piers on floodplains as river piers. or where special environmental or regulatory needs must be met. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || Where practical.2 A majority of bridge failures in the United States and elsewhere are the result of scour. Determine water surface profiles for a stream reach that extends both upstream and downstream of the O O O O 2-21 Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. or channel stability are anticipated. or mixed population flood not to exceed the 500-year event or from an overtopping flood of lesser recurrence interval. Spread footings on soil or erodible rock shall be located so that the bottom of footing is below scour depths determined for the check flood for scour. User=. Excess reserve beyond that required for stability under this condition is not necessary.7.A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 Section 2 General Design and Location Features (SI) - Ob39804 0048515 278 I COMMENTARY the direction of flood flows.5..4. scour. The design flood for scour shall be determined on the basis of the Engineer's judgment of the hydrologic and hydraulic flow conditions at the site. the streambed material in the scour prism above the total scour line shall be assumed to have been removed for design conditions. .2 Bridge Scour As required by Article 3. Spread footings on scour-resistant rock shall be designed and COPYRIGHT 2002.S T D . eng. its effects should be accounted for in determining scour depths and hydraulic loads. As a design check. tide.4. Avoid pier types that collect ice and debris. use debris racks or ice booms to stop debris and ice before it reaches the bridge. tide. For the check flood for scour. Locate abutments back from the channel banks where significant problems with iceidebris buildup.

and Evaluate the results of the scour analysis. Where necessary. their effect on pier scour and collection of debris shall be taken into consideration in the design. such as bridge abutments located in areas of turbulence due to converging or diverging flows.6. 0 Enlargement of the waterway area. interrelated entity.6. Even lower elevations should be considered for pile-supported footings where the piles could be damaged by erosion and corrosion from exposure to stream currents. and the performance of existing structures during past floods. Riprap and other scour countermeasures may be appropriate if underpinning is not cost effective. Where conditions dictate a need to construct the top of a footing to an elevation above the streambed. the available information on the behavior of the watercourse. Modify the bridge design where necessary to satisfy concerns raised by the scour analysis and the evaluation of the channel plan form.4. dikes. this will result in deep foundations. User=. taking into account appropriate geotechnical safety factors. 0 The stability of abutments in areas of turbulent flow shall be thoroughly investigated. -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- COMMENTARY bridge site for the various combinations of conditions and events under consideration: 0 Determine the magnitude of contraction scour and local scour at piers and abutments. or Relocation of the crossing to avoid an undesirable location.S T D .5 ROADWAY APPROACHES TO BRIDGE The design of the bridge shall be coordinated with the design of the roadway approaches to the bridge on the floodplain so that the entire flood flow pattern is developed and analyzed as a single. The design of the foundations of existing bridges that are being rehabilitated should consider underpinning if scour indicates the need. taking into account the variables in the methods used.4. Deep foundations with footings shall be designed to place the top of the footing below the estimated contraction scour depth where practical to minimize obstruction to flood flows and resulting local scour. or other river training works to provide for smoother flow transitions or to control lateral movement of the channel. the highway 2-22 COPYRIGHT 2002. When fendering or other pier protection systems are used. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. Exposed embankment slopes should be protected with appropriate scour countermeasures. In general. Addition of guide banks. bridge modifications may include: 0 Relocation or redesign of piers or abutments to avoid areas of deep scour or overlapping scour holes from adjacent foundation elements. Visualize the effect of the bridge on these flow patterns and the effect of the flow on the bridge. For such cases.5 Highway embankments on floodplains serve to redirect overbank flow. causing it to flow generally parallel to the embankment and return to the main channel at the bridge. Foundations should be designed to withstand the conditions of scour for the design flood and the check flood. C2. . 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.A A S H T O S R C H LRFD-SI-ENGL L778 Section 2 General Design and Location Features (SI) - W Ob39804 00485Lb L O 4 SPECIFICATIONS constructed to maintain the integrity of the supporting rock. Foundation designs should be based on the total scour depths estimated by the above procedure. 2. attention shall be given to the scour potential of the design. Also consider present and anticipated future flow patterns in the channel and its floodplain. Available technology has not developed sufficiently to provide reliable scour estimates for some conditions.

STD. ?he use of safety grates on culvert ends to protect vehicles that run off the road is generally discouraged for large culverts.4. Buoyancy effects at culvert inlets. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. Effect of high outlet velocities and flow concentrations on the culvert outlet. User=.6.5 Culvert Location. -- | || | || ||| | || 0 The discussion of site investigations and hydrologic and hydraulic analyses for bridges is generally applicable to large culvert installations classified as bridges. this consequence is preferred to failure of the bridge. because of the potential for clogging and subsequent unexpected increase in the flood hazard to the roadway and adjacent properties. 0 0 Although overtopping may result in failure of the embankment. If the low point of the overtopping section must be located close to the abutment.3 and 2. 0 0 0 2-23 COPYRIGHT 2002. The low point of the overtopping section should not be located immediately adjacent to the bridge because its failure at this location could cause damage to the bridge abutment.6.5 In addition to the provisions of Articles 2. COMMENTARY designs shall include countermeasures where necessary to limit damage to highway fills and bridge abutments. and Waterway Area C2. Design studies for overtopping should also include evaluation of any flood hazards created by changes to existing flood flow patterns or by flow concentrations in the vicinity of developed properties. Such countermeasures may include: 0 0 Relief bridges. Where diversion of flow to another watershed occurs as a result of backwater and obstruction of flood flows. Protecting fill slopes subject to erosive velocities by use of riprap or other erosion protection materials on highway fills and spill-through abutments. including those classified as bridges. Length. and The effects of high tailwater conditions as may be caused by downstream controls or storm tides. the highway segment within the floodplain limits shall be designed to minimize flood hazards.6. due to geometric constraints.AASHTO SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL Section 2 General Design and Location Features (SI) - 3998 9 0639804 0048537 040 U SPECIFICATIONS Where roadway approaches on the floodplain obstruct overbank flow. the following conditions should be considered: 0 Passage of fish and wildlife.6. the scouring effect of the overtopping flow should be considered in the design of the abutment. an evaluation of the design shall be carried out to ensure compliance with legal requirements in regard to flood hazards in the other watershed. and adjacent property. | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- . the downstream channel. and Use of guide banks where overbank flow is large to protect abutments of main channel and relief bridges from turbulence and resulting scour. Retarding the velocity of the overbank flow by promoting growth of trees and shrubs on the Roodplain and highway embankment within the highway right-of-way or constructing small dikes along the highway embankment. Preferred methods of providing for traffic safety include the installation of barriers or the extension of the culvert ends to increase the vehicle recovery zone at the site. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. Traffic safety. 2.

6. Scuppers or inlets of a deck drain shall be hydraulically efficient and accessible for cleaning. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.6.6. bridge decks should be watertight and all of the deck drainage should be carried to the ends of the bridge.6. C2. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. For wide bridges with more than three lanes in each direction. 2. Bridqe Deck Drainaae Guidelines. shall be achieved by providing a cross slope or superelevation sufficient for positive drainage. User=. Water flowing downgrade in the roadway gutter section shall be intercepted and not permitted to run onto the bridge. .A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL Section 2 General Design and Location Features (SI) - SPECIFICATIONS COMMENTARY 2. but not less than 200 mm where ice accretion on the bridge deck is expected.3 For further guidance or design criteria on bridge deck drainage. Under certain conditions.2 DESIGN STORM The design storm for bridge deck drainage shall not be less than the storm used for design of the pavement drainage system of the adjacent roadway. Zero gradients and sag vertical curves should be avoided. The minimum internal dimension of a downspout should not normally be less than 150 mm. C2. and AASHTO/FHWA Research Report RD-87-014. SIZE AND NUMBER OF DRAINS The number of deck drains should be kept to a minimum consistent with hydraulic requirements. GENERAL The bridge deck and its highway approaches shall be designed to provide safe and efficient conveyance of surface runoff from the traveled way in a manner that minimizes damage to the bridge and maximizes the safety of passing vehicles. the size and number of deck drains should be such that the spread of deck drainage does not encroach on more than one-half the width of any designated traffic lane. for bridges where the highway design speed is less than 75 kmlh. 2. including roadway. consideration should be given to conveying the water in a longitudinal storm drain affixed to the underside of the bridge and discharging it into appropriate facilities on natural ground at bridge end.6. see the "Storm Drainage" chapter of the AASHTO Model Drainaae Manual.1 Where feasible.6 Roadway Drainage 2.6. and pedestrian walkways. the spread of deck drainage should not encroach on any portion of the designated traffic lanes. open bridge railings may be desirable for maximum discharge of surface runoff from bridge decks.3 TYPE. Drains at bridge ends shall have sufficient capacity to carry all contributing runoff. The "Storm Drainage" chapter of the AASHTO Model Drainaae Manual contains guidance on recommended values for cross slopes. In those unique environmentally sensitive instances where it is not possible to discharge into the underlying watercourse. -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || 2-24 | ||||||| | | || --- COPYRIGHT 2002.6.6.6. bicycle paths.6. Design of the bridge deck and the approach roadway drainage systems should be coordinated. For bridges where the highway design speed is not less than 75 km/h. A longitudinal gradient on bridges should be maintained. special design of bridge deck drainage and/or special rough road surfaces may be needed to reduce the potential for hydroplaning. Transverse drainage of the deck. Policy on Geometric Desian of Highways and Streets. In the absence of other applicable guidance. Gutter flow should be intercepted at cross slope transitions to prevent flow across the bridge deck. unless otherwise specified by the Owner.~ ~~ S T D .6.

09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. and Minimize the intrusive effect of the piping on the bridge symmetry and appearance. If the Owner has no specific requirements for controlling the effluent from drains and pipes.6.4 DISCHARGE FROM DECK DRAINS Deck drains shall be designed and located such that surface water from the bridge deck or road surface is directed away from the bridge superstructure elements and the substructure.6.STD*AASHTO SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1778 Section 2 General Design and Location Features (SI) - Ob39804 0048517 713 H SPECIFICATIONS COMMENTARY C2. Decks and wearing surfaces shall be designed to prevent the ponding of water. Use of bends not greater than 45 degrees. 0 Free drops should be avoided where runoff creates problems with traffic. especially at deck joints. . Use of cleanouts. consideration should be given to: -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- A minimum 100 mm projection below the lowest adjacent superstructure component.6. For bridge decks with nonintegral wearing surfaces or stay-in-place forms. and 0 For bridges where free drops are not feasible.4 Consideration should be given to the effect of drainage systems on bridge aesthetics.6. Riprap or pavement should be provided under the free drops to prevent erosion.6. attention should be given to the design of the outlet piping system to: Minimize clogging and other maintenance problems. C2.6.6. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. consideration shall be given to the evacuation of water that may accumulate at the interface. rail.5 DRAINAGE OF STRUCTURES Cavities in structures where there is a likelihood for entrapment of water shall be drained at their lowest point. 2. 2. Use of free drops or slots in parapets wherever practical and permissible. or shipping lanes. Location of pipe outlets such that a 45-degree cone of splash will not touch structural components.6. User=. 2-25 COPYRIGHT 2002. Runoff from bridge decks and deck drains shall be disposed of in a manner consistent with environmental and safety requirements.5 Weep holes in concrete decks and drain holes in stay-in-place forms can be used to permit the egress o f water.

N. Walker. pp. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.. AREA. FHWA. 84. FHWA... Washington. R. D. Construction. D.C. Washington. Washington. Secs. 1991 Bridae Deck Drainaae Guidelines. Desian. Canada. Hydraulic Engineering Circular 18. AASHTO. November 1971. ST 3. 4001-28. Washington. EM7700-B... "Location and Hydraulic Design of Encroachment on Floodplains. Deflection Limitations of Bridaes. Highway Engineering Division. D. Subpart A. ASCE. FHWA-I P-90-014. Ministry of Transportation and Communications. D. U. 1987. D. May 1958. February 1991. No. Forest Service. Washington." In Bridae Aesthetics Around the World. No. TRB. TRB." AISI Bulletin. U. "Criteria for the Deflection of Steel Bridges. D. Hydraulic Engineering Circular 20.C. U S . Department of Agriculture. 1996 Stream Stabilitv at Hiahwav Structures.Section 2 General Design and Location Features (SI) REFERENCES - S T D . Title. National Research Council. 1991." Code of Federal Regulations. 42. 1368. Toronto. pp. Code.C. AASHTOIFHWA Research Report RD-87-014. 80-88. 1991 Bridae Aesthetics Around the World. A. 2-26 -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- COPYRIGHT 2002. 23 CFR 650. Evaluatina Scour at Bridaes. 1991. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. and W. User=.S. Inspection and Maintenance. Journal of the Structural Division. National Research Council. AASHTO.S. Vol. "Aesthetics and Engineers: Providing for Aesthetic Quality in Bridge Design. Ontario Hiahwav Bridae Desian Code. Ritter. D. .C.C. D. Washington.. 1991. 19. Transportation. U. Wright. Guide Specification and Commentarv for Vessel Collision Design of Hiahwav Bridaes. Washington.. 1991.C..C. 1991 National Flood InsuranceAct. Manual for Railwav Enaineerina.S.. FHWA-1P-90-017.Department of Gottemoeller. F. M. H. Timber Bridaes. Department of Transportation. 1990. Washington. Progress Report of the Committee on Deflection Limitations of Bridges of the Structural Division.C. Roadside Decian Guide.A A S H T O S R C H LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 Ob37804 O048520 635 U AASHTO Model Drainaae Manual.

. . . . .. . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . .2 BURIED COMPONENTS .. . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 JACKING FORCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . .1 . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . .6. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 .14 3. . . . . . 3. .. . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . ..1. 3-29 -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . 12 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . .6. . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 6 3-26 3. .1. . . . . 3-21 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-21 3.6 LIVELOADS . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . TABLE OF CONTENTS 3. 3 .2 Loadand LoadDesignation . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . .3 NOTATION . . . .2 4 3. . 3-23 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . .1. . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-20 3. . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 PERMANENT LOADS . .5. .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . 3. . . . .3b Approximate Methods . . . . and the Top Slabs of Box Culverts . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Braking Force: BR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 -4. .1 SCOPE . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . 3 . . 6 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 5 3. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. . . . . . . 3.1. . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 GENERAL . 3-28 3-28 3. . .4.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 APPLICATION OF DESIGN VEHICULAR LIVE LOADS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. and DD . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-26 3. . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . .4 DesignLaneLoad . . . 6 3. . . 12 3 . . . . . and EV . 3-25 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-21 3. . . . . . . . . .5. .6. . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Earth Loads: EH. .6. . . .12 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . .3a Refined Methods . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .1 Load Factors and Load Combinations . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 3. . . .2. . . . . . . 3-29 3-29 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . .13 SECTION 3 (SI) . . . . . . . . . . . 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .3 Centrifugal Forces: CE . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . .1. . . .12 3. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . .2 4 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 RAIL TRANSIT LOAD . . . .. . 3. . .3 WOOD COMPONENTS . . . . . .6. . . . . 3-24 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . .2 DesignTruck . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6.2. . . . 3-26 3. . .2 Load Factors for Construction Loads . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . 3 . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . ES. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 . .6. .14 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Frequency . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Number of Design Lanes . . .6.STD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2 DEFINITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 3 . . . . .12 3. . . . . . . .5 Tire Contact Area . . . . . . . 3-27 3. . . . . . .1 Dead Loads: DC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 5 3. . . .2. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-27 3-27 3. . .6 Distributionof Wheel Loads Through Earth Fills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DW. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deck Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . f .1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. .1. . .. . . . . . .4. . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . .2 FORCE FOR POSTTENSIONING ANCHORAGE ZONES . . . . . 3-24 3. . . .1 Gravity Loads: LL and PL .3 Design Loads for Decks. . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . 3-i COPYRIGHT 2002. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . .2 8 3. . . . . .4 LOAD FACTORS AND COMBINATIONS . . . . . . . 3. . . . .2 Multiple Presence of Live Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Design Tandem . . . User=.. . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Loading for Optional Live Load Deflection Evaluation . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . 3-26 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 PROTECTION OF STRUCTURES . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 VEHICLE COLLISION WITH BARRIERS . . . . . . . . . . . .. 3. .3 Load Distributionfor Fatigue . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 3-15 3-15 3. . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . .6.1 General . . . 3-22 3-22 3. . . . . . . . . .5 Vehicular Collision Force: CT .2. . . . . . 3-22 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .2 VEHICLE AND RAILWAY COLLISION WITH STRUCTURES . .1. . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . .1 Magnitude and Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14 3. . . .7 WATERLOADS: WA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 FATIGUE LOAD .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 DESIGN VEHICULAR LIVE LOAD . . . . . . . 3. . . . . .4 Deck Overhang Load .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . 3 . . . .14 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .6. .. . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . .AASHT0 SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 Ob39804 0048521 5 7 1 3-1 3-1 3-3 3-3 3-5 3. . . .3 Load Factors for Jacking and Posttensioning Forces . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . .2 Dynamic Load Allowance: IM . . .1 VEHICULAR LIVE LOAD . American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. . . . .6 PEDESTRIAN LOADS . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . .2 Buoyancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10. . . . . .5 SLENDER AND FLEXIBLE PIERS .6. 3:9. . . -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 WIND PRESSURE ON STRUCTURES: WS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10. . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . .3 Importance Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . .1 General . . . . . .1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8. . . . . . 3. . . . . . .8 WIND LOAD: WL AND WS . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10. .5 SiteEffects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Seismic Performance Zones . . . . . . . . . . . .8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Vertical Forces due to Ice Adhesion .3. . . . . .1 EFFECTIVE ICE STRENGTH . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Change in Foundations Due to Limit State for Scour . . . . . . . . . . . .9+2. .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 SOIL PROFILE TYPE I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8. . . . . .4 WIND TUNNEL TESTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 3-54 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 Aeroelastic Instability . . . . .10. . . . . . . 3. . . . .3 SMALL STREAMS . .9. . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . .2 EXCEPTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. .7. . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Piers Parallel to Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Combination of Seismic Force Effects . . . . . . . 3. . . .STDmAASHTO SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) = 0634804 0048522 408 3-29 3-29 3-30 3-30 3-31 3-32 3-32 3-32 3-32 3-32 3-34 3-34 3-35 3-35 3-36 3-36 3-36 3-36 3-37 3-37 3-38 3-38 3-38 3-39 3-39 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 SOIL PROFILE TYPE II . . . . . . . .8. . . . . . . . . .10. . . . . . . .1 LONGITUDINAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Ice Accretion and Snow Loads on Superstructures . . . . . . 3.1 GENERAL .10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . .10 EARTHQUAKE EFFECTS: EQ . . . . . .3 Static Ice Loads on Piers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Piers Skewed t Flow . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . .2 CRUSHING AND FLEXING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 3. . . . . . .8. . . . . . . . .9 ICE LOADS: IC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 General .2. . . 3. . . . .10. . .10. . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . 3. . . . User=.10. . . . . 3. . 3. . . . . . . . . . .8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . 3. . . . . . . . . . .3 Forces Applied Directly to the Substructure . .6 Elastic Seismic Response Coefficient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8. . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Vertical Wind Pressure . . . . . . . . 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Static Pressure . . . .8. . . . . . . . .5 SOIL PROFILE TYPE IV . . . . 3.10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 WaveLoad . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 3 56 3. . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i¡ COPYRIGHT 2002. . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . .2 Loads from Superstructures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10. . . . . . . . . . . . .10. . . . .2 LATERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Acceleration Coefficient . . . . . . . . .1 Horizontal Wind Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . .8. . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4 Hanging Dams and Ice Jams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . .3 CONTROL OF DYNAMIC RESPONSES . .3 Stream Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . o 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . 52 3-53 3-53 3. . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8. . . . . . . . . . .8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Response Modification Factors . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 COMBINATION OF LONGITUDINALAND TRANSVERSE FORCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 GENERAL . . .2 AEROELASTIC PHENOMENA . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . .2. 3. .5. . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8. . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . 40 3-42 3-43 3-43 3-43 3-43 3-44 3-44 3-44 3-45 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . 47 3-47 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Dynamic Ice Forces on Piers . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8. . .2. . . . . . . 3. . 3. . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . 47 3 51 3 51 3-52 3-52 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 WIND PRESSURE ON VEHICLES: WL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 3-53 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 3. . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.4 SOIL PROFILE TYPE 111 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10. . . .2. . . . . .10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. .10. . . . . . 3. . . . .9. . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5. . .2 LIVE LOAD SURCHARGE: LS . .3e Pier Design Forces . . ..... . .. ES. .... .. . . . . .. . . . . . ... . ..10. .. . . .. . . . ..4.. . . ... . .58... . . . 3-74 3. . . .. .. .. . . . . .. .. . . . .. . . .5.... . . . ... . . . . . . . . . I 3. ...9. .. .. .4 PASSIVE PRES . ..9. .. .. .... . ... .. .... . 3-56 3. .3 REDUCTION OF SURCHARGE .. ..58... . . . ....4. . . . . .. .11. .. . . .. .. ... . ..2 3. . .. .1 General ... .3 Presence o Water .5 7 . . . . . ...1 BASIC EART 3.12. .. . .. . . .. .. .... . .. . . ... . .1I5. . . . . . . 3 .. .3 3.. . ... . .. . . . . . . .. .. . .. .... .. . . 3.. . . . . . .. . .. .. .. . . . . .. ... . .. .10..7 2 3....9... .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. . . ... . . . . . ...2 Owner's Responsibility . . . . .9. . . . . . . . ... .8 0 3... .. .1 General . . . . . . . . .. . .. .. ... .. . . .4 3. . . . . . .3 3. . .... . . . . . .. . . . .. . . .. .. . .. . ... 3 .. .11. . . ... ..... .. ..3f Foundation Design Forces . ... . . . . . . . .. ...... ..7 4 . . . .... . . ..9..6. .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . ... .9... . . .. . . . .. .. . . . 3-80 3. . . .... . . .. . .. . .. . . . . . . .. 3-61 3. . .. .. . . .10. . .10.. .. ... .3~ Piers with Two or More Columns .. . . .. . . . . 3-79 . . . .11. . . . .. . .... . TG. . . 3. .. . 3-78 3. . . .. . . 3 .. .4.2 AT-REST PRESSURE COEFFICI . . .. .2 Compaction . . . . . .. . .. .. .. . 3-58 3.. .. .3-61 3... . . . . . .13 FRICTION FORCES: FR . . . .. .. . . ... American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.. ..... . .7 EARTH PRESSURES FOR MECHANICALLY STABILIZED EARTH WALLS . .3a General . . .58.3d Column and Pile Bent Design Forces .12 FORCE EFFECTS DUE TO SUPERIMPOSED DEFORMATIONS: TU. . . . 3 . . 3 .. . .. .. .... . .. . .. ... . . . .. . . 3 . . . 3 .. . . .. . ... . ..11.. . .11.. 3-58 3.. . . . .. 3-81 3...... . ..12. . . . . .. 3-65 3... . . . . .5. . .. .... ...6... ... . . . . ...... . .. . .9.79 . ..2. . .. . . . . . ... . . . . .... .. . . . . . 3-60 3. ... . . . 3 ... ... . ..11. . .1 3 . .. . . . . . .... .7 Reduction due to Earth Pressure . . . . . . . ... .10.... . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. ... . . . . . . . .. ..... . . . . . . . . . 3-60 3. . . .. ... . .. .. .S T D .. .. .. . . . 3-59 3. .. . SH. . . . .. .. .. ... . . .11 EARTH PRESSURE: EH. . .. .11.8 EARTH PRESSURES FOR PREFABRICATEDMODULAR WALLS . .. . . . . . .12. . . .. .. .. .. . . . . ... .. . . .. ..3 Inelastic Hinging Forces ....4. .. . . . ... . . .. . . . . . .... . .. . . .11. . .. ... and DD . . . . . .. .. . . ... . 3-56 . . . .. . .. ... . . . . . . 3 .2.. . . . . . . . . .. ..... . .10.. . . . .. ... .6 HOLD-DOWN DEVICES .. . ... .. . . ..8 3 3. . . . . . ... . .14 VESSEL COLLISION: CV .. . . . .. . . . ... . . . . . . ... .. . .10.4 Effect of Earthqua . . . . .. . .1 TEMPERATURE RANGES .2 SElTING TEMPERATURE .. . 3 .14.. . . 3 . . . .. . .. . .. .. . . .58. .11. . . . 3. . .. . ... ... ... .. ..... . .. . . .. . . ....4. 3. . . . . ... .. . . .. .10 Requirements for Temporary Bridges and Stage Construction . .. 3 . ... ... ..4. .. . . .. .. . . . ....11. .. .4 SEISMIC ZONES 3 AND 4 . . . . . . . . . .... . . ..4. . 3-79 3. ... . . . . .. . ... . ... . ... .. . 3.. . .6 Surcharge Loads: ES and LS .10.. . . . .. . 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. . . ..... . . . . . . . ... .. .3 Importance Categories ... . .. . . .. ... . . . . .. .11. . . . ... .. . . .. . .. .. . . . ... .12. .. .3 Temperature Gradient .11... . . .... . . .. ..9. .. . .. .7 3 I 3. .. .. . . . 3 . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . .. . .. . . . .. . . . 3 . .. . . .... . . .6 APPARENT EARTH PRESSURES FOR ANCHORED WALLS . . f ... . . . . .. . . .. . .. .10.. .. . .... . . . . . ... . . . . .. .1 General ... .. . .. .5 EQUIVALENT-FLUID METHOD OF ESTIMATING EARTH PRESSURES . .. . . .. ... . . .. 3-63 3. ... . 3 . . . . 3-61 3. .10. . .. . . .. . ...10. . .. .. .. . . .. .58. .6 9 I 3. .. ....14. ... .1 GENERAL . . . . . .A A S H T O S R C H LRFD-SI-ENGL ive m IIWIALILI nuci-wwd B C I C .5 9 . . . . . ..... . . . . ..8 Downdrag .. ..5 Earth Pressure: E .. .. . . .. .. . . . .. .... ... . . . . .. . ... . 3. ..9.. .. 3-83 3. . .. .. . .4 3. . . . . . . .. ... . . . . .. . . . .... .3 SEISMIC ZONE 2 .. .. ... ... . .. . . .... .. . . . .9 Calculation of Design Forces ... . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .5 8 3.. . 3 . . . .. . = TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued] 3.. . . . .. .. . . 3-79 3. ... .1 GENERAL . .. ... . . . . ... .. . . . .3 SEASONAL TEMPERATURE VARIATION . . . .... . .10.. .. . .. ..5. . .... . . . . . .... 3 . .8 0 3.. . .. . .. . . 3 .. . . . 3-58 3.. . . . . .58. .. . ... .. . . .. .9. . .. . . . . . .6 Settlement .... . . . . ... . . .. .... .. . . . . .. . ... .. . . . . ..12. ... . . . . . .3 3. . . . .. .9..12.. . .. .5 9 I I I I I l I I I I I I 3. . . . . ...11. . .. .. . ...... LS. .. . . .. . .... .... . ... . ... . . . . . . 3 . .12. . .. .5.9.2 Modified Design Forces .3 ACTIVE PRE I 3. .. .9..11. . . .. ... ... .. .. . .. . .. . ... . . . .. . ... . . 3-79 -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- 3. . . . . . . . . . .. .5. . . . . . . ... .. .. 3 .... . . .9.... . .CR. . . . User=.. .. . . .12... . .. . . . 3.11. ... . .. . . . . .. . . .. . . .. ..5 8 3. 3-70 3.iii 3-83 3-83 3-83 3-85 3-85 I I O '99 'O0 COPYRIGHT 2002. .. . . .. . .. . . .. . . . . .5.. . . . . .58. . . ... .. .4 Differential Shrinkage . . . . .10.. . . . . .. . .2.. .1 General . . .. 3. . . . . . .. .10. ..4.. . .. . . .. .. . ..11.10. ..8 0 3. .. . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . .... . .3b Single Columns and Piers . . . .10..... . . . . . .. . . 3.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . 3 . . .5 LONGITUDINAL RESTRAINERS . . .. . . .. SE . . . .. .. ... .. .5 Creep .. . . . . . ... .. . ..6. .. . .14. .. ... . . . . . ... . ... . . . ... .2 SEISMIC Z 3. .. . 3-56 3.. . . .. . . .... .... . ... . . . 3-62 . . . .. . .. .. . . . . .. . . . .9. . . ... . . . . .. . .12. . .10. ... ... . .. . .. .2 Uniform Temperature .4. . . .. . . .1 1. . ..11. . ... . . . . . . . .. . ... .. .

.... ... . . ... . . . .11 Barge Collision Force on Pier . .. ..... . .. . . . .. . . . . . . ..... . ....... .. .. .. 3-88 3. . . . .. . .. .... .. . .14. . .. .... . .. . . .. .. . . .. . .. .... . ..... . .... . . .14.. . ........ ..... . . 3-86 3. .. .. ... . 3-96 3.. . .. 3-93 3... ...... . .. . 3. ... COPYRIGHT 2002. . .. .. ... . .. . .. 3-99 3.. .2 SUPERSTRUCTUREDESIGN . . . ... . .. 3-88 3.14. .. .14.. .... .... .14.. . . . . 3-101 . ..10...... . . . . .. ... .. .... ... . .... ..14.iv Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.. .. . . .. . ..SÏD-AAStiTO S R C H L K F D . . . ... .. . 3-90 3. . . . .. 3-87 .8 Ship Collision Force on Pier.. . .. . .3 Approximate Method .. .10. .....2 COLLISION WITH DECK HOUSE . .. .... . ..2 Statistical Method ..... .. ...14. ...5. . ... . 3. .14. .... .... ... .. ... .. . .14..... . .. .. . .. . ... . . . .. .. .. . . 3.. . .. . . .. . . . . . 3-101 3... . ... ... .... . . .4 Design Vessel ..... . . .. ... .. 3.. .4 PROBABILITY OF COLLAPSE .1 SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN .. .. . .. . .... . . . 3-91 3. ..E N G L 1778 E flb31AOll TABLE OF CONTENTS [Continuedl O U 5 7 4 8 5 713 m I 3. . .. . . .3 COLLISION WITH MAST .. . . . 3-87 . .. . . .. ...... .. . . . 3-97 3. .... . . ... ....... ... . ... .. .. .... . ... .. . . . . ........... ...1 General .14... .10. .. .. . . . . ... .. ....... . . . ... . ....... 3.. . . ...... .. .... . . ...... .... . . . ...5.14..... ....2.... .. . .. . ... . . . . . . . ..... ..... .. .. ...S I ..... .14. . . . 3... . ....... ...... .14.. ... . .. ..... .. . . . ..14.5 Annual Frequency of Collapse .. . .. . . .....14... .. ...5.. . .... .. . ... 3.. ... ... .. . ..2.... User=.. . 3-96 ..2 PROBABILITY OF ABERRANCY ... .14. .. ...14........ . .14.. ...... ..12 Barge Bow Damage Length .2. .. . . .. .. .....14.. .......3 GEOMETRIC PROBABILITY ... .. .. .. .. . . ..... . . . . .. ......9 Ship Bow Damage Length .. ... .15 Protection of Substructures .. . .. .. . . .. .... 3-85 . .. ...14. 3-99 . American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- 3 . .. .. . . . .. ... .. . ... . .. . ... . . ... . 3-98 . .. .14. .. 3-92 3. .7 Vessel Collision Energy . ..14. . . .5. .. . . .. . . .... ...... ..... ... ...... . .... . . . . .. 3.1 COLLISION WITH BOW .. 3-99 3....... . . 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584....14... . .. . 3. . .14.. ..5. .. ... .. ... . . .10 Ship Collision Force on Superstructure . .13 Damage at the Extreme Limit S . .. ... ... ... . 3-94 3. . . . .5. .... . . ....5. . ..1 VESSEL FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION .. . . . . . . . .14 Application of Impact Forces .. 3-95 3.. .. ...... . . ....6 Design Collision Velocity ..14.. ... ... . . .. . . .. . .. . . ... ... .. ...... .14. . . . .. .... ..... ..

2 DEFINITIONS Active Earth Pressure . Berm .14. Vehicle and vessel collisions. User=.Periodic. With the exception of segmental concrete bridges. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.A condition in which a portion of a bridge's substructure or superstructure is subject to physical contact by any portion of a colliding vessel's bow. Where multiple performance levels are provided. Dolphin .Depth of water at mean high water.A notional traffic lane positioned transversely on the roadway. A minimum load factor is specified for force effects that may develop during construction. and aeroelastic instability develop force effects that are dependent upon structural response.An earthwork used to redirect or slow down impinging vehicles or vessels and to stabilize fill. earthquakes. and load combinations used for the design of new bridges.1 This section includes. Design Water Depth . but the designer should obtain pertinent information from prospective contractors.STD.A navigable waterway used by merchant ships with loaded drafts of 4200 to 18 OOO+ mm. Active Earth Wedge .Wedge of earth with a tendency to become mobile if not retained by a structure or component.A notional substance whose density is such that it would exert the same pressure as the soil it is seen to replace for computational purposes. Centrifugal Force .Protective object that may have its own fender system and that is usually circular in plan and structurally independent from the bridge. The load provisions may also be applied to the structural evaluation of existing bridges. Dynamic Load Allowance . elastic response of a structure to wind. load factors. Deep Draft Waterways . construction loads are not provided.An increase in the applied static force effects to account for the dynamic interaction between the bridge and moving vehicles. earthquakes. such force effects cannot be determined without analysis andlor testing. in addition to traditional loads.? rn SPECIFICATIONS 3. or soft ground and cut slopes. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. or mast. Therefore.Lateral pressure resulting from the retention of the earth by a structure or component that is tending to move away from the soil mass. Equivalent Fluid . deck house. the force effects due to collisions.Change in structural geometry. Design Lane . the limits of their application. embankment. .A lateral force resulting from a change in the direction of a vehicle's movement. and settlement and distortion of the structure.AASHTO SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL Section 3 Loads and Load Factors ( I S) - i y w m 0637804 0 0 4 8 ~ 2 sLI. Extreme . Additional requirements for construction of segmental concrete bridges are specified in Article 5. Distortion .2. | | || --| |||| || | ||||||| | || | || | || ||| -- 3-1 COPYRIGHT 2002. the selection of the design Performance level is the responsibilityof the Owner.Single axle or tandem axle. COMMENTARY C3. 3. Exposed . Axle Unit . Aeroelastic Vibration .1 SCOPE This section specifies minimum requirements for loads and forces.A maximum or a minimum.

A structure's average temperature. Nominal Load .Clear space between barriers and/or curbs. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. Influence Surface . constant upon completion of construction. Normally Consolidated Soil experienced.Lateral pressure resulting from the earth's resistance to the lateral movement of a structure or component into the soil mass. -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- . Reliability Index . that is interrupted only at deck joints.An arbitrarily selected design load level. Load . or volumetric change.Protection hardware attached to the structural component to be protected or used to delineate channels or to redirect aberrant vessels. which is used to determine the dimensions of a structure when a component is added or set in place. cohesionless soils. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. or are assumed to be.The effect of acceleration.ice resulting from turbulent water flow. User=.A continuous or discretized function over a bridge deck whose value at a point. Shallow Draft Waterways A navigable waterway used primarily by barge vessels with loaded drafts of less than 2700 to 3000 mm.A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 9 Ob3780Y 004852b 053 W Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI) Fender .A waterway. including that due to gravity. - - - 3-2 COPYRIGHT 2002. Navigable Waterway . Global .Pertinent to the entire superstructure or to the whole bridge. Maximum Preconsolidation Pressure Overburden Pressure Overconsolidation Ratio - OCR = Passive Earth Pressure . particularly in loose fine to medium sands that are uniformly graded. Local Pertinent to a component or subassembly of components. Coast Guard as being suitable for interstate or foreign - A soil for which the current overburden pressure is the greatest that has been Overconsolidated Soil . determined by the commerce. as described in 33CFR205-25. Setting Temperature . Lever Rule .A shape of dynamic deformation associated with a frequency of vibration.A quantitative assessment of safety expressed as the ratio of the difference between the mean resistance and mean force effect to the combined standard deviation of resistance and force effect. imposed deformation.The statical summation of moments about one point to calculate the reaction at a second point.~ S T D . Permit Vehicle Any vehicle whose right to travel is administratively restricted in any way due to its weight or size. Megagram (Mg) . Mode of Vibration . Roadway Width . Structurally Continuous Barrier A barrier.Loads and forces that are. or any part thereof. yields the force effect being sought. Permanent Loads . such a strength loss can result from loads that are applied instantaneously or cyclicly. In saturated.A soil that has been under greater overburden pressure than currently exists.I000 kg (a unit of mass). Liquefaction The loss of shear strength in a saturated soil due to excess hydrostatic pressure. Frazil Ice . - - - US. multiplied by a load acting normal to the deck at that point.

6.2) factor of safety against basal heave (C3.11.3) vehicular bracking force.3) braking force coefficient (3.14.4.6.4) notional height of earth pressure diagram (mm) (3.14.5.2. Tandem equally.5) design impact energy of vessel collision (joule) (3. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.14.Structural parts of the bridge that support the horizontal span. -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- .3.14.10.14.5) gravitational acceleration (m/s2) (3.14. usually connected to an under-carriage.5.9) beam (width) for barge.6.6.14.6.A load used to model the weight of earth fill or other loads applied to the top of the retained material.Two closely spaced axles.2.14.4) depth of barge head-block on its bow (mm) (3.5.14. base rate of vessel aberrancy (3.1.5.1) unit cohesion (MPa) (3.1) deformation energy (joule) (C3.3.7. 3.1) horizontal force due to failure of ice flow due to bending (N) (3. Surcharge .5.2) annual frequency of bridge element collapse (Numberwear) (C3.9.1 1) bow damage width of ship (mm) (3. seismic acceleration coefficient (C3.14.10.1) ultimate bridge pier resistance (N) (3.5.3) ultimate bridge element strength (N).2) dynamic load allowance (3.4.~ ~ S T D a A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI) Ob39804 0048527 T9T - Substructure .5.4) ultimate bridge superstructure resistance (N) (3.4) bow damage length of standard hopper barge (mm) (3.11. Wheel .2) horizontal force due to crushing of ice (N) (3.Structural parts of the bridge that provide the horizontal span.7) lateral drag coefficient (C3. and ship vessels (mm) (C3.6.9.6) transverse force on pier due to ice flow (N) (3.4) length of uniform deceleration at braking (mm) (C3.3) (3.3.9.1) vertical ice force due to adhesion (N) (3.4) coefficient to compute centrifugal forces (3.2.14. elastic seismic response coefficient for the mthmode of vibration (3. Wheel Line .A transverse or longitudinal grouping of wheels.14.1) hydrodynamic mass coefficient (3.2.4) (C3.1 1.2) (C3.5.2.4) bow depth (mm) (C3.5.3) coefficient for force due to crushing of ice (3.5.Single or dual tire at one end of an axle.3.2) drag coefficient (s2 N/mm4)(3.2.5.1) width of bridge pier (mm) (3.14.An angle whose arctangent represents the apparent friction between a wall and a soil mass.2) .3 NOTATION 3.14. barge tows.14. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.7.1) (3. resistance of bridge component to a horizontal force (N) (3.7) 3-3 COPYRIGHT 2002. User=.2) size of vessel based on deadweight tonnage (Mg) (C3.9.1) coefficient for nose inclination to compute F (3.14. Superstructure .2.1) minimum depth of earth cover (mm) (3.14.11.2.1 General plan area of ice floe: (mm').9.9. .6.11.7) equivalent height of soil for vehicular load (mm) (3.9.9.1I ) longitudinal force on pier due to ice floe (N) (3.6.2. which aids in distributing the load Wall Friction Angle . final height of retaining wall (mm).2.

6.9. base wind pressure corresponding to a wind speed of 160 km/h (MPa) (3.14.2) (3.8.1) waterway current component acting parallel to the vessel transit path (krrúh) (3.14.6. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office .2.6.1I . radius of circular pier (mm).9.2) (3.5) overconsolidation ratio (3.5.11) (3.1) (3.7.5.14.2) average equivalent static barge impact force resulting from Meir-Dornberg Study (C3.1.4.2. I .2) (3.14.2) ship collision impact force between ship deck house and a rigid superstructure (N) (3.1.1.5) freezing index (C3.5.1) radius of curvature (mm).2. COPYRIGHT 2002.5.6.14.6.5.2.5) (3.10.5) horizontal component of force per unit length of wall due to earth pressure (N/mm) (3. stream pressure (MPa). load intensity (MPa) (3.1) coefficient of passive pressure (3.14.2.5.8.2) (3.5.11-5.5.2) geometric probability of vessel collision with bridge pier/span (3.2) mean daily air temperature (OC) (C3.3) normal component of wind pressure (MPa) (3.9.2.5.6.7.8.4) coefficient of earth pressure due to surcharge (3.2) loads resulting from vessel impact (N).7) multiple presence factor (3.14.3) radius of pier nose (mm) (C3.S T D .3) coefficient related to site conditions for use in determining seismic loads (3.5) ship collision impact force between ship mast and a rigid superstructure (N) (3.1 I .10.2) mass of vessel (Mg) (C3.11.11.3) (3. live load intensity.1) probability of vessel aberrancy (3.1) I generalized load (3.1410.1.9.8) vertical component of force per unit length of wall due to earth pressure (N/mm) (3.1) PA correction factor for currents parallel to vessel transit path (3.1) coefficient of earth pressure at rest (3.14.1.3) PA correction factor for vessel traffic density (3.3) design velocity of water (m/s).1.14.1) (3.2.14.5.14.5.14.A A S H T O S R C H LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 Section 3 Loads and Load Factors ( I S) I Ob39804 0048528 92b ice force reduction factor for small streams (N) (3.1 1.5) apparent earth pressure (MPa).1O. radial distance from point of load application to a point on the wall (3.5.5.2.14.5.1) (3.11.1) coefficient of lateral earth pressure (3.14. seismic response modification factor.5) (C3.4) ship collision impact force for head-on collision between ship bow and a rigid object (N) (3.6.6.6) (3.14.1) length overall of ship or barge tow including the tug or tow boat (mm) (3.6. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.4) (3.10. 1) probability of bridge collapse (3.1) maximum applied surcharge (MPa) (3.14.5) design wind pressure (MPa) (3.8.8.6) base wind velocity taken as 160 knúh (3.5.14.11.6) vessel transit speed in the navigable channel (kmíh) (3.2.10.6.11.-2) I number of one-way passages of vessels navigating through the bridge (Numbermear) (3.1) (3.2) PA correction factor for crosscurrents acting perpendicular to vessel transit path (3. basic earth pressure (MPa). load (N) (3.11. design impact speed of vessel (m/s) (3.1) (3.2.1.14.1 1.11) ship collision impact force between ship bow and a rigid superstructure (N) (3.5.5.14.1) load intensity (N/mm) (3.2.1) thickness of ice (mm).2) period of vibration for m* mode (s) (3.5. concentrated wheel load (N). User=.10.9.14.3.4.9.1I .2.4) passive earth pressure (MPa) (3.2) coefficient of active lateral earth pressure (3.6.10.6) waterway current component acting perpendicular to the vessel transit path (kmlh) (3.4.3) ratio of exposed superstructure depth to the total ship bow depth (3.1) (C3. fraction of truck traffic in a single lane.11.14. force resultant per unit width of wall (N/mm) (3.14.11.5) effective ice crushing strength (MPa).6.1) minimum design impact velocity taken not less than the yearly mean current velocity for the bridge location (km/h) (3.14.3.7) barge collision impact force for head-on collision between barge bow and a rigid object (N).11.9.3) -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- 3-4 Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.12.14.2.3) reduction factor for ship deck house collision force (3.3) coefficient of earth pressure (3.11. thickness of deck (mm) (3.3) design wind velocity at design Elevation Z (knúh) (3.7.11.1) PA correction factor for bridge location (3.1.14.6.11.

11.9.2.1I .14.1) (3.4.11.3) (C3.1) load factor for temperature gradient (3.6.6.7.3.7. a meteorological wind characteristic for various upwind surface characteristics (km/h) (3. .5.A A S H T O S R C t i LRFQ-ST-ENGL Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI) 1998 I Ub378n4 00.6.6.density of soil (kg/m3)(3.1) constant for terrain conditions in relation to wind approach. coefficient for local ice condition.9.5.11.5.6.2) notional slope of backfill (DEG) (3.2) (3.5.8.1) horizontal pressure distribution (MPa) (3.1) (3.11.4) (3.1.8.1) angle of internal friction of drained soil (DEG) (3. angle of channel turn or bend (DEG).3) 3.9.I) depth below surface of backfill (mm) (3.11.9.3) Poisson's Ratio (DIM) (3.4. inclination of pier nose with respect to a vertical axis (DEG).11. I ) angle of wind direction (DEG). density of water (kg/m3) (3.6) distance to edge of channel from centerline of vessel transit path (mm) (3.14.6.2.2) effective angle of internal friction (DEG) (3.8.6) distance from the back of the wall to the start of the line load (mm) (3.11.11. width of pier at level of ice action (mm).3) width of clear roadway (mm). angle between foundation wall and a line connecting the point on the wall under consideration and a point on the bottom corner of the footing furthest from the wall (RAD) (3.5.6.8.1) resistance factors (C3.2.4.4.11.1) constant horizontal earth pressure due to uniform surcharge (MPa) (3.2 Load and Load Designation COPYRIGHT 2002.6) load factor for live load applied simultaneously with seismic loads (3.S T D .11.1) effective soil density (kg/m3)(3.3.1) equivalent-fluid density (kg/m3)(3.1) wind speed at 10 O00 mm above low ground or water level (kmlh) (3. angle between direction of stream flow and the longitudinal axis of pier (DEG) (3. vertical distance from point of load application to the elevation of a point on the wall under consideration (mm) (3.1.2.11.11.7) safety index.5746b LSìì m - SPECIFICATIONS COMMENTARY friction velocity.4.5. depth below surface of soil (mm).3.5.1.1) (C3.5) load factor (3.1) highway design speed (m/s) (3.11.1) (3.14.5. nose angle in a horizontal plane used to calculate transverse ice forces (DEG). angle between foundation wall and a line connecting the point on the wall under consideration and a point on the bottom corner of the footing nearest to the wall (RAD) (C3.14.6.5.4.1) (3.5.1) load factor for permanent loading (3.1.1) standard deviation of normal distribution (3.6) distance from centerline of vessel transit path equal to 3xLOA (mm) (3.2) friction angle between ice floe and pier (DEG) (3.11.3) density of materials (kg/m3).2.1) friction angle between fill and wall (DEG).11.1) length of the live load (mm) (3.2.2 (3. pier nose inclination in degrees. slope of backfill surface behind retaining wall (DEG) (3.6.1.11.3) (3.5.4.1) (3.4.6.1) structure height above low ground or water level > 10 O00 mm.4.1.8. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.3) (3.4) (3. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- The following permanent and transient loads and forces shall be considered: 3-5 Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.1.2) load modifier specified in Article 1.8.14. depth from the ground surface to a point on the wall under consideration (mm).11.1) (3.5.3. User=.5.1) load factor for settlement (3.11. angle of backfill of wall to the vertical (DEG). a meteorological wind characteristic (mm) (3.2) (C3.1.4.9.1) movement of top of wall required to reach minimum active or maximum passive pressure by tilting or lateral translation (mm) (C3.1) horizontal distance from back of wall to point of load application (mm).5.11. distance to bridge element from the centerline of vessel transit path (mm) (3.1) friction length of upstream fetch.

1 Load Factors and Load Combinations C3.4. User=. = 3-6 -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- COPYRIGHT 2002. and the resistance factors specified in other sections of these Specifications is developed In Nowak (I 992). .S T D * A A S H T O S R C H LRFD-SI-ENGL 1798 E 8b3'1804 0 0 5 7 4 8 7 57Li Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI) a - SPECIFICATIONS o COMMENTARY Permanent Loads DD DC DW EH EL I I I ES EV downdrag dead load of structural components and nonstructural attachments = dead load of wearing surfaces and utilities = horizontal earth pressure load = accumulated locked-in effects resulting from the construction process.3. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. = load modifier specified in Article 1.4.1 The total factored force effect shall be taken as: Q = ZQiYiQi where: q (3.4.4 LOAD FACTORS AND COMBINATIONS 3.2 force effects from loads specified herein load factors specified in Tables 1 and 2 Qi = y. including the secondary forces from posttensioning = earth surcharge load = vertical pressure from dead load of earth fill = = 0 Transient Loads BR CE CR CT = = vehicular braking force creep vehicular collision force vessel collision force earthquake friction ice load vehicular dynamic load allowance vehicular live load live load surcharge pedestrian live load settlement shrinkage temperature gradient uniform temperature water load and stream pressure wind on live load wind load on structure = vehicular centrifugal force = = = = cv I C IM LL EQ FR = = = = = LS PL SE SH TG TU = = WA ws WL = = = = 3. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.1-1) The background for the load factors specified herein.

The permit vehicle should not be assumed to be the only vehicle on the bridge unless so assured by traffic control.2. specified for TU. | | || --- . Therefore. It is believed to be more practical to investigate one additional load case than to require the use of two sets of resistance factors with the load factors provided in Strength Load Combination I.Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI) - SPECIFICATIONS Components and connections of a bridge shall satisfy Equation I .2.5 are retained for potential application. and SH. and could result in a set of resistance factors different from those found acceptable for small.6. User=. applicable to all strength load combinations. and it appears that Load Combination IV will govern where the dead load to live load force effect ratio exceeds about 7.2. From these are selected constant load factors y and corresponding resistance factors @ for each type of structural component reflecting its use.3 for further information. 0 STRENGTH 111 - STRENGTH IV- The standard calibration process for the strength limit state consists of trying out various combinations of load and resistance factors on a number of bridges and their components. COMMENTARY A reduced value of 0. STRENGTH II - Load combination relating to the use of the bridge by Owner-specified special I design vehicles.0 to avoid undersized joints and bearings.3. represents an expected reduction of these force effects in conjunction with the inelastic response of the structure. depending on other permanent loads present.4 reaardinn other traffic on the bridue simultaneously. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. evaluation I permit vehicles.1-1 for the applicable combinations of factored extreme force effects as specified at each of the following limit states: STRENGTHIBasic load combination relating to the normal vehicular use of the bridge without wind. Spot checks had been made on a few bridges with up to 183 O00 mm spans. |||| || | ||||||| Vehic!es become unstable at higher wind velocities. See Article 4. Consult Article C3. Combinations that yield a safety index close to the target value of ß = 3. Load combination relating to very high dead load to live load force effect ratios. The calculation of displacements for these loads utilizes a factor greater than 1. the ratio of dead and live load force effects is rather high. high winds prevent the presence of significant live load on the bridge.12. -| || | || ||| | || | 3-7 COPYRIGHT 2002.50. Load combination relating to the bridge exposed to wind velocity exceeding 90 km/h. This calibration process had been carried out for a large number of bridges with spans not exceeding 60 O00 mm. The effect and significance of the temperature gradient remains unclear at this writing. CR. or both without wind. For the primary components of large bridges. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.and medium-span bridges. used when calculating force effects other than displacements at the strength limit state.0.

Load combination intended to control yielding of steel structures and slip of slipcritical connections due to vehicular live load. The joint probability of these events is extremely low. . The 0. Under these extreme conditions. and it is applicable only to steel structures. and thermoplastic pipe and to control crack width in reinforced concrete structures. Also related to deflection control in buried metal structures. Load combination including earthquake. SERVICEILoad combination relating to the normal operational use of the bridge with a 90 km/h wind and all loads taken at their nominal values. the structure is expected to undergo considerable inelastic deformation by which locked-in force effects due to TU. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. tunnel liner plate. Therefore. The recurrence interval of extreme events is thought to exceed the design life. 3-8 -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- COPYRIGHT 2002. Compression in prestressed concrete components is investigated using this load combination. This limit state includes water loads. O SERVICE II- This load combination corresponds to the overload provision for steel structures in past editions of the AASHTO Specifications. this combination is approximately halfway between that used for Service I and Strength I Limit States. CR. collision by vessels and vehicles. . and certain hydraulic events with a reduced live load other than that which is part of the vehicular collision load.Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI) SPECIFICATIONS STRENGTHVLoad combination relating to normal vehicular use of the bridge with wind of 90 kmlh velocity. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. therefore. CT. From the point of view of load level. consideration of basing water loads and scour depths on mean discharges may be warranted. SH.50 live load factor signifies a low probability of the concurrence of the maximum vehicular live load [other than CT) and the extreme events. This load combination should also be used for the investigation of slope stability. and SE are expected to be relieved. the events are specified to be applied separately. - COMMENTARY o EXTREME EVENT I - o EXTREME EVENT I I - Load combination relating to ice load. WA. Live load coincident with an earthquake is discussed elsewhere in this article. TG. User=. Service 111 is used to investigate tensile stresses in prestressed concrete components. The probability of a major flood and an earthquake occurring at the same time is very small. and.

For example. In the application of permanent loads. . it would be multiplied by the minimum load factor. Where a permanent load produces uplift. In load combinations where one force effect decreases another effect. the Owner or Designer may determine that not all of the loads in a given load combination apply to the situation under investigation. the load factor that produces the more critical combination shall be selected from Table 2. the minimum value of the load factor for that permanent load shall also be investigated. For permanent force effects. For each load combination. that load would be multiplied by the maximum load factor. For each load combination.3. which was treated as a separate load case in past editions of the AASHTO Standard Specifications.6. As has always been the case. The evaluation of overall stability of earth slopes with or without a foundation unit should be investigated at the service limit state based on the Service I Load Combination and an appropriate resistance factor. shall be multiplied by the appropriate load factor and multiple presence factor specified in Article 3. This becomes important where the permanent load reduces the effects of transient loads. every load that is indicated to be taken into account and that is germane to the component being designed. regardless of the 9 JCOPYRIGHT 2002. applied to a single design truck. Uplift. If another permanent load reduces the uplift. if applicable. less often for bridges with more than two traffic lanes. and connections.A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 W Ob39804 0048533 293 Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI) SPECIFICATIONS e SERVICE III | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || ---| || - COMMENTARY Load combination relating only to tension in prestressed c o n c r e t e structures with the objective of crack control. The statistical significance of the 0. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.2.80factor on live load is that the event is expected to occur about once a year for bridges with two traffic lanes. including all significant effects due to distortion. User=. There is no nationwide physical evidence that these vehicles have caused detrimental cracking in existing prestressed concrete components. It has been observed that permanent loads are more likely to be greater than the nominal value than to be less than this value. CR. or component within a bridge. reflects a load level found to be representativeof the truck population with respect to a large number of return cycles of stresses and to their cumulative effects in steel elements. The load factors for various loads comprising a design load combination shall be taken as specified in Table 1. - FATIGUE- Fatigue and fracture load combination relating to repetitive gravitational vehicular live load and dynamic responses under a single design truck having the axle spacing specified in Article 3.2. The products I shall be summed as specified in Equation I . All relevant subsets of the load combinations shall be investigated. The load factor. Where the permanent load increases the stability or load-carrying capacity of a component or bridge. It is recognized herein that the actual magnitude of permanent loads may also be less than the nominal value. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.S T D . The larger of the two values provided for load factors of TU. and about once a day for bridges with a single trafic lane.1. regardless of the span in which it is located.1-1 and multiplied by the load modifiers specified in Article 1. current exclusion weight limits mandated by various jurisdictions. among other things. force effects for each of the specified six load types should be computed separately. both positive and negative extremes shall be investigated. and SH shall be used for deformations and the smaller values for all other effects. now becomes a strength load combination. Vehicles permitted under these limits have been in service for many years prior to 1993. length. The live load specified in these Specifications reflects.1. components.3.6.4. Consider the investigation of uplift.. In This article reinforces the traditional method of selecting load combinations to obtain realistic extreme effects and is intended to clarify the issue of the variability of permanent loads and their effects. It is unnecessary to assume that one type of load varies by span. The factors shall be selected to produce the total extreme factored force effect. when investigating uplift at a bearing in a continuous beam. it would not be appropriate to use the maximum load factor for permanent loads in spans that produce a negative reaction and the minimum load factor in spans that produce a positive reaction.2.1 . the minimum value shall be applied to the load reducing the force effect.

and water loads. . . .30 I I 1.~ ~ ~ S T D .0 1. .50 1. .00 1.25DC + 1.20 1. .o0 - I I - I . . . . the load combination would be 0. EV. . settlement. and the slope does not support or contain a 0.85 structural element .9DC + 0. at Strength I Limit State where the permanent load reaction is positive and live load can cause a negative reaction. When the geotechnical parameters are based on limited information.00 I 1. . . 1. . . . 0. For each force effect. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. . . the resistance factor. .00 I I 0.00 Limit State STRENGTH-I (unless noted) YP 0.50/1. . . If both reactions were negative. cp.50DW + 1. both extreme combinations may need to be investigated by applying either the high or the low load factor as appropriate. For friction. For example. .50/1.9.00/1.0.20 YTG I 0. .00 I 0.00 II - II YTG - IISERVICE-I I FATIGUE-LL. .75(LL+IM).00/1.o0 1. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. .00 1. . . When the geotechnical parameters are well defined. DW DC ONLY I I I 1. . Water load and friction are included in all strength load combinations at their respective nominal values.1-1 Load Combinations and Load Factors Load Combination DC DD DW EH EV ES LL IM CE WA WS - WL FR TU CR SH TG SE Use One of These at a Time BR PL LS EL 1.50/1.30 0.75(LL+IM).00 0. . The algebraic sums of these products are the total force effects for which the bridge and its components should be designed. .20 I yTi.00 ~1. . . the load combination would be 1. ES.20 1 yTO I I EXTREME EVENT-I 0. . .A A S H T O S R C H LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 H Ob39804 0048534 L 2 T Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI) - SPECIFICATIONS lieu of better information. . User=.50/1. may be taken as: 0 COMMENTARY span in which it is located. or the slope contains or supports a structural element . .00 I 0. .65DW + I . the live load factor for the vehicular live loads LL and IM shall be taken as 2. . . the specified nominal values should be used. .I 1.80 I 1. .75 i 1-1-1. .20 0.00 I I I 1.00/1.50/1.20 YTG STRENGTH-IV EH. | | || --- Table 3. .20 1.4.00 IISTR ENGTH-v 1. For creep and shrinkage.65 | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| -| || 0 For structural plate box structures complying with the provisions of Article 12. . both minimum and maximum values need to be investigated to produce extreme load combinations. IM 8 s CE ONLY I 1.20YTG 3-10 COPYRIGHT 2002. .

90 1. DW I C ONLY STRENGTH-V ES EL I .o0 - 11 I . .00 1.E N G L Section 3 .o0 0.o0 I 0.o0 II y .90 1.80 0.30 1.65 0.50 0.00 1. II I 1.90 0.S I .80 0.90 0. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.90 0.0 1.50 1.35 1.35 1. EV.50 1.o0 1.o0 I .30 I 1.o0 | | || ---| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| - 1.40 1.Load Combir :ions i d Load Factors TU TG SE FR CR SH - UseOneofTheseata Time M Limit State STRENGTH4 unless noted) STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-IV rH.35 SERVICE-II SERVICE-lI I FATIGUE-LL.AASHT0 S R C H L R F D .o 1.45 0.00 1.STD.o0 0.75 3-11 COPYRIGHT 2002.25 I .95 1.50 1.90 0.30 0. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.35 1.90 0.1 L 1. ES. IM & CE ONLY 1 Yi: I I( .Loads and Load Factors (SI) 1998 m Ob398ûV ûû57V88 4 2 0 I COMMENTARY SPECIFI CATIONS Load Combination Table 4.75 DC: Component and Attachments DD: Downdrag DW: Wearing Surfaces and Utilities EH: Horizontal Earth Pressure 0 Active e At-Rest EL: Locked-in Erection Stresses EV: Vertical Earth Pressure o Retaining Walls and Abutments o Rigid Buried Structure 0 Rigid Frames e Flexible Buried Structures other than Metal Box Culverts o Flexible Metal Box Culverts ES: Earth Surcharge 1.1-1 .5 1.40 I .o0 1.o0 - 1.o 1. User=.

1 3. yEa < 1. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. DW.2 Load factors for the weight of the structure and appurtenances shall not be taken to be less than 1. yEa. may be used for dead loads.5. For discussion of the selection of a passive earth pressure resistance factor see Article C10.. 3. future overlays. The possibility of partial live load.25.5. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. the load factor for construction loads. 3. 3. earth cover. wearing surface. the jacking load shall also contain a live load reaction consistent with the maintenance of traffic plan. which 3-12 -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- I I '99 COPYRIGHT 2002. specified in Table 1. User=. The density of concrete is primarily affected by that of the aggregate.4.5.25.4.3.0. for equipment and for dynamic effects shall not be less than 1. multiplied by the load factor for live load. Le. and EV Dead load shall include the weight of all components of the structure.2 times the maximum jacking force.1 JACKING FORCES Unless otherwise specified by the Owner. Application of Turkstra's rule for combining uncorrelated loads indicates that yEa = 0.O.5.2 Load Factors for Construction Loads C3. 3.3. The load factor for wind shall not be less than 1.50 is reasonable for a wide range of values of average daily truck traffic (ADTT).3 Load Factors for Jacking and Posttensioning Forces The load factors presented here should not relieve the contractor of responsibility for safety and damage control during construction. the densities. adjacent to the point of jacking. Where the bridge will not be closed to traffic during the jacking operation. with earthquakes should SPECIFICATIONS The load factor for live load in Extreme Event Load Combination I. A load factor for passive earth pressure is not given in Table 2 because.4. the design forces for jacking in service shall not be less than 1. appurtenances and utilities attached thereto. Unless otherwise specified by the Owner. and planned widenings.0.4. strictly speaking. shall be determined on a projectspecific basis. The density of granular materials depends upon the degree of compaction and water content.4.5 PERMANENT LOADS C3.3 times the permanent load reaction at the bearing. This issue is not resolved. Past editions of the Standard Specifications used be considered. passive earth pressure is a resistance and not a load.Section 3 .1 Dead Loads: DC.4.Loads and Load Factors (SI) COMMENTARY yEQ3 0. . All other load factors shall be taken as 1. In the absence of more precise information. Table Iprovides traditional densities. 3.2 FORCE FOR ANCHORAGE ZONES POSTTENSIONING The design force for posttensioning anchorage zones shall be taken as 1.

Macadam.8066 m/sec2and collect the units kgm/sec2as a Newton.A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1798 Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI) Ob39804 0048537 939 - SPECIFICATIONS Table 3. and Fastening per Track 0. or Gravel. Ties.Densities ~ COMMENTARY Densities shown with the units kg/m3and kg/mm are in mass units. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. ES. or I Wood Hard I I 960 800 )I Water I soft Fresh 1O00 I I Sait 1025 Transit Rails. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.5.S T D . . Silt. and DD Earth pressure. 3-13 COPYRIGHT 2002.5. not force units. earth surcharge.1 1.30 3.2 Earth Loads: EH. MATERIAL DENSITY (kg/m3) Bituminous Wearin pacted Sand.1-1 . User=. and downdrag loads shall be as specified in Article 3. To convert to force units of N/m3 multiply by the gravitation at constant g = 9.

3.6.14 COPYRIGHT 2002.2 and 4. Wherever possible.2. regardless of the number of design lanes. The consideration of pedestrian loads counting as a "loaded lane" for the purpose of determining a multiple presence factor (m) is based on the assumption that simultaneous occupancy by a dense loading of people combined with a 75-year design live load is remote.2. specified in Article 4. In cases where the traffic lanes are less than 3600 mm wide. User=.6.1 Gravity Loads: LL and PL 3.6.6. 1 It is not the intention of this article to promote bridges with narrow traffic lanes. C3. except where the lever rule is used or where special requirements for exterior beams in beam-slab bridges.2. Where the single-lane approximate distribution factors in Articles 4.2. The equations are based on evaluation of several combinations of loaded lanes with their appropriate multiple presence factors and are intended to account for the worst case scenario.6.2 and 4. The factors specified in Table 1 shall not be applied in conjunction with approximate load distribution factors specified in Articles 4.6. other than the lever rule and statical method. the pedestrian loads may be taken to be one loaded lane.1. Stated another way.2 and 4.6. therefore.20 from Table 1 has already been included in the approximate equations and should be removed for the purpose of fatigue investigations. The extreme live load force effect shall be determined by considering each possible combination of number of loaded lanes multiplied by the corresponding factor specified in Table 1.1.6. if a sketch is required to determine load distribution. are used.2. when a single vehicle is on the bridge.6.6.2d.1 VEHICULAR LIVE LOAD 3. the number of design lanes should be determined by taking the integer part of the ratio w/3600.1. .2. it has been assumed that if a bridge is used as a viewing stand for eight hours each year for a total time of about one month.~ Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI) - S T D * A A S H T O S R C H LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 Ob39804 0048538 875 SPECIFICATIONS COMMENTARY 3 6 LIVE LOADS . Roadway widths from 6000 to 7200 mm shall have two design lanes.6. each equal to one-half the roadway width.2.3.6.6. For the purpose of determining the number of lanes when the loading condition includes the pedestrian loads specified in Article 3. the Engineer must determine the number and location of vehicles and lanes. and. where w is the clear roadway width in mm between curbs and/or barriers.1. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. both for single and multiple loaded lanes.6 combined with one or more lanes of the vehicular live load. must include the multiple presence. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. the number of design lanes shall be equal to the number of traffic lanes.1.2 Multiple Presence of Live Load The provisions of this article shall not be applied to the fatigue limit state for which one design truck is used.2. it can be heavier than each one of a pair of vehicles and still have the same probability of occurrence. the force effects shall be divided by I .1.2.6.1 Number of Design Lanes Generally.6.1.3. The entry greater than 1.0 in Table I results from statistical calibration of these Specifications on the basis of pairs of vehicles instead of a single vehicle.6.20.2 and 4.3. the 3 .3 are used.2. 3. the Engineer is responsible for including multiple presence factors and selecting the worst design case. For the purpose of this provision. and the width of the design lane shall be taken as the width of the traffic lane. Therefore. bridges should be built to accommodate the standard design lane and appropriate shoulders. -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- . Where use of the lever rule is specified in Article 4.2 The multiple presence factors have been included in the approximate equations for distribution factors in Articles 4. Possible future changes in the physical or functional clear roadway width of the bridge should be considered. The factor 1. C3.II.1.

andlor the design lane load under the following conditions: 0 Vehicular live loading on the roadways of bridges or incidental structures. Therefore. designated HL-93. it would be investigated for: 0 3 >3 O. Thus.Multiple Presence Factors "m" Number of Loaded Lanes 1 .o0 2 - 1998 = Ob39804 0048539 701 appropriate live load to combine with it would have a one-month recurrence interval. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.20. 85 0. m = 1.1 Consideration should be given to site-specific modifications to the design truck. if a component supported a sidewalk and one lane.85.1.2-1 . 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. The multiple presence factors in Table 1 were developed on the basis of an ADTT of 5000 trucks in one direction.20 1. 0 This adjustment is based on the reduced probability of attaining the design event during a 75-year design life with reduced truck volume. and If ADTT 100.65 0 One lane of vehicular live load. . This is reasonably approximated by use of the multiple presence factors. shall consist of a combination of the: o o Design truck or design tandem.2. If a component supported a sidewalk and two lanes of vehicular live load.20. The roadway is expected to carry unusually high percentages of truck traffic.20 for a single lane does not apply to the pedestrian loads.STD. The force effect resulting from the appropriate number of lanes may be reduced for sites with lower ADTT as follows: 0 If 100 5 ADTT < 1000. 3.1 General C3. The legal load of a given jurisdiction is significantly greater than typical. 95 percent of the specified force effect may be used.0 applied to the governing case: and Two lanes of vehicular live load and the pedestrian loads.0. even though they are originally developed for vehicular live load. it would be investigated for the vehicular live load alone with m = 1.6.1.1. COMMENTARY Multiple Presence Factors "m" 1. the case of the pedestrian loads without the vehicular live load is a subset of the second bulleted item.AASHT0 SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI) SPECIFICATIONS Table 3. design tandem. m = 1. I .2.6. and for the pedestrian loads combined with the vehicular live load with m = 1. 0 The multiple presence factor of 1. 0 3 .1.2 DESIGN VEHICULAR LIVE LOAD 3. 90 percent of the specified force effect may be used.15 COPYRIGHT 2002.6. The greater of the more significant lane of vehicular live load and the pedestrian loads or two lanes of vehicular live load. m = 0.6. and Design lane load. User=.

causes trucks to collect on certain areas of a bridge or to not be interrupted by light traffic. = = positive moment at 4/10 point in either span negative moment at 4/10 point in either span moment at interior support shear adjacent to either exterior support shear adjacent support to interior = = = = Vab Vba Mss midspan moment in a simply supported span The "span" is the length of the simple-span or of one of each of the two continuous spans. or Special industrial loads are common due to the location of the bridge.1. 0 See also discussion in Article C3. The figures indicate the degree by which -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- 3-16 COPYRIGHT 2002. The comparison is in the form of ratios of the load effects produced in either simple-span or two-span continuous girders.3.6. such as a stop sign. was developed as a notional representation of shear and moment produced by a group of vehicles routinely permitted on highways of various states under "grandfather" exclusions to weight laws. The vehicles considered to be representative of these exclusions were based on a study conducted by the Transportation Research Board (Cohen 1990). . The load model is called "notional" because it is not intended to represent any particular truck. User=. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. coincident with the lane load. or short duration special permits.1. The loads shall be assumed to occupy 3000 mm transversely within a design lane. which show results of live load studies involving two equal continuous spans or simple spans: M POS 0.Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI) - STDoAASHTO SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL L998 COMMENTARY 0 Ob39804 0048540 423 U SPECIFICATIONS Flow control. or toll booth. no attempt was made to relate to escorted permit loads. and the 1991 OHBDC live load model. each design lane under consideration shall be occupied by either the design truck or tandem. consisting of either a truck or tandem coincident with a uniformly distributed load.4L M NEG 0.0 indicates that one or more of the exclusion vehicles produces a larger load effect than the HS20 loading. In the initial development of the notional live load model. illegal overloads. The moment and shear effects were subsequently compared to the results of truck weight studies (Csagoly and Knobel 1981. traffic signal. The following nomenclature applies to Figures C I through C6.3. These subsequent comparisons showed that the notional load could be scaled by appropriate load factors to be representative of these other load spectra. A ratio greater that 1.6. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. Nowak 1992) selected WIM data. where applicable.1.1 The live load model.4L M SUPPORT Except as modified in Article 3.

1-2 . The largest and smallest of the 22 configurations can be found in Kulicki and Mertz (1991)..0- I * . + M SUPPORT Figure C3.1- :::r 1.Shear Ratios: Exclusion Vehicles I to HS20 (truck or lane) or Two I O O00 N Axles at 1200 mm 3 . or the interstate load consisting of two I 1 0 O00 N axles 1200 mm apart.7- 5 .3 - 1.A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1798 W Ob39804 0048543 3bT M Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (Si) - SPECIFICATIONS COMMENTARY the exclusion loads deviate from the HS loading of designation. e. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. User=.6 0 1.2.8 1.6 - 5 1. . as used in previous editions of the AASHTO Standard Specifications. HS25. the results presented are based on two identical exclusion vehicles in tandem and separated by at least 15 O00 mm.2.6 O 10 -C 20 30 SPAN IN METERS 40 M POS 0.8 I O 6 I 10 -V&-POC 20 30 I 40 50 1 SPAN IN METERS +Vab-NEG rVba-NEG Figure C3.4L +M NEG.21.1-I .Moment Ratios: Exclusion Vehicles to HS20 (truck or lane) or Two I 1O O00 N Axles at 1200 mm COPYRIGHT 2002.Ao H 1.17 Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.1.91 1 1.S T D .O& . I 0.7 1. 1.6.3 g 1. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office -| || | || ||| 1. Figures C I and C2 show moment and shear comparisons between the envelope of effects caused by 22 truck configurations chosen to be representative of the exclusion vehicles and the HS20 loading.7 1 50 -WMss O . In the case of negative moment at an interior support.1.2- 0.5 1.4 | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- - 3 5 1.6. either the HS20 truck or the lane load.g.

.....AASHT0 SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI) Ob39804 0048542 2Tb - SPECIFICATIONS COMMENTARY Figures C3 and C4 show comparisons between the force effects produced by a single exclusion truck per lane and the notional load model................... the range of ratios can be seen as more closely grouped: e 0 0 Over the span range. .......... has been included in Figures C3 and C5.6... where the tandem exclusion vehicles were used. plus 90 percent of the design lane load........................ and Both for simple-span and continuous spans......4L +M NEG...... .... The implication of close grouping is that the notional load model with a single-load factor has general applicability... .... .. ... 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.................. .........of the effect of two design trucks...... .. ......... .. except for negative moment. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.Moment Ratios: Vehicles to Notional Model Exclusion -- | || | || ||| 3-18 | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- COPYRIGHT 2002..........1..4L Y M SUPPORT -WMsS Figure C3...1.......... . Compared with Figures C I and C2..... In the case of negative moment at a support...1-3 ..... Both for shear and moment............1 requiring investigation of 90 percent ...... .......... .. User=...6...3.......~~ ~ STD....O......6O 10 20 30 40 50 SPAN IN METERS + M POS 0...................2.. 0 0.......... the provisions of Article 3.

18 1.2. I 08 O .1.o | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- .4L +M NEG.7 I I I Figure C3.2. or Alternate Military Loading. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.7 10 -C 20 30 SPAN IN METERS 40 50 M POS 0. -- | || | || ||| 0.7 1.1.4 - 1.Moment Ratios: Notional Model to HS20 (truck or lane) or Two 11O O00 N Axles at 1200 mm 3-19 COPYRIGHT 2002.3 1. User=.1-5 .S T D = A A S H T O S R C H LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 Section 3 Loads and Load Factors ( I S) - Ob39804 0048543 132 W SPECIFICATIONS COMMENTARY 1.6.2 1.6.9 | || 1. O 4L X M SUPPORT --MSS Figure C3.3 1.1 - O .6 - 151.2 - 1. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.14Shear Ratios: Exclusion Vehicles to Notional Model Figures C5 and C6 show the ratios of force effects produced by the notional load model and the greatest of the HS20 truck or lane loading.

American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. load modifier.6.1.2.~ ~~~ ~~~ STDmAASHTO SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 Section 3 .Shear Ratios: Notional Model to HS20 (truck and lane) or Two 110 O00 N Axles at 1200 mm In reviewing Figures C5 and C6.2.1. | | || ---| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| 3-20 COPYRIGHT 2002. it should be noted that the total design force effect is also a function of load factor.6 1.3 I . 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.1 and 3. and dynamic load allowance. Except as specified in Articles 3. the spacing between the two 145 O00 N axles shall be varied between 4300 and 9000 rnm to produce extreme force effects.1-6 .5 F 1.9 O - I i! ! + SPAN I METERS N X Vba Vab -POS + Vab -NEG . load distribution.6.3.NEG Figure C3.1 1. 3.9 I i 1.Loads and Load Factors ( I S) SPECIFICATIONS 0639804 0048544 O79 COMMENTARY 1.2 1. User=.6.2. A dynamic load allowance shall be considered as specified in Article 3.2 Design Truck The weights and spacings of axles and wheels for the design truck shall be as specified in Figure 1.0 0.1. .6.4._ 1.1.1.6.4 O - 2 1.

uniformly distributed in the longitudinal direction. However. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. The assumed constant pressure built into this article is 0.4 Design Lane Load The design lane load shall consist of a load of 9.2.862 MPa. A dynamic load allowance shall be considered as specified in Article 3. The load factor shown in the equation should be that specified for the limit state under consideration.3 N/mm.3 Design Tandem The design tandem shall consist of a pair of 110 O00 N axles spaced 1200 mm apart.1.6. User=. The actual distribution of tire pressure is variable.2-1 .2. The transverse spacing of wheels shall be taken as 1800 mm.6.-19300to 9000m 600m m General 300mm Deck Overhang 1800m m Design Lane 3600 m m Figure 3.STDmAASHTO SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI) - 1998 m Ob37804 0048545 T O 5 9 SPECIFICATIONS COMMENTARY 1 li i1 I I I 35 O00 N 145 O00 N 145 O00 N 4300mm -. The force effects from the design lane load shall not be subject to a dynamic load allowance.2. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. 3.2. 3.5-1) C3.6.5 The implication of extending the length of the tire patch by the load factor is that the contact pressure remains nearly constant as load varies.Characteristics of the Design Truck 3.5 Tire Contact Area The tire contact area of a wheel consisting of one or two tires shall be assumed to be a single rectangle. the area of high pressure is so small that the variation can be safely neglected in practical design.1.6. the design lane load shall be assumed to be uniformly distributed over a 3000 mm width.28 x I O 3 y (1 + IM/100) P where: (3.6.6. y = load factor 3-21 -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- COPYRIGHT 2002.1.1.1. with higher values under the tire walls. .12. whose width is 510 mm and whose length in mm shall be taken as: = 2.6.2. Transversely.2.

and increased by either 1.2. uniformly over the actual contact area within the footprint with the pressure increased in the ratio of the specified to actual contact areas. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.Section 3 Loads and Load Factors ( I S) SPECIFICATIONS IM = P dynamic load allowance percent 72 500 N for the design truck and 55 000 N for the design tandem COMMENTARY - STD-AASHTO SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 = Ob39804 004854b 941 M = The tire pressure shall be assumed to be uniformly distributed over the contact area.15 times the depth of the fill in select granular backfill.6.6.1. the effect of the fill on the distribution of live load shall be neglected.3 shall apply. exceeds the live load and impact moment calculated according to Articles 4.6. The pressure intensity on the surface is based on the wheel load without dynamic load allowance. Live load distribution for culvert tops may be based on provisions for deck slabs spanning parallel to traffic as specified in Articles 4.1.6. ~ . 0 3.1.5. the effects may be neglected where the depth of fill exceeds the distance between faces of end walls.1.3 APPLICATION OF DESIGN VEHICULAR LIVE LOADS 3. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.2 and 3.1 General Unless otherwise specified. They are projected through the soil as specified. the latter moment shall be used.1 and 4. The provisions of Articles 3.6 Elastic solutions for pressures produced within an infinite half-space by loads on the ground surface can be found in Poulos and Davis (1974).2. or the depth of the fill in all other cases.6 Fills Where the depth of fill is less than 600 mm. The tire pressure shall be assumed to be distributed as follows: 0 On continuous surfaces.6.1 and 4.2. based on the distribution of the wheel load through earth fills.6.1. the extreme force effect shall be taken as the larger of the following: This provision applies to relieving slabs below grade and to top slabs of box culverts. The dynamic load allowance also varies with depth as specified in Article 3. This 3-22 -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- COPYRIGHT 2002.1 The effects of an axle sequence and the lane load are superposed in order to obtain extreme values.2. In lieu of a more precise analysis. the effects of live load may be neglected where the depth of fill is more than 2400 mm and exceeds the span length.1.1.6. uniformly over the specified contact area.2.6.2.1 (1982) and soil mechanics textbooks. and On interrupted surfaces. I .3. where the depth of fill exceeds 600 mm.3. wheel loads may be considered to be uniformly distributed over a rectangular area with sides equal to the dimension of the tire contact area.1. The design lane load is applied where appropriate and multiple presence factors apply.6.6.2. The dimensions of the tire contact area are determined at the surface based on the dynamic load allowance of 33 percent at depth = O.6. For single-span culverts.2. Where such areas from several wheels overlap. Where the live load and impact moment in concrete slabs. NAVFAC DM-7.2.6. or the use of other acceptable approximate methods of load distribution permitted in Section 12. C3.3. A dynamic load allowance is added to the pressure on the projected area. as specified in Article 3. This approximation is similar to the 60" rule found in many texts on soil mechanics.3.6. 3. Distribution of Wheel Loads Through Earth C3. for multiple span culverts. User=. the total load shall be uniformly distributed over the area.

Only those areas or parts of areas that contribute to the same extreme being sought should be loaded. Where multiple lanes of heavier versions of this type of vehicle are considered probable. and reaction at interior piers only.6. The provisions of this article are intended to produce apparent live load deflections similar to those used in the past. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. the lengths of design lanes.1.600 mm from the edge of the design lane.e.2.2. and For the design of all other components .1 and should not be considered a replacement for the Strength II Load Combination. Where a sidewalk is not separated from the roadway by a crashworthy traffic barrier. 3. e 3-23 COPYRIGHT 2002. live load deflection is a service issue.1.6. Axles that do not contribute to the extreme force effect under consideration shall be neglected. That resulting from the design truck alone.6.1. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. not a strength issue.2 As indicated in C2. Therefore. . that contribute to the extreme force effect under consideration. the design lane load together with 25 percent of the design truck. is similar to the past lane load with its single concentrated load of 80 O00 N.1. For the span lengths where the design lane load controls. or parts thereof. combined with the design lane load specified in Article 3.5. The current design truck is identical to the HS20 truck of past Standard Specifications.5. The distance between the 145 O00 N axles of each truck shall be taken as 4300 mm.300 mm from the face of the curb or railing. 90 percent of the effect of two design trucks spaced a minimum of 15 O00 mm between the lead axle of one truck and the rear axle of the other truck.3. Experience with bridges designed under previous editions of the AASHTO Standard Specifications indicated no adverse effects of live load deflection per se.1. the deflection should be taken as the larger of: 0 C3. For both negative moment between points of contraflexure under a uniform load on all spans. o Unless otherwise specified.2. The loaded length should be determined by the points where the influence surface meets the centerline of the design lane.STD*AASHTO SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1 7 7 8 Ub3760'i Ofl57'i70 ClBq Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI) - SPECIFICATIONS 0 -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- COMMENTARY The notional design loads were based on the information described in Article C3. consideration should be given to the possibility that vehicles can mount the sidewalk.3. ¡. there appears to be little reason to require that the past criteria be compared to a deflection based upon the heavier live load required by these Specifications. Both the design lanes and the 3000 mm loaded width in each lane shall be positioned to produce extreme force effects. User=. consideration should be given to investigating negative moment and reactions at interior supports for pairs of the design tandem spaced from 8000 mm to 12 O00 mm apart.2. This is consistent with Article 3.1. three concentrated loads totaling 80 O00 N.2.1..6. or That resulting from 25 percent of the design truck taken together with the design lane load.6.6. The design truck or tandem shall be positioned transversely such that the center of any wheel load is not closer than: o For the design of the deck overhang .4. combined with 90 percent of the effect of the design lane load. which contained data on "low boy" type vehicles weighing up to about 490 O00 N.2 Loading for Optional Live Load Deflection Evaluation If the Owner invokes the optional live load deflection criteria specified in Article 2. shall be loaded with the design lane load.6.2.

1.6.2.6.2.6. This provision does not apply if the barrier is not structurally continuous.1 L R F D . Deck Systems. Implicit in this provision is the assumption that the I I 0 O00 N half weight of a design tandem is distributed over a longitudinal length of 7600 mm.6.S I .I including the 'lane load.2. single wheel loads should not be considered.6. | | || ---| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| It is theoretically possible that an extreme force effect could result from a 145 O00 N axle in one lane and a 220 O00 N tandem in a second lane.3 Design Loads for Decks.2.3 0634804 0057473 T L 5 R - SPECIFICATIONS 3. and top slabs of box culverts.6.6.1. and amplification of the wheel loads due to centrifugal and braking forces need not be considered for the design of decks. slab bridges. including the lane load. User=.1. Where primary strips are transverse and their span exceeds 4600 mm .7. and that there is a cross beam or other appropriate component at the end of the bridge supporting the barrier which is designed for the half tandem weight.3.the longitudinal strips shall be designed for all loads specified in Article 3. COPYRIGHT 2002.1.S T D . force effects shall be determined on the following basis: e This article clarifies the selection of wheel loads to be used in the design of bridge decks.24 U '99 'O0 Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. all of the loads specified in Article 3. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.E N G L Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI) 1998 COMMENTARY C3. including slab-type bridges. Where primary strips are longitudinal .4.2. Horizontal loads on the overhang resulting from vehicle collision with barriers shall be in accordance with the provisions of Section 13. 3. the outside row of wheel loads may be replaced with a uniformly distributed line load of 14. Wheel loads shall be assumed to be equal within an axle unit.1. Where the approximate strip method is used to analyze decks and top slabs of box culverts.the transverse strips shall be designed for the wheels of the 145 O00 N axle. 3.6. The design load is always an axle load. 3 .4 Structurally continuous barriers have been observed to be effective in distributing wheel loads in the overhang.3. shall .1.6.2. Where primary strips are transverse and their span does not exceed 4600 mm . including the lane load.1. C3. not exceeding 1800 mm from the centerline of the exterior girder to the face of a structurally continuous concrete railing.1 Magnitude and Configuration The fatigue load shall be one design truck or axles thereof specified in Article 3.4 Deck Overhang Load For the design of deck overhangs with a cantilever. located 300 mm from the face of the railing.1. and the Top Slabs of Box Culverts The provisions of this article shall not apply to decks designed under the provisions of Article 9.6. be considered. Empirical Design Method. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office .1.3.3.4 FATIGUE LOAD 3. shall be designed for all of the live loads specified in Article 3. Deck systems. but with a constant spacing of 9000 rnrn between the 145 O00 N axles.A A S H T O SRCI.the transverse strips shall be designed for the wheels of the 145 O00 N axle and the lane load.6 N/mm intensity. 0 e I Where the refined methods are used. but such sophistication is not warranted in practical design.

6.2 Frequency The frequency of the fatigue load shall be taken as the single-lane average daily truck traffic (ADlT.6. Research has shown that the average daily traffic (ADT).Fraction of Trucks in Traffic Fraction of Trucks in Traffic 0. the frequency of the fatigue load for a single lane is assumed to apply to all lanes.e.6.2-1 .3a Refined Methods C3.2 shall be applied to the fatigue load..2 Since the fatigue and fracture limit state is defined in terms of accumulated stress-range cycles. as specified in Article 4.4. -- | || | || ||| 0. the position of the truck is made independent of the location of both the traffic lanes and the design lanes. a truck is defined as any vehicle with more than either two axles or four wheels. But because future traffic patterns on the bridge are uncertain and in the interest of minimizing the number of calculations required of the designer.6.6.2 Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.4.20 | | || --- ADTT (3. =p x COMMENTARY C3. For the purposes of this article. 3. the shoulder lane carries most of the truck traffic.4. the single-lane ADTT shall be taken as: ADTT.Loads and Load Factors ( I S) SPECIFICATIONS The dynamic load allowance specified in Article 3.1.15 | || | |||| || | ||||||| .1. including all vehicles.. Table C3.6.Fraction of Truck Traffic in a Single Lane. it would be more appropriate to place the truck at the center of the traffic lane that produces maximum stress range in the detail under consideration.4. cars and trucks. is physically limited to about 20 O00 vehicles per lane per day under normal conditions.4.1. a single design truck shall be positioned transversely and longitudinally to maximize stress range at the detail under consideration. In the absence of better information.6.3. P = the number of trucks per day in a singlelane averaged over the design life = taken as specified in Table 1 Table 3.7.15 0.6. If it were assured that the traffic lanes would remain as they are indicated at the opening of the bridge throughout its entire service life.6. 5 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.1.). On a typical bridge with no nearby entrancelexit ramps. COPYRIGHT 2002. This limiting value of traffic should be considered when estimating the ADTT. The single-lane ADTT is that for the traffic lane in which the majority of the truck traffic crosses the bridge.3a 0.4.4. regardless the position of traffic or design lanes on the deck. Since future traffic patterns on the bridge are uncertain. In lieu of site-specific fraction of truck traffic data.1.. The ADTT can be determined by multiplying the ADT by the fraction of trucks in the traffic. specification of load alone is not adequate.1.I .A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1778 W Ob39804 0048547 6 5 0 Section 3 . ¡. User=. even to those located under lanes that carry a lesser number of trucks.3 Load Distribution for Fatigue 3.2-1) where: ADlT = the number of trucks per day in one direction averaged over the design life ADTT. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office 3 .6.4. This frequency shall be applied to all components of the bridge.2-1 .10 Where the bridge is analyzed by any refined method. p Number of Lanes Class of Highway Rural Interstate Urban Interstate Other Rural Other Urban 3.. Load should be specified along with the frequency of load occurrence. the values of Table C I may be applied for routine bridges.S T D .

and/or bicycle traffic shall be designed for a live load of 4 .1. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. The dynamic load allowance (IM) in Table 1 is an increment to be applied to the static wheel load to account for wheel load impact from moving vehicles.6.1. Snow removal and other maintenance vehicles sometimes have access to pedestrian bridges.6.6. COMMENTARY C3. C3. The dynamic load allowance need not be considered for these vehicles. Load distribution. as specified in Article 4. Load frequency.6 See the provisions of Article 3.1 GENERAL Unless otherwise permitted in Articles 3.1. C3.2.1. and Dimensional requirements.2.2.4. -- | || | || ||| 0 | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- . 6 ~ 1 0 ~ shall be applied to MPa all sidewalks wider than 600 mm and considered simultaneously with the vehicular design live load.1 Page (1976) contains the basis for some of these provisions.1.2. other than centrifugal and braking forces.5 If rail transit is designed to occupy an exclusive lane. these loads shall be considered in the design. The factor to be applied to the static load shall be taken as: ( I + IM/100). American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.1. 1 ~ 1 0 ~ MPa. the distribution factor for one traffic lane shall be used. but the bridge should not have less strength than if it had been designed as a highway bridge of the same width.6. shall be increased by the percentage specified in Table 1 for dynamic load allowance. Where sidewalks.3.3b Approximate Methods Where the bridge is analyzed by approximate load distribution.6. the Owner shall specify the transit load characteristics and the expected interaction between transit and highway traffic.6.6.1.2 for applying the pedestrian loads in combination with the vehicular live load.6.STDmAASHTO SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI) 0637804 0046550 372 W - SPECIFICATIONS 3.6. transit loads should be included in the design. 3.5 RAIL TRANSIT LOAD Where a bridge also carries rail-transit vehicles. The conservatism in this article reflects the unpredictable nature of pedestrian load. User=. 3. Bridges for only pedestrian. which gains significance where it becomes a primary load. Dynamic allowance. The dynamic load allowance shall not be applied to pedestrian loads or to the design lane load.6. If the rail transit is supposed to mix with regular highway trafic.6.2 Dynamic Load Allowance: IM 3.6 PEDESTRIAN LOADS A pedestrian load of 3 . the Owner should specify or approve an appropriate combination of transit and highway loads for the design. and/or bicycle bridges are intended to be used by maintenance andlor other incidental vehicles. o 0 0 3. pedestrian.2. Transit load characteristics may include: 0 Loads.2 and 3. the static effects of the design truck or tandem.6. Dynamic effects due to moving vehicles may be attributed to two sources: 3-26 COPYRIGHT 2002. The slow speed of such vehicles justifies the omission of dynamic effects.

6.. 3. Wood structures are known to experience reduced dynamic wheel load effects due to internal friction between the components and the damping characteristics of wood.1. shall be as specified in Article 3. a retaining type component is considered to be buried to the top of the fill. Field tests indicate that in the majority of highway bridges. the specified live load combination of the design truck and lane load. For the purpose of this article. and Foundation components that are entirely below ground level. the entire component must be buried.2. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. 75% 0 All Other Components 0 Fatigue and Fracture Limit State 0 I All Other Limit States I 15% 33% I The application of dynamic load allowance for buried components.2-1) where: DE = the minimum depth of earth cover above the structure (mm) C3.2. cracks.~ STDOAASHTO SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI) SPECIFICATIONS - 1998 Ob39804 0048551 209 a COMMENTARY 0 1 Il I I Component Deck Joints .2. such as deck joints. To qualify for relief from impact. other than joints. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. the dynamic load allowance specified in Article 3.2. as the spacing of vehicles at high speed is 3-27 COPYRIGHT 2002.1 may be reduced to 50 percent of the values specified for IM in Table 3.All Limit States Hammering effect is the dynamic response of the wheel assembly to riding surface discontinuities. The specified value of 33 percent in Table 1 is the product of 4/3 and the basic 25 percent. 363 Lane load is neglected in computing the centrifugal force. if justified by sufficient evidence. Dynamic load allowance need not be applied to: a Retaining walls not subject to vertical reactions from the superstructure. represents a group of exclusion vehicles that are at least 413 of those caused by the design truck alone on shortand medium-span bridges. However.6.~ D2~0% ) (3. such as those caused by settlement of fill. such as footings. covered in Section 12. and delaminations. User=.3 3. or to resonant excitation as a result of similar frequencies of vibration between bridge and vehicle.2 BURIED COMPONENTS The dynamic load allowance for culverts and other buried structures covered by Section 12.6. This is the basis for dynamic load allowance with the exception of deck joints.0.2. potholes. which may be due to long undulations in the roadway pavement. taken as: C.6.3 Centrifugal Forces: CE Centrifugal forces shall be taken as the product of the axle weights of the design truck or tandem and the factor C. 3.2. shall be taken as: | | || --- /M=33(1.2.7. -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| .3 WOOD COMPONENTS For wood bridges and wood components of bridges. 1 ~ 7 0 .6.6. the dynamic component of the response does not exceed 25 percent of the static response to vehicles.2. in accordance with the provisions of Article 4.2.4 . in percent. o The dynamic load allowance may be reduced for components.6.6. This article recognizes the damping effect of soil when in contact with some buried structural components.1-1. and Dynamic response of the bridge as a whole to passing vehicles.

-| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| highway design speed (m/s) radius of curvature of traffic lane (m) I m/s = 3. 3. Full-scalecrash tests have shown that some vehicles have a greater tendency to lean over or partially cross over a 1070 mm high barrier than a 1370 mm high barrier. and assuming uniform deceleration.6.all is the length of uniform deceleration and is the fraction. The multiple presence factors specified in Article . If the component is more than about 3000 mm behind o o 3-28 COPYRIGHT 2002.6.1. All design lanes shall be simultaneously loaded for bridges likely to become one-directional in the future.26 for a horizontal force that will act for a period of about 10 seconds. 3. The specified live load combination of the design truck and lane load. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. The presence factors specified in .5.4 Braking Force: BR Braking forces shall be taken as 25 percent of the axle weights of the design truck or tandem per lane placed in all design lanes which are considered to be loaded in accordance with Article 3.1.6. the braking force determined as a fraction of vehicle weight is: 6= 2ga V2 (C3.2 3.3-1) where: v g = = gravitational acceleration: 9.6.I shall apply.807 (m/s2) | | || --- R = Highway design speed shall not be taken to be less than the value specified in AASHTO publication A Policv of Geometric Desian of Hinhwavs and Streets (1990). resulting in a low density of vehicles following and/or preceding the design truck. Centrifugal forces shall be applied horizontally at a distance 1800 mm above the roadway surface. are expected to brake out of phase.6. yet it reasonably models the representative exclusion vehicle traveling at design speed with large headways to other vehicles. represented by the design lane load. The factor "bl applies to all lanes in one direction because all vehicles' may have reacted within this time frame.2 3. . User=.5.6. or A 1070 mm high barrier located at more than 3000 rnm from the component being protected.6. A structurally independent.I which are and carrying traffic headed in the same direction.4 Based on energy principles..2 need not be considered for structures which are protected by: 0 An embankment.60 km/h .O C3. however.6.1 .1. This behavior would allow a significant collision of the vehicle with the component being protected if the component is located within a meter or so of the barrier.1 PROTECTION OF STRUCTURES The provisions of Article 3.5. a barrier may be considered structurally independent if it does not transmit loads to the bridge.1 For the purpose of this article.6.Thus. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.5 Vehicular Collision Force: CT 3.I shall apply. C3. These forces shall be assumed to act horizontally at a distance of 1800 mm above the roadway surface in either longitudinal direction to cause extreme force effects. represents a group of exclusion vehicles that produce force effects of at least 4/3 of those caused by the design truck alone on shortand medium-span bridges.6. This ratio is indicated in Equation I. located within 3000 mm from the component being protected.A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL L998 Ob39804 0048552 1 4 5 (3. The approximation attributed to this convenient representation is acceptable in the framework of the uncertainty of centrifugal fÖrce from random traffic - S T D .Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI) SPECIFICATIONS COMMENTARY assumed to be large. Calculations using a braking length of 122 m and a speed of 90 km/h (25 m/s) yield b = 0. the provision is not technically perfect.6. Only the design truck or tandem are to be considered because other vehicles. crashworthy groundmounted 1370 mm high barrier.4-1) where .

Pressure shall be calculated as the product of height of water above the point of consideration. but not greater than 1500 mm wide by 600 mm high. which is assumed to act in any direction in a horizontal plane.2 VEHICLE AND RAILWAY COLLISION WITH STRUCTURES Unless protected as specified in Article 3. 3.7. acting on all components below design water level. For substructures with cavities in which the presence or absence of water cannot be ascertained.1.2. COMMENTARY the barrier. the 1 800 O00 N load should be considered a point load. S T D .5.2 Buoyancy C3. at a distance of 1200 mm above ground. Design water levels for various limit states shall be as specified and/or approved by the Owner. 3. These dimensions were determined by considering the size of a truck frame. the load may be considered to be a point load or may be distributed over an area deemed suitable for the size of the structure and the anticipated impacting vehicle.6. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office .~~ ~. as specified in Article 3.1. physically unverified.2.A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL Section 3 Loads and Load Factors ( I S) 1998 Ob39804 0048553 081 H - SPECIFICATIONS In order to qualify for this exemption. C3. the difference between the two barrier heights is no longer important.7. The equivalent static force of 1 800 O00 N is bzsed on the information from full-scale crash tests of barriers for redirecting 360 O00 N tractor trailers and from analysis of other truck collisions.6.5.5.3. The I800 O00 N train collision load is based on recent. For individual column shafts. analytical work (Hirsch 1989). 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.5. the density of water. the condition producing the least favorable force effect should be chosen.6.1 shall apply. but rather to supply some guidance for structural design when it is deemed totally impractical to meet the requirements of Article 3. 3. -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- 3-29 Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.2 Buoyancy shall be considered to be an uplift force.7.1.5. abutments and piers located within a distance of 9000 mm to the edge of roadway. For wail piers.6. or within a distance of 15 O00 mm to the centerline of a railway track. COPYRIGHT 2002. as specified in Section 13.7. and g (the acceleration of gravity).3 VEHICLE COLLISION WITH BARRIERS The provisions of Section 13 shall apply. User=. The provisions of Article 2.7 WATER LOADS: WA 3. taken as the sum of the vertical components of static pressures. such barrier shall be structurally and geometrically capable of surviving the crash test for Performance Level 3.1 Static Pressure Static pressure of water shall be assumed to act perpendicular to the surface that is retaining the water. 3.6. shall be designed for an equivalent static force of 1 800 O00 N.2 It is not the intent of this provision to encourage unprotected piers and abutments within the setbacks indicated.

Such accumulation is a function of the availability of such debris and level of maintenance efforts by which it is removed.30 Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. CL. COPYRIGHT 2002. = = = D (C3. which may be used as guidance in the absence of site-specific criteria: Where a significant amount of driftwood is carried. and the lateral drag . User=.4 1.8 The longitudinal drag force shall be taken as the product of longitudinal stream pressure and the projected surface exposed thereto. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office .4 (1 1 1 The drag coefficient.STDmAASHTO SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI) - Ob39804 0048554 TL8 W COMMENTARY SPECIFICATIONS 3. The draft New Zealand Highway Bridge Design Specification contains the following provision.7.7. but as a 0. roots. The theoretically correct expression for Equation 1 is: p = 5. and other debris may accumulate at piers and. increase stream pressure load on the pier.3.3.7 (1 1 semicircular-nosed pier square-ended pier debris lodged against the pier wedged-nosed pier with nose angle 90" or less II I I 1.1 For the purpose of this article.14xlo-4cDv2 (3. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.7.7.2-1. were adopted from the Ontario Highway Bridge Design Code ( I 991). It may be accounted for by the judicious increase in both the exposed surface and the velocity of water. C .7. -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- 3 .3 Stream Pressure 3.3. 0. given in Tables 1 and 3.3.3. the longitudinal direction refers to the major axis of a substructure unit. coefficient.1-1) where: p pressure of flowing water (MPa) drag coefficient for piers as specified in Table 1 design velocity of water for the design Rood in strength and service limit states and for the check flood in the extreme event limit state (rn/s) = c y V2 2 X f P p C . Floating logs. The size of the raft is a matter of judgment.1 LONGITUDINAL The pressure of flowing water acting in the longitudinal direction of substructures shall be taken as: C3. water pressure shall also be allowed for on a driftwood raft lodged against the pier.7. by blocking parts of the waterway. The more favorable drag coefficients measured by some researchers for wedge-type pier nose angles of less than 90" are not given here because such pier noses are more prone to catching debris.1-1) where: V y = density (unit mass) of water (kg/m3) V = velocity of water (m/s) Type C .

User=.2-1) C3. to the longitudinal axis of the pier shall be taken as: p = 5.1-1 .S T D .7.14~1 04C. but not greater than 3000 mm.7. Dimension B should be half the sum of adjacent span lengths. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. Dimension A in Figure 1 should be half the water depth.3. Pressure shall be calculated using Formula I.V2 where: p (3.7. P iongitudinai axis oí piei Figure 3.A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI) 0639804 0048555 954 - SPECIFICATIONS COMMENTARY guide.Debris Raft for Pier Design 3. -- | || CL = lateral drag coefficient specified in Table 1 | || ||| = lateral pressure (MPa) | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- .31 COPYRIGHT 2002.7.7.5. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.3. Water Surface ebris Raft Bed Level /Aii /Aii /Aii /Aii /Aii/Aii L Figure C3.1-1 also applies to Equation 1.Plan View of Pier Showing Stream FIow PressUre 3 .3. with CD= 0.2-1 . but no greater than 14 O00 mm. uniformly distributed pressure on a substructure due to water flowing at an angle.2 The discussion of Equation 3.3.7.2 LATERAL The lateral.3. 8.3.

1 GENERAL Pressures specified herein shall be assumed to be caused by a base design wind velocity. wind usually does not govern.4 shall apply.1. is recommended for the computation of wave forces.7.4 Wave Load c3. For small and/or low structures. but by changing the conditions of the substructure it may significantly alter the consequences of force effects acting on structures.Lateral Drag Coefficient Angle.8.1. V. Department of the Army. as seen in elevation taken perpendicular to the assumed wind I C3. 3 32 COPYRIGHT 2002. Wind load shall be assumed to be uniformly distributed on the area exposed to the wind. - . 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. Provisions concerning the effects of scour are given in Section 2. the local conditions should be investigated. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. scour is the most common reason for the failure of highway bridges in the United States.8.4.8. 3.0 0.between direction of flow and longitudinal axis of the pier | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --| || | || ||| -- COMMENTARY CL O" 5" IO" 0. The consequences of changes in foundation conditions due to scour resulting from the check flood for bridge scour and from hurricanes shall be considered at the extreme event limit states.~ STDeAASHTO S R C H LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI) - Oh39804 004855b 890 SPECIFICATIONS Table 3.7.5 3. Site-specific conditions should be considered.7 The lateral drag force shall be taken as the product of the lateral stream pressure and the surface exposed thereto. c3.8 WIND LOAD: WL AND WS 3.5 Change in Foundations Due to Limit State for Scour The provisions of Article 2.2-1 . For large and/or tall bridges. 3. 3. published by the Coastal Engineering Research Center.1 HorizontalWind Pressure Statistically speaking. The latest edition of the Shore Protection Manual.7. Loads due to wave action on bridge structures shall be determined using accepted engineering practice methods. Scour per se is not a force effect.4 Wave action on bridge structures shall be considered for exposed structures where the development of significant wave forces may occur. The exposed area shall be the sum of areas of all components. of 160 km/h.6. User=.7.3. including floor system and railing. Base design wind velocity varies significantly due to local conditions.7. Pressures on windward and leeward sides are to be taken simultaneously in the assumed direction of wind. The consequences of changes in foundation conditions resulting from the design flood for scour shall be considered at strength and service limit states.. however. 8.

a meteOr0lOgiCal wind characteristic taken as specified in Table 1 (mm) The purpose of the term C and exponent "a" was to adjust the equation for various upstream surface conditions. z (kmlh) VI. Use of this category shall be limited to those areas for which representativeterrain prevails in the upwind direction at least 800 O00 mm. 1976). Possible channeling effects of increased velocity pressures due to the bridge or structure's location in the wake of adjacent structures shall be taken into account. yielding design pressures specified in Articles 3. In the past. a bridge structure should be examined separately under wind pressures from two or more different directions in order to ascertain those windward.8. the design wind velocity. For bridges or parts of bridges more than 10 O00 mm above low ground or water level. o Suburban . leeward.Large city centers with at least 50 percent of the buildings having a height in excess of 21 O00 mm. as specified in Table 1. .1.= height of structure at which wind loads are being calculated as measured from lOW ground. User=. The following descriptions for the terms "open country". z.8. or other terrain with numerous closely spaced obstructions having the size of single-family or larger dwellings. o I 3 . VDz.2 z = v = .Urban and suburban areas. an exponential equation was sometimes used to relate wind speed to heights above 10 O00 mm. City .2 and 3. Equation 1 is based on boundary layer theory combined with empirical observations and represents the most recent approach to defining wind speeds for various conditions as used in meteorology. (C3.Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI) - SPECIFICATIONS direction. > 1O 000 mm friction Velocity. Use of this category shall be limited to those areas for which representativeterrain prevails in the upwind direction at least 500 O00 mm. Further information can be found in Liu (1991) and Simiu (1973.8.1. and "CiVI in Table 1 are paraphrasedf r ~ r rASCE-7-93: i Open Country . O r from water !eve!. This category includes flat open country and grasslands. for various upwind surface characteristics(km/h) friction length of upstream fetch. = base wind Oo0 of I 6 O kmlhat lo mm height. wooded areas.33 -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- COPYRIGHT 2002. Areas that do not contribute to the extreme force effect under consideration may be neglected in the analysis. = wind velocity at 10 O00 mm above low ground or above design water level (krníh) v.Open terrain with scattered obstructions having heights generally less than 10 O00 mm. D = design wind velocity at design elevation. "suburban". This direction shall be vaned to determine the extreme force effect in the structure or in its components. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.should be adjusted according to: COMMENTARY Typically. a meteOrOlOg¡Cal wind characteristic taken. and side pressures producing the most critical loads on the structure.1-1) . This formulation was based solely on empirical observations and had no theoretical basis. where: V. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. similar to the use of Table i.

8.8. .0024 0. The term "columns" in Table 1 refersto columns in SuDerstructures such as spandrel columns in arches.1-1) C3. | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- 3.2 WIND PRESSURE ON STRUCTURES: WS 3. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. ~~~ P = base wind pressure specified in Table 1 (MPa) .3. the assumption that V = V.Base Pressures. may be determined as: 25 600 (3.1.Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI) - SPECIFICATIONS COMMENTARY CONDITION ~ ~~ OPEN COUNTRY 13. Corresponding to V.2. The direction of the design wind shall be assumed to be horizontal. In the absence of more precise data. 0.23~10" MPa. The difference reflects the effect of gusting combined with some tradition of long-time usage. and | || ||| -| || 0 0 In the absence of better criterion.4 Nlmm in the plane of a windward chord and 2. Such testing should be considered where wind is a major design load.8.2. = 160 kmlh ~~ I SUPERSTRUCTURE WINDWARD LEEWARD COMPONENT LOAD. design wind pressure.2.0012 I The total wind loading shall not be taken less than 4.1. in MPa. Table 3. a different base design wind velocity may be selected for load combinations not involving wind on live load.0019 0.2 70 SUBURBAN 17. Wind tunnel tests may be used to provide more precise estimates of wind pressures. P .2. which is significantly less than the values specified in Table 1. User=. The pressures specified in Nlmm or MPa (= Nlmd) should be chosen to produce the greater net wind load on the structure. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.8.1. = 160 km/h.8.1.3 2500 Vo(km/h) Z.0024 0. MPa LOAD. 0 Basic Wind Speed charts available in ASCE 7-88 for various recurrence intervals.2 Nlmm in the plane of a leeward chord on truss and 3-34 COPYRIGHT 2002.1 General If justified by local conditions.1-1 . MPa russes. unless otherwise specified in Article 3. Site-specific wind surveys. Columns.1 The stagnation pressure associated with a wind s velocity of 160 kmlh i 1.1.6 1O00 CITY 19. . (mm) V may be established from: .8.

PE.8.2 For trusses. Table 3. The transverse and longitudinal pressures shall be applied simultaneously.1.1. PE.2. -- | || | || ||| | || I | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- . and not less than 4.4 Nlmm on beam O girder spans. 3-35 O 'O0 'O1 COPYRIGHT 2002. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. columns. this force shall be resolved into components perpendicular to the end and front elevations of the substructure.Sectlon 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI) - SPECIFICATIONS COMMENTARY I arch components. for various angles of wind direction may be taken as specified in Table 1 and shall be applied to a single place of exposed area.0019 MPa.8. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. r 3. and arches. The component perpendicular to the end elevation shall act on the exposed sUbstructure area as seen in end elevation.1.2 Loads from Superstructures Where the wind is not taken as normal to the structure.2. For wind directions taken skewed to the substructure. and the component perpendicular to the front elevation shall act on the exposed areas and shall be applied simultaneously with the wind loads from the superstructure.2.Base Wind Pressures. The skew angle shall be taken as measured from a perpendicular to the longitudinal axis.for Various Angles of Attack and VE= 160 krnihr C3.8.2-1 . the base wind pressures.1.2.8. User=. the base wind pressures specified in Table 1 are the sum of the pressures applied to both the windward and leeward areas.3 Forces Applied Directly to the Substructure The transverse and longitudinal forces to be applied directly to the substructure shall be calculated from an assumed base wind pressure of 0. The wind direction for design shall be that which produces the extreme force effect on the component under investigation. 3.

the roadway and shall be (1.40 in the transmitted to the structure.46 N/mm wind load is based on a long row of Table 1 with the skew angle taken as referenced normal randomly sequenced passenger cars. and trucks exposed to the 90 kmlh design wind.3.3.8. For the purpose of this article.1 GENERAL Aeroelastic force effects shall be taken into account in the design of bridges and structural components apt to be wind-sensitive.1.8. .3-1 . 3. This horizontal live load. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. the design wind pressure are not expected to be present on the bridge when the shall be applied to both structure and vehicles. structure.8.50 O 15 30 45 60 0.1.46 1.35 0. moving force of 1. which has been rounded to 0. shall be considered to be a longitudinal line load. similar to the design lane load. This load is to be applied even to discontinuous bridge decks. should be applied only to the tributary areas producing a force effect of the same kind. and only when the direction of wind is taken to be perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the bridge.8. The load factor pressure on vehicles shall be represented by an interruptable.2 Vertical Wind Pressure C3.Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI) ~ - SPECIFICATIONS 3. applied to the live load may be taken as specified in The 1.3 WIND PRESSURE ON VEHICLES: WL COMMENTARY C3.96 0. and 1800 mm above. 3. a vertical upward wind force of 9 .1..47 0.1.18 0. maximum live loads When vehicles are present. Table 3.2 Unless otherwise determined in Article 3.Wind Components on Live Load O 1. to the surface.8. User=. this article is intentionally kept to a simple 3-36 COPYRIGHT 2002.3.8.3 Aeroelastic Instability The intent of this article is to account for the effect resulting from interruption of the horizontal flow of air by the superstructure.28 1.3 Based on practical experience.44.8.20 0. including parapets and sidewalks. This load factor When wind on vehicles is not taken as normal to the I Strength V Load Combination.3 in Service I. the components o normal and parallel force f corresponds to 0. such as grid decks.46 Nlmm acting normal corresponding to the treatment of wind on structure only in Load Combination Strength III would be (90/160)2 to.8. all C3.8. Wind wind velocity exceeds 90 km/h.1 Because of the complexity of analyses offen necessary for an in-depth evaluation of structural aeroelasticity. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.8.55 | | || ---| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| 3.4) = 0. commercial vans. This lineal force shall be applied at the windward quarter-point of the deck width in conjunction with the horizontal wind loads specified in Article 3. 6 ~ 1 0 ~ times the MPa width of the deck. This load may govern where overturning of the bridge is investigated. This force shall be applied only for limit states that do not involve wind on live load.

Strakes.2 AEROEWSTIC PHENOMENA The aeroelastic phenomena of vortex excitation.8. will not gallop unless their circumferences are deformed by ice. It is important to keep stresses due to vortex-induced oscillations below the "infinite life" fatigue stress. including wind tunnel studies leading to adjustments of the deck form. are available for prevention of both flutter and divergence.37 -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- COPYRIGHT 2002. may require special studies based on wind tunnel information. galloping. Methods exist for estimating such stress amplitudes. an irreversible twist under high wind. dropping water. and structural components thereof with a span length to width or depth ratio exceeding 30. . which tend to excite the component at its fundamental natural frequency in harmonic motion. but they are outside the scope of this commentary.2 times the design wind velocity applicable at bridge deck height. decks.3. shall be designed to be free of fatigue damage due to vortex-induced or galloping oscillations.3. having circular sections.~ S T D . C3. divergence.8.2 Excitation due to vortex shedding is the escape of wind-induced vortices behind the member.8. Galloping is a high-amplitude oscillation associated with ice-laden cables or long. Analysis methods. Such aerodynamic damper plates should lie about one-third tube diameter above or below the tube to allow free passage of wind. COMMENTARY statement.0. as in very long spans and some pedestrian bridges. The vibration of cables due to the interaction of wind and rain shall also be considered. Details of this are part of the existing wind tunnel state of the art and are beyond the scope of this commentary. or.A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 Section 3 Loads and Load Factors ( I S) Ob39804 00485bL 158 - SPECIFICATIONS bridges. The width of the plates may be the diameter of the tube or wider. Many bridges. on some occasions. a somewhat arbitrary value helpful only in identifying likely wind-sensitive cases.3 CONTROL OF DYNAMIC RESPONSES Bridges and structural components thereof. or accumulated debris. or individual structural components have been shown to be aeroelastically insensitive if their length-to-width or length-to-depth ratios are under about 30. Bridges shall be designed to be free of divergence and catastrophic flutter up to 1. and divergence shall be considered where applicable. may be prone to wind-induced flutter. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. flutter.8. Flexible bridges.0 shall be deemed to be wind-sensitive. appropriate wind tunnel tests involve simulation of the wind environment local to the bridge site. such as cable-supported or very long spans of any type. User=. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. Tubular components can be protected against vortex-induced oscillation by adding bracing. flexible members having aerodynamically unsymmetrical cross-sections. Flexible bridge decks. including cables. 3 . 3.3. a wind-excited oscillation of destructive amplitudes. C3.3.3 Cables in stayed-girder bridges have been successfully stabilized against excessive dynamic responses by attaching automotive dampers to the bridge at deck level or by cross-tying multiple cablestays. In general. or tuned mass dampers or by attaching horizontal flat plates parallel to the tube axis above andlor below the central third of their span. 3. Cablestays.

8. Bending. . 3 . where a vertical reaction component acts on the ice floe impinging on a pier with an inclined nose.3. Static pressure due to thermal movements sheets. the direction of its movement. where compressive forces cause a large floe to fail by buckling in front of the nose of a very wide pier. the strength and thickness of the ice. and the geometry of the pier.1 General C3.8. which cannot carry large ice floes. or currents. impact failure can be the controlling mode. where a small floe is brought to a halt by impinging on the nose of the pier before it has crushed over the full-width of the pier. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. review of public records. or other suitable means.38 -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- COPYRIGHT 2002.3.3. The forces imposed by the ice floe on a pier are dependent on the size of the floe. Buckling. A useful additional source has been Neill (1981). which provided background for the clauses on ice loads for Canadian Standards Association (1988). (1984).~~ S T D . Dynamic forces occur when a moving ice floe strikes a bridge pier. aerial surveys. The following types of ice failure have been observed (Montgomery et al. and Static uplift or vertical load resulting from adhering ice in waters of fluctuating level. This reaction causes the floe to rise up the pier nose.3.4 WIND TUNNEL TESTS Representative wind tunnel tests may be used to satisfy the requirements of Articles 3. and the height of its action shall be determined by field investigations. crushing and bending failures usually control the magnitude of the design dynamic ice force. which may be used to study the wind response characteristics of a structural model or to verify the results of analysis (Simiu 1976). as flexural cracks form. wind. Crushing.2 and 3. User=. bent or split. Impact.A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI) SPECIFICATIONS 3. Most of the information for ice loads was taken from Montgomery et al. The crushed ice is continually cleared from a zone around the pier as the floe moves past. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.4 Wind tunnel testing of bridges and other civil engineering structures is a highly developed technology. Ob39804 0048562 094 - COMMENTARY C3.3. o of ice 0 Pressure resulting from hanging dams or jams of ice. 0 0 0 0 For bridge piers of usual proportions on larger bodies of water. Splitting.8. 3. where the ice fails by local crushing across the width of a pier. 1984): 0 o The expected thickness of ice.9 ICE LOADS: IC 3.9. It is convenient to classify ice forces on piers as dynamic forces and static forces.1 Ice forces on piers shall be determined with regard to site conditions and expected modes of ice action as follows: 0 Dynamic pressure due to moving sheets or floes of ice being carried by stream flow. On smaller streams.9.8. where a comparatively small floe strikes a pier and is split into smaller parts by stress cracks propagating from the pier.

S T D . 0. where breakup occurs at melting temperatures and the ice structure is somewhat disintegrated. or hydroelectric plant or other channel where ice predominantly forms only on one side of the river or pier. Effective ice strengths of up to 2. which exerts pressure on the pier and can cause scour around or under piers as water flows at an increased velocity. laboratory measured compressive strengths at 0°C vary from about 2.39 COPYRIGHT 2002. 1984). Ice jams can arch between bridge piers.2.2. the 1. the indication is that the floe is "small. where breakup or major ice movement 5 occurs at melting temperatures. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.38 MPa strength is appropriate for piers where long experience indicates that ice forces are minimal. and 3 .53 MPa strength is considered to be a reasonable upper limit based on the observed history of bridges that have survived ice conditions (Neill 1981). The frazil ice comes typically from rapids or waterfalls upstream. where breakup occurs at melting temperatures and the ice structure is substantially disintegrated. the maximum dynamic effect is approximately equal to the greatest force. it is essential to recognize the effects of resonance between the pier and the ice forces.I MPa. but for lesser damping values there is a considerable amplification.A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL L998 Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI) Ob39804 0048563 T20 - SP ECIFICATIONS COMMENTARY In all three cases." Small is extremely difficult to define and is site-specific.9 MPa for grain sizes 0. but some allowance is required for ice effects.76 MPa have been used in the design of some bridges in Alaska (Haynes 1996).1 It should be noted that the effective ice strengths given herein are for the purpose of entering into a formula to arrive at forces on piers.9.2 Dynamic Ice Forces on Piers 3.9. 1984). the following values may be used for effective ice crushing strength: 0 | | || --- -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| C3.1 EFFECTIVE ICE STRENGTH In the absence of more precise information. Floes up to 23 O00 mm long have been observed to fail by splitting when driven by water velocities of 3000 mm/s (Haynes 1996). Static forces may be caused by the thermal expansion of ice in which a pier is embedded or by irregular growth of the ice field. but it is expected that slender piers and individual piles may have damping values of 5 percent or less. User=. In the discussion of impact-type ice failure above. The breakup ice jam is a more or less cohesionless accumulation of ice fragments (Montgomery et al.77 MPa.38 MPa. but the ice moves in large pieces and is internally sound. Montgomery et al. (1980) have shown that for a massive pier with a damping coefficient of 20 percent of critical. Different formulas might require different effective ice strengths to arrive at the same result. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.9. The hanging dam can cause a backup of water. the 0. 0 0 1. Montgomery and Lipsett (1980) measured damping of a massive pier at 19 percent of critical. Hanging dams are created when frazil ice passes under the surface layer of ice and accumulates under the surface ice at the bridge site. The effective ice strength depends mostly on the temperature and grain size of the ice (Montgomery et al. 3. This has typically been observed downstream of a dam. . For example. As a guide.

of forces on two bridge piers in Alberta (Lipsett and Gerard 1980. cracks. F. 1971.9. The long-term ramifications of these vibrations are not known at this time (Haynes 1996).( + 1)0. but the average ice temperature can still be below 0°C because of an insulating snow cover (Haynes 1996).2. Although no account is taken of the shape of the nose of the pier. It has been reported that an ice floe 60 O00 mm in size will usually fail by crushing if it hits a pier squarely. Some of the most severe ice runs in the United States occur during a rapid January thaw. Thus.2 The expression of F is based on field measurements .9.AASHT0 SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 Section 3 . w/t = 6.ptw Fb = C pf . Because much ice failure is the result of splitting or tensile failure in bending. averaged over its depth.1-1 . see also Huiskamp 1983. then: lesser of either F or. and thus there is not a term in Equations 1 or 2 relating to velocity of the ice.Loads and Load Factors ( I S) SPECIFICATIONS o Ob39804 00485b4 967 W COMMENTARY of 1 mm to 1. but the tensile strength is not sensitive to temperature. the effective ice strengths given herein are not necessarily representative of laboratory tests or actual ice strengths. when the air temperature is about IOOC. laboratory tests at the US.0 .2-4) 3-40 COPYRIGHT 2002. in fact. C3.9.15) c. as shown in Figure C3. and verified by Neill 1976). (3.> 6. it will usually impact the pier and rotate around the pier and pass downstream with only little local crushing. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. are on the order of one-half of observed values (Neill 1981). Pointed angular noses.2-1) (3. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. have been found to cause lateral vibrations of the pier without reducing the streamwise CRREL has measured lateral or torsional force.5 (3. 0 If - W f 6.53 MPa.2.2.3 MPa for grain sizes of 5 mm.9.9. is measurably below the melting point. flexure is considered applicable as described herein. The interaction between an ice floe and a pier depends on the size and strength of the floe and how squarely it strikes the pier. and. = (3. temperature is not a consideration for setting effective ice strengths in these Specifications.0 . resulting from the pressure of moving ice shall be taken as: .2 CRUSHING AND FLEXING The horizontal force. with a Ca proposed by Afanas' Ev et al. when ice failure by . 1.2-2) = . -- t | || W | || ||| | || | |||| || F = | ||||||| | | || --- . where breakup or major ice movement occurs when the ice temperature. User=.5 tan (a . and at -5°C ice strengths are approximately double the values given.4. and because grain sizes. Army Corps of Engineers' Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) have shown the bullet-shaped pier nose can reduce ice forces the most compared to other types of geometry. It is assumed that the force on the pier is governed by the crushing or bending strength of the ice. and other imperfections vary in the field.STD. Gerard (1980).2.2.0 is a rough estimate of the upper limit of w/t at which ice that has failed by bending will be washed around the pier. 3. only crude approximations of ice strengths can be made.2-3) 0.2.9. The compressive strength of the ice depends upon temperature. Thus.2. F and . The expression for F is taken from Lipsett and . vibrations on the pointed nose Yukon River Bridge piers. then: F = for which: Fc = C. If .9. If a floe 30 O00 mm in size does not hit the pier squarely.

8 average lake with snow . . . . Where observations over a long period of time are not available. . thus offsetting the benefits of snow insulation. the maximum recorded value of S. . . . . Nei!l does not define "average. . .1 (MPa) w = pier width at level of ice action (mm) by crushing over the full width of the pier (N) COMMENTARY Ice thickness is the greatest unknown in the determination of ice forces on piers. . in degree days mean daily air temperature ( O C ) 0 where a i 15". relying on local knowledge of the maximum stage is vital to proper design (Haynes 1995). = horizontal ice force caused by ice floes that fail F. . not average. 0. Neill (1981) indicates the following values for "a": windy lakes without snow . .9.4 Due to its good insulating characteristics. . . case F shall be taken as F S.9. . . 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. . . being the algebraic sum.2. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. . The design should be based on the extreme. the preferred method to establish the thickness of ice. (C3.7 average river with snow . 0. is to base it on measurements of maximum thicknesses. 0.~ S T D . . . Z(-T). 3-41 COPYRIGHT 2002. . As a guide. .4-0. . . summed from the date of freeze-up to the date of interest. snow has a significant effect on ice growth. . ice failure by flexure shall not be considered to be a possible ice failure mode for the purpose of calculating the horizontal force. .2-0. . . . . at the potential bridge sites. ." and it has been noted by Gerard and Stanely (I that deep snow can 992) produce snow-ice. . .5-0. . t. . = horizontal ice force caused by ice floes that fail by flexure as they ride up the inclined pier nose (N) Ca = coefficient accounting for the effect of the pier width/ice thickness ratio where the floe fails by crushing coefficient accounting for the inclination of the pier nose with respect to a vertical line = a coefficient for local conditions. . . Equations can be used for estimating ice thickness. can be determined. . . . . Because ice stage increases during an ice run. . . taken over a period of several years. One possible method of determining "a" is by simple calibration in which. . normally less than 1. For the purpose of design.. .5 sheltered small river with snow . . F. the ice thickness can be measured at various times and plotted against JS. . . an empirical method based on Neill (1981) is suggested as follows: a = P = effective ice crushing strength as specified in F. . . . The elevation on the pier where the design force shall be applied is important for calculating the overturning moments.o freezing index. . .2-1) | | || --- . through the course of a single winter. . . Williams (1963) has shown that a snow cover greater than 150 mm in thickness has the effect of reducing "a" by as much as 50 percent.A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI) - 1998 Ob39804 0048565 8T3 m SPECIFICATIONS where: t = thickness of ice (mm) inclination of the nose to the vertical (DEG) Article 3. . . . . . . . . . = T = Assuming that temperature records are available. User=. . . -- | || | || ||| C" = = | || where: | |||| || | ||||||| t 34a$T. . . . . ice thickness. in which . 0.2.

.2.2. (1984).3 SMALL STREAMS On small streams not conducive to the formation of large ice floes. Islands. This results in fewer degree-days of freezing and. Another important factor that determines the ice floe size are the type of features in the river upstream of the site. smaller ice thicknesses. which leads to a later freeze-up date.9. as determined in Article 3. The elevation required is that at breakup. but the most common method in general use is probably to rely on local knowledge and examination of the river banks to determine the extent of damage by ice. dynamic ice forces. It is considered insufficiently verified to be included herein.2. C3. 3.2. and bridge piers can break ice into small floes. with a width of less than 90 O00 mm at the mean water level.2. for which a theory is given by Montgomery et al. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.9. and F.. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.9. consideration may be given to reducing the forces F.3-1 Reduction Factor K.9. 3-42 COPYRIGHT 2002. On small streams. but under no circumstances shall the forces be reduced by more than 50 percent.STDmAASHTO SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL Section 3 .is that the bridge may be struck only by small ice floes with insufficient momentum to cause failure of the floe.2. User=. may be reduced in accordance with Table CI. where: A = plan area of the largest ice floe in (mm’) r = radius of pier nose (mm) Table C3. -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- .Loads and Load Factors ( I S) SPECIFICATIONS 1778 Ob39804 00485bb 73T 9 COMMENTARY Large lakes take longer to cool down. determined in accordance with Article 3. such as the marking or removal of trees.2. not at the mean winter level.3 CANESA-S6-88 has an expression for ice forces in small streams. for Small Streams - The rationale for the reduction factor. K.9. hence. Neill (1981) suggests several methods of determining ice elevations. dams. The remaining decision is to establish the appropriate elevation of the ice force to be applied to the pier.

User=. The expression for F. determined as specified in Articles 3.9. two design cases shall be investigated as follows: 0 C3. 3. 0 The transverse force. C3.9.2.2.5 it has been shown by Montgomery et al.9.2.Transverse Ice Force Where a Floe Fails Over a Portion of a Pier C3.2. -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| 3. Under such conditions.1 It would be unrealistic to expect the ice force to be exactly parallel to the pier.9.9.1-1 .2.4.2. 15F.2. or A longitudinal force of 0. In this case.A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL L998 Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI) - Ob39804 00485b7 b 7 b COMMENTARY SPECIFICATIONS 3.. Where the longitudinal axis of a pier is not parallel to the principal direction of ice action.4.1 Piers Parallel to Flow The force F. unless advice on ice1structure interaction has been obtained from an ice specialist. including piles that come into contact with water-borne ice. In this case. the total force on the pier shall be determined on the basis of the projected pier width and resolved into components.1-1) where: ß = nose angle in a horizontal plane for a round nose taken as 1O0 (DEG) friction angle between ice and pier nose (DEG) Figure C3. or where the direction of ice action may shift. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.9.9. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. and is explained in Figure C1 taken from the same source.2. (1980) and others that flexible piers and pier components may experience considerable amplification of the ice forces as a result of resonant ice/structure interaction at low levels of structural damping.4.4 COMBINATION OF LONGITUDINAL AND TRANSVERSE FORCES 3. A longitudinal force equal to F shall be combined with a transverse force of O.4.9.= F 2 tan(ß12 + û f ) (3.9. shall be taken to act along the longitudinal axis of the pier if the ice movement has only one direction and the pier is approximately aligned with that direction.9.2. 3-43 COPYRIGHT 2002.2 and 3. shall be taken as: f.5 may be inadequate for vertical forces on piers. = Both the longitudinal and transverse forces shall be assumed to act at the pier nose.2 The provisions for piers skewed to flow are taken from CANESA-S6-88 (1988). forces transverse to the longitudinal axis of the pier shall be taken to be at least 20 percent of the total force.3.4.4. so a minimum lateral component of 15 percent of the longitudinal force is specified.9.used in regions where ice forces are significant.S T D . (1984).9.5 SLENDER AND FLEXIBLE PIERS Slender and flexible piers shall not be .2. F. comes from Montgomery et al. 0.2. the provisions of Article 3. This provision also applies to slender and flexible components of piers.2 Piers Skewed to Flow | | || --- ..5F shall be combined with a transverse force of F.

S T D - A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998
Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI)

-

Ob39804 00485b8 502

SPECIFICATIONS
3.9.3 Static Ice Loads on Piers

COMMENTARY
c3.9.3

Ice pressures on piers frozen into ice sheets shall be investigated where the ice sheets are subject to significant thermal movements relative to the pier where the growth of shore ice is on one side only or in other situations that may produce substantial unbalanced forces on the pier.

Little guidance is available for predicting static ice loads on piers. Under normal circumstances, the effects of static ice forces on piers may be strain-limited, but expert advice should be sought if there is reason for concern. Static ice forces due to thermal expansion of ice are discussed in Haynes (1995). Ice force can be reduced by several mitigating factors that usually apply. For example, ice does not act simultaneously over the full length of the pier. Thermal stresses relax in time and prevent high stresses over the full ice thickness. A snow cover on the ice insulates the ice and reduces the thermal stresses, and ice usually acts simultaneously on both sides of the pier surrounded by the ice so that the resultant force is considerably less than the larger directional force, ¡.e., force on one side of the pier. Article C3.9.1 contains additional discussion.
c3.9.4

3.9.4 Hanging Dams and Ice Jams

The frazil accumulation in a hanging dam may be taken to exert a pressure of 0.0096 to 0.096 MPa as it moves by the pier. An ice jam may be taken to exert a 1 pressure of 0.96~1 to 9 . 6 ~OV3MPa.
3.9.5 Vertical Forces due to Ice Adhesion

The theory behind the ice pressures given for hanging dams can be found in Montgomery et al. (1984). The wide spread of pressures quoted reflects both the variability of the ice and the lack of firm information on the subject.
c3.9.5

The vertical force, in N, on a bridge pier due to rapid water level fluctuation shall be taken as: For a circular pier

Equation 1 was derived by considering the failure of a semi-infinite, wedge-shaped ice sheet on an elastic foundation under vertical load applied at its apex. For a single ice wedge, the maximum vertical force, P, can be evaluated from the expression (Nevel 1972).

in which: í = ( 2 . 5 10-3)t’.25 + 1.25t2 , ~ L
0.25

(3.9.5-2) where: t

=[
= 87.7

(C3.9.5-2)

t

= ice thickness (mm)
radius of circular pier (mm); or radius of half circles at ends of an oblong pier (mm); or radius of a circle that circumscribes each end of an oblong pier of which the ends are not circular in plan at water level (mm)

where:

R =

uT =
t

tensile strength of ice (MPa)

= maximum thickness of ice (mm) = angle of the truncated wedge (DEG)
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6

3-44
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STD.AASHT0 SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL I1998
Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI)

-

Ob39804 OOV8569 449
COMMENTARY a =

a

SPECIFICATIONS

L = perimeter of pier, excluding half circles at ends
of oblong pier (mm)

truncated distance, which is assumed to be equal to he radius of a circular pier (mm) characteristic length expression (mm) calculated from the

P

=

E = Young's modulus for ice (MPa)
y

=

unit density of water (kg/m3)

g

= acceleration due to gravity (m/s2)

To obtain Equation I, vertical force is summed the for four wedges, each with a truncated angle of 90". It is assumed that the tensile strength of ice is 0.84 times an effective crushing strength of I. MPa and that the ratio 1 of the truncated distance to the characteristic length, aie, is less than 0.6. Equation 2 is the sum of two expressions:
0

Equation 1, which accounts for the vertical ice forces acting on the half circles at the ends of an oblong pier, and An expression that calculates the vertical ice forces on the straight walls of the pier. The expression for calculating the vertical ice forces

0

3.9.6 Ice Accretion Superstructures

Generally snow loads, other than those caused by an avalanche, need not be considered. However, Owners in areas where unique accumulations of snow andlor ice are possible should specify appropriate loads for that condition. Loads due to icing of the superstructure by freezing rain shall be specified if local conditions so warrant.

COPYRIGHT 2002; American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office

-| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || ---

.on the long straight walls of the pier was derived by

considering a semi-infinite, rectangular ice sheet on an elastic foundation under a uniformly distributed edge load. The force required to fail the ice sheet, F, can be expressed as F = 0.236 oTt2/e (Montgomery et al. 1984). Equations I and 2 are based on the conservative assumption that ice adheres around the full perimeter of the pier cross-section. They neglect creep and are, therefore, conservative for water level fluctuations occurring over more than a few minutes. However, they are also based on the nonconservative assumption that failure occurs on the formation of the first crack. Some issiies surrounding ice forces have been reported in Zabilansky (1996).
C3.9.6

and

Snow

Loads

on

The following discussion of snow loads is taken from Ritter (1990). Snow loads should be considered where a bridge is located in an area of potentially heavy snowfall. This can occur at high elevations in mountainous areas with large seasonal accumulations. Snow loads are normally negligible in areas of the United States that are below 600 O00 mm elevation and east of longitude 105"W, or below 300 O00 mm elevation and west of longitude

3-45
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Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI)
S PECIFICATIONS

-

STDmAASHTO SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL

1798

Ob37804 0048570 L b O

COMMENTARY 105"W. In other areas of the country, snow loads as large as 0.034 MPa may be encountered in mountainous locations. The effects of snow are assumed to be offset by an accompanying decrease in vehicle live load. This assumption is valid for most structures, but is not realistic in areas where snowfall is significant. When prolonged winter closure of a road makes snow removal impossible, the magnitude of snow loads may exceed those from vehicular live loads. Loads also may be notable where plowed snow is stockpiled or otherwise allowed to accumulate. The applicability and magnitude of snow loads are left to the Designer's judgment. Snow loads vary from year to year and depend on the depth and density of snow pack. The depth used for design should be based on a mean recurrence interval or the maximum recorded depth. Density is based on the degree of compaction. The lightest accumulation is produced by fresh snow falling at cold temperatures. Density increases when the snow pack is subjected to freeze-thaw cycles or rain. Probable densities for several snow pack conditions are indicated in Table C I (ASCE 1980).

CONDITION OF SNOW PACK Freshly Fallen Accumulated Compacted Rain or Snow

PROBABLE DENSITY (kg/m3) 96 300
500 500

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3-46

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Estimated snow load can be determined from historical records or other reliable data. General information on ground snow loads is available from the National Weather Service, from state and local agencies, and ASCE (1988). Snow loads in mountain areas are subject to extreme variations. The extent of these loads should be determined on the basis of local experience or records, instead of on generalized information. The effect of snow loads on a bridge structure is influenced by the pattern of snow accumulation. Windblown snow drifts may produce unbalanced loads considerably greater than those produced from uniformly distributed loads. Drifting is influenced by the terrain, structure shape, and other features that cause changes in the general wind flow. Bridge components, such as railings, can serve to contain drifting snow and cause large accumulations to develop.

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STD.AASHT0 SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 3998 9 Ob39604 0048573 O T 7 W
Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI)

-

SPECIFICATIONS
3.10 EARTHQUAKE EFFECTS: EQ

COMMENTARY

3.10.1 General

C3.10.1

Earthquake loads shall be taken to be horizontal force effects determined in accordance with the provisions of Article 4.7.4 on the basis of the elastic response coefficient, C specified in Article 3.10.6, and ,, the equivalent weight of the superstructure, and adjusted by the response modification factor, RI specified in Article 3.10.7.1. The provisions herein shall apply to bridges of conventional slab, beam girder, box girder, and truss superstructure construction with spans not exceeding 150 O00 mm. For other types of construction and bridges with spans exceeding 150 O00 mm, the Owner shall specify and/or approve appropriate provisions. Unless otherwise specified by the Owner, these provisions need not be applied to completely buried structures. Seismic effects for box culverts and buried structures need not be considered, except where they cross active faults. The potential for soil liquefaction and slope movements shall be considered.
-| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || ---

Earthquake loads are given by the product of the elastic seismic response coefficient C , and the equivalent weight of the superstructure. The equivalent weight is a function of the actual weight and bridge configuration and is automatically included in both the single-mode and multimode methods of analysis specified in Article 4.7.4. These Specifications establish design and detailing provisions for bridges to minimize their susceptibility to damage from earthquakes. A flow chart summarizing the earthquake design provisions is presented in the appendix to this section. The design earthquake motions and forces specified herein are based on a low probability of their being exceeded during the normal life expectancy of a bridge. Bridges that are designed and detailed in accordance with the provisions of these Specifications may suffer damage, but should have low probability of collapse due to seismically induced ground shaking. The principles used for the development of these Specifications are:
o

Small to moderate earthquakes should be resisted within the elastic range of the structural components without significant damage. Realistic seismic ground motion intensities and forces should be used in the design procedures. Exposure to shaking from large earthquakes should not cause collapse of all or part of the bridge. Where possible, damage that does occur should be readily detectable and accessible for inspection and repair.

0

0

3.10.2 Acceleration Coefficient

C3.10.2

The coefficient, “A‘, to be used in the application of these provisions shall be determined from the contour maps in Figures 1, 2, and 3. Linear interpolation shall be used for sites located between contour lines or between a contour line and a local maximum or minimum. Special studies to determine site- and structurespecific acceleration coefficients shall be performed by a qualified professional if any one of the following conditions exist:
0

The site is located close to an active fault. Long-duration earthquakes are expected in the region.

o

Values given in these figures are expressed in percent. Numerical values for the Coefficient A are obtained by dividing contour values by 100. Local maxima and minima are given inside the highest and lowest contour for a particular region. The maps used in these Specifications to define the acceleration coefficient are based on a uniform risk model of seismic hazard. The probability that the coefficient will not be exceeded at a given location during a 50-year period is estimated to be about 90 percent, ¡.e., a 10 percent probability of exceedance. The use of a 50-year interval to characterize this probability is an arbitrary convenience and does not imply that all bridges are thought to have a useful life of 50 years.

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S T D - A A S H T O S R C H LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998
Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI)

-

= Ob39804

0048572 T33

SPECIFICATIONS
o

COMMENTARY It can be shown that an event with the above probability of nonexceedance has a return period of about 475 years and is called the design earthquake. Larger earthquakes than those implied by the above acceleration coefficients have a finite probability of occurrence throughout the United States. Those with a return period of around 2500 years are sometimes called maximum probable earthquakes. It can also be shown that if the time interval is lengthened to, say, 75 years, the probability of exceeding an earthquake with a return period of 475 years increases to about 15 percent.
| | || ---

The importance of the bridge is such that a longer exposure period (and, therefore, return period) should be considered.

The effect of soil conditions at the site are considered in Article 3.10.5.

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STD-AASHTO SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL
Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI)

-

1998

Ob39804 0048573 97T

0

100
200

300

400

KILOMETERS

Figure 3.10.2-1 Acceleration Coefficient for Contiguous States Generally West of the 95'h Longitude -

3 -49
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S T D - A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998
Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI)
I I

-

= Ob39804 00'48574 8 O b
~

95

as

l 75

65

1

o

Figure 3.10.2-2 -Acceleration Coefficient for Contiguous States Generally East of the 95thLongitude

COPYRIGHT 2002; American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office

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STD.AASHT0 SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998
Section 3 Loads and Load Factors ( i S)

-

Ob39804 0048575 742

S PECIFICATIONS

COMMENTARY

KAUAI

KILOMETERS

o

u O

KILOMETERS

PUERTO RICO
O

25
60
75
KILOMETERS

Figure 3.10.2-3 - Acceleration Coefficient for Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico
3.10.3 Importance Categories C3.10.3

For the purpose of Article 3.1O, the Owner or those having jurisdiction shall classify the bridge into one of three importance categories as follows:
0

Critical bridges, Essential bridges, or Other bridges.

0

Essential bridges are generally those that should, as a minimum, be open to emergency vehicles and for security/defense purposes immediately after the design earthquake, ¡.e., a 475-year return period event. However, some bridges must remain open to all traffic after the design earthquake and be usable by emergency vehicles and for security/defense purposes immediately after a large earthquake, e.g., a 2500 year return period event. These bridges should be regarded as critical structures.

The basis of classification shall include social/survival and security/defense requirements. In classifying a bridge, consideration should be given to possible future changes in conditions and requirements.
3.10.4 Seismic Performance Zones C3.10.4

Each bridge shall be assigned to one of the four seismic zones in accordance with Table 1.

These seismic zones reflect the variation in seismic risk across the country and are used to permit different requirements for methods of analysis, minimum support lengths, column design details, and foundation and abutment design procedures.

3 - 51
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S T D - A A S H T O S R C H LRFD-SI-ENGL 3978 M Ob39804 004857b b89 Section 3 - Loads and Load Factors ( I S)
SPECIFICATIONS Table 3.10.4-1 - Seismic Zones
| || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || ---| ||

COMMENTARY

A

5

0.09

1
2

0.09 C A < 0.19 0.19 < A 0.29
2

0.29

3

A

4

3.10.5 Site Effects
3.10.5.1 GENERAL Site effects shall be included in the determination of seismic loads for bridges. The site coefficient, S, specified in Table 1, shall be based upon soil profile types defined in Articles 3.10.5.2 through 3.10.5.5. C3.10.5.1 Site effects on structural response are due to the soil conditions. Four soil profiles are used in these Specifications to define a site coefficient used to modify the acceleration coefficient. These soil profiles are representative of different subsurface conditions, which were selected on the basis of a statistical study of spectral shapes developed on such soils close to seismic source zones in past earthquakes. The site coefficient, S, is used to include the effect of site conditions on the elastic seismic response coefficient as specified in Article 3.10.6.

1
0

Table 3.10.5.1-1 Site Coefficients

Co:Eient

S

i l m
1.0 1.2

1.5

2.0

In locations where the soil properties are not known in sufficient detail to determine the soil profile type, or where the profile does not fit any of the four types, the site coefficient for Soil Profile Type II shall be used. 3.10.5.2 SOIL PROFILE TYPE I A profile shall be taken as Type I if composed of: Rock of any description, either shale-like or crystalline in nature, or Stiff soils where the soil depth is less than 60 O00 mm, and the soil types overlying the rock are stable deposits of sands, gravels, or stiff clays.

The decision to specify Type II as a default site coefficient was a committee decision based on judgment during the development of the parent provisions under Project ATC-6. C3.10.5.2 These materials may be characterized by a shear wave velocity greater than 765 m/s.

o

3.10.5.3 SOIL PROFILE TYPE II A profile with stiff cohesive or deep cohesionless soils where the soil depth exceeds 60 O00 mm and the soil types overlying the rock are stable deposits of sands, gravels, or stiff clays shall be taken as Type II.

3 52
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STD-AASHTO SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL
Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI)

-

1998

9 Ob37804 0048577 515

SPECIFICATIONS 3.10.5.4 SOIL PROFILE TYPE III A profile with soft to medium-stiff clays and sands, characterized by 9000 mm or more of soft to mediumstiff clays with or without intervening layers of sand or other cohesionless soils shall be taken as Type III. 3.10.5.5 SOIL PROFILE TYPE IV A profile with soft clays or silts greater than 12 O00 mm in depth shall be taken as Type IV.

COMMENTARY

C3.10.5.5 These materials may be characterized by a shear wave velocity of less than 152 m/s and might include loose natural deposits or manmade, nonengineered fill.

3.10.6 Elastic Seismic Response Coefficient
3.10.6.1 GENERAL Unless specified otherwise in Article 3.10.6.2, the elastic seismic response coefficient, C ,, for the m* mode of vibration shall be taken as: C3.10.6.1 The elastic seismic response coefficient may be normalized using the input ground acceleration "A"and the result plotted against the period of vibration. Such a plot is given in Figure C I for different soil profiles, based on 5 percent damping.
z =3
NOTE: MITTE0 UNE SHOWS FORM OF COEFFICIENT FOR SML TYPE 111 WHEN AU, IS LESS T W 0.3

(3.10.6.1-1)
'm
SOIL PROFILE TYPE IV SOIL PROFILE TYPE 111 SOIL PROFILE TYPE II

where: T , A S

=

period of vibration of the m* mode (s)

= acceleration coefficient specified in Article 3.10.2
=
site coefficient specified in Article 3.10.5
I
O 0.0
I
| | || ---| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | |||||||

The determination of the period of vibration, T , should be based on the nominal, unfactored mass of the component or structure.

0.5

I.o

1.5
PERIOD - SECONDS

2.0

2.5

3.0

Figure C3.10.6.1-I - Seismic Response Coefficients for Various Soil Profiles, Normalized with Respect to Acceleration Coefficient "A8 An earthquake may excite several modes of vibration in a bridge and, therefore, the elastic response coefficient should be found for each relevant mode. The discussion of the single-mode method in the commentary to Article 4.7.4.3.2 is used to illustrate the relation between period, C ,,, and quasi-static seismic forces, P,(x). The structure is analyzed for these seismic forces in the single-mode method. In the multimode method, the structure is analyzed for several seismic forces, each corresponding to the period and mode shape of one of the fundamental modes of vibration, and the results are combined using acceptable methods, such as the root-mean-square method. 3 53
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STDmAASHTO SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL
Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI)

1998

-

Ob37804 0048578 4 5 1

SPECIFICATIONS 3.10.6.2 EXCEPTIONS For bridges on soil profiles 111 or IV and in areas ,, where the coefficient "A" is not less than 0.30, C need not exceed 2.0A. For soil profiles III and IV, and for modes other than the fundamental mode that have periods less than 0.3 s, C shall be taken as: ,

COMMENTARY

C, = A (0.8+ 4.0 T, ) ,

(3.10.6.2-1)

If the period of vibration for any mode exceeds 4.0 s, the value of C for that mode shall be taken as: ,

(3.10.6.2-2)

3.10.7 Response Modification Factors
3.10.7.1 GENERAL C3.10.7.1 These Specifications recognize that it is uneconomical to design a bridge to resist large earthquakes elastically. Columns are assumed to deform inelastically where seismic forces exceed their design level, which is established by dividing the elastically computed force effects by the appropriate Rfactor. R-factors for connections are smaller than those for substructure members in order to preserve the integrity of the bridge under these extreme loads. For expansion joints within the superstructure and connections between the superstructure and abutment, the application of the "R" factor results in force effect magnification. Connections that transfer forces from one part of a structure to another include, but are not limited to, fixed bearings and shear keys. For onedirectional bearings, these R-factors are used in the restrained direction only. In general, forces determined on the basis of plastic hinging will be less than those given by using Table 2, resulting in a more economical design.

To apply the response modification factors specified herein, the structural details shall satisfy the provisions of Articles 5.10.2.2, 5.10.11, and 5.13.4.6. Except as noted herein, seismic design force effects for substructures and the connections between parts of structures, listed in Table 2, shall be determined by dividing the force effects resulting from elastic analysis by the appropriate response modification factor, R, as specified in Tables 1 and 2, respectively. As an alternative to the use of the R-factors, specified in Table 2 for connections, monolithic joints between structural members and/or structures, such as a column-to-footing connection, may be designed to transmit the maximum force effects that can be developed by the inelastic hinging of the column or multicolumn bent they connect as specified in Article 3.10.9.4.3. If an inelastic time history method of analysis is used, the response modification factor, R, shall be taken as 1.O for all substructure and connections.

3 - 54
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S T D - A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1778 m Ob37804 0057li7b
Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI)

-

5T7

m

SPECIFICATIONS Table 3.10.7.1-1 - Response Modification Factors Substructures

COMMENTARY

-

Substructure Wall-type piers - larger
dimension

Reinforced concrete pile bents 0 Vertical piles only With batter piles Single columns Steel or composite steel and concrete pile bents 0 Vertical pile only 0 With batter piles

1.5 1.5
I .5

2.0 1.5
2.0

3.0 2.0 3.0

1.5 1.5 I .5

3.5 2.0

5.0 3.0

11

Multiple column bents

3.5

5.0

Table 3.10.7.1-2 - Response Modification Factors Connections

Connection Superstructure to abutment Expansionjoints within a span of the superstructure Columns, piers, or pile bents to cap beam or superstructure Columns or piers to foundations

R
All Importance Cate ories
1.o

C3.10.7.2 Seismic loads shall be assumed to act in any lateral direction. The appropriate R-factor shall be used for both orthogonal axes of the substructure. A wall-type concrete pier may be analyzed as a single column in the weak direction if all the provisions for columns, as specified in Section 5, are satisfied. Usually the orthogonal axes will be the longitudinal and transverse axes of the bridge. In the case of a curved bridge, the longitudinal axis may be the chord joining the two abutments. Wall-type piers may be treated as wide columns in the strong direction, provided the appropriate R-factor in this direction is used.

3 - 55

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STD.AASHT0

SRCH L R F D - S I - E N G L

1978

Ob39804 0 0 5 7 Y 9 7 4 3 3

Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI) SPECIFICATIONS 3.10.8 Combination of Seismic Force Effects The elastic seismic force effects on each of the principal axes of a component resulting from analyses in the two perpendicular directions shall be combined to form two load cases as follows:
0

-

COMMENTARY

I

C3.10.8

100 percent of the absolute value of the force effects in one of the perpendicular directions combined with 30 percent of the absolute value of the force effects in the second perpendicular direction, and
I percent of the absolute value of the force effects O0 in the second perpendicular direction combined with 30 percent of the absolute value of the force effects in the first perpendicular direction.

I I I I l I
I I I I I I I I

I

I

The exception to these load combinations Where foundation andlor column connection I forces are determined from plastic hinging of the I indicated at the end of this section should also apply columns specified in Article 3.10.9.4.3, the resulting I to bridges in Zone 2 where foundation forces are force effects may be determined without consideration I determined from plastic hinging of the columns. of combined load cases specified herein. For the purpose of this provision, "column connection forces" shall be taken as the shear and moment, computed on the basis of plastic hinging. The axial load shall be taken as that resulting from the appropriate load combination with the axial load, if any, associated with plastic hinging taken as "EQ". If a pier is designed as a column as specified in Article 3.1 0.7.2, this exception shall be taken to apply for the weak direction of the pier where force effects resulting from plastic hinging are used; the combination load cases specified must be used for the strong direction of the pier. 3.10.9 Calculation of Design Forces 3.10.9.1 GENERAL For single-span bridges, regardless of seismic zone, C3.10.9.1 This article refers to superstructure effects carried into substructure. Abutments on multispan bridges, but not single-span bridges, and retaining walls are subject to acceleration-augmented soil pressures as specified in Articles 3.1 1.4 and 11.6.5. Wingwalls on single-span structures are not fully covered at this time, and the Engineer should use judgment in this area.

the minimum design connection force effect in the
restrained direction between the superstructure and the substructure shall not be less than the product of the site coefficient, the acceleration coefficient, and the tributary permanent load. Seat widths at expansion bearings of multispan bridges shall either comply with Article 4.7.4.4 or longitudinal restrainers complying with Article 3.10.9.5 shall be provided. 3.10.9.2 SEISMIC ZONE 1 For bridges on sites in Zone 1 where the acceleration coefficient is less than 0.025 and the soil profile is either Type I or Type II, the horizontal design

C3.10.9.2 These provisions arise because, as specified in Article 4.7.4, seismic analysis for bridges in Zone 1 is not generally required. These default values are used as

3 - 56

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S T D = A A S H T O SRCH L R F D - S I - E N G L Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI)

1778

-

m

Ob37804 0057478 3 7 T

m

SPECIFICATIONS connection force in the restrained directions shall not be taken to be less than 0.1 times the vertical reaction due to the tributary permanent load and the tributary live loads assumed to exist during an earthquake. For all other sites in Zone 1, the horizontal design connection force in the restrained directions shall not be taken to be less than 0.2 times the vertical reaction due to the tributary permanent load and the tributary live loads assumed to exist during an earthquake. For each uninterruptedsegment of a superstructure, the tributary permanent load at the line of fixed bearings, used to determine the longitudinal connection design force, shall be the total permanent load of the segment. If each bearing supporting an uninterruptedsegment or simply-supported span is restrained in the transverse direction, the tributary permanent load used to determine the connection design force shall be the permanent load reaction at that bearing. Each elastomeric bearing and its connection to the masonry and sole plates shall be designed to resist the horizontal seismic design forces transmitted through the bearing. For all bridges in Seismic Zone 1 and all singlespan bridges, these seismic shear forces shall not be less than the connectionforce specified herein. 3.10.9.3 SEISMIC ZONE 2

COMMENTARY minimum design forces in lieu of rigorous analysis. The division of Zone 1 at an acceleration coefficient 0.025 for sites with favorable soil condition is an arbitrary expedience intended to provide some relief to parts of the country with very low seismicity. If each bearing supporting a continuous segment or simply supported span is an elastomeric bearing, there are no restrained directions due to the flexibility of the bearings. The magnitude of live load assumed to exist at the time of the earthquake should be consistent with the value of yeqused in conjunction with Table 3.4.1-1.

I I Structures in Seismic Zone 2 shall be analyzed I according to the minimum requirements specified in I Articles 4.7.4.1 and 4.7.4.3. I Except for foundations, seismic design forces for all I components, including pile bents and retaining walls, I shall be determined by dividing the elastic seismic I forces, obtained from Article 3.10.8, by the appropriate I response modification factor, R, specified in Table I 3.10.7.1-1. Seismic design forces for foundations, other than pile I bents and retaining walls, shall be determined by dividing I elastic seismic forces, obtained from Article 3.10.8,by I half of the response modification factor, R, from Table I 3.10.7.1-1, for the substructure component to which it is I attached. The value of W2 shall not be taken as less I than 1.0. I Where a group load other than EXTREME EVENT I, I specified in 3.4.1-1, governs the design of columns, the I

This Article specifies the design forces for foundations which include the footings, pile caps and piles. The design forces are essentially twice the seismic design forces of the columns. This will generally be conservative and was adopted to simplify the design procedure for bridges in Zone 2. However, if seismic forces do not govern the design of columns and piers there is a possibility that during an earthquake the foundations will be subjectedto forces larger than the design forces. For example, this may occur due to unintended column overstrengthswhich may exceed the capacity of the foundations. An estimate of this effect may be found by using overstrength factors of 1.3 for reinforced concrete columns and 1.25 for steel columns. It is also possible that even in cases when seismic loads govern the column design, the columns may have insufficient shear strength to enable a ductile flexural mechanism possibility that seismic forces transferred to the I foundations may be larger than those calculated using I to develop, but instead allow a brittle shear failure to the procedure specified above, due to possible I occur. Again, this situation is due to potential overstrength of the columns, shall be considered. I overstrength in the flexural capacity of columns and I could possibly be prevented by arbitrarily increasing I the column design shear by the overstrength factor I cited above. Conservatism in the design, and in some cases l underdesign, of foundations and columns in Zone 2 I I based on the simplified procedure of this article has I been widely debated (Gajer and Wagh 1994). In light of I the above discussion, it is recommended that for 3-57

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C3.10.9.3

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STDmAASHTO S R C H LRFD-SI-ENGL 1778
Section 3 - Loads and Load Factors (SI) SPECIFICATIONS

Ob39804 0057477 20b

COMMENTARY

I I I I I
3.10.9.4 SEISMIC ZONES 3 AND 4

critical or essential bridges in Zone 2 consideration should be given to the use of the forces specified in Article 3.10.9.4.3f for foundations in Zone 3 and Zone 4. Ultimate soil and pile strengths are to be used with the specified foundation seismic design forces.

I

I I I I I I 0 the provisions of Article 3.10.9.4.3, I I for all components of a column, column bent and its
foundation and connections. 3.10.9.4.2 Modified Design Forces Modified design forces shall be determined as specified in Article 3.10.9.3, except that for foundations the R-factor shall be taken as 1.O.

I I Structures in Seismic Zones 3 and 4 shall be I analyzed according to the minimum requirements I specified in Articles 4.7.4.1 and 4.7.4.3. I The design forces of each component shall be I taken as the lesser o those determined using: f 1 I 0 the provisions of Article 3.10.9.4.2; or I I
3.10.9.4.1 General

C3.10.9.4.1

In general, the design forces resulting from an Rfactor and inelastic hinging analysis will be less than thosefrom an elastic analysis. However, in the case of architecturally oversized column(s), the forces from an inelastic hinging analysis may exceed the elastic forces in which case the elastic forces may be used for that column, column bent and its connections and foundations.

C3.10.9.4.2 Acceptable damage is restricted to inelastic hinges in the columns. The foundations should, therefore, remain in their elastic range. Hence the value for the R-factor is taken as 1.0.

I 3.10.9.4.3 Inelastic Hinging Forces

I I I l I I I I I I

I

I

I I I

l I I I I I

By virtue of Article 3.10.9.4.2, alternative conservative design forces are specified if plastic hinging is not invoked as a basis for seismic design. be calculated after the preliminary design of the I In most cases, the maximum force effects on the columns has been completed utilizing the modified I foundation will be limited by the extreme horizontal design forces specified in Article 3.10.9.4.2 as the I force that a column is capable of developing. In these seismic loads. The consequential forces resulting I circumstances, the use of a lower force, lower than from plastic hinging shall then be used fordetermining I that specified in Article 3.10.9.4.2, is justified and design forces for most components as identified I should result in a more economic foundation design. See also Appendix B3. herein. The procedures for calculating these I consequential forces for single column and pier supports and bents with two or more columns shall be taken as specified in the following articles. Inelastic hinges shall be ascertained to form before any other failure due to overstress or instability In the structure andlor in the foundation. Inelastic hinges shall only be permitted at locations in columns where they can be readily Inspected andlor repaired. Inelastic flexural resistance of substructure
-| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || ---

I I Where inelastic hinging is invoked as a basis for I seismic design, the force effects resulting from plastic 1 hinging at the top andlor bottom of the column shall I
3.10.9.4.3a General

C3.10.9.4.3a

3 - 58

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S T D - A A S H T O S R C H LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998
Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI) SPECIFICATIONS

Ob37809 OU575UU AS8 9

-

COMMENTARY

I I I I I l I

I

I C3.10.9.4.3b I 3.70.9.4.36 Single Columns and fiers I Force effects shall be determined for the two I I principal axes of a column and in the weak direction of I a pier or bent as follows: I I I I l I I l I I I I I I I I I I I l I I I l I I I I I I I I I
Step 1 Determine the column overstrength moment resistance. Use a resistance factor, I$ of 1.3 for reinforced concrete columns and 1.25 for structural steel columns. For both materials, the applied axial load in the column shall be determined using Extreme Event Load Combination I with the maximum elastic column , axial load from the seismic forces determined in accordance with Article 3.10.8 taken as "EQ". Step 2 Using the column overstrength moment resistance, calculate the corresponding column shear force. For flared columns, this calculation shall be performed using the overstrength resistances at both the top and bottom of the flare in conjunctionwith the appropriate column height. If the foundation of a column is significantly below ground level, consideration should be given to the possibility of the plastic hinge forming above the foundation. Ifthis can occur, the column length between plastic hinges shall be used to calculate the column shear force. Force effects corresponding to a single column hinging shall be taken as: Axial Forces Those determined using Extreme Event Load Combination I, with the unreduced maximum and minimum seismic axial load of Article 3.10.8 taken as "EQ". Moments Those calculated in Step 1. Shear Force That calculated in Step 2.

-

The use of the factors 1.3 and 1.25 correspondsto the normal use of a resistance factor for reinforced concrete. In this case, it provides an increase in resistance, i.e., overstrength. Thus, the term "overstrength moment resistance" denotes a factor resistance in the parlance of these specifications.
-| ||

-

-

-

I

-

3 - 58.1

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components shall be determined in accordance with I the provisions of Sections 5 and 6. Superstructureand substructurecomponentsand their connectionsto columns shall also be designedto resist a lateralshear force from the column determined from the factored inelastic flexural resistance of the column using the resistance factors specified herein. These consequential shear forces, calculated on the basis of inelastic hinging, may be taken as the extreme seismic forces that the bridge is capable of developing.

S T D * A A S H T O SRCH L R F D - S I - E N G L
Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI) SPECIFICATIONS

1978 H Ob37804 0057503 774 H

-

COMMENTARY

l I I I I

I

I I

3.10.9.4.3~Piers with Two or More Columns

I

c3. i0.9.4.3c

I

Force effects for bents with two or more columns shall be determined both in the plane of the bent and perpendicular to the plane of the bent. Perpendicular to the plane of the bent, the forces shall be determined as for single columns in Article 3.10.9.4.3b. In the plane of the bent, the forces shall be calculated as follows: Step 1 Determine the column overstrength I moment resistances. Use a resistancefactor, @ of 1.3 for reinforced concrete columns and 1.25 for structural steel columns. For both materials the initial axial load should be determined using the Extreme Event Load Combination Iwith "EQ" = O. Step 2 Using the column overstrength moment resistance, calculate the corresponding column shear forces. Sum the column shears of the bent to determine the maximum shear force for the pier. If a partial-height wall exists between the columns, the effective column height should be taken from the top of the wall. For flared columns and foundations below ground level, the provisions of Article 3.10.9.4.3b shall apply. For pile bents, the length of pile above the mud line shall be used to calculate the shear force. Step 3 -Apply the bent shear force to the center of mass of the superstructure above the pier and determine the axial forces in the columns due to overturning when the column overstrength moment resistances are developed. Step 4 Using these column axial forces as "EQ" in the Extreme Event Load Combination I, determine revised column overstrength moment resistance. With the revised overstrength moment resistances, calculatethe column shearforces and the maximum shear force for the bent. If the maximum shear force for the bent is not within 10 percent of the value previously determined, m e this maximum bent shear force and return to Step 3.

I I I

-

See Article C3.10.9.4.3b.

I

I

I I

I I I I I l

-

I

I I

I I I I

I I

I I I I I

-

I I

I l I I I I I Theforces inthe individual columns in the plane of I a bent corresponding to column hinging shall be taken I I as: I

I I
I

o

I
I

Axial Forces - The maximum and minimum axial loads determined using Extreme Event Load , Combination I with the axial load determined from the final iteration of Step 3 taken as "Ea" and treated as plus and minus.

3 - 58.2
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S T D - A A S H T O S R C H LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998
Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI) SPECIFICATIONS

Ob3960Li 0057502 b 2 0

-

COMMENTARY

I

I I I I I

Moments - The column overstrength moment resistances corresponding to the maximum compressive axial load specified above. Shear Force The shear force corresponding to the column overstrength moment resistances specified above, noting the provisions in Step 2 above.

I I

-

l

I l I l I I l l

I I Design forces for columns and pile bents shall be 1 taken as a consistent set of the lesser of the forces I determined as specified in Article3.10.9.4.1, applied as I follows: I I
0

3.10.9.4.3d Column and Pile Bent Design Forces

C3.10.9.4.3d The design axial forces which control both the flexural design of the column and the shear design requirements are either the maximum or minimum of the unreduced design forces or the values corresponding to plastic hinging of the columns. In most cases, the values of axial load and shear corresponding to plastic hinging of the columns will be lower than the unreduced design forces. The design shear forces are specified so that the possibility of a shear failure in the column is minimked. When an inelastic hinging analysis is performed, these moments and shear forces are the maximum forces that can develop and, therefore, the directional load combinations of Article 3.10.8 do not apply.

I

I I I I I I
I

Shear Force The lesser of either the elastic design value determined for Extreme Event Limit State Load Combination I with the seismic loads combined as specified in Article 3.10.8 and using an R-Factor of 1 for the column, or the value corresponding to plastic hinging of the column. 3.10.9.4.3e Pier Design Forces C3.70.9.4.3e The design forces for piers specified in Article 3.10.9.4.3e are based on the assumption that a pier has low ductility capacity and no redundancy. As a result, a low R-Factor of 2 is used in determining the reduced design forces, and it is expected that only a small amount of inelastic deformation will occur in the response of a pier when subjected to the forces of the design earthquake. If a pier is designed as a column in its weak direction, then both the design forces and, more importantly, the design requirements of Articles 3.10.9.4.3d and Section 5 are applicable.
3.1O. 9.4.3f

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I I I

I I I I I I I

l

I

I

I
I l I I I I I

The design forces shall be those determined for Extreme Event Limit State Load Combination I,except where the pier is designed as a column in its weak direction. If the pier is designed as a column, the design forces in the weak direction shall be as specified in Article 3.10.9.4.3d and all the design requirements for columns, as specified in Section 5, shall apply. When the forces due to plastic hinging are used in the weak direction, the combination of forces, specified in Article 3.10.8, shall be appliedto determine the elastic moment which is then reduced by the appropriate R-factor. 3.70.9.4.35 Foundation Design Forces The design forces for foundations including footings, pile caps and piles may be taken as either those forces determined for the Extreme Event Load Combination I, with the seismic loads combined as specified in Article 3.10.8, or the forces at the bottom

The foundation design forces specified are consistent with the design philosophy of minimizing damage that would not be readily detectable. The recommended design forces are the maximum forces that can be transmitted to the footing by plastic

3 - 58.3
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Moments The modified design moments I determined for Extreme Event Limit State Load I Combination I. I

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Axial Forces -The maximum and minimum design I forces determined using Extreme Event Load I Combination Iwith either the elastic design values I determined in Article 3.10.8 taken as "EQ",or the I values corresponding to plastic hinging of the I column taken as "EQ". I

Section 3 Loads and Load Factors ( I S) SPECIFICATIONS
COMMENTARY

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Ob39804 0057503 5b7 S T D - A A S H T O S R C H LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 I

I I I I I I I I I I

I

I of the columns corresponding to column plastic I hinging of the column. The alternate design forces are I hinging as determined in Article 3.10.8. I the elastic design forces. It should be noted that these
When the columns of a bent have a common I may be considerably greater than the recommended footing, the final force distribution at the base of the I design forces, although where architectural columns in Step 4 of Article 3.10.9.4.3~ may be used I considerations govern the design of a column, the for the design of the footing in the plane of the bent. I alternate elastic design forces may be less than the This force distribution produces lower shear forces I forces resulting from column plastic hinging. and moments on the footing because one exterior 1 See also the second paragraph of C3.10.9.4.3d. column may be in tension and the other in compression due to the seismic overturning moment. This effectively increases the ultimate moments and shear forces on one column and reduces them on the other.
3.10.9.5 LONGITUDINAL RESTRAINERS

Friction shall not be considered to be an effective restrainer. Restrainers shall be designed for a force calculated as the acceleration coefficient times the permanent load of the lighter of the two adjoining spans or parts of the structure. If the restrainer is at a point where relative displacement of the sections of superstructure is designed to occur during seismic motions, sufficient slack shall be allowed in the restrainer so that the restrainer does not start to act until the design displacement is exceeded. Where a restrainer is to be provided at columns or piers, the restrainer of each span may be attached to the column or pier rather than to interconnecting adjacent spans.
3.10.9.6 HOLD-DOWN DEVICES
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For Seismic Zones 2, 3, and 4, hold-down devices shall be provided at supports and at hinges in continuous structures where the vertical seismic force due to the longitudinal seismic load opposes and exceeds 50 percent, but is less than 100 percent, of the reaction due to permanent loads. In this case, the net uplift force for the design of the hold-down device shall be taken as 10 percent of the reaction due to permanent loads that would be exerted if the span were simply supported. If the vertical seismic forces result in net uplift, the hold-down device shall be designed to resist the larger of either:
o

120 percent of the difference between the vertical seismic force and the reaction due to permanent loads, or

o

10 percent of the reaction due to permanent loads.

3 - 58.4

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S T D - A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998
Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI)

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Ob39804 0048583 819 U
COMMENTARY
C3.10.1O

SPECIFICATIONS
3.10.10 Requirements for Temporary Bridges and Stage Construction

Any bridge or partially constructed bridge that is expected to be temporary for more than five years shall be designed using the requirements for permanent structures and shall not use the provisions of this Article. The requirement that an earthquake shall not cause collapse of all or part of a bridge, as stated in Article 3.10.1, shall apply to temporary bridges expected to carry traffic. It shall also apply to those bridges that are constructed in stages and expected to carry traffic and/or pass over routes that carry trafic. The acceleration coefficient given in Article 3.10.2 may be reduced by a factor of not more than 2 in order to calculate the component elastic forces and displacements. Acceleration coefficients for construction sites that are close to active faults shall be the subject of special study. The response modification factors given in Article 3.10.7 may be increased by a factor of not more than 1.5 in order to calculate the design forces. This factor shall not be applied to connections as defined in Table 3.10.7.1-2. The minimum seat width provisions of Article 4.7.4.4 shall apply to all temporary bridges and staged construction.
3.11 EARTH PRESSURE: EH, ES, LS, and DD 3.1 I. General I

The option to use a reduced acceleration coefficient is provided to reflect the limited exposure period.

C3.11.I

Earth pressure shall be considered as a function of the: Type and density of earth, Water content, Soil creep characteristics, Degree of compaction, Location of groundwater table, Earth-structure interaction, Amount of surcharge, and Earthquake effects.

Walls that can tolerate little or no movement should be designed for at-rest earth pressure. Walls that can move away from the soil mass should be designed for pressures between active and at-rest conditions, depending on the magnitude of the tolerable movements. Movement required to reach the minimum active pressure or the maximum passive pressure is a function of the wall height and the soil type. Some typical values of these mobilizing movements, relative to wall height, are given in Table C I , where:
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A

=

movement of top of wall required to reach minimum active or maximum passive pressure by tilting or lateral translation (mm) height of wall (mm)
|

H =

For walls that are backfilled with cohesive materials, the effects of soil creep should be taken into consideration in estimating the design earth pressures.

3 - 59
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STD.AASHT0 SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL
Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI)

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1998

W Ob39804 0048584 755 M

SPECIFICATIONS

COMMENTARY Table C3.11.1-I Approximate Values of Relative Movements Required to Reach Minimum Active or Maximum Passive Earth Pressure Conditions (Clough and Duncan 1991)

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Under stress conditions close to the minimum active or maximum passive earth pressures, the cohesive soils indicated in Table C I creep continually, and the movements shown produce active or passive pressures only temporarily. If there is no further movement, active pressures will increase with time, approaching the at-rest pressure, and passive pressures will decrease with time, approaching values on the order of 40 percent of the maximum short-term value.
C3.1I.2

3.11.2 Compaction

Where activity by mechanical compaction equipment is anticipated within a distance of one-half the height of the wall, taken as the difference in elevation between the point where finished grade intersects the back of the wall and the base of the wall, the effect of additional earth pressure that may be induced by compaction shall be taken into account.
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3.1 1.3 Presence of Water

If the retained earth is not dewatered, the effect of hydrostatic water pressure shall be added to that of earth pressure. In cases where water is expected to pond behind a wall, the wall shall be designed to withstand the hydrostatic water pressure plus the earth pressure. Submerged densities of the soil shall be used to determine the lateral earth pressure below the groundwater table.

COPYRIGHT 2002; American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office

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Compaction-induced earth pressures may be estimated using the procedures described by Clough and Duncan (1991). The heavier the equipment used to compact the backfill, and the closer it operates to the wall and the larger are the compaction-induced pressures. The magnitude of the earth pressures exerted on a wall by compacted backfill can be minimized by using only small rollers or hand compactors within a distance of one-half wall height from the back of the wall.
C3.11.3

Wherever possible, the development of hydrostatic water pressure on walls should be eliminated through use of free-draining (rapid-draining) backfill material and/or the use o weep holes and crushed rock, pipe f drains, gravel drains, perforated drains, or geofabric drains that provide drainage.

3-60
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S T D * A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 W Ob39804 0048585 b9L
Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI)

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SPECIFICATIONS If the groundwater levels differ on opposite sides of the wall, the effects of seepage on wall stability and the potential for piping shall be considered. Pore pressures behind the wall may be approximated by flow net procedures or various analytical methods and shall be added to the effective horizontal stresses in determining total lateral earth pressures on the wall.

COMMENTARY
EARTH

-

PRESS UR^

EARTH

f

Figure C3.1I .3-1 - Effect of Groundwater Table
3.11.4 Effect of Earthquake C3.11.4

The effects of probable amplification of active earth pressure and/or mobilization of passive earth masses by earthquake shall be considered.

The Mononobe-Okabe method for determining equivalent static fluid pressures for seismic loads on gravity and semigravity retaining walls is presented in the appendix to Section 11. The Mononobe-Okabe analysis is based, in part, on the assumption that the backfill soils are unsaturated and thus not susceptible to liquefaction. Where soils are subject to both saturation and seismic or other cyclidinstantaneous loads, special consideration should be given to addressing the possibility of soil liquefaction.

3.11.5 Earth Pressure: EH

3.11.5.1 BASIC EARTH PRESSURE Basic earth pressure shall be assumed to be linearly proportional to the depth of earth and taken as:

C3.11.5.1 The triangular distribution of lateral earth pressure is a simplification of the actual nonlinear distribution depicted in Figure CI. Two factors contribute to the nonlinear behavior: (1) arching due to shear stresses in the soil at the foundation level and on the plane above the wall heel, and (2) compaction-induced lateral earth pressure in the backfill. When the backfill moves laterally with the wall, it does not move freely on a frictionless horizontal plane at the foundation level. Shear stresses exist in the soil at this level. Shear stress can also exist on the vertical plane above the wall heel. Together, these shear stresses tend to reduce the lateral earth pressure at the bottom of the wall. This phenomenon is sometimes referred to as soil arching. Compaction-induced lateral earth pressures are most significant near the top of the wall. The combination of

p = khysgz(x.10-9)
(3.1 I .5.1-I) where: p

=

basic earth pressure (MPa) specified in Article 3.11.5.2, for walls that do not deflect or move, or ia, specified in Articles 3.11.5.3, 3.11.5.6, and 3.11.5.7, for walls that deflect or move sufficiently to reach minimum active conditions

= coefficient of lateral earth pressure taken as k ,

3-61
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WATER PRESSURE

STDmAASHTO SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL &Y78
Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI)

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Ob39804 0048586 528

SPECIFICATIONS

COMMENTARY these two effects is shown by the nonlinear curve in Figure C I . The resultant of the lateral earth force P can , be obtained from the simplified triangular distribution. However, to be equivalent to the actual nonlinear distribution in moment calculations, the location of the resultant must be raised from 0.33H to 0.4H. Several experimental studies of actual walls have verified that 0.4H is a reasonable location of the resultant (Terzaghi 1934; Clausen and Johansen 1972; Sherif et al. 1982).

ys =

density of soil (kg/m3)

z
g

= depth below the surface of earth (mm)
=
gravitational constant (m/s2)

7 ~7compaction ,-effect of

II II !'

' y

(

simplified triangular distribution

(effect of arching

Figure C3.11.5.1-1 Earth Pressure Unless otherwise specified, the resultar.. .&ral ear load due to the weight of the backfill shall be assumed to act at a height of 0.4H above the base of the wall, where H is the total wall height measured from the surface of the ground to the bottom of the footing.

- Location of Resultant for Horizontal

Oilen, the resultant of the lateral earth pressure has been assumed to be located at one-third of the total height above the bottom of the wall. However, several experimental tests have shown that the resultant is located at about 0.4H (Terzaghi 1934; Clausen and Johansen 1972; Sherif et al. 1982). The specified location is a reasonable approximation to the values observed in the studies of actual walls.
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3.1I .5.2 AT-REST PRESSURE COEFFICIENT, k, For normally consolidated soils, the coefficient of lateral at-rest earth pressure may be taken as:

C3.11.5.2 For typical cantilevered walls over 1500 mm high with structural-grade backfill, calculations indicate that the horizontal movement of the top of the wall due to a combination of structural deformation of the stem and rotation of the foundation is sufficient to develop active conditions.

k, = I-sin gf
(3.11.5.2-1) where:

g, = friction angle of drained soil

k, = coefficient of earth pressure at rest for
overconsolidatedsoils For overconsolidated soils, the coefficient of lateral at-rest earth pressure may be assumed to vary as a function of the overconsolidation ratio or stress history, and may be taken as: k, = (I - sing,)

(ocR)S~~'~

(3.1I .5.2-2)

3-62
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Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI) SPECIFICATIONS where: OCR = overconsolidation ratio Values of k, for various overconsolidation ratios, OCR, may be taken from Table 1. Silt, lean clay, and highly plastic clay should not be used for backfill where freedraining granular materials are available. The data given in Table 1 are from Clough and Duncan 1991). COMMENTARY

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Table 3.1 1.5.2-1 - Typical Coefficients of Lateral Earth Pressure At-Rest

3.11.5.3 ACTIVE PRESSURE COEFFICIENT, k, Values for the coefficient of active pressure may be taken as: ka = sin2@ cp?) + rsin28sin(8-tj) (3.1~.5.3-4)

C3.11.5.3 The values of k, determined from Equation 1 are based on the Coulomb earth pressure theories. The theories are applicable for design of retaining walls, the back face of which interferes with the development of the full sliding surfaces in the backfill soil assumed in Rankine theory. In general, Coulomb wedge theory applies to gravity, semigravity, and prefabricated modular walls with relatively steep back faces and to concrete cantilever walls with short heels. For the cantilever wall in Figure CI, the earth pressure is applied to a plane extending vertically from the heel of the wall base, and the weight of soil to the left of the vertical plane is considered as part of the wall weight. The differences between the Coulomb Theory currently specified, and the Rankine Theory specified in the past is illustrated in Figure CI. The Rankine theory is the basis of the equivalent fluid method of Article 3.11.5.5 and the design procedures for mechanically stabilized earth walls.

in which: sin(cp?+tj)sin(cp?-ß)

r = [ i + ,sin(B-b)cin(8+ ß) j
where:

P
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(3.1 1.5.3-2)

I

6

= friction angle between fill and walltaken as I
specified in Table 1 (DEG)

I

I I

3-63
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Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI)

-

SPECIFICATIONS
ß

COMMENTARY
Pione qround surfoce subjected to uniform 0r.m surchorqe

= angle of fill to the horizontal as shown in Figure
1 (DEG)

ß

a = ii900 iß-q-cl
where c = sin-'

I

6
@'

= angle of backfaceof wall to the horizontal dane
as shown in Figure 1 (DEG)
r zcne bcd uninleiiupled em or bock of wall
ressure on verlicol secton ob elermined by Ronkine theory

o,
sin ß
' i n

+ onpie o1 Wernot = ,
friction

= effective angle of internal friction (DEG)

For conditions that deviate from those described in Figure 1, the active pressure may be calculated by using I a trial procedure based on wedge theory.

Ground surface and surchorqeload / moy be irrequlor \

Wedge o1 soil slides along

Surface of rlidinq

/

e

back of woll

b

I b)
Rigid

H
0.4H

. . .. . .

Figure C3.11.5.3-1 Application of earth pressure theories in retaining wall design: (a) Rankine theory applies; (b) Coulomb wedge theory applies

-

,

Figure 3.11.5.3-1 Pressure

-

Notation for Coulomb at Earth

3-64
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igneous. silty medium to coarse sand. single-size hard rock fill o Silty sand. silty or clayey fine to medium sand o Fine sandy silt. well-graded rock fill with spalls Clean sand. gravel.STDOAASHTO S R C H LRFD-SI-ENGL 3998 Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI) - Ob39804 0048589 237 SPECIFICATIONS COMMENTARY Table 3. the passive pressure may be calculated by using a trial procedure based on wedge theory. gravel. nonplastic silt 0 Very stiff and hard residual or preconsolidated clay o Medium stiff and stiff clay and silty clay 0 0 35 29 to 31 24 to 29 19 to 24 17 to 19 22 to 26 17 to 19 Masonry on foundation materials has same friction factors Steel sheet piles against the following soils: o Clean gravel.3-1 . silty sand-gravel mixture. For dense sand. single-size hard rock fill Silty sand.4 The movement required to mobilize passive pressure is approximately 10. When wedge theory is used. For conditions that deviate from those described in Figures Iand 2. User=. 9. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. C3. the limiting value of the wall friction angle should not be taken larger than one-half the angle of internal friction. or sand mixed with silt or clay Fine sandy silt. For noncohesive soils.2 1982) Interface Materials Friction Angle. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. The movement required to mobilize full passive pressure in loose sand is approximately 5 percent of the height of the face on which the passive pressure acts. coarse sand 0 Clean fine to medium sand. silty or clayey gravel 0 Clean fine sand. the movement required to mobilize full passive pressure is smaller than 5 percent of the height of the face on which the passive pressure acts. and metamorphic rocks: o dressed soft rock on dressed soft rock dressed hard rock on dressed soft rock o dressed hard rock on dressed hard rock o Masonry on wood in direction of cross grain 0 Steel on steel at sheet pile interlocks 0 35 33 29 26 17 3. well-graded rock fill with spalls o Clean sand. gravel-sand mixtures. k .Friction Angle for Dissimilar Materials (NAVFAC DM-7. nonplastic silt 22 to 26 17 to 22 17 14 | | || --- Various structural materials: o Masonry on masonry. -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| .5.1 1.1 15.11. values of the coefficient of passive pressure may be taken from Figure 1 for the case of a sloping or vertical wall with a horizontal backfill or from Figure 2 for the case of a vertical wall and sloping backfill. or sand mixed with silt or clay o Fine sandy silt. nonplastic silt 22 17 14 11 Formed or precast concrete or concrete sheet piling against the following soils: o o o o Clean gravel.5. and 5 percent represents a conservative estimate of the movement required to mobilize the full passive pressure. gravel-sand mixture.4 PASSIVE PRESSURE COEFFICIENT.0 times as large as the movement needed to reduce earth pressure to the active values. silty sand-gravel mixture. 6 (DEG) I Mass concrete on the following foundation materials: Clean sound rock Clean gravel. gravel-sand mixtures. For poorly 3-65 COPYRIGHT 2002.

p. User=. y s g Z ~ l O ~+g 2~Jib where: pi. as appropriate kp = coefficient of passive pressure specified in 3-66 -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- COPYRIGHT 2002. = k . = passive earth pressure (MPa) (3-11. passive pressures may be estimated by: COMMENTARY compacted cohesive soils. Wedge solutions are inaccurate and unconservative for larger values of wall friction angle. . = density of soil (kg/m3) 2 c = depth below surface of soil (mm) = unit cohesion (MPa) Figures Iand 2. the movement required to mobilize full passive pressure is larger than 5 percent of the height of the face on which the pressure acts. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.S T D * A A S H T O S R C H LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI) - Ob39804 0048590 T59 SPECIFICATIONS For cohesive soils.5-4-1) y .

1 3-67 Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- L L O O 10 20 30 EiFECTi'v'E AI-iCiE OF ibiiERNki FRICTION. DEGREES 40 45 I -2 I Fiaure3 1 S. I.Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI) - COPYRIGHT 2002.4-1 -ComputationalProceduresforPassiveEarth Pressuresfor SloDinaWall with HorizontalBackflll . . 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. User=.

- | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- . y. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. -- | || | || ||| . DEGREES 20 30 40 45 I Figure 3. User=.Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI) - O 1 0 ANGLE ûF INTERNAL FRICTION.11 5 4 .2 CornDutational Procedures for Passive Earth Pressures for Vertical Wall with Slopina Backfill - 3-68 COPYRIGHT 2002.

11. CL. data is given for such cases.=P. User=. these soils are economically unavoidable.5-2) (3. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.5. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- (3.1. the earth pressure shall be calculated using equivalent-fluid pressure.3 shall be used to determine horizontal earth pressure. Typical values for equivalent-fluid densities for design of a wall of height not exceeding 6000 mm may be taken from Table 1. The horizontal pressure is applied to a vertical plane extending up from the heel of the wall base.11.Loads and Load Factors (SI) COMMENTARY C3.tanfi where: P = 0.5 yeqgH2 (X lo4) h (3. For the case of a sloping backfill surface in Table 1. If this criterion cannot be satisfied. where H is the total wall height measured from the surface of the ground to the bottom of the footing.5-3) 3-69 Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.5 SPECIFICATIONS . where: A = movement of top of wall required to reach minimum active or maximum passive pressure by tilting or lateral translation (mm) I H = height of wall (mm) I fi = angle of fill to the horizontal (DEG) The values of equivalent-fluid density presented in Table 1 for AiH = li240 represent the horizontal component of active earth pressure based on Rankine earth pressure theory. .5-1) where: y . This horizontal earth pressure is applicable for cantilever retaining walls for which the wall stem does not interfere with the sliding surface defining the Rankine failure wedge within the wall backfill.1 I ESTIMATING EARTH PRESSURES The equivalent-fluid method shall not be used where the backfill is not freedraining.5 EQUIVALENT-FLUID METHOD OF 3. For discussion on the location of the resultant of the lateral earth force at 0.11. 3. and CH soils in Table Iis not intended to encourage use of these soils behind walls. the provisions of Articles 3. The concepts of equivalent-fluid densities have taken into account the effect of soil creep on walls. a vertical component of earth pressure also acts on the vertical plane extending up from the heel of the wall.1.5.5. In the analysis of undrained cohesive backfills. In this context. The resultant lateral earth load due to the weight of the backfill shall be assumed to act at a height of 0.5.11. If the backfill qualifies as freedraining.11.5. = equivalent-fluid density of soil.5.Section 3 .5.3. The specification of data for ML.11.11. The magnitude of the vertical component of the earth pressure resultant for the case of sloping backfill surface may be determined as: I P.4H see Article C3.11.5. and 3. may be taken as: p =y g . p (MPa).4H above the base of the wall. water is prevented from creating hydrostatic pressure. not less than 480 (k9/m3) f Values of the density o equivalent fluids are given for walls that can tolerate very little or no movement as well as för walls that can move as much as 25 mm in 6000 mm. In some circumstances. Where the equivalent-fluid method is used. z(x70 -0) COPYRIGHT 2002. the basic earth pressure. and the weight of soil to the left of the vertical plane is included as part of the wall weight. the terms "free-draining" and "rapiddraining" are synonymous.

they all tend to confirm the presence of higher-lateral pressures near the top of the wall than k . and the potential for anchor yield should be considered.6 In the development of lateral earth pressures.6 APPARENT EARTH PRESSURES FOR ANCHORED WALLS Assumed earth pressure distributions. and3.5. 3-70 COPYRIGHT 2002. for which: C3.Typical Values for Equivalent-FluidDensities of Soils I Type of Soil Loose sand or gravel Medium dense sand or gravel Dense sand or gravel Compacted silt (ML) Compacted lean clay (CL) Compacted fat clay (CH) | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --| || | || ||| -- I 880 800 720 960 Lew Backfill At-Rest N H = 1/240 y. These higher pressures are due to the constraint Y'* = effective density of soil (kg/m3) provided by the upper level of anchors and to a generally uniform pressure distributionwith depth. Although the results of these efforts provide somewhat different and occasionally H = final wall height (mm) conflicting results. from which Figure 1 was developed.Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI) - SPECIFICATIONS COMMENTARY Table 3. the earth pressure may be assumed to be linearly proportional to depth.11.5.5-1 . the method and sequence of construction. Several suitable apparent earth pressure distribution diagrams are available and in common use for the design of anchored walls (Cheney 1984. 1981. the rigidity of the walllanchor system. the earth pressure may be assumed constant with depth.(kg/m3) Backfill with fi = 25" At-Rest v. 6 510 -@kasg H Z ~ y (3-11. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.5. other than those herein.5. For anchored walls with one level of anchors.4shallapply.11.2.5. For anchored walls with two or more levels of anchors. such as that shown in Figure 1. . American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. User=.(kg/m3) ~~ ~ N H = 11240 Yn0(k!m3) 800 720 640 640 560 480 1040 960 880 1120 ~ 1280 880 1440 1040 3. = active earth pressure coefficient = (45-@42) would be predicted by classical earth pressure theories. and others are based on the Pa = 0 . Schnabel 1982).5.1 1.6-1) results of analytical and scale model studies (Clough and Tsui 1974. allowable wall deflections. Hanna and Matallana 1970). and the provisions of Articles 3. and observations of anchored wall installations (Nicholson et where: al.11. anchor spacing and prestress. the physical characteristics and stability of the ground mass to be supported. U. Department of the Navy 1982).5. 3. may be permitted if they are consistent with the expected wall deflections. the earth pressure resultant may be determined using Figure 1.S. Some of the apparent earth pressure diagrams.1 1. For walls constructed from the top down.3. are based on the results of measurements on strutted excavations (Tetzaghi and Peck 1967).11.

.71 Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.3. or anchor installation. where: Su = 5. the factor of safety against basal heave.5.6-1) undrained shear strength of cohesive soil (MPa) density of soil (kg/m3) height of wall (mm) surcharge pressure (MPa) ys = H = q .g. User=. lagging.6-1 Apparent Earth Pressure Distribution for Permanent Walls with Two or More Levels of Anchors Constructed from the Top Down For walls constructed in fill from the bottom up. dewatering or deep foundation construction within the excavation. or by poor construction techniques. Significant settlements may also be caused by other construction activities. In developing the design pressure for an anchored wall.STD.1 1. The field measurements used to develop Figure C I have been screened to preclude movements caused by other construction activities or poor construction techniques. rectangular distribution may be assumed equal to 130 percent of a triangular distribution determined in accordance with the provisions of Article 3.AASHT0 SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI) - 3998 Ob39804 0048595 530 SPECIFICATIONS COMMENTARY The settlement profiles in Figure C I were recommended by Clough and O'Rourke (1990) to estimate ground surface settlements adjacent to braced or anchored excavations caused during the excavation and bracing stages of construction. shall be taken as: Figure 3. FSBH. | ||||||| | | || --| || ||| | || | |||| || COPYRIGHT 2002.g. the total magnitude of the uniform. consideration shall be given to wall displacements that may affect adjacent structures and/or underground utilities. Therefore. = 3 . 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. such movements should be estimated separately.5.5.. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office -| || - FS. during soldier pile.1 Su = ysgHxiO-' + qs (C3. Where noted in the definition of the various curves in Figure C1. e. e.11..1 1. .

0 = 1.72 COPYRIGHT 2002.2 CURVE IV = Figure C3.gh * ka 7 (3.~~ S T D .0 | | || --- ka= 3 . 2. F . F .5. 5 ~o -Sy. shall be taken as: C3.5.11.11.7-1) where: || | || ||| | || | | Pa = Y8 force resultant per unit width (Nlmm) = density of backfill (kg/m3) |||| || | ||||||| h = notional height of horizontal earth pressure diagram shown in Figures I.7 EARTH PRESSURES FOR MECHANICALLY STABILIZED EARTH WALLS The resultant force per unit width behind an MSE wall. ß. active earth pressure coefficient specified in Article 3. S Soít to medium clay.Settlement Profiles Behind Braced The restrictions on the angle 6 and the angle of action of the soil pressure resultant specified in this article reduce the Coulomb earth pressure theory to the Rankine theory. which is the basis of MSE wall design. shown in Figures 1. with the angle of backfill slope.11. S = 2. and 3 as acting at a height of h/3 above the base of the wall and parallel to the slope of the backfill. and 3 (mm) 2. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. User=.115.5.5.11. taken as specified in Figures 2 and 3 and the angle O taken as 0.7 .0 - - CURVEI = Sand Stiff to very hard clay CURVE II = CURVE III = Soft to medium clay. . Pa = -- 0 .6-I or Anchored Walls 3.A A S H T O S R C H LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI) SPECIFICATIONS - Ob39804 004859b 477 m COMMENTARY _----a 1.3.

7-1 .1 1. k for .A A S H T O S R C H LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 = Ob39804 COMMENTARY 0048597 303 The at-rest earth pressure coefficient.Section 3 .5.Earth Pressure for MSE Wall with Sloping Backfill Surface COPYRIGHT 2002.7-2 . 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. the terms "safety against structural failure" and "internal stability" are synonymous. User=.1 1. determining safety against structural failure may be taken as: In this context.5. (3.Earth Pressure Distribution for MSE Wall with Level Backfill Surface | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- Figure 3.7-2) h=l Figure 3. = 1 -sincp. .Loads and Load Factors (SI) SPECIFICATIONS S T D .5.73 Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office -| || | || ||| 3 . k.11.

k. shall be taken as h. .7-3 . where: Ap = k .1 When the uniform surcharge is produced by an earth loading on the upper surface. intermediate values appropriate for the type of backfill and amount of wall movement may be used.6. and 5 are based on the assumption that the wall does not move.1 1.6. this assumption can be very conservative.11. on a wall resulting from a uniformly loaded strip parallel to the wall may be taken as: 2P Aph= .1 1.1-1) (3.(a -sinacos(a TT + 26)) (3.1I | | || --| || | |||| || | ||||||| || | || ||| | C3.1-2 for earth surcharge.4.Earth Pressure Distribution for MSE Wall with Broken Back Backfill Surface 3.6 Surcharge Loads: ES and LS -- 3. shall be taken as ka.6. A. a constant horizontal earth pressure shall be added to the basic earth pressure. Equations 2.for both vertical and horizontal components shall be taken as specified in Table 3.1-1.11. User=. the load factor. 7 . The horizontal pressure distribution..6. For active earth pressure conditions.11. Otherwise. constant horizontal earth pressure due to uniform surcharge (MPa) = coefficient of earth pressure due to surcharge = uniform surcharge applied to the upper surface of the active earth wedge (MPa) Wall movement needed to mobilize extreme active and passive pressures for various types of backfill can be found in Table C3.STDSAASHTO SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI) - = Ob39804 ~~ 0048598 2 4 T SPECIFI CATIONS COMMENTARY Figure 3. 4. ( .1 GENERAL Where a uniform surcharge is present.: in MPa. 3. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. This constant earth pressure may be taken as: Ap = k. and for at-rest conditions. q .11.1-2) 3-74 COPYRIGHT 2002. k.5. For very flexible walls.

1 1. -- | P = load (N) || | || ||| where: | || | |||| || (3. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. User=.11.Loads and Load Factors ( I S) SPECIFICATIONS where: p Ob39804 0048599 ii8b a COMMENTARY = load intensity (MPa) a = angle specified in Figure 1 (RAD) õ = angle specified in Figure 1 (RAD) p(pressure) Figure 3. Aphin MPa.Horizontal Pressure on Wall Caused by Uniformly Loaded Strip The horizontal pressure distribution.R(1-2v) R+Z = R = radial distance from point of load application to a point on the wall as specified in Figure 2 (mm) horizontal distance from back of wall to point of load application (mm) the elevation of a point on the wall under consideration (mm) X Z = = vertical distance from point of load application to v = Poisson's Ratio (DIM) (3.AASHT0 SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL L998 Section 3 .STD. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.1) 3-75 COPYRIGHT 2002.6.11.1-1 .6.6. on a wall resulting from a point load may be taken as: P 3 z x 2 .1-3) | ||||||| | | || --- .

Figure 3. .6.11. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.6.6.Horizontal Fressure on a Wall Caused by an Infinitely Long Line Load Parallel to the Wall 3 .1-3 .. User=. in MPa.76 COPYRIGHT 2002.11. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.Horizontal Pressure on a Wall Caused by a Point Load The horizontal pressure. A.1-2 ..A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI) - Ob39804 0048bOO 728 SPECIFICATIONS COMMENTARY Figure 3.S T D .11..I -4) where: Q = load intensity in Nimm and all other notation is as defined above and shown in Figure 3. resulting from an infinitely long line load parallel to a wall may be taken as: A ph =-- 4Q X 2 Z T i R4 | ||||||| | | || --- -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || (3.

6.6.1-4 .A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 3998 Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI) - W 0637804 0048603 b b 4 COMMENTARY SPECIFICATIONS The horizontal pressure distribution. on a wall resulting from a finite line load perpendicular to a wall may be taken as: | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --|| | || ||| -| .S T D . = X2 = (3.1-6) (3.11. Q f I I .1-7) distance from the back of the wall to the start of the line load as specified in Figure 4 (mm) length of the live load (mm) wall under consideration (mm) 2 v = depth from the ground surface to a point on the = Poisson's Ratio (DIM) load intensity (Nlmm) Q = w length) Figure 3.Horizontal Pressure on a Wall Caused by a Finite Line Load Perpendicular to the Wall 3 . .11.77 COPYRIGHT 2002. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. Aphin MPa.2 ~ I I-2~1 in which: A=Il+[$--' B=\ll+[d)' where: X. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.6. User=.11.

The wall height shall be taken as the distance between the surface of the backfill and the bottom of the footing.6.(x70-g) where: | | || --|||| || | ||||||| -| || | || ||| | || | (3. The increase in horizontal pressure due to live load surcharge may be estimated as: Ap = kysgh. SPECIFICATIONS 3.2. = Equivalent heights of soil.11. 1974). User=.11.6. I The load factor for both vertical and horizontal components of live load surcharge shall be taken as specified in Table 3. the intensity of the load shall be consistent with the provisions of Article 3. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. Table 3.. The pressure distributions were obtained from elastic half-space solutions with Poisson's ratio of 0.6.5.2 LIVE LOAD SURCHARGE: LS A live load surcharge shall be applied where vehicular load is expected to act on the surface of the backfill within a distance equal to the wall height behind the back face of the wall. were determined by evaluating the horizontal force against the wall from the pressure distribution produced by the vehicular live load of Article 3.6. heqi for highway loadings Linear interpolation shall be may be taken from Table I. (mm II 3000 I 1200 II 3-78 COPYRIGHT 2002.2. NAVFAC DM-7. especially as they apply to flexible walls. this explains the increase in he..6. The values of he. The traditional value corresponds to a 90 O00 N single-unit truck.Equivalent Height of Soil for Vehicular Loading Wall Height (mm) he.1 (1982).2-1) Ap = y5 = k constant horizontal earth pressure due to uniform surcharge (MPa) density of soil (kg/m3) coefficient of earth pressure equivalent height of soil for the design truck (mm) = The tabulated values for he. the Owner shall specify and/or approve appropriate surcharge loads. In part. If the surcharge is for a highway.A A S H T O S R C H LRFD-SI-ENGL Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI) - 1996 W Ob39804 0048b02 5T0 COMMENTARY 1. he.11. greater than the traditional 610 mm of earth load.6. Elastic solutions can be found in Poulos and Davis (1974).1. used for intermediatewall heights. If the surcharge is for other than a highway.4.1.S T D . are under review (1997).1-1 for live load surcharge.2 C3. and soil mechanics textbooks. . American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. The values for h given in Table 1 are generally .2-1 . formerly known as an H I 0 truck (Peck et al.

3REDUCTION OF SURCHARGE If the vehicular loading is transmitted through a structural slab. a load.12 FORCE EFFECTS DUE TO SUPERIMPOSED DEFORMATIONS: TU. thus transmitting load directly thereto.2.12. Downdrag is.STDOAASHTO SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL I1998 Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI) - Ob39804 0048b03 Y37 SPECIFI CATIONS COMMENTARY 3. 3. If the number of freezing days is less than 14. It permits more precise estimates of force effects to be obtained where earth pressures are present. Freezing days are days when the average temperature is less than 0°C. 3.7 For culverts and bridges and their components.11. the ranges of temperature shall be as specified in Table 1.1 I. SH. therefore. .1-2. Force effects resulting from resisting component deformation. 3-79 Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.7 Reduction due to Earth Pressure C3.2 Uniform Temperature 3. 3. User=.1 I.3 This article relates primarily to approach slabs that are supported at one edge by the backwall of an abutment.12.12. C3. such reduction shall be limited to the extent that earth pressure can be expected to be permanently present.2. an appropriate reduction in the surcharge loads may be permitted. a mod-rate climate may b determined by the number of freezing days per year.8 Downdrag -- This provision is intended to refine the traditional approach in which the earth pressure is reduced by 50 percent in order to obtain maximum positive moment in top slab of culverts and frames. The distinction between the two is that downdrag acts downward on the sides of piles or piers and loads the foundation. In lieu of more precise information. which is also supported by means other than earth. as described in Section I O . displacement of points of load application.6. CR.1 General Internal force effects in a component due to creep and shrinkage shall be considered. the climate is considered to be moderate. SE 3. || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- 3.1 2. supports the foundation.I For these Specifications. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. The effect of temperature gradient should be included where appropriate.1 TEMPERATURE RANGES In the absence of more precise information. The difference between the extended lower or upper boundary and the base construction temperature assumed in the design shall be used to calculate thermal deformation effects.4. and support movements shall be included in the analysis. TG.11. a 50 percent reduction may be used but need not be combined with the minimum load factor specified in Table 3.11. where earth pressure may reduce effects caused by other loads and forces. thus.1I .8 Force effects due to downdrag on piles or drilled shafts resulting from settlement of the ground adjacent to the pile or shaft shall be determined in accordance with the provisions of Section I O . C3. C3.6. and skin friction is a resistance. whereas skin friction acts upward on the sides of the piles or piers and. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office | The methods used to estimate downdrag loads are the same as those used to estimate skin friction. COPYRIGHT 2002.

or any component thereof shall be taken as the actual air temperature averaged over the 24-hour period immediately preceding the setting event.2 Setting temperature is used in installing expansion bearings and deck joints.3 SEASONAL TEMPERATURE VARIATION Where required.3-1 (OC) for January .Normal Daily Minimum Temperature 3 80 COPYRIGHT 2002. and in the absence of local data.12.S T D * A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI) SPECIFICATIONS - Ob39804 O048604 373 COMMENTARY STEEL OR CLIMATE ALUMINUM Moderate -18" to 50°C Cold CONCRETE -12" to 27°C -18" to 27°C WOOD -12" to 24°C -18" to 24°C -35" to 50°C 3.2 SETTING TEMPERATURE The setting temperature of the bridge.2. . 3. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office - -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. C3. User=.12.12.12.2. Figure 3.2.2. the maximum and minimum air temperatures for a given location may be taken as specified in Figures Iand 2.

STD. Therefore. The vertical temperature gradient in concrete and steel superstructures with concrete decks may be taken as shown in Figure 2.12. the distance taken as the depth of the concrete deck 0 - "t" shall be Temperature value T shall be taken as O"C. Negative temperature values shall be obtained by multiplying the values specified in Table 1 by -0. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.3 Temperature gradient is included in various load combinations in Table 3. If experience has shown that neglecting temperature gradient in the design of a given type of structure has not lead to structural distress. 0 For concrete superstructures that are 400 mm or more in depth . a site-specific study is made to determine an appropriate value. The addition for steel superstructures is patterned after the temperature gradient for that type of bridge in the Australian bridge specifications (AUSTROADS 1992).6. any possible insulating qualities have been ignored herein.6. (1985). 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. internal stresses and structure deformations due to both positive and negative temperature gradients may be determined in accordance with the provisions of Article 4. Dimension "A" in Figure 2 shall be taken as: | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --|| | || ||| -| C3. Field measurements have yielded apparently different indications concerning the effect of asphalt as an insulator or as a contributor (Spring 1997). but it shall not exceed 3°C. both longitudinally and transversely. Multibeam bridges are an example of a type of structure for which judgment and past experience should be considered.20 for decks with an asphalt overlay. . the country shall be subdivided into zones as indicated in Figure I. which was based on studies of concrete superstructures. Redistribution of reactive loads. Where temperature gradient is considered. The temperature gradient given herein is a modification of that proposed in Imbsen et al. The temperatures given in Table 1 form the basis for calculating the change in temperature with depth in the cross-section.Normal Daily Maximum Temperature (OC) for July 3.300 mm For concrete sections shallower than 400 mm 100 mm less than the actual depth For steel superstructures.4. the Owner may choose to exclude temperature gradient.3-2 .2. 3-81 COPYRIGHT 2002.Positive temperature values for the zones shall be taken as specified for various deck surface conditions in Table 1. should also be calculated and considered in the design of the bearings and substructures. This does not mean that it need be investigated for all types of structures.1-1. User=.12.30 for plain concrete decks and -0.AASHT0 SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL Section 3 Loads and Load Factors ( I S) - 1798 Ob39804 0048605 20T SPECI FICATIONS COMMENTARY Figure 3.12.3 Temperature Gradient For the purpose of this article. not absolute temperature. The data in Table 1 does not make a distinction regarding the presence or lack of an asphaltic overlay on decks. unless .

A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 W Ob39804 0048bOb L 4 b COMMENTARY SPECIFICATIONS Table 3.82 COPYRIGHT 2002. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.3-1 States f-L 100 mm Depth of Superstructure i - f 7 : Steel Girder Structures 17- \i T 3 I I I Figure 3. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.3-2 Positive Vertical Temperature Gradient in Concrete and Steel Superstructures 3 . User=.12.Solar Radiation Zones for the United .3-1 .12.Basis for Temperature Gradients Figure 3.Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI) - S T D .12. -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- .

the waterway location. The designer may specify timing and sequence of construction in order to minimize stresses due to differential shrinkage between components.13 Forces due to friction shall be established on the basis of extreme values of the friction coefficient between the sliding surfaces.10. 3.A A S H T O SRCH L R F D . water. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.E N G L Section 3 . Where appropriate. also known as the minimum superstructure design impact may be taken the megagram. 3. .5 Creep C3. not sufficiently high to preclude contact with the vessel.. shall be determined in accordance with the provisions of Section 5.S. Creep of wood is addressed only because it applies to prestressed wood decks.12.S T D . 3.12. and stores.S I . dependence on time and changes in compressive stresses shall be taken into account. crossing. the values may be determined by physical tests. The DWT is 3-83 -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- COPYRIGHT 2002. Estimates of settlement may be made in accordance with the provision of Article 10. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.4 Where appropriate. unless approved otherwise by the Owner. the effect of moisture and possible degradation or contamination of sliding or rotating surfaces upon the friction coefficient shall be considered. only creep of concrete is considered.Loads and Load Factors (SI) 1778 D Ob37804 0057504 ‘ l T 3 SPECIFICATIONS 3.14 VESSEL COLLISION: CV 3.5 Creep strains for concrete and wood shall be in accordance with the provisions of Section 5 and Section 8. In determining force effects and deformations due to creep. with an empty mass proceedings of an international colloquium.3.12.907 Mg). If so warranted. User=. Collisions with Bridges and Offshore Structures (IABSE Where bridges span deep draft waterways and are 1983).14. The design barge shall be a Another source of information has been the single 10 700 x 60 O00 mm barge. especially if the surfaces are expected to be roughened in service.2. respectively. C3. C3. C3.1 General Low and high friction coefficients may be obtained from standard textbooks. 3. fuel. In the U.14. customary unit of tons (0.12.barge size is usually to be the mast collision impact load specified in Article expressed in the U S .7.6 Force effects due to extreme values of differential settlements among substructures and within individual substructure units shall be considered.4 Differential Shrinkage COMMENTARY C3.13 FRICTION FORCES: FR Force effects due to settlement may be reduced by considering creep. The minimum design impact load for substructure I the AASHTO Guide Specification and Commentary for design shall be determined using an empty hopper barge I Vessel Collision Desiqn of Hiqhwav Bridqec (1991). Coast Guard. and between concrete and steel or wood. 3.14.3.6 Settlement Traditionally.1 All bridge components in a navigable waterway The determination of the navigability of a waterway is usually made by the U. Ship of 180 Mg. The deadweight tonnage (DWT) of a ship is the mass of the cargo. Ships are categorized by the tonne.12. differential shrinkage strains between concretes of different age and composition.12. shall be designed for vessel impact. drifting at a velocity equal to the yearly mean current for using the Method II risk acceptance alternative.S. located in design water depths not less than The requirements herein have been adapted from 600 mm.

American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. in U S . and frequency of relatively high velocity. the water depth plays a critical role in the accessibility of vessels to piers and spans outside the navigation channel. but it gives a general estimation of the ship size. high frequency of occurrences of such collision accidents islands. It is very difficult to control and steer barge tows. structures shall be: üb37804 0057505 33T = - COMMENTARY only a portion of the total vessel mass. Bridges located in a high velocity waterway and near a bend in the channel will probably be hit by barges at frequent intervals. The water level. and use the waterway and the loading condition and the speed of vessels approaching a bridge. In waterways with large water stage fluctuations. The presence I Structural response of the bridge to collision.S T D * A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1798 Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI) SPECIFICATIONS In navigable waterways where vessel collision is anticipated. I navigation conditions. dolphins. In addition. with the vessel moving in a forward direction at a 0 Size. In maneuvering a bend. along with the loading condition of vessels influencethe location on the pier where vessel impact loads are applied. The intent of the vessel collision provisions is to In determining vessel collision loads. The vessel I transit paths in the waterway in relation to the I navigation channel and the bridge piers can affect the I risk of aberrant vessels hitting the piers and the exposed portions of the superstructure. due to inertia forces which are often coupled with the current flow. a probabilistically based. berms. User=. to steel-hulled merchant ships larger than 1000 DWT and to inland waterway barges.84 COPYRIGHT 2002. and the susceptibility of the superstructure to vessel hits. The channel layout and geometry can affect the 0 Available water depth. and/or drifting in all waterways and the mast impact of a drifting ship in deep draft waterways is specified because of the 0 Adequately protected by fenders. 3 . the water level used can have a significant effect on the structural requirements for the pier andlor pier protection design. In addition. type. loading condition. The requirements are applicable vessels using the waterway. the largest vessel size that can o Vessel speed and direction. worst-case. . especially in the transverse direction. I of bends and intersections with other waterways and I the presence of other bridge crossings nearthe bridge I increase the probability of accidents. The maneuverability of ships is reduced by the low underkeel clearance typical in inland waterways. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. vessels are susceptible to wind gusts that could push them into the bridge. A minimum impact requirement from an empty barge 0 Designed to resist vessel collision forces. or other sacrificable devices. ships riding in ballast can be greatly affected by winds and currents. consideration shall minimize the risk of catastrophic failure of bridges be given to the relationship of the bridge to: crossing navigable waterways due to collisions by aberrant vessels. The collision impact forces represent 0 Waterway geometry. tows experience a sliding effect in a direction opposite to the direction of the turn. Shallow underkeel clearance can also affect the hydrodynamic forces during a collision increasing the collision energy. especially near bends and in waterways with high stream velocities and cross currents. When under ballast. waterways. head-on collision.

14. The design vessel size and impact loads can vary greatly among the components of the same structure.5 The annual frequency of a bridge component collapse shall be taken as: Various types of risk assessment models have been developed for vessel collision with bridges by I researchers worldwide (IABSE 1983. C3.14. and the design velocity of vessels for the bridge.4 A design vessel for each pier or span component shall be selected. Modjeski and I Masters 1984. The design vessels shall be selected on the basis of the bridge importance classification and the vessel. o 0 o 3.14. and vessel traffic characteristics. is compared to an acceptance criterion.14. bridge geometry. AF. For such locations. Critical bridges shall continue to function after an impact. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. The analysis procedure is an iterative process in which a trial design vessel is selected for a bridge component and a resulting AF is computed using the characteristics of waterway. and waterway characteristics. Practically -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- 3 . This AF is compared to the acceptance criterion.5. even though repairs are needed. Location and clearances of bridge pier and span components. The Owner shall specify or approve the degree of damage that the bridge components. available water depth.S T D * A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1798 Section 3 . depending upon the waterway geometry. I SPECIFICATIONS 3. but should not collapse and should remain serviceable.3 For the purpose of Article 3. Resistance of piers and superstructures. .5 Annual Frequency of Collapse C3.2 Owner's Responsibility COMMENTARY C3. and Use of protective systems to either reduce or eliminate the collision forces. shall be determined for all bridges located in navigable waterways.2. the vessel traffic density in the waterway. (23.3 Importance Categories Pier protection systems may also be warranted for bridges over navigable channels transversed only by pleasure boats or small commercial vessels.Loads and Load Factors (SI) Ob39804 005750b 27b . are allowed to sustain.14. and revisions to the analysis variables are made as necessary to achieve compliance. An analysis of the annual frequency of collapse is performed for each pier or span component exposed to collision. the probability of which is smaller than regular bridges.14. an importance classification. The design vessel is selected using a probabilitybased analysis procedure in which the predicted annual frequency of bridge collapse. bridge. including protective systems. is less than the acceptance criterion for the component. bridge. User=. either "critical" or "regular". and vessel fleet. dolphins and fender systems are commonly used to protect the pier and to minimize the hazards of passage under the bridge for the vessels using the waterway. 3. 3. Prucz 1987 and Larsen 1993).14. as specified in Article 3.85 COPYRIGHT 2002.14.2 The Owner shall establish and/or approve the bridge importance classification. a design vessel and its associated collision loads can be determined for each pier or span component. From this analysis.4 Design Vessel This article implies that a critical bridge may be damaged to an extent acceptable to the Owner.14.14.14. The primary variables that the designer can usually alter include the: 0 Location of the bridge in the waterway. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. due to vessels not smaller than the design vessel. such that the estimated annual frequency of collapse computed in accordance with Article 3.

1998 Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI) = Ob39804 0057507 102 m - SPECIFICATIONS AF = COMMENTARY (3.1 VESSEL FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION The number of vessels. these vessel transit path centerlines coincide with the centerline of the navigable channel. the vessel transit path centerline of the inbound and outbound vessels should be taken as the centerline of each half of the channel. shall be taken as 0. classified by type.14. LOA. -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- . The inverse of the annual frequency of collapse. for the total bridge.14. the acceptance criterion for the annual frequency of collapse for each pier and span component shall be determined by distributing the total bridge acceptance criterion over the number of pier and superstructure components located within the distance 3. Both a probability of occurrence of an event and the magnitude of its consequences are involved. respectively. AF. AF.0 times LOA.0 times LOA on each side of the inbound and outbound vessel transit centerline paths. User=. that utilize the channel the probability of vessel aberrancy the geometric probability of a collision between an aberrant vessel and a bridge pier or span the probability of bridge collapse due to a collision with an aberrant vessel PA = PG = PC = AF shall be computed for each bridge component and vessel classification.1 In developing the design vessel distribution. for the whole bridge. (N)(PA)(PG)(PC) where: AF = N = annual frequency of bridge component collapse due to vessel collision the annual number of vessels. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.5-1) all of these models are based on a form similar to Equation 1.14. For wide Waterways with widths greater than 6. The preferred method is to apportion the risk to each pier and span component on the basis of its percentage value to the replacement cost of the structure in the central analysis area. For regular bridges. This method is usually not desirable because it fails to take into account the importance and higher cost of most main span components.0 times the length overall of the design vessel.0001. The summation of AFs computed over all of the vessel classification intervals for a specific component equals the annual frequency of collapse of the component. One method is to equally spread the acceptable risk among all the components. Risk can be defined as the potential realization of unwanted consequences of an event.5. based on size. Based on historical collision data. the designer should first establish the number and characteristics of the vessels using the navigable waterway or channel under the bridge. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. Where two-way vessel traffic exists under the bridge. and loading condition. C3. is equal to the return period in years. For most bridges.5. a differentiation between the number and loading condition 3 . type.86 COPYRIGHT 2002. size.001. 1/AF. the primary area of concern for vessel impact is the central portion of the bridge near the navigation channel. shall be taken as 0. The annual frequency of collapse for the total bridge shall be taken as the sum of all component AFs. Because the water depth limits the size of vessel that could strike a 3. over the number of pier and span components located in the waterway. which is used to compute the annual frequency of bridge collapse. AF.0 times LOA on each side of the inbound and outbound vessel transit path centerlines. the maximum annual frequency of collapse. associated with a particular bridge component. Depending on waterway conditions. AF. Defining an acceptable level of risk is a value-oriented process and is by nature subjective (Rowe 1977). The distribution of the AF acceptance criterion among the exposed pier and span components is based on the Designer's judgment. and loading condition and available water depth shall be developed for each pier and span component to be evaluated. For waterways with widths less than 6. the maximum annual frequency of collapse. N. For critical bridges. the acceptance criterion for the annual frequency of collapse for each pier and superstructure component shall be determined by distributing the total bridge acceptance criterion. The limits of this area extend to a distance of 3.

3 . . The Designer should use judgment in developing a distribution of the vessel frequency data based on discrete groupings or categories of vessel size by D W . . ship or barge. Vertical clearances.e.Loads and Load Factors (SI) 1998 Ob37804 n o 5 7 5 0 8 0 4 9 SPECIFICATIONS of vessels transiting inbound and outbound shall be considered.5. as required.S I .14.5.E N G L Section 3 . I the navigation conditions at the bridge site. on the basis of the water depth at each bridge component to determine the number and characteristics of the vessels that could strike the pier or span component being analyzed. PA.vessel traffic managementsystems I and aids to navigation can improve the navigation I conditions and reduce the probability of aberrancy. Length overall. ¡. COMMENTARY bridge component. LOA. Width or beam. the navigable channel vessel frequency data can be modified. and Number of transits under the bridge each year. Size based on the vessel's deadweight tonnage. Vessel I traffic regulations. and not exceeding 50 O00 DVVT for ships larger than 100 O00 DWT. . ¡. Bow shape. Sources for the vessel data and typical ship and barge characteristics are included in the AASHTO Guide Specifications for Vessel Collision Design of Highway Bridges (1991). American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. Thus.2 PROBABILITY OF ABERRANCY 3.1 The probability of vessel aberrancy.5.1 General C3. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. Draft associated with each loading condition. 3.14.2. or empty.14. Inbound and outbound operating characteristics. ballasted. Loading condition.e. Vessel characteristics necessary to conduct the analysis include: Type.. partly loaded. B . User=. Displacement. Bow depth. It is recommended that the DVVT intervals used in developing the vessel distribution not exceed 20 O00 DVVT for vessels smaller than 100 O00 DVVT. may be I The probability of aberrancy is mainly related to determined by the statistical or the approximate method.87 -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- COPYRIGHT 2002. D .2. loaded. each component could have a different value of N.~ S T D a A A S H T O SRCH L R F D . DVVT..

14.88 COPYRIGHT 2002. as shown in Figure 1.14. The predicted PA value using these equations and the values determined from accident statistics are generally in agreement. although exceptions do occur.~ The correction factor for bridge location. Based on historical data.5. BR. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. it has been determined that the aberrancy rate for barges is usually two to three times that measured for ships in the same waterway.3 Approximate Method The probability of aberrancy may be taken as: (3. C3.14.2 The most accurate procedure for determining PA is to compute it using long-term vessel accident statistics in the waterway and data on the frequency of ship/barge traffic in the waterway during the same period of time (Larsen 1983). 3.2. An evaluation of accident statistics indicates that human error and adverse environmental conditions. -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- . 3.14. shall be taken as: 3 .Loads and Load Factors (SI) SPECIFICATIONS COMMENTARY The probability of aberrancy. of aberrancy shall be taken as: e For ships: BR 0 = 0. rammings. These influences have been indirectly included because the empirical equations were developed from accident data in which these factors had a part. User=. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. not mechanical failures.5. is a measure of the risk that a vessel is in trouble as a result of pilot error.6x Ir4 Forbarges: ER = I .S T D * A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1978 I Ob3780'i 0057507 T A C U I Section 3 .2 Statistical Method The probability of aberrancy may be computed on the basis of a statistical analysis of historical data on vessel collisions. Several influences. C3.3 Because the determination of PA based on actual accident data in the waterway is often a difficult and time-consuming process.14. The equations in this article are empirical relationships based on historical accident data. etc.5. are the primary reasons for accidents. R based . and groundings in the waterway and on the number of vessels transiting the waterway during the period of accident reporting. such as wind.5.3-1) probability of aberrancy aberrancy base rate correction factor for bridge location correction factor for current acting parallel to vessel transit path correction factor for cross-currents acting perpendicular to vessel transit path correction factor for vessel traffic density The base rate. ~ x I O . adverse environmental conditions.. were not directly included in the method because their effects were difficult to quantify. on the relative location of the bridge in either of three waterway regions. navigation aids. In the United States.2. sometimes referred to as the causation probability.2. an estimated 60 percent to 85 percent of all vessel accidents have been attributed to human error. Data from ship simulation studies and radar analysis of vessel movements in the waterway have also been used to estimate PA. an alternative method for estimating PA was established during the development of the AASHTO Guide Specification on Vessel Collision Design of Highway Bridges. PA. It should be noted that the procedure for computing PA using Equation I should not be considered to be either rigorous or exhaustive.2.2.5. pilotage. or mechanical failure. visibility conditions.

3-6) 3 .2.14. R.5. for cross-currents acting R perpendicular to the vessel transit path in the waterway shall be taken as: | || | |||| || Figure 3.14. o = 1 +- e 90" (3.Loads and Load Factors (SI) 3798 Ob3980LI 0057530 7T7 M SPECIFICATIONS 0 COMMENTARY (3...5. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. Turn in Chand TRDNSITICN fiEGION TWNSITION REGION b.2.0 + 0..14.A A S H T O S R C H LRFD-SI-ENGL Section 3 .54Vxc (3.2.3-5) 19 where: V .14.89 COPYRIGHT 2002.5.0 For transition regions: o R. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. = current velocity component parallel to the vessel transit path (km/h) TURN REGION STRAIGHT EGION TRANSITION REGION a.Waterway Regions for Bridge Location | ||||||| | | || --- . = 1.3-1 . for currents acting parallel to the vessel transit path in the waterway shall be taken as: R.3-4) 9 = angle of the turn or bend specified in Figure 1 (DEG) The correction factor..2.5. User=.3-2) For straight regions: R. = 1.5.3-3) For turn/bend regions: 9 R. BondinChmnd R. = I+ - vc (3.5.2.2.14. -- | || | || ||| The correction factor.S T D . .14. = i + 45 where: O (3.

Width..2.. (3.14. a.3-8) High density . or overtake each other in the immediate vicinity of the bridge: R = 1.5. and Vessel draft. Environmental conditions.3-9) C3.3 The geometric probability. as specified in Figure I. Analysis of past collision accidents has shown that fixed bridges with a main span less than two to three times the design vessel length or less than two times the channel width are particularly vulnerable to vessel collision. Sailing path of vessel. Rudder angle at time of failure.14. LOA. and shape of vessel. Variousgeometric probability models.14. or overtake each other in the immediate vicinity of the bridge: R = 1. PG.Loads and Load Factors (SI) me. or overtake each other in the immediate vicinity of the bridge: R.14.The standard deviation. or it may be determined for all classification intervals using the B of the design M vessel selected in accordance with Article 3. B . PG. PG shall be determined based on the width. = 1. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.3-7) o Average density .5. have been recommended and used on different bridge projects and for the 3 .6 . it is aberrant. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.14.vessels routinely meet. pass. Water depths of waterway.vessels rarely meet. pass.5. of each M vessel classification category. User=. m O L ~ I W Oo~ s 7 5 ï r ~ b 3 3 o rn SPECI FICATIONS where: V .5.. 3. in the vicinity of the bridge. pass.4. I I I I I I I l I I The horizontal clearance of the navigation span has a significant impact on the risk of vessel collision with the main piers. of the design vessel selected in accordance with Article 3.0 .90 COPYRIGHT 2002. .S T D ~ A A S H T OS R C H LRFD-SI-ENGL Section 3 . and velocity of vessel.3 GEOMETRIC PROBABILITY A normal distribution may be utilized to model the sailing path of an aberrant vessel near the bridge. heading. The geometric probability. length. Span clearances. ¡.2. -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- (3.4. Location. is defined as the conditional probability that a vessel will hit a bridge pier or superstructure component. The probability of occurrence depends on the following factors: Geometry of waterway.14. R .5. shall be selected on the basis of the chiplbarge traffic density level in the waterway in the immediate vicinity of the bridge defined as: o Low density .vessels occasionally meet.3 (3. The location of the mean of the standard distribution shall be taken at the centerline of the vessel transit path. Maneuvering characteristics of vessel.e. given that it has lost control.2. COMMENTARY = current velocity component perpendicular to the vessel transit path (kmlh) The correction factor for vessel traffic density. shall be taken as the area under the normal distribution bounded by the pier width and the width of the vessel on each side of the pier.some based on simulation studies.14. Location of bridge piers. of the normal distribution shall be assumed to be equal to the length overall.

09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.91 -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- COPYRIGHT 2002. the bridge probability of collapse resistance of bridge component to a horizontal force expressed as pier resistance. then PC=O.5.5. Where the pier or superstructure impact resistance is below 10 percent of the collision force.14. From this figure. other than the minimum impact requirement of Article 3. type. shall be taken as: . Until such data and research become available. Although barge accidents occur relatively frequently in United States waterways. Modjeski and Masters 1984. Descriptions of these models may be found in (IABSE 1983.4 The probability that the bridge will collapse once it has been struck by an aberrant vessel.4-3) Where the pier or superstructure impact resistance exceeds the vessel collision impact force of the design vessel.- ( 3 (3.0 s H/P < 0. Figure C I is a plot of the probability of collapse relationships.I (3. the bridge collapse probability varies linearly between 0. PC.Geometric Probability of Pier Collision 3.1. Prucz 1987. and mass. X INTERSECTION PATH TO CENTERLHE OF PIER - Figure 3. including the towboat. then PC where: PC = H = = 0. H to the vessel impact force.14.111 I . H and . .1 5 HIP < 1. then PC=O. The accident data used to develop the PG methodology primarily represents ships. span.14.4-1) o If 0. and that bridge components located beyond 30 from the centerline of the vessel transit path not be included in the analysis. PC.0 and 0.1 . The method used to determine PG herein is similar to that proposed by Knott et al.4-2) 0 If HIP t 1.14. direction.14. User=. it is recommended that the same a = LOA developed for ships be applied to barges with the barge LOA equal to the total length of the barge tow. The methodology for estimating PC was developed by Cowiconsult (1987) from studies performed by Fujii and Shiobara ( I978) using Japanese historical damage data on vessels colliding at sea. 0 C3.5. It is recommended that a = LOA of the design vessel for computing PG. the bridge collapse probability becomes O. superstructure resistance.14.5.0 (3.1 + 9 0. based on the ratio of the ultimate lateral resistance of the pier.- i . American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. The use of a normal distribution is based on historical ship/bridge accident data.1.5. (1985). H (N) o o 3 . .0. H or . speed. configuration. is complex and is a function of the vessel size. Where the pier or superstructure impact resistance is in the range 10 percent to 100 percent of the collision force of the design vessel.1O. P.A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1'198 I Ub3980Li 011575112 5 7 T Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI) - SPEC1FICATIONS COMMENTARY development of general design provisions. the following results are evident: o If 0.O. The damage to bridge piers is based on ship damage data because accurate damage data for collision with bridges is relatively scarce.14.3-1 . It is also dependent on the nature of the collision and stiffnessístrength characteristic of the bridge pier and superstructure to resist the collision impact loads.4 PROBABILITY OF COLLAPSE The probability of bridge collapse.0.5.S T D . Larsen 1993). there have been little published research findings concerning the distribution of barge accidents over a waterway.

14.2.o. LOA.3. User=. The selection of the design collision velocity is one of the most significant design parameters associated with the vessel collision requirements.0 times LOA in Figure 1 to define the limits at which the design velocity becomes equal to that of the water current was based on the observation that very few accidents. .. 1O and 1. minimum design impact velocity taken as not less than the yearly mean current velocity for the bridge location (m/s) distance to face of pier from centerline of channel (mm) distance to edge of channel (mm) distance equal to 3.5. . COPYRIGHT 2002.4-I 3. The use of the distance 3. A different vessel velocity may be required for inbound 3 .10-1. and 3. etc.14.6 The design collision velocity may be determined as specified in Figure 1 for which: | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- The length overall.14.14. are moving at velocities approaching that of ships and barges in the main navigation channel. have historically occurred beyond that boundary. 3. a triangular distribution was chosen because of its simplicity as well as its reasonableness in modeling the aberrant vessel velocity situation. I 0.10... o. Judgment should be exercised in determining the appropriate design velocity for a vessel transiting the waterway. P or P T M.14. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. Aberrant vessels located at long distances from the channel are usually drifting with the current.14. Aberrant vessels.92 Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. opposing traffic. This data indicated that aberrant ships and barges that collide with bridge piers further away from the channel are moving at reduced velocities compared with those hitting piers located closer to the navigable channel limits. The exact distribution of the velocity reduction is unknown.6 Design Collision Velocity -- .Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (St) - SPECIFICATIONS P = vessel impact force. The chosen velocity should reflect the "typical" transit velocity of the design vessel under "typical" conditions of wind. However.Probability of Collapse Distribution C3. specified in Articles 3. current. P P. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office | || | || ||| design impact velocity (mls) typical vessel transit velocity in the channel under normal environmental conditions but not taken to be less than V (mís) .10. 3.. visibility. located very near the channel.8. respectively (N) COMMENTARY collapse probability varies linearly between O.5 LILTIMATE BRIDGE ELEMEM STRENGTH VESSEL IMPPCT FORCE Figure C3. other than with drifting vessels. waterway geometry.14. . for barge tows shall be taken as the total length of the tow plus the length of the tugltow boat.0 times the length overall of the design vessel (mm) A triangular distribution of collision impact velocity across the length of the bridge and centered on the centerline of the vessel transit path in the channel was based on historical accident data..

14. The hydrodynamic mass coefficient.7 Vessel Collision Energy C3. SPECIFICATIONS 3 "1 O XC XL X DISTANCE FROM OF VESSEL TRANSIT PATH ( X I Figure 3. consideration should be given to flood flow velocities in determining the minimum collision velocity. The vessel mass. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.O5 (3.25 (3. the design velocity should not be based on extreme values representing extreme events. taken as: o If underkeel clearance exceeds 0.14. for loaded vessels. It should be noted that these hydrodynamic mass coefficients are smaller than those normally used for ship berthing computations. M.5 x draft: C =I . In waterways subject to seasonal flooding.93 -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- COPYRIGHT 2002. or the mass of water ballast for vessels transiting in an empty or lightly loaded condition. C shall be . plus consideration of the mass of cargo.14.7 - The kinetic energy of a moving vessel to be absorbed during a noneccentric collision with a bridge pier shall be taken as: KE = 500CHMV2 (3.14. The underkeel clearance shall be taken as the distance 3 . . The mass for barge tows shall be the sum of the mass of the tughow vessel and the combined mass of a row of barges in the length of the tow.A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 3998 Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI) - M Ob37804 0 0 4 8 b L ï T Z L COMMENTARY vessels than for outbound vessels given the presence of currents that may exist in the waterway. such as exceptional flooding and other extreme environmental conditions.1 x draft: C =I . in which a relatively large mass of water moves with the vessel as it approaches a dock from a lateral.7-2) 0 If underkeel clearance is less than 0. Recommendations for estimating C . In general.7-3) Values of C may be interpolated from the range shown .14. Vessels transiting under these conditions are not representative of the "annual average" situations reflecting the typical transit conditions.7-1) where: KE = M = C = H v = vessel collision energy (joule) vessel displacement tonnage (Mg) hydrodynamic mass coefficient vessel impact velocity (mls) Equation 1 is the standard mV/2 relationship for computing kinetic energy with conversion of units and incorporation of a hydrodynamic mass coefficient. . above for intermediate values of underkeel clearance. shall be based upon the loading condition of the vessel and shall include the empty mass of the vessel. account for the influence of the surrounding water upon the moving vessel. User=. .6-1 Design Collision Velocity Distribution 3. for vessels moving in a forward direction were based on studies by Saul and Svensson (1980) and data published by PIANC (1984). 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. direction.14.S T D . or broadside. C to .

09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. Geometry of the collision. and the selection of a 70 percent fractile force for use as an equivalent static impact force for bridge design.8-1) o Structural type and shape of the ship's bow.O and 1:7.14. User=.5. . the triangular probability density function used to model the scatter. Using a 70 percent fractile force for a given design vessel.8 The head-on ship collision impact force on a pier shall be taken as: P.14. and Geometry and strength characteristics of the pier.8 Ship Collision Force on Pier COMMENTARY C3. Degree of water ballast carried in the forepeak of the bow. 3. Figure C2 indicates typical ship impact forces computed with Equation 1. Size and velocity of the ship. Woisin's results have been found to be in good agreement with the results of research conducted by other ship collision investigators worldwide (IABSE 1983).2~70~ V@W (3.Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI) - S T D . where: ps = equivalent static vessel impact force (N) 0 0 DWT = deadweight tonnage of vessel (Mg) = vessel impact velocity (m/s) v o Equation 1 was developed from research conducted by Woisin (1976) in West Germany to generate collision data with a view to protecting the reactors of nuclearpowered ships from collisions with other ships. COPYRIGHT 2002. = The determination of the impact load on a bridge structure during a ship collision is complex and depends on many factors as follows: 0 1.A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 Ob39804 0048bL8 9b8 SPECIFICATIONS between the bottom of the vessel and the bottom of the waterway. the number of smaller ships with a crushing strength greater than this force would be approximately equal to the number of larger ships with a crushing strength less than this force. Figure C l indicates the scatter in Woisin's test data due to the various collision factors discussed herein.14. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- 3 . The ship collision data resulted from collision tests with physical ship models at scales of 1:lZ.94 Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.

95 -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- COPYRIGHT 2002.8-1 Probability Density Function o Ship f Imriact Force Data Ship Size xi000 DWT\@ - 3501 \ / Impact Speed (kmlhr) Figure C3.Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI) - SPECIFICATIONS COMMENTARY 700 -1 I .14. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.14.14.8-2 -Typical Ship Impact Forces 3. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.14. . crushed by impact with a rigid object. / at 70 % Fraci~ie. Ps=1X l O ' J D W T IMPACT FORCE 400 x108 N 3 0% Density Fundion I 50 I 100 I 150 I 200 I 250 I - 300 SHIP SIZE ( X I W O O W T ) Figure C3. User=. "a.9 The horizontal length of the ship's bow. such that: 3 .9 Ship Bow Damage Length C3. shall be taken as: The average bow damage length." is computed based on the impact force averaged against the work path. P(a).

= ship bow impact force on an exposed superstructure (N) = = ratio of exposed superstructure depth to the total bow depth ship impact force specified in Equation 3. User=.14.2-1) PH D C3.10.A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL L77d I Ob378Ual 005’7515 Z A Y H I Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI) - SPECIFICATIONS a.54 coefficient used to compute the design ship damage depth in Equation I results from the multiplication of the following factors: 1.I provide a similar level of design safety as that used to compute P.14.14.14.14. . P . American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. = RBHPS (3.14.8-1 (N) For the purpose of this article. 3.25 to account for the increase in average impact force over time versus damage length. exposure is the vertical overlap between the vessel and the bridge superstructure with the depth of the impact zone.1-1) where: P .14. 0 KE = P = . 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.14.9-1) a KE = - Wal (C3.10. and = ship deck house impact force (N) = reduction factor specified herein P .10.1 Limited data exists on the collision forces between ship bows and bridge superstructure components.14.. = bow damage length of ship (mm) vessel collision energy (joule) ship impact force as specified in Equation 3.S T D .8-1 (N) The 1.7~10~for the deck house collision of a N 1O0 O00 DWT tanker ship. = 2. 3 .. 1.9-I) where: a . = 1.2 I According to the Great Belt Bridge investigation in Denmark (Cowiconcult 1981) forces for deck house collision with a bridge superstructure were: = 5 .14. and I 1 to provide an increase in the damage length to .10.96 -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- COPYRIGHT 2002. R H .54x7û3( z) COMMENTARY (3.14. 3 ~ 1 0 ~ the deck house collision of a N for 1000 DWT freighter ship. .1 COLLISION WITH BOW The bow collision impact force on a superstructure shall be taken as: ‘BH C3.10.11 to account for the increase in average impact force to the 70 percent design fractile.10.10 Ship Collision Force on Superstructure 3.2 COLLISION WITH DECK HOUSE The deck house collision impact force on a superstructure shall be taken as: PDH R d ” = where: PH D RH D (3. 0 3.

PH D = ship mast impact force (N) = ship deck house impact force specified in Equation 3. | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- . which has a similar bow to the standard hopper barge in the United States.STD. The barge collision impact forces determined by Equations 1 and 2 were developed from research conducted by Meir-Dornberg (1983) in West Germany.1) P .14.1 I Barge Collision Force on Pier For the purpose of Article 3. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. the standard hopper barge shall be taken as an inland river barge with: width length depth emptydraft loadeddraft mass = 10700 mm = 60000mm = 3700mm = 520mm = = 2700mm 1540Mg The collision impact force. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. 2 P.14. where: P. R H shall be D taken as 0.14.11-1) There is less reported data on impact forces resulting from barge collisions than from ship collision.14.0.AASHT0 SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 Section 3 .14. = 3 .1O .14. No significant difference was found between the static and dynamic forces measured during the study.97 COPYRIGHT 2002. The results for the standard European Barge.14. PB = 6. N. ps = ship impact force as specified in Equation 3. 0 ~ 7 0+~ 1600aB (3. the approximate empirical relationship of Equation 1 was developed for selecting superstructure design impact values for deck house collision.10.10( DWT 100 O00 ) (3. 3. on a pier for a standard hopper barge shall be taken as: o If a < 100 mm then: . Meir-Dornberg's study included dynamic loading with a pendulum hammer on barge bottom models in scale 1:4.1 1-2) E = . 3.14.14. = = 6 .14.2-1 (N) C3.8-1 (N) For ships exceeding 100 O00 DWT.Loads and Load Factors ( I S) SPECIFICATIONS Ob39604 0048621 452 COMMENTARY Based on these values.3 Equation 1 was developed by estimating the impact forces based on bridge girder and superstructure damage from a limited number of mast impact accidents. static loading on one bottom model in scale 1:6. Typical barge tow impact forces using Equations 1 and 2 are shown in Figure C2.11 3.5.2-2) C3.10.2 .12-1 (mm) a . Type Ha.14. are shown in Figure C i for barge deformation and impact loading.10 PDH where: (3.10.1 O.3 COLLISION WITH MAST The mast collision impact force on a superstructure shall be taken as: PMT = 0. For ships smaller than 100 O00 DWT: RDH = 0.14. and numerical analysis. User=. - deformation energy (joule) average equivalent static barge impact force resulting from the study (N) pB = equivalent static barge impact force (N) barge bow damage length specified in Equation 3.10. where: -| || O If a .0x7û4aB 100 mm then: (3.

I . Deformation 1-1 Energy. -- 3 .1) (3.98 | || | || ||| a.- v> O O 0. (m) Figure C3.30 14 - 12 /25 10 - 20 'Do -15 -10 7 X w .12 COPYRIGHT 2002.5 1 15 2.14.3xfû-'ñE . COMMENTARY . as discussed in Article C3. | ||||||| | | || --- Figure C3.14.5 I I I I O 3. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.Barge Impact Force. = 3100(J1 + 1.A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 Ob37804 004Bb22 379 SPECIFICATIONS The impact force for design barges larger than the standard hopper barge shall be determined by increasing the standard hopper barge impact force by the ratio of the larger barge's width to the width of the standard hopper barge. barge collisions by Meir-Dornberg. and Damage Length Data 30 20 W - O z " O 5 10 15 Impact Speed (km Ihr) 20 30 3. a was developed from the same research conducted on .12 Barge Bow Damage Length C3. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.11.14.14.5 m W 3 O .0 25 30 a .14. User=.Typical Hopper Barge Impact Forces .12-1) | || | |||| || The barge bow horizontal damage length for a standard hopper barge shall be taken as: The relationship for barge horizontal damage length.Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI) - S T D .11-2 .14.

pile-supported structures.14. COMMENTARY = barge bow damage length (mm) vessel collision energy (joule) C3. 3. The second option is to provide a protective system of fenders. exposed to physical contact by any portion of the design vessel's hull or bow. islands. Crushing of the vessel's bow causing contact with any setback portion of the substructure shall also be considered. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. pier protection may be provided for the bridge structure to eliminate or reduce the vessel collision loads applied to the bridge structure to acceptable levels. The bow overhang.14. Two basic protection options are available to the bridge designer. 0 Ai\ components of the substructure. equivalent static forces.14. As an alternative.14. 3 99 - Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. either to reduce the magnitude of the impact loads to less than the strength of the bridge pier or superstructure components or to independently protect those components.14. or 50 percent of the design impact force in the direction normal to the direction of the centerline of the channel.1 100 percent of the design impact force in a direction parallel to the alignment of the centerline of the navigable channel. The requirements for either of these two options are general in nature because the actual design procedures that could be used vary considerably. the design must incorporate redundancy or other means to prevent collapse of the superstructure. shall be applied separately as follows: 0 C3.Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI) - COPYRIGHT 2002.. movided that sufficient ductilitv and redundancv of the remainina structure exists in the extreme event limit state to prevent catastroohic suoesstpucture collame. parallel and normal to the centerline of the navigable channel. dolphins. Because little information is available on the behavior of the inelastic deformation of materials and structures during the type of dynamic impacts associated with vessel impact. The first option involves designing the bridge to withstand the impact loads in either an elastic or inelastic manner.1 SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN For substructure design. rake. etc.14. assumptions based on experience and sound engineering practice should be substituted.13 Damage at the Extreme Limit State Inelastic behavior and redistribution of force effects is Permittedin substructureand superstructure comoonents. . or flair distance of ships and barges shall be considered in determining the portions of the substructure exposed to contact by the vessel. User=. shall be designed to resist the applied loads.14.14 Application of Impact Forces 3. This is particularly true for inelastic design. If the response to collision is inelastic.13 KE = 3. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- SPECIFICATIONS where: a .

Ship and barge bow rake lengths are often large enough that they can even extend over protective fender systems and contact vulnerable bridge components.14. The Sunshine Skyway Bridge in Tampa Bay.1-1 Impacting Pier - Plan of Ship Bow Overhang M FENDER i1 l I Figure 3.14.14. The ship's bow is considered to be raked forward in determining the potential contact area of the impact force on the substructure. p BRIDGE Figure 3. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. as shown in Figures C I and C2.1-2 -Ship impact Line Load on Pier Figure C3. as shown in Figure 1.Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI) - SPECIFICATIONS The impact force in both design cases. Bow shapes and dimensions vary widely.14. assuming that the vessel impact acts as a concentratedforce at the waterline. COMMENTARY Two cases should be evaluated in designing the bridge substructure for vessel impact loadings: The overall stability of the substructure and foundation.14. the local collision force is taken as a vertical line load equally distributed on the depth of the head block. Typical bow geometry data is provided in AASHTO (1991). and The ability of each component o the substructure to f withstand any local collision force resulting from a vessel impact. the design impact force is applied as a vertical line load equally distributed along the ship's bow depth.1-2 .Barge Impact Force on Pier Figure C3.14.14. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. collapsed in 1980 as a result of the ship's bow impacting a pier column at a point 12 800 mm above the waterline. the design impact force is applied as a concentrated force on the substructure at the mean high water level of the waterway. Florida.1-3 . -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- .14. For barge impact.1-1 Ship Impact Concentrated Force on Pier - Li 1 %wfIü///Z I LOADED /mLLPSTED DRAFT Figure 3.14. User=. specified herein. and the designer may need to perform special studies to establish vessel bow geometry for a particular waterway location. as shown in Figure 3.100 COPYRIGHT 2002. as shown in Figure 2. The need to apply local collision forces on substructures exposed to contact by overhanging portions of a ship or barge's bow is well documented by accident case histories. and For local collision forces.14. shall be applied to a substructure in accordance with the following criteria: For overall stability.Elevation of Barge Bow Impacting Pier 3 .

Severe damage and/or collapse of the protection system may be permitted. 3. The development of bridge protection alternatives for vessel collisions generally follow three approaches: 0 Reducing the annual frequency of collision events. For the trial. pile-supported structures.14. including fenders.E N G L Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI) 1995 I Ob39804 00575Lb 115 I I - SPECIFICATIONS 3. for example.14. 3 .STD. by improving navigation aids near a bridge.15 Protection of Substructures COMMENTARY C3. The area under the diagram is the energy capacity of the protective system.14. the water depth. by physical protection and motorist warning systems. The forces and energy capacity of the protective system is then compared with the design vessel impact force and energy to see if the vessel loads have been safely resisted. Reducing the probability of collapse. vessel-type and characteristics.15 Protection may be provided to reduce or to eliminate the exposure of bridge substructures to vessel collision by physical protection systems. C3. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. or Reducing the disruption costs of a collision. the design impact force shall be applied as an equivalent static force transverse to the superstructure component in a direction parallel to the alignment of the centerline of the navigable channel. islands.2 SUPERSTRUCTURE DESIGN For superstructure design. The kinetic impact energy is dissipated by the work done by flexure.2 The ability of various portions of a ship or barge to impact a superstructure component depends on the available vertical clearance under the structure. torsion. It is assumed that the loss of kinetic energy of the vessel is transformed into an equal amount of energy absorbed by the protective structure. dolphins. Design of a protective system is usually an iterative process in which a trial configuration of a protective system is initially developed. pile cluster. User=. The current practice in the design of protective structures is almost invariably based on energy considerations. and the loading condition of the vessel. . shear.101 -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- COPYRIGHT 2002.14. a force versus deflection diagram is developed via analysis or physical modeling and testing. the primary area of bridge protection to be considered by the designer are physical protection and motorist warning systems. and combinations thereof.14. for example. 0 0 Because modifications to navigation aids in the waterway and vessel operating conditions are normally beyond the bridge Designer's ability to implement.AASHT0 S R C H L R F D .14.S I . by imposing vessel speed restrictions in the waterway. for example. and displacement of the components of the protective system. provided that the protection system stops the vessel prior to contact with the pier or redirects the vessel away from the pier.

Clough." Technical note. P. Y. CBAiBuckland and Taylor. Vol. 1991. Transit New Zealand. Tables for the Calculation of Passive Pressure." In Ice Phvsics and Ice Enaineerina." Proceedings. 1974. TRB. New Zealand. FHWA-DP-68-1R Demonstration Project. Jerusalem. 1972. Prepared for Figg and Muller Engineers.J. P. Paper IBC-94-62. January 1987. G. 1990. F. September 1981. 1994. de L'Ecole Polytechnique. Lyngby. V. P. "General Principles for Risk Evaluation of Ship Collisions. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. and Y.Wagh. B. Fujii. Ilth 3 . 1988. The 1979 Survev of Commercial Vehicle Weiahts in Ontario." In Report No. "Ice Pressure on Individual Marine Structures. Strandings. Rexdale. and J. July 1982. "Earth Pressures. D. A. Shyaishstein. and T. 31. and Z. Active Pressure and Bearinn CaDacitv of Foundations. "Performance of Tied-Back Retaining Walls. Knobel.. and V. Bridae Manual: Desian and Evaluation.. Yakocev.. M. Duncan. Gauthier-Villars. D. 1971. D. 1992. "The Estimation of Losses Resulting from Marine Accidents. and R.. 1991. 439470. and I. D. Foundation Enaineerina Handbook.. Caquot. O'Rourke. PA. of the 1990 Soecialty Conference on Desian and Performanceof Earth Retaining Structures. Washington. Australia. No. US. GT 12.ASCE.. Cohen.. Ontario.. Desian of Hiahwav Bridaes. Kerisel. Department of Transportation. 1990." Journal of Naviqation. Cowiconsult." In Proc. pp. and Contact Incidents.. Van Nostrand Reinhold: New York. Cheney. AASHTO. H. 1981. No. Truck Weiaht Limits: Issues and Options. Washington. Ontario. User=. Special Report 225. D. Clough. Pittsburgh. ed. W. Design. C. Inc. pp.C. FHWA. S. Y. Shiobara. Canada. Draft. Israel. CANICSA-S6-88. G.R. . 515-516. Paris.Toronto. and J. Prepared for the British Columbia Ministry of Transportation and Highways. and S. W. AASHTO.C. I . Guide Specification and Commentarv for Vessel Collision Desian of Hiahwav Bridaes. Madrid. Permanent Ground Anchors. Bridae Desian Code.. Washington.. 1259-1273.C. Denmark." Proceeding No.Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (Si) - REFERENCES A Policv on Geometric Desian of Hinhwavs and Streets." Chapter 6. Clausen. pp. W. V. 5th European Conference on SMFE. Wellington. 3. Inc. Y. H. "Bridge Designfor Seismic PerformanceCategory B: The Problemwith Foundation International Bridge Conference. Johansen. 100. Ontario Ministry o f Transportation and Communications. "Annacis Island Bridge. "Earth Pressures MeasuredAgainst a Section of a Basement Wall. Cowiconsult." Journal of the Geotechnical Enaineerinq Division. ShiD Collision Risk Analvsis. Translated from the Russian by Israel Program for Scientific Translations. Hay Market. Csagoly. Canada. 1984. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. Afanas' Ev. Clough.. Sunshine Skvwav Bridae Ship Collision Risk Assessment. Washington.C. Canadian Standards Association. Libraire du Bureau des Longitudes. Dolgopolov. 1990. National Research Council. N. 1991. Tsui.. [ | | || ---| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| I Gajer . F. G.102 COPYRIGHT 2002. AUSTROADS. R. 132 pp. ed. "Construction-InducedMovements of In-Situ Walls. G. 1948. 1978. Fang. 2nd ed. Spain. Vol.

Modjeski and Masters.pp.Report No.. I 1 Mander." In vol I. 1995. April 14-18. Canadian Society for Civil Engineering. 1985.NO. M. Washington.103 COPYRIGHT 2002. ASCE. A. 1992. Field Measurement of Ice Forces on Bridqe Piers 1973-1979.. 496. Alberta. Bonyun. R. InternationalAssociation of Bridae and Structural Enqineers Colloquium.and D. Schamber. User=. Alberta Research Council. Thermal Effects in Concrete Bridae Suuerstructures.November. 1-9. ASCE. J. Donald. ASCE National Convention. Park.. and R. Hirsch. Quebec. "Risk Analysis for Ship-Bridge Collisions. Minimum Desiqn Loads for Buiidina and Other Structures." VDI-Berichte. Nutt. 1980. ASCE Standard ASCE 7-88. ASCE. Imbsen. Priestley. Switzerland. T.1983. Analvsis and Desiqn of Metrorail-RailroadBarrier Svstems. Wind Enqineerina: A Handbook for Structural Enqineers. K. of the 8th Annual International Bridqe Conference. Huiskamp." Journal I Structural Division. Matallana. | ||||||| -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | | || --- 1 Mander. I IABSE Structural EngineeringDocument 4..C.O.1985. "Probability Analysis of Historical Ice Jam Data for a Complex Reach: A Case Study. E.Zürich. Canada. Oregon. D. C. F. J. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. J. New Jersey. W. No. Huiskamp. D. Hanover. A.TRB. 1980. Priestley . J. Ice Force Measurements on Bridqe Piers.STD-AASHTO SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI) 1978 S Ub39tlUY 0057538 T 9 8 m - Gerard. B. Montgomery.Ship Collisionwith Bridqes The Interaction between Vessel Traffic and Bridae Structures. T. Bridqe Pier Desiqn for Ice Forces. R. R. Texas A&M University.4.. R.pp. Preprint 80-173. 1984. Canada. Kornelsen R. J. "Ship Collision Risk Assessment for Bridges.. N. and R. A. Vandershaf." In Proc. 1991. August. W. Gerard. Park. J. W. "Theoretical Stress-Strain Model for Confined Concrete. 1 3 . 1988. Gerard. 372-396. Baltimore. New York. J. N. M. New Hampshire.. SWE 83-1. Portland." Canadian Geotechnical Journal. F.1970. D. Cold Resions Ensineerina Specialty Conference. 1 Larsen. M. Consulting Engineers. Harrisburg. Larsen. Prentice Hall: Englewood Cliffs. Denmark. Pennsylvania.. Edmonton. Safety Zones and Loading Assumptions for Structures on Inland Waterways. 1993. V.Alberta Research Council. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory. J. Mertz. April 4-6. Wood. H.. IABSE-AIPC-IVBH. and S. W. Criteria for the Desiqn of Bridqe Piers with Respect to Vessel Collision in Louisiana Waterwavs. T. Vol. Meir-Dornberg. National Research Council. "A New Live Load Model for Bridge Design. Donald." Journal Structural Division. Haynes. 1989. 1988. Knott. R. Canada.pp. "Observed Stress-Strain Behavior of Confined Concrete. Ice Engineering. and G. "Application of Ice Engineering to Bridge Design Standards. Kulicki. and R. Report SWE 80-3. D. B. 1984. June 1991. Loads and Forces on Bridaes. W.S." Canadian Journal of Civil Ensineerinq.1996. Lipsett.. 1980-1982. Edmonton." Fourth Svmuosium on Coastal and Ocean Manaqement.pp. "The Behavior of Tied-Back Retaining Walls.pp. Alberta. 1983. R. R. 238-246. Montreal. New York. 7. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. Prepared for the Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development and the Federal Highway Administration. Liu.. Haynes. July 30-August 2." In Proc. H. U. ASCE. 1983. E. August. 795-810. . NCHRP Report 276. Private communications. and D. Damgaard. 113-128. Copenhagen. J. Stanely. D. 1988. Hanna. "Ship Collisions. J. A.

New York: ASCE. Ice Effects on Bridqes. and E. Jr. Y." In IABSE Proceedinqs. N. Tiebacks in Foundation Enqineerinq and Construction. Seismic Desiqn and Retrofit of Bridqes. Ministry o Transportation and Communications. 1991. Seible. Canada. J. Hanson.Vol. R.C. Uranowski. H. February 1980. Ontario. 1981. 51-82. Nicholson. Elastic Solutions for Soil and Rock Mechanics. Construction. 1992. Inc. "Dynamic Response of Bridge Piers to Ice Forces" Canadian Journal of Civil Enqineerinq. ASCE. M. C. Wycliffe-Jones. D. No. 432-441.. H. Roads and Transportation Association of Canada. Ann Arbor. P.S.S. "Design of Bridge Piers Against Ship Collision. 3. Wiley-lnterscience.. Wiley: New York. "Dynamic Tests and Analysis of a Massive Pier Subjected to Ice Forces. 1987. Washington. Lipsett. H. Potangaroa.Svensson. and A." In Proc. Seible and G. M. Report of the International Commission for Improvinq the Design of Fender Svstems. R. Ottawa. Permanent Ground Anchors: Nicholson Desiqn Criteria. ed. J. Priestley. Transportation and Road Research Laboratory. Belgium. "On the Theory of Ship Collision Against Bridge Piers. PIANC. 1976. (Edited by L.. M. T.Loads and Load Factors (SI) L77A 81 Ub37804 00575L1 124 Montgomery. Dvnamic Wheel Load Measurements on Motorwav Bridqes.. Thornburn. 305-341." Canadian Journal of Civil Enaineerina. "The Ultimate Failure of a Floating Ice Sheet.104 COPYRIGHT 2002. Canada. and H. "Ductility of Spirally Confined Concrete Columns. Conway.. Washington. Davis. N. 1976. Priestley. F. F. and T. W. Calibration of LRFD Bridge Desiqn Code. 1990.STDDAASHTO S R C H LRFD-SI-ENGL Section 3 . J. Department of Agriculture. R. f Toronto.. 1972. C. Rowe. W. 1992. Nevel . S. and A. Brussels. New York. pp. 3 . University of Michigan. R. Forest Service. 7. Calvi.. and P. International Association for Hvdraulic Research. 151pp.. Schnabel. D. 1974. 1980. Inspection and Maintenance. B. Berkshare. J." Journal Structural Division. D. D. 171 pp. San Diego. Inc. J. An Anatomv of Risk.. FHWNRD-81-151. E. 2. 1996. 1982.C. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. ice SvmDosium. 2. Montgomery. Department of Transportation. NCHRP Project 12-33. 1977 Saul. New York. Priestley. R.: New York. C.K. H. No. 1984 Ritter. Chai. T." Canadian Journal of Civil Enqineerinq. G. D. A. A. 2nd ed. pp. pp. Page. "Dynamic Ice Forces on Piers and Piles: An Assessment of Design Guidelines in the Light of Recent Research. Nowak. Peck. . Ontario Hiqhwav Bridqe Design Code. 1974 Poulos. Donald E. J. 1980. H. User=. Timber Bridqes: Desiqn. U. Neill. John Wiley and Sons. 1981. and W. Highway Engineering Division.. Tall): 209-223. R. U. J." Bridaes and Transmission Line | | || ---| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| Structures. Z. Foundation Enqineerinq.. Neill. Prucz. pp. Crowthorne. 3. McGraw-Hill Book: New York. FHWA. Vol. U. W. 17-22. Lipsett. M.. 7. John Wiley and Sons. Gerard. Parks. C .. R. No. M. W." University of California.Vol. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. pp.. January 1981. 345-356. N. B. "Design Guidelines for Assessment Retrofit and Repair of Bridges for Seismic Performance.: New York.

A." Journal of Geotechnical Engineering Division." In International Association of Bridae and Structural Engineers Colloauium. Vol. "The Collision Tests of the GKSS. Denmark. 1983.1 and DM-7. 2. 1976. Peck. GT5. Coastal Engineering Research Center. Virginia. 1984.S. Inc. 632-636. "Evaluating Calculated Risk in Geotechnical Engineering. D. 1982. Technical Report NAVFAC DM-7. 110. pp. 70. "Probability Charts for Predicting Ice Thickness. M.S. "Ship Collision with Bridges and Offshore Structures. pp. 3-105 -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- COPYRIGHT 2002. Copenhagen. 1982. 99. D. Ishibashi.. John Wiley and Sons. and R. B. 1967. Whitman.2. User=. pp. Zabilansky. Department of the Navy." In Jahrbuch der Schiffbautechnischen Gesellschaft. ST4. K. "Logarithmic Profiles and Design Wind Speeds. Vol. No. . American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. 1982. Hanover. Vermont. ASCE.. 465-487. Simiu." Enaineerina Journal. Special Report 96-6. April. U. 2nd ed. Ice Force and Scour Instrumentation for the White River.1. 1976. Vol. E. 1073-1083. Naval Facilities Engineering Command. 3-7. Berlin. Terzaghi. pp. "Earth Pressures Against Rigid Retaining Walls. 1934. "Equivalent Static Wind Loads for Tall Building Design. Woisin. I. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. 102. K. G.C." Journal of Geotechnical Enaineerina ASCE. February 1984. NAVFAC DM-7. October 1973.. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory. 143-188. pp.1.STD*AASWTO SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI) 1978 W Ob3980q 0057520 bqh - Sherif. P. No. 3 vols.729 pp.: New York. ASCE. May. Soil Mechanics in Enaineerina Practice. 1996. 4th ed. EM5. 719-737. Soil Mechanics. No. Vol. U S . pp. Department of the Navy. Vol. 6794395. Foundations and Earth Structures.'' Journal of the Structures Division. Naval Facilities Command. Lee." Engineering News Record. Williams. G. 244 pp. "Retaining Wall Design for Fifteen-Mile Falls Dam. ASCE. Washington. Shore Protection Manual. 348 pp." Journal of the Mechanic Division. Washington. Design Manual 7. E.C. and C. pp. June 1963. 108. D. Simiu. Alexandria. R. Terzaghi. Leonard J. New Hampshire.. U.

7.Bridge Importance Category I DETERMINE RESPONSE MODIFICATION FACTORS Article 3.’ AD EQUATE? IS BRIDGE SEISMIC DESIGN COMPLETE | | || --| ||||||| A3-1 COPYRIGHT 2002. User=.2 DISPLACEMENTS DISPLACEMENTS DISPLACEMENTS I DISPLACEMENTS Article4.9. -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || .10.S T D .4.Site Coefficient Articles 3.1 FORCES Article 3.Seismic Performance Zone .10.10.A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI) 1796 û b ~ 7 ô R l ifl057523i 5 8 2 S - I APPENDIXA APPLICABILITY OF SPECIFICATIONS Article 3.9.5 A . 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.4 1 I c DESIGN BRIDGE COMPONENTS C 1- COMPONENTS RESIZE t N o o .3.10. 1 A PRELIMINARY PLANNING AND DESIGN DETERMINE .1 O.Acceleration Coefficient No DETERMINE .10.7 I BRIDGE? SEISMIC ZONE 1 PERFORM BRIDGE Article 4 7 4 3 DETERMINE DESIGN Article 3 10 9 3 PERFORM BRIDGE Article 4 7 4 3 DETERMINE DESIGN Article 3 1O 9 4 F DETERMI C DESIGN 1 R E F Article 3.2 . American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.

11.4.5.2.3 & 5. Piersand Walls 115 7 Exheme Event LimitState i Settlement: 10.2 I I Bolts in Bearing: Zone 2: 5.s n e n - I c c BracingMembers: 6.2 L Battered Pi.7 Section6: Steel Seismic Provisions A General: 5.10.5.5 Extreme Event LimitState - OF BRIDGE COMPONENTS Cpt oo m.6.8.7.11.es: 10.2 & Members: Compression Members: 7 u sr cue S b tu t r Section 10: Foundations C o m p o n e n î s v Abutments.1.5.Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI) SEISMIC DESIGN 7 u esn t r S p r t i ue c Section5: Concrete Seismic Provisions 5.2.2.3 Compression Members: Aluminum Structures I A Bolts in Bearing: BracingMembers: 7.7. . 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.15.11.1 Zone 1: 5.6 Monombe-Okabe PseudoStaticApproach hoendix 11 I F Walk IE ConventionalRetaining l pikq A3-2 -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- COPYRIGHT 2002. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.10.8.7.5 86.13.6 - ConcreteShah and Piles: 10.4.7. User=.14.10.2 & 5.

the overstrength resistance increases. Also. User=. The other procedure is for a multiple column bent in the plane of the bent. Research has COPYRIGHT 2002.I I considerably less than the expected strain at maximum response to the design seismic event. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.5 f'.9.3a defines the forces resulting from plastic hinging. the actual concrete strength when a seismic event occurs is likely to significantly exceed the specified 28-day strength. One is for a single column hinging about its two principal axes. and 83 . Increase in ReinforcementStrength Almost all reinforcing bars will have a yield strength larger than the minimum specified value which may be up to 30 percent higher.4. with time. in the columns and presentstwo procedures. an increased concrete strength of 1.. A size and reinforcement ratio which forces the design below the nose of the interaction curve is preferable. it is realistic to assume an increased yield strength of 1. and perhaps other requirements.. In view of all the above. Concrete compression strength is further enhanced by the possible confinement provided by the transverse reinforcement.10. I I The effect of an increasedconcretestrength overthe specified f'.25 fy. Rapid loading due to seismic forces could also result in significant increase in strength. ¡. tests on l confined column sections show a marked increase in this value. Tests on cores taken from older California bridges built in the 1950s and 1960s have consistently yielded compression strength in excess of 1.003. I I I Column Size and ReinforcementConfiguration I The design engineer should select the minimum column section size and steel reinforcement ratio when I satisfying structural design requirements. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. l I The effect of an increased steel strength over the specified fy and for strain hardening effects. this is also applicable for piers and bents acting as single columns. The use of such a low extreme fiber strain is I I a very conservative estimate of strains at which crushing and spalling first develop in most columns. Combining this increasewith the effect of strain hardening. and confinement provided by the transverse I steel.5 f'.Section 3 Loads and Load Factors ( I S) - I I I I I I I I I I I l I I l l I I l I I l The actual size of the column and the actual amount of reinforcing steel.which may govern the design. and to be valid the design detail requirements of this section must be used so that plastic hinging of the columns can occur.e. The overstrength resistanceresults from actual properties being greaterthan the minimum specified values and is implementedby specifying resistancefactors greater than unity. the selection of size and reinforcement must also satisfy architectural. -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || l I | ||||||| I I | | || --- I . I I This may lead to an increase in the foundation size and cost.e. However. when computing the column overstrength. Therefore. This fact must be accounted for when forces generated by yielding of the column are used as design forces. concrete will gradually increase in strength. could be assumed in the calculation of the column overstrength resistance.) I Although tests on unconfined concrete show 0. a column reaching its ultimate moment capacity. The forces are based on the potential overstrength resistance of the materials.003 to be a reasonable strain at first crushing. strain rate effect. l 1 The effect of an actual concrete ultimate compressive strain above 0. this is a low estimate of the strength expected in the field. Concrete will also continue to gain strength with age. Increase in Concrete Strength Concrete strength is defined as the specified 28-day compression strength. Generally. I I I I APPENDIX B3 Article 3. As these parameters increase. Typically. especially in high seismic areas. conservativeconcrete batch designs result in actual 28-day strengths of about 20 to 25 percent higher than specified. overstrength resistance depends on the following factors: I I I l I Ultimate Compressive Strain (e. ¡. with an average increase of 12 percent..

Because of the consequences of a shear failure. these may occur at the top and bottom of the flare.3 times the nominal moment capacity. However.e. 1. it is recommended that: For all bridges with axial loads below P. For multiple column bents with a partial-height wall. . I I I I l I l I I I l I Table 83-1 . it is recommended that the approximate . and for all bridges in Zone 2 for which plastic hinging has been invoked.3 M curve. (minimum) I Increased f'. . The overstrength. designers could assume a value of ultimate strain equal to 0.3. overstrength curve be obtained by multiplying both P and M by cp = 1. computed with realistic f'. For bridges in Zones 3 and 4 with importance classification of "essential" or "critical". the design shear force must be calculated conservatively. . thus calculated. . For flared columns. Overstrength Capacity The derivation of the column overstrength capacity is depicted in Figure B3-1. the overstrength moment capacity be assumed to be 1. the overstrengthcurve for axial loads greater than P shall be approximated b by multiplying both P.. For columns with deeply embedded foundations. consideration must be given to the potential locations of plastic hinges. 83-2 -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- COPYRIGHT 2002. this curve may be in considerable error for axial loads above the nose of the interaction curve.. User=.Loads and Load Factors (SI).3 P 1.. it is recommendedthat conservatism be used in locating possible plastic hinges such that the smallest potential column length be used with the plastic moments to calculate the largest potential shear force for design. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584..' Section 3 . the plastic hinges will probably occur at the top of the wall unless the wall is structurally separated from the column.e. to the nominal strength interaction curve. ¡.3 factor for axial loads below . the overstrength curve . the thickness of clear concrete cover used to compute the section overstrength shall not be taken to be greater than 50 mm.3 P..3. For bridges in Zones 3 and 4 with importanceclassification of "other". In calculating the column or pile bent shear force.Recommended Increased I Values of Materials Properties I I II Increased f. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. the nose of the interaction curve. For calculation purposes. This reduced section shall be adequate for all applied loads associated with the plastic hinge. In the light of the above discussion. the general shape of the actual curve very closely at all levels of axial loads.3 M. as shown.. P. ¡.01 and higher as the likely magnitude of ultimate compressive strain. Shear Failure I 0. fy and E. should not be less than the value estimated by the approximate curve based on 1. I I) I 1 Increased E. and M by cp = 1.01 I I I I The shear mode of failure in a column or pile bent will probably result in a partial or total collapse of the bridge: therefore. M It is generally satisfactory to approximate the .3 M This curve follows . - I I I I I l I I I I I I I I I I I I l supported strains on the order of 0.01 as a realistic value. overstrength capacity curve by multiplying the nominal moment strength by the 1.. the plastic hinge may occur above the foundation mat or pile cap.. Therefore.25 fy ISf'.S I EN G 1. The effect of higher material properties than specified is illustrated by comparing the actual overstrength curve. . for axial loads greater than Pb shall be computed using realistic values for f'. I I I I I I I I I I I I I I.. P. the plastic hinge may occur above the calculated point of fixity. . values. Therefore. 1. fy and E as recommended in Table B3-I or from values based on actual test results. For pile bents. 1.S T D AASHTO SRC H LI?F D.

American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. E.003 Figure B3-1. 2. User=.::i -.3 P.Developmentof ApproximateOverstrengthInteraction Curves from NominalStrengthCurves (after Gajer and Wagh) 83-3 COPYRIGHT 2002.0 -7..) Actual overstrength interactioncurve using realistic material (over-)strengths (= 41 MPa. fy 517 MPa.0 15. . 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.5 MPa fy =413MPa E.E N G L Section 3 Loads and Load Factors (SI) 1998 E 0 b 3 9 ö n 4 17057525 128 I I - 11. Nominalstrength interactioncurve ’ + + ’.0 30.0 20. = 0.S T D .3 M.05%) .S I .0 35.0 -- . 0.0 5.0 25.0 10..0 5. . 1.0 10.0 Approximate overstrength curve using strength reductionfactor @ = 1.01 Approximate overstrengthcurve using strength reductionfactor 8.f 27.0 aM | ||||||| -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | | || --- (x I O 9 Nnmrn) Column properties: 1797x 1797 section A = 32 #35 bars (1.A A S H T B SRCH L R F D .0 6.3 on both nominalmoment and nominal axial load (1.

. . . . . . . . . .1 Application . . .. . . . ... . . . . . .. .2. . .1. .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 . . .. . .. . . . . .1. . . . . . . 8 4-8 4-9 4-9 4-9 4-9 4-10 4-10 4-10 4-10 4-11 4-11 4-12 4-14 4-14 4-14 4-14 4. . . . . . . . . . . 4-1 4-2 4-5 4. ...2. . .. . . . . . .6. . .. 4.. . . .2 Structural Material Behavior .. . .6. . . .. . . . . . .6.5. . . . . .. . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . .. . ..5. . . . . . .. . . 4-15 46. 4. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 4.1 DECKS . . . .. ..1 SCOPE .1. . . . . . . . . .3 Multiplebeam Superstructures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. .. . . . . . . . . . 4-18 4. . .2. .. . 4. . . . . . . .6. . .. . .a 4. . . . . . .. . . . . . .2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear . . . . .. .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-16 4. . . . . .. . . . . . .3. . .. . . . . . . . .2.. . . . 4. . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . 4. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.. . . .6.. . . .2.. . . . . . . . . . . . .. .6. . . .. . . . . . .. 4-20 4-21 4. . . . . . . . ... . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .2. ... . .6. .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .2 Applicability . . . . . . .3. . 4. .. . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .2b Moment Magnification Beam Columns . .. . . .1. .2. . . . . . . . . . . .. . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 4-19 4. . . . .2.. . . .2 DEFINITIONS . . .2 LARGE DEFLECTIONTHEORY . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . .25 Flexural Moments and Shear in TransverseFloorbeams . . . . .6. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . .1. .. . . . .. .. . . . . . . .2. .6. . . 4 .2~ Interior Beams with Corrugated Steel Decks . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . .4 Modeling Boundary Conditions . . . . . ..2. 4 .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . .6. .1. . . . . . . . .. .6..5. .. . . .2e Skewed Bridges . . . . . .. .. . .5. . .2. . .. . . . . . . . . . . .5. . .. .. . . . . . . .8 Live Load Distribution on Fully Filled and Partially Filled Grids . .. . . . .. . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-32 4. . . . 4. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . ..5 MATHEMATICAL MODELING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-19 4-20 4. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . .3 Width of Equivalent Interior Strips . . . . . . . . .. .6. .2. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. .. . . . . . .3. . . . . Longitudinal Edges . .. . .15 4-15 4.1. . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . .. . . .4 ACCEPTABLE METHODS OF STRUCTURALANALYSIS . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. . . ..1. . . . . .. . . . . 4. . . . . . . . .. . . .. . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4~ Transverse Edges . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .1 General . . . . .2. . . .6. . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . .2. . . . .5. .. . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 4-34 4. .. . . . . . . . . . 4. . . .. . . . . . . . .6 Calculation of Force Effects . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. .. . . . . . . . .. . . . .2.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 . .. . . . . . . . 4. .6. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .6. . . .1 General . . . .6. . . .2. . 4-22 4. .2. 4. .. . . . . . . S1 TABLE OF CONTENTS 4. . . .. . . . 4-17 4.. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 4-18 4. .. 4 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . .. . .3. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .3 Refined Methods . . . . . . .1 General . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .2.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21. . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . .. . 4.. . . . 4-19 4. . ... . . .2.. . ... . . .. . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - I 4. .. . . . .. . . 4. 4-16 4-16 4. . .2 BEAM-SLAB BRIDGES . . . . . . . . .41. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . ..9 InelasticAnalysis .2. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . .2 ELASTIC BEHAVIOR . .. .3. .. . . . ... . .2. . . . . . . . . .2.. . . . . . .. . . . . . .1. . . . .6. . . . . . . . . .6.2. User=. . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . .6. . . . .6. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- 4. . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . 4-22 4-22 4. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. .. 4. . . . . . . . . .. .2.I . . . . . . . . .2 8 4. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .5. . . .. . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . .2.. .. . . . : . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .4a General . . .3 NOTATION .. . . . . . . . . . .2. . . .2. . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . 4. . .. . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . .. .. . . . . .. . . . . ..Arches . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. .4 Width of Equivalent Strips at Edges of Slabs . . . . . . . . . .6 STATICANALYSIS . .. . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . .2.. .. . . . . . . . . .. . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . i . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . ...2. 4-32 4. . . . . .. . . . . .2d Exterior Beams . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .1.1.2 Approximate Methods of Analysis . . . i SMALL DEFLECTIONTHEORY . ..SECTION 4 I1 . . . . . . . . . . .3 INELASTIC BEHAVIOR . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Cross-Sectional Frame Action . . . . . . . 4. .5. .. . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. .. . .3 Geometry .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . ... . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . . . .3. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. .1 ELASTIC VERSUS INELASTIC BEHAVIOR . . . . . . . . . . .. .15 4. . . . .. .5. . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . Interior Beams with Concrete Decks . .2 Single-Girder Torsionally Stiff Superstructures . .. . . . . . . ..2a Interior Beams with Wood Decks .. . .. . . .2. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. . .. . . . . .2~ Moment Magnification . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. .1 General . . .1 Influence sf Plan Geometry . . . . .. .5. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .2... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Distribution of Wheel Loads ... . . . . . . .. . . . .2 Approximate Methods . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . .2. ..1 PLANASPECTRATIO . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 8 4. . . ... . .. .2.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 4-16 4. .. . . . . .1. . .. . . . . . . . . . . 4-16 4-17 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Equivalent Members . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .2 STRUCTURES CURVED IN PLAN . . . . .. . . .2. . . .2a General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .2. 4-34 4-i -a COPYRIGHT 2002.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . .. . . . 4. ... .1. . . . .. . . . . . .2. . .

. . . . . . 4. . .. . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.1 Basic Requirements of Structural Dynamics . . . . . . . .. . . . .3 Cast-in-Place Multicell Superstructures . . . 4. . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-56 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . .2. .6. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-49 4-51 4. . . . . . . .2. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) 4. . . . . ... . . . User=. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. .7. . . . . .7. . .. . .. . . . . . .7.2. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .6 1 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. .. . . 4-57 4. . . .8 SUSPENSION BRIDGES . . ..3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5~ Analysis of the Final Structural System . . . .6. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3~ Skewed Bridges. . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . .2 Box Sections . .. .7.3 Refined Methods of Analysis . . 4. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .2 DISTRIBUTION OF MASSES .6. .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Analysis for Temperature Gradient . . . . 4-53 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 GENERAL . . . . . . .. . .5 EFFECTIVE LENGTH FACTOR. . K . . .3 STIFFNESS . . . . . . 4 -@ 4. . . . .. . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .3 EQUIVALENT STRIP WIDTHS FOR SLAB-TYPE BRIDGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cast-in-Place Box Beams . . . . . . . .2.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Applicability . . . . . . .8. . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . .6. .6. . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-58 4.1 GENERAL . . 4-39 4-39 4.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . .0 4. 4-41 4. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .2. .3. .. 4 . . . . . . . . . . .2. . .2. . . . . . . 4-56 4-56 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6.7. . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 DYNAMIC ANALYSIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6.6. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 EFFECTIVE FLANGE WIDTH . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. .1 General . . . . . .. . .2.7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 4-55 4-55 4. . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . ..2. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .3 Effective Flange Width . . . . . .4 Orthotropic Steel Decks . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . .4 DAMPING . . . . . . .3. . .7 LATERAL WIND LOAD DISTRIBUTION IN MULTIBEAM BRIDGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-64 4-64 4-64 4-65 4-65 4-65 4-66 COPYRIGHT 2002.. . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . .. .3 APPROXIMATE PROCEDURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . .2 Isotropic Plate Model . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 4-53 4.2. . .2. . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 5 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .2 Segmental Concrete Box Beams and Single-Cell. . . . . 4. .2.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . .3. 4-53 4-53 4. . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . 4-62 4. . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . .3 BEAM-SLAB BRIDGES . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . .1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . ..5b Erection Analysis . . 4-54 4-55 4. . .2 Design Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . .2. . . . . .. . . . . . . .5 Longitudinal Analysis . . . . . . .6. . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6..2. . . . . . . .1. . . . -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- . . . . . . . . .. .3b Exterior Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .2. . . . . .9 ANALYSIS OF SEGMENTAL CONCRETE BRIDGES . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Redistribution of Negative Moments in Continuous Beam Bridges . . . . . 4-55 4. . . . .2. . . 4-56 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . .4 SDecial Loads with other Traffic 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Distribution Factor Method for Shear . . .. .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . .6 ARCH BRIDGES . . . . . I I 4. . . . . . . . . 4-35 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . .4 TRUSS AND ARCH BRIDGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .2.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . .. . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . .6.6. . . . . . . . . .9. . . .7 CABLE-STAYED BRIDGES . .. .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 TRUSS BRIDGES . . .3. .. . . . . 4 . . 4. . . 4-44 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .5 Stability . . 4. . . .1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i¡ 4. . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 SEISMIC LATERAL LOAD DISTRIBUTION .. .9.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . .8. . . . . . . . . 4-56 4-56 4. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-44 4. . .. . . . . . .6. . .. . . .2 REFINED METHOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . .6. . .. . . . . .6. . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-57 4-57 4.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-59 4-59 4. .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . .1 I-Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . 4-62 4-62 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5a General . .4. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 4. . .5 NATURAL FREQUENCIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. . . . . .. . . . . . . 4-59 4-60 4. . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .2. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Transverse Analysis . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..2 DECKS .. . . . . . . .2 Strut-and-Tie Models . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . .6. . .. . :.6. . . . . . . . . . 4 . 4-62 4. . . . . . . . . 4-53 4. .6. 4. . . . . . . . . 4-55 4. . . . . . . . ..3a Interior Beams .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . 4-37 4. . . . . .4 CELLULAR AND BOX BRIDGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-35 4.3 Orthotropic Plate Model . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . 4-51 4. .. . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-61 4-61 4. . . . . . . . . . . .6. .6. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 4-49 4. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . .6. . . 4-57 4. . . .6. . . . . . . . . ... .9.3 Construction . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . .9. . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . 4.6. . . . . . . .6. . . . .3 Load Distribution . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . 4.. . . . . . .

. .4. . . . . . . . .1 VEHICLE-INDUCED VIBRATION . . . . . ..4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 4. . . . . . . . .. .2. . . . . .4. . 4. . . .3. . . . . . . . . . -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || 4. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 4-75 APPENDIX A4 DECK SLAB DESIGN TABLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . 4. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 ANALYSIS BY PHYSICAL MODELS . .7. .. . .7. . . . . . . 69 4. . . . . . . . . . . . .TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 MINIMUM DISPLACEMENT REQUIREMENTS . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . 74 - | ||||||| | | || --- . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. . . .7. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . .3 MULTISPAN BRIDGES . . . . . . 4. . 69 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8. . . .7. . . . . . . . . . 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. . . . . . . . . 66 4. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .1 4. . . . . . . . . . ..2. . .. . .. . . . . . . . .3. . . .7. .7. . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 4. . . .4.. .. . . . 66 4. .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Multimode Spectral Method . . A4 . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 4.. . . . .5 Analysis for Collision Loads .2. . . . . . . . . . . . .2b Single-Mode Spectral Method . .. User=. . .. . . . . . .. .2 Single-Mode Methods of Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. .7.7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .1 Selection of Method . .. .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .2. . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Wind Velocities . . . . .. . . . . . . .3 Inelastic Dynamic Responses . . . . . .4 Analysis for Earthquake Loads .. .2 BridgeTesting . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . .. . . . . . .2 PLASTIC HINGES AND YIELD LINES . . . . . 4.2 WIND-INDUCED VIBRATION .. . . . . . . . . . . .4 Time-History Method . . . . . iii COPYRIGHT 2002. . . . . . .. . . . .7.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . .7.. 4. . . . . . . 4. .4. . . . . . .67 4 . . . . . . . . . . . .2 SINGLE-SPAN BRIDGES . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 4. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2~ Uniform Load Method . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . 68 4-68 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 4.3. . . . .4. . . . . .71 4 73 4. . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . 69 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . .. .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . 4. .. . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 4. . .4. . .. . 4. . . 75 4. . .. .3.. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2a Genera¡ . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 4. . . . . . .1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . .8. . . . . . . .. . ... . .. . . . .3 Design Considerations . . . 4. . 67 4 . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 4. 73 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Scale Model Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Elastic Dynamic Responses . .. . . . . . . . . .2. . .67 4-67 4 -67 4.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . .2. .. . .4. . . . . .2 Dynamic Effects . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 GENERAL . 4. . . . . . . . 4.3. .

. and importance of the structure. however. but not always. Such improved understanding may often. Hence. and 8. In general.1 This section identifies and promotes the application of methods of structural analysis that . simpler methods that are amenable to hand calculation and/or to the use of existing computer programs based on line-structure analysis have also been provided. this section permits the inelastic analysis or redistribution of force effects in some continuous beam superstructures. It is important that the user understand the method employed and its associated limitations. but the more refined formulations are recommended. The loads and load factors. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office -| 4-1 Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. bridge structures are to be analyzed elastically. and basic equilibrium checks should be standard practice. With rapidly improving computing technology. 6. Hence. 4. the more refined and complex methods of analysis are expected to become commonplace.1 SCOPE This section describes methods of analysis suitable for the design and evaluation of bridges and is limited to the modeling of structures and the determination of force effects. In general.STD-AASHTO SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation (SI) - 1798 0639804 0048b35 T 4 7 SPECIFICATIONS COMMENTARY C4. this section addresses the assumptions and limitations of such methods. Some nonlinear behavioral effects are addressed in both the analysis and resistance sections. and most have been used for years. The outlined methods of analysis. Although many methods will require a computer for practical implementation. lead to the potential for saving material. This does not mean that cross-sectional resistance is limited to the linear range. For example. | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --|| | || ||| COPYRIGHT 2002. However. Either method may be used. The selected method of analysis may vary from the approximate to the very sophisticated. 7 .are suitable for bridges. Comparison with hand calculations should always be encouraged. This presents an obvious inconsistency in that the analysis is based on material linearity and the resistance model may be based on inelastic behavior for the strength limit states. This same inconsistency existed. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. analysis methods based on material nonlinearities to obtain force effects that are more realistic at the strength limit states and subsequent economics that may be derived are permitted only where explicitly outlined herein.and the resistance factors specified throughout these Specifications were developed using probabilistic principles combined with analyses based on linear material models. which are suitable for the determination of deformations and force effects in bridge structures. in the load factor design method of previous editions of the AASHTO Standard Specifications. depending on the size. User=. It specifies inelastic analysis for compressive members behaving inelastically and as an alternative for extreme event limit states. the suggested methods of analysis are based on linear material models. Other methods of analysis that are based on documented material characteristics and that satisfy equilibrium and compatibility may also be used. long column behavior may be modeled via geometric nonlinear methods and may also be modeled using approximate formulae in Sections 5. defined in Section 3. complexity. have been successfully demonstrated. and is present in design codes of other nations using a factored design approach. The primary objective in the use of more sophisticated methods of analysis is to obtain a better understanding of structural behavior.

Equilibrium and compatibility among the components is restored by determining the deformations at the interfaces. Boundary Conditions . Degree-of-Freedom . Deck System .A degree-of-freedomwith which mass or mass effects have been associated. End Zone . the material returns to its original unloaded state upon load removal.A part of a component or member consisting of one material. Design . Condensation .A method of analysis in which the structure is subdivided into statically determinate components. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. shear displacement. with or without wearing surface. - 4-2 COPYRIGHT 2002. Classical Deformation Method .The geometrical equality of movement at the interface of joined components. that permit calculation of force effects by the direct introduction of loads and structural parameters.One of a number of translations or rotations required to define the movement of a node. Classical Force Method .A method of analysis in which the structure is subdivided into components whose stiffness can be independently calculated. synonymous with member.Structural restraint characteristics regarding the support for and/or the continuity between structural models. Element . Compatibility among the components is restored by determining the interface forces. Component .Region of structures where normal beam theory does not apply due to structural discontinuity and/or distribution of concentrated loads. Compatibility . Deck . directly supporting wheel loads. including axial displacement. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. Elastic A structural material behavior in which the ratio of stress to strain is constant.A structural unit requiring separate design consideration.Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation (SI) - S T D . The displaced shape of components andlor the entire structure may be defined by a number of degrees-of-freedom.2 DEFINITIONS Accepted Method of Analysis . and rotations. Bounding .Proportioning and detailing the components and connections of a bridge to satisfy the requirements of these Specifications.A A S H T O S R C H LRFD-SI-ENGL I998 Ob39804 0048b36 983 4.A component.One or more equations. Closed-Form Solution .A method of analysis that requires no further verification and that has become a regular part of structural engineering practice. including those based on convergent series.A superstructure in which the deck is integral with its supporting components or in which the effects or deformation of supporting components on the behavior of the deck is significant. User=. . | | || ---| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| - Dynamic Degree-of-Freedom . Deformation .The width of the superstructure of monolithic construction minus the deck overhangs. Aspect Ratio Ratio of the length to the width of a rectangle.Relating the variables to be eliminated from the analysis to those being kept to reduce the number of equations to be solved. Core Width .Taking two or more extreme values of parameters to envelop the response with a view to obtaining a conservative design.A change in structural geometry due to force effects.

or torsional moment.A method of analysis in which the structure is discretized into parallel strips. Equivalent Strip . Force Effect . Frame Action for Wind . Equivalent Beam . and part of the deformation remains after load removal. Large Deflection Theory .The statical summation of moments about one point to calculate the reaction at a second point. Grillage Analogy Method . - - - 4-3 -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- COPYRIGHT 2002. will approximate those actually taking place in the deck. transverse or longitudinal. Folded Plate Method . Finite Difference Method .A deformation.A method of analysis in which all or part of the superstructure is discretized into orthotropic components that represent the characteristics of the structure.Analysis of a structure as a whole. Finite Strip Method . or volumetric changes. stress. Lever Rule . Model displacement parameters are determined by using energy variational principles or equilibrium methods.STDmAASHTO SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 3998 W Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation (SI) - Ob39804 O048637 8LT Equilibrium .The combination of tandem axle and uniformly distributed loads or the combination of the design truck and design uniformly distributed load. isolated from a deck for the purpose of analysis.e. Governing Position . Linear Response . ¡.A single straight or curved beam resisting both flexural and torsional effects. imposed deformations. caused by applied loads. flexural. Inelastic Any structural behavior in which the ratio of stress and strain is not constant. partial or complete compatibility is maintained among the element interfaces. or stress resultant. The shape of the strip displacement field is assumed and partial compatibility is maintained among the element interfaces. axial force.. Finite Element Method . Frame Action . Foundation A supporting element that derives its resistance by transferring its load to the soil or rock supporting the bridge. and both equilibrium and compatibility requirements are satisfied at the component interfaces.Transverse continuity between the deck and the webs of cellular cross-section or between the deck and primary components in large bridges.0. Global Analysis .A method of analysis in which the structure is subdivided into plate components. and nodal displacements are determined by using energy variational principles or equilibrium methods. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. by which lateral wind load is partially or completely transmitted to the deck. the shape of the element displacement field is assumed.A method of analysis in which the governing differential equation is satisfied at discrete points on the structure. if present.Structural behavior in which deflections are directly proportionalto loads. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.A state where the sum of forces and moments about any point in space is 0.An artificial linear element. shear force.The location and orientation of transient load to cause extreme force effects.Transverse flexure of the beam web and that of framed stiffeners. User=. Lane Live Load . . Footprint The specified contact area between wheel and roadway surface.Any method of analysis in which the effects of deformation upon force effects is taken into account. in which extreme force effects calculated for a line of wheel loads.A method of analysis in which a structure is discretized into elements connected at nodes.

The center-to-center distance between lines of support. or deflections causing significant changes in force effects. and change in temperature and/or moisture content. usually in trusses. Node A point where finite elements or grid components meet. s Spacing of Beams . having physical properties that differ in two or more orthogonal directions.A method of analysis in which the load model is subdivided into suitable parts.A sequence of axles used as a common basis for expressing bridge resistance. Series or Harmonic Method . carrying a cast-in-place concrete deck. creep. Pin Connection . Model . Stiffness Force effect resulting from a unit deformation. User=.A connection among members by a notionally frictionless pin at a point. arches.The algebraic difference between extreme stresses. forces. in conjunction with finite differences.Effect of settlement. . American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. Spread Beams Beams not in physical contact. a point where the governing differential equations are satisfied. allowing each part to correspond to one term of a convergent infinite series by which structural deformations are described. Orthotropic .A constituent part of the global structural model. | ||||||| | | || --| || | |||| || -| || | || ||| - - - - - - . Superimposed Deformation . or cellular longitudinalelements effectively tied together by transverse posttensioning. Strain . and suspension bridges. Panel Point The point where centerlines of members meet. Small Deflection Theory .Perpendicular to each other.A basis for methods of analysis where the effects of deformation upon force effects in the structure i neglected. Pinned End . Rigidity . or by a combination thereof.A boundary condition permitting free rotation but not translation in the plane of action.Elongation per unit length. solid or cellular cast-in-place concrete deck systems. Method of Analysis A mathematical process by which structural deformations. Nonlinear Response Structural behavior in which the deflections are not directly proportional to the loads due to stresses in the inelastic range. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.Force effect caused by a corresponding unit deformation per unit length of a component. Stress Range . Skew Angle . and decks consisting of precast. solid. Monolithic Construction Single cell steel and/or concrete box bridges.An in-depth study of strains and stresses in or among components using force effects obtained from a more global analysis.The point where the sense of the flexural moment changes: synonymous with point of Rating Vehicle . Submodel. - - 4-4 COPYRIGHT 2002.Angle between the centerline of a support and a line normal to the roadway centerline. Point of Contraflexure inflection. Member Same as Component.A mathematical or physical idealization of a structure or component used for analysis. and stresses are determined.- Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation (SI) - STDOAASHTO SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1978 = Ob37804 0048b38 75b Local Analysis . cable-stayed.

2.3.8) (4.1) (4. width of plate element (mm).2.6.2.2.6.2. shear modulus (MPa) l4.2.6. modified for nonlinear effects (MPa) (4.4) sinale lane live load distribution factor (4.2.2) effective flange width corresponding to the particular position of the section of interest in the span as specified in Figure 1 (mm) (4.2.2. depth of member (mm) (4. -- | || | || ||| 4.2) effective flange width for interior portions of a span as determined from Figure 2.6.2. longitudinal stiffener.4) spacing of transverse beams (mm) (4.2.1. - - - area of a stringer.2.6.2) multiple lane live load distribution factor (4.6.2) width of web projected to midplane of deck (mm) (4.2.2.3.1.3) ratio of stiffness of column to stiffness of members resisting column bending at "a" end ((2.2.6. flange width each side of the web (mm) (4.2.2.6.2.3.2.4) ((24. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.6.41 distribution factor.6.8) (4.4.6.6.6.2) (4. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.2) continuity factor.7.3. Wheel Load One-half of a specified design axle load. a special case of be(mm) (4.6.2.6.2. or component (mm') (4.2) effective flange width for normal forces acting at anchorage zones (mm) (4.41 - 4-5 COPYRIGHT 2002.2.3. eccentricity of a lane from the center of gravity of the pattern of girders (mm).6.6.2.2.5.6.4) force effect due to overioad truck íkN or kN.2b) . spacing.2.6.6.2.2e) D D.6.2.2b) stress corresponding to M (MPa) (4.6.2.2.6.6.3.2.6.7.2.8) flexural rigidity perpendicular to the main bars (N.A method of analysis in which a number of possible yield line patterns are examined in order to determine load-carryingcapacity.6.2.2.1) total area of stiffeners (mm') (4.8) (4.6.1.1) ((24.2b) (4. width of a beam (mm).3) modulus of elasticity (MPa).6.6. | ||||||| | | || --- .1.5.6.6.2.6.5) force effect due to desian loads IkN or kN-mrnì (4.5.2.3.6.1) J.2.6.3 NOTATION | || | |||| || Yield Line Method .2.2.2.2.6.2.1) (C4.6.6.6.2) (4. or rib width in an orthotropic steel deck (mm) (4. final force effect applied to a airder íkN or kN-mml.2.4. rib spacing in orthotropic steel deck (mm) (4.2.8) depth of a beam or stringer (mm).6. User=.2. flexural rigidity in direction of main bars (N-mm2/mm)(4.6.2.1) distance from exterior web of exterior beam and the interior edge of curb or traffic barrier (mm) (4.1) cross-section area transformed for steel beams (mm2) (C4. Yield Line A plastic hinge line.4) length of transition region for effective flange width of a concrete box beam (mm).2.6.6.2b) . corrected to account for second-order effects (MPa) (4.6.2b) parameter for skewed supports (4.2.6.2.5) ratio of stiffness of column to stiffness of members resisting column bending at "b" end (C4.4) tire length (mm).2.5.1) (C4.6.5.2. acceleration of gravity (m/s2)(4.3.6. width of distribution per lane (mm) (4. beam.2) effective flange width at interior support or for cantilever arm as determined from Figure 2.2.2. stress corresponding to M (MPa) (4.6.Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation (SI) Tandem .7) correction factor for distribution. stiffness parameter (4.2.2.6.1.2d) (4..2.6.1) depth of superstructure (mm) (4. a special case of be(mm) (4.7.mml(4.2b) the dimensionless elastic seismic response coefficient (C4.2.6.2.2.2.6.Two closely spaced and mechanically interconnected axles of equal weight.md/mrn) (4.1) moment gradient coefficient (4.2.6.2.2.1) cross-sectional area of barrier ( m d ) (C4.3.6.4) distance between the centers of gravity of the beam and deck (mm) (4.6.6.6) area encloseá by centerlines of eiements (mm2)(C4.2.1) ((24.6. equivalent width (mm) cable modulus of elasticity.1) factored stress.

6.2.2.6.3) design horizontal wind pressure (MPa) (C4.7) depth of deck (mm) (4.3.2b) load distribution to exterior beam in terms of lanes. or girders (4.2.1) axle load (N)(4.3.2b) (4.2.3.2.6.8) equivalent uniform static seismic loading per unit length of bridge that is applied to represent the primary mode of vibration (Nímm) (C4.2.6.2.1) effective length factor for arch ribs.2.7.6.5) St.0 (Nímm) (C4.6.2.6.1) (4.1) tire pressure (MPa) (4.3.2) unsupported length of a compression member (mm).8) (4.2.2.3.1. always positive (Nmn) (4.1) inertia of equivalent strip (rnm4)(4.2.2b) lateral wind force applied to the brace point (N)((2.2.2.1) strip stiffness factor (N/mm) (4.2.6.4) number of beams.2.2.6.2.6.8) factored moment.2.2.1. distance between points of inflection of the transverse beam (mm) (4.6.5.3.6.6.6.2.3.6) multimode elastic method (4. corrected to account for second-order effects (N-mm).3.5) unsupportedlength of beam or other restraining member (mm) (C4.7.2.5.2b) a uniform load arbitrarily set equal to 1.1) factor used in calculation of distribution factor for multibeam bridges (4.1) number of design lanes (4. radius of curvature (mm) (C4.1.6.6.5) dynamic load allowance (C4.2. calculated by conventional first-order elastic frame analysis.2.2.2b) moment on compression member due to factored lateral or gravity loads that result in sidesway.2.6) moment of inertia of member acting to restrain column bending (mm4)(C4. A.2. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.2.2.5) span length of deck (mm). span length of beam (mm) (4.2.2. Venant torsional inertia (mm4) (4.6. stringers.2d) (C4.6.7.5.2b) (C4.2.5.2.1) number of cells in a concrete box girder (4.5.1) smaller end moment on compression member due to gravity loads that result in no appreciable sidesway: positive if member is bent in single curvature.5.6.6.7.2.7.2.3.6.6.2b) axial force (N).6.2.2b) moment on compression member due to factored gravity loads that result in no appreciable sidesway calculated by conventional first-order elastic frame analysis. User=.3.3.5) longitudinal stiffness parameter (min4)(4.6. -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- .2.1.2.3) (4.7.2.6. constant for different types of construction.6.5) modified span length taken to be equal to the lesser of the actual span or 18 O00 (mm).1.5.7.7.1.2.2.4) a notional span length (mm) (4. negative if bent in double curvature (N-mm) (4.6) (4.2b) (4.6.6.7.11 spacing Ó brace points (mm) (C4.5) (04.1.2.6.3.6.6.4.6. one-half of the length of the arch rib (mm) (4.4) distances between points of inflection of the transverse beam (mm) (4.1.3.6. always positive (N-mm) (4.4. greater than eJl500.4.6.1) modular ratio between beam and deck (4.6.2.6.7. span length (mm). inertia of cross-section transformed for steel beams (mm4) ((24.3.2.2.2~) the intensity of the equivalent static seismic loading that is applied to represent the primary mode of vibration (Nímm) (C4.3. effective length factor for columns (4. moment required to restrain uplift caused by thermal effects (Nmm) (4.6.6. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.2~) moment due to live load in filled or partially filled grid deck (N-mm/mm)(4.3) (4.5.2.2.7.1) maximum lateral moment in the flange due to the factored wind loading (Nmm) (04.5.4) horizontal component of cable force (N) (4.2.1) Euler buckling load (N) (4.6) - - 4-6 COPYRIGHT 2002.2.minimum support length (mm) (C4.2.6.2.1) polar moment of inertia (mm4) (4.2.4.4.Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation (SI) average height of substructure supporting the seat under consideration (mm) (4.3) moment of inertia (mm4)(4.5.1) f unbraced length of column (mm) (C4.2.6.2b) factored axial load (N) (4.2.4.2b) moment of inertia of column (mm4).

7) half the web spacing.6.6.7.2b) (C4. spacing of beams or webs (mm).2b) load factor.6.2b) moment or stress magnifier for unbraced mode deflection (4.2.2b) uniform axial strain due to axial thermal expansion (mmlmm) (C4.7.2.4) spacing of grid bars (mm) (4.6) skew angle (DEG) (4. generalizedflexibility (4.6.3. rotation per unit length (4.4) thickness of steel grid or corrugated steel plank (mm) (4.2.2.6. skew of support measured from line normal to span (DEG) (4.6.1) moment or stress magnifier for braced mode deflection (4.3.2b) uniform specified temperature (OC) (C4.2.6.2.2~) modified edge-to-edge width of bridge taken to be equal to the lesser of the actual width or 18 O00 (mm) (4.7) (C4.2.1) temperature gradient (AOC) (C4.6.2.3.2a) distributed live load vertical shear (N)(4. unfactored dead load of the bridge superstructure and tributary substructure (Nimm) (C4.1) maximum vertical shear at 3d or U4 due to wheel loads distributed laterally as specified herein (N) (4.1.6.2~) edge-to-edge width of bridge (mm).6) resistance factor for axial compressiòn.4.2.1) (44.1) (4.6.6.6.Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation (SI) - reductionfactor for longitudinal force effect in skewed bridges (4.7.2.7.4.6) 4-7 -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- COPYRIGHT 2002.3.2.2.(x) (mm) (C4.4.2.7.1.2.1) nominal.2.3.-2.3.2.4.6.5.4.2d) horizontal distance from the center of gravity of the pattern of girders to each girder (mm) (C4.6) vertical distance from center of gravity of cross-section (mm) (C4.6.6. factored wind force per unit length (Nlmm).6.3.4.O where the lever rule was used for a sinale lane live load distribution factor (4.1) ((2.6. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.6) thickness of plate-like element (mm).3.6.6) (C4.2.3.6.2.2. .2.6.2.2.2.1) internai stress due to thermal efíects (MPa) (C4.3.6.3) horizontal distance from the center of gravity of the pattern of girders to the exterior girder (mm) (C4.3) spacing of supporting components (mm).1) (C4.6.2.7.7.20 where the lever rule was not utilized.6.2b) maximum value of v.2.3.6.6.4.3.3) single-mode elastic method (4.2a) maximum vertical shear at 3d or U4 due to undistributedwheel loads (N)(4.5.1) depth of concrete slab {mm} (4.2a) deformationcorresponding to Po(mm) (C4.6.2.7.6) time history method (4.6.2. plus the total overhang (mm) (4.6.6.2.5.2.6) temperature averaged across the cross-section (OC) (C4.3.2b) overhang width extension (mm) (C4. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.6. and 1.2.2b) generalized participation(C4.7.2.2.4.6.2.2.2.1) Poisson's ratio (4.1) period of bridge (s)(C4.2.7.6.1) (4. generalized mass (C4. thickness of flange plate in orthotropic steel deck (mm) (C4.6.41 angle between cable and horizontal (DEG).6) distance from load to point of support (mm) (4.6.6.6.2.3.4. coefficient of thermal expansion (mm/mml0C).7.1) length of a side element (mm) (C4.2d) a factor taken as 1.2.2.2.3) width of element in cross-section (mm) (C4.3) (4.1) depth of structural overlay (mm) (4. total weight of cable (N)(4.2.7. User=.1.6.4.2.2.

4 ACCEPTABLE METHODS OF STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS COMMENTARY c4. The choice of model shall be based on the limit states investigated. version.4 Any method of analysis that satisfies the requirements of equilibrium and compatibility and utilizes stress-strain relationships for the proposed materials may be used.5. Computer programs should be verified against the results of: 0 Universally accepted closed-form solutions. Grillage analogy method. Folded plate method. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. response characteristics of the foundation. Accordingly. Finite element method. and release date of software used should be indicated in the contract documents. and the accuracy required. consideration of continuous composite barriers shall be limited to service and fatigue limit states and to structural evaluation. suspension and cablestayed bridges. except in case of certain continuous girders where inelastic analysis is specifically permitted. are implemented in such programs. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. In other cases. and the user is responsible for the generated results. The extreme event limit states may require collapse investigation based entirely on inelastic modeling.. For the purpose of this section. including. should be analyzed using nonlinear elastic methods. elevated medians. inelastic redistribution of negative bending moment and stability investigation. curbs. Many computer programs have specific engineering assumptions embedded in their code. ranging from simple formulae to detailed finite element procedures. which may or may not be applicable to each specific case. The stiffness of structurally discontinuous railings.g. .8 -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- COPYRIGHT 2002. geometry. e. Where the structural response is particularly sensitive to the boundary conditions. as should strength limit states. an estimate of settlement may be acceptable. the foundation model may be as simple as unyielding supports.Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation (SI) - SPECIFICATIONS 4.5 MATHEMATICAL MODELING 4. Unless otherwise permitted. 0 The Designer shall be responsible for the implementation of computer programs used to facilitate structural analysis and for the interpretation and use of results. the force effect being quantified. where appropriate. Very flexible bridges. 4. 0 Finite difference method. In some cases. Series or other harmonic methods. and.1 General C4. User=. Finite strip method. such as in a fixed-end arch or in 4. and material behavior of the structure. The need for sophisticated modeling of foundations is a function of the sensitivity of the structure to foundation movements. and 0 Yield line method. the Designer should clearly understand the basic assumptions of the program and the methodology that is implemented. Service and fatigue limit states should be analyzed as fully elastic. an appropriate representation of the soil andlor rock that supports the bridge shall be included in the mathematical model of the foundation. or Physical testing.5. A computer program is only a tool. all output should be verified to the extent possible. The name. When using a computer program. 0 0 0 0 0 0 Many computer programs are available for bridge analysis. but not limited to: Classical force and displacement methods. The purpose of identifying software is to establish code compliance and to provide a means of locating bridges designed with software that may later be found deficient. Other previously verified computer programs. and barriers shall not be considered in structural analysis. Various methods of analysis. such as the large deflection theory.1 Mathematical models shall include loads.

Where inelastic analysis is used. 1975). Unintended overstrength of a component may result in an adverse formation of a plastic hinge at an undesirable location. cracking of concrete seems to have little effect on the global behavior of bridge structures. rigorous modeling of the foundation should be made to account for the conditions present.5.2. and bond failures in the structural components do not precede the formation of a flexural inelastic mechanism. the tests shall reflect their cyclic nature. a preferred design failure mechanism and its attendant hinge locations shall be determined. Deterioration of geometrical integrity of the structure due to large deformations shall be taken into account. stresses and deformations shall be based on a linear distribution of strains in the cross| | || --|||| || | ||||||| | || | COPYRIGHT 2002.5. Changes in these values due to maturity of concrete and environmental effects should be included in the model. Where extreme force effects are anticipated to be repetitive. Unintended overstrength of a component in which hinging is expected should be considered. where appropriate.2. This effect can. 4-9 Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. buckling.5. forming a different mechanism. Where inelastic behavior is expected to be achieved by confinement. Stiffness characteristics of beam-clab-type bridges may be based on full participation of concrete decks.S T D * A A S H T O S R C H LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation (SI) Ob39804 0048b43 013 M - SPEC1FICATIONS In the case of seismic design.5. therefore. 6.2 ELASTIC BEHAVIOR Elastic material properties and characteristics shall be in accordance with the provisions of Sections 5.1 ELASTIC VERSUS INELASTIC BEHAVIOR For the purpose of analysis.5. and envelopes of force effects considered. be safely neglected by modeling the concrete as uncracked for the purposes of structural analysis (King et al. Actions at the extreme event limit state may be accommodated in both the inelastic and elastic ranges. The stiffness properties of concrete and composite members shall be based upon cracked and/or uncracked sections consistent with the anticipated behavior. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.2 Tests indicate that in the elastic range of structural behavior. . 7. and 8.3 Where technically possible. In lieu of rigorous modeling. 4. 4. It shall be ascertained in the analysis that shear. The selected mechanism should be used to estimate the extreme force effect that can be applied adjacent to a hinge.3 INELASTIC BEHAVIOR Sections of components that may undergo inelastic deformation shall be shown to be ductile or made ductile by confinement or other means. User=.2. the boundary conditions may be varied to extreme bounds.2.2 Structural Material Behavior 4. the preferred failure mechanism should be based on a response that has generally been observed to provide for large deformations as a means of warning of structural distress. 4. The inelastic model shall be based either upon the results of physical tests or upon a representation of loaddeformation behavior that is validated by tests. structural materials shall be considered to behave linearly up to an elastic limit and inelastically thereafter. -- COMMENTARY computing natural frequencies.2. such as fixed or free of restraint. C4. gross soil movement and liquefaction should also be considered. Except where noted. test specimens shall include the elements that provide such confinement. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office | || | || ||| C4.5.

3.5. a complete secondorder analysis may be necessary. the change from mandatory to optional deflection limits. C4.3 Geometry 4. those time.1 SMALL DEFLECTION THEORY If the deformation of the structure does not result in a significant change in force effects due to an increase in the eccentricity of compressive or tensile forces. C4.5. and some arches other than tied arches and frames. The effect of deformation and out-of-straightness of components shall be included in stability analyses and large deflection analyses. the effects of deformation shall be considered in the equations of equilibrium.3. thereby increasing the eccentricity of the axial force with respect to the centerline of the component.3.2. 4. as specified in Section 5. Further application of moment magnification factors is neither required nor appropriate. COMMENTARY 4.2. such secondary force effects may be ignored. As axial compressive stress becomes 4 . For slender concrete compressive components. the degree of sensitivity can be assessed and evaluated by a single-step approximate method. In the remaining cases.STDmAASHTO SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 19% Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation (SI) - M Ob3780Li 0048b44 T 5 T SPECIFICATIONS section of prismatic components.10 COPYRIGHT 2002. In many cases. The inelastic behavior of compressive components shall be taken into account.2 LARGE DEFLECTION THEORY 4.3. This is commonly referred to as a second-order effect.5. and the trend toward more accurate.1 General If the deformation of the structure results in a significant change in force effects.and stress-dependent material characteristics that cause significant changes in structural geometry shall be considered in the analysis. ¡.and large-deflection theory becomes less distinct as bridges and bridge components become more flexible due to advances in material technology. The past traditional boundary between small. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. optimized design.5. wherever applicable.5. The converse is true for tension. such as in trusses and tied arches. Such structures include suspension bridges.1 Small deflection theory is usually adequate for the analysis of beam-type bridges. Shear deformation of deep components shall be considered. The interaction effects of tensile and compressive axial forces in adjacent components should be considered in the analysis of frames and trusses..e. Bridges that resist loads primarily through a couple whose tensile and compressive forces remain in essentially fixed positions relative to each other while the bridge deflects. a loss of stiffness. User=.3. Limits on concrete strain. such as the moment magnification factor method. very flexible cable-stayed bridges. Columns and structures in which the flexural moments are increased or decreased by deflection tend to be sensitive to deflection considerations. -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- . shall not be exceeded.5. The Engineer needs to consider these aspects in the choice of an analysis method. are generally insensitive to deformations.1 A properly formulated large deflection analysis is one that provides all the force effects necessary for the design. The presence of compressive axial forces amplifies both outof-straightness of a component and the deformation due to nontangential loads acting thereon. The synergistic effect of this interaction is the apparent softening of the component.

such as a cantilever beam. Both references are related to metal structures. this effect becomes increasingly more significant.2. In cases where movement is limited.5. Only factored loads shall be used and no superposition of force effects shall be applied in the nonlinear range. In some cases. . the magnitude of movement implied by the moment magnification process cannot be physically attained.3.2a General -| C4.2 Approximate Methods 4. the loads are not proportional to the displacements.5. For example. Therefore. and the numerical procedures used in the computer code. the order of load application can be important and traditional approaches. It is believed to be conservative. User=. are not directly applicable.3. The loads should be applied in the order experienced by the structure.2. etc. 4. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. such as influence functions.e.3. and superposition cannot be used. Because large deflection analysis is inherently nonlinear.2. In conducting nonlinear analysis. the actual movement of a pier may be limited to the distance between the end of longitudinal beams and the backwall of the abutment. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- 4-11 Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. It is considered as geometric nonlinearity and is typically addressed by iteratively solving the equilibriumequations or by using geometric stiffness terms in the elastic range (Przemieniecki 1968).. the assumptions upon which they are based. the moment COPYRIGHT 2002. This alternative procedure will require supplementary calculations not commonly made in bridge design using modern computational methods. The moment magnification procedure outlined herein is one of several variations of the approximate process and was selected as a compromise between accuracy and ease of use. the loads should be applied incrementally with consideration for the changes in stiffness after each increment. ¡.2a Where permitted in Sections 5. it is prudent to perform a linear analysis for a baseline and to use the procedures employed on the problem at hand on a simple structure that can be analyzed by hand. If the structure undergoes nonlinear deformation. An alternative procedure thought to be more accurate than the one specified herein may be found in AISC (1993). Both contain numerous additional references that summarize the state-of-the-art in this area. the effects of deflection on force effects on beam-columns and arches which meet the provisions of these Specifications may be approximated by the single-step adjustment method known as moment magnification.Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation (SI) - SPECIFICATIONS COMMENTARY a higher percentage of the so called Euler buckling stress. 6 and 7.5. This permits the analyst to observe behavior and develop insight into behavior that is not easily gained from more complex models. but the theory and applications are generally usable. The order of load application in nonlinear analysis shall be consistent with that on the actual bridge. The second-order effect arises from the translation of applied load creating increased eccentricity. Discussions on the subject are given by White and Hajjar (1991) and Galambos (1988). The analyst should be aware of the characteristics of the elements employed. dead load stages followed by live load stages.

5.5. moment on compression member due to factored lateral or gravity loads that result in sidesway.3. buckling load.A A S H T O SRCH LKYD-SI-ENGL Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation (SI) SPEC IFICATIO NS || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || ---| - COMMENTARY magnification factors of elements so limited may be reduced accordingIy.2b The factored moments or stresses may be increased to reflect effects of deformations as follows: (4.9. greater than !JI 500.2. 6.5.2b-2) for which: (4.2.5. and 7 as applicable moment on compression member due to factored gravity loads that result in no appreciable sidesway calculated by conventional first-order elastic frame analysis. the Euler ..2. User=. A.3. . Peshall be taken as: 4-12 COPYRIGHT 2002. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. specified in Sections 5.3.26 Moment Magnification . always positive (Nemm) stress corresponding to M (MPa) . 4. calculated by conventional first-order elastic frame analysis. always positive (N-mm) stress correspondingto M.2b-4) where: factored axial load (N) Euler buckling load (N) resistance factor for axial compression. For all other cases.S T D .2b-3) (4.5.1. P shall be determined as specified in Article 6.2. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.3. (MPa) For steelkoncrete composite columns.Beam Columns I C4..2.5.3.

5 = modulus of elasticity (MPa) = moment of inertia consideration (mm4) about axis under I where: M .2.2. .4 has been shown to be . the flexural members and foundation units framing into the compression member shall be designed for the sum of end moments of the compression member at the joint. determined from the corresponding conditions of restraint about that axis. or where they are connected integrally to the same superstructure. Where a group of compression members on one level comprise a bent.O may be used.O.2b-6) I I | || ||| I The previous limit C > 0.2b-5) e" K E = = unsupported length of member (mm) a compression effective length factor as specified in Article 4.6 + 0. 6 shall be determined as for a braced member and 6 for an unbraced member. M .4- b (4.)* where: (4. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.3. and collectively resist the sidesway of the structure. the provisions of Article 5. -- | M2b || I C . sidesway.4.3 also apply. | || For concrete compression members. For members braced against sidesway. Chapter C.6. shall 4-13 COPYRIGHT 2002.3. In structures that are not braced against sidesway. 6.7. = 0. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. For members braced against sidesway and without transverse loads between supports. unnecessary in AISC (1994).5.M is considered positive if the component is bent in single curvature and negative if it is bent in double curvature. Where compression members are subject to flexure about both principal axes. shall be taken as I unless analysis indicates that a lower value . For members not braced against .5. . the value of 6. C shall be taken as 1. C may be taken as: . | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- .2.S T D * A A S H T O SRCli LRFD-SI-ENGL 1198 H Ob39804 0057528 937 H Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation (SI) - SPECIFICATIONS TT2EI PB= - COMMENTARY (KQ. . User=. of commentary. = smaller end moment = larger end moment The ratio MJ . the moment about each axis shall be magnified by 6. For all other cases.

2 .14 COPYRIGHT 2002. 4.10 1.16 1.3.2b. c4. User=. the soil-pile interaction. Components or groups of components of bridges with or without variable cross-sections may be modeled as a single equivalent component provided that it represents all the stiffness properties of the components or group of components. Typically.0.4 Modeling Boundary Conditions | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || ---- C4.2 0. c4.5. The equivalent stiffness Standard frame elements in available analysis programs may be used.2. eight elements per span will give sufficient accuracy for actions in a beam loaded statically with cross-sectional properties that vary smoothly.3 0. and XPe equal to the summations for all columns in the group.3.3.5 Nonprismatic components may be modeled by discretizing the components into a number of frame elements with stiffness properties representative of the actual structure at the location of the element. or by evaluating a closed-form solution formulated using the displaced shape. 4 . Obi as specified in Article 4.5. or stability analysis. with the following definitions: e..3 Refined Methods Refined methods of analysis shall be based upon the concept of forces satisfying equilibrium in a deformed position.16 2-Hinged Arch 1.5. = 1. and the elastic properties of piles.2.S T D . The number of elements required to model the nonprismatic variation is dependent on the type of behavior being modeled.0.2~-1 K Values for Effective Length of Arch Ribs Rise to Span Ratio 0.5. static.5. 4.72 4.3 .4 3-Hinged Arch 1.4 Boundary conditions shall represent actual characteristics of support and continuity.1 .5.70 0.2.O4 1. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.2. 4.2. = one-half of the length of the arch rib (mm) K = effective length factor specified in Table I c. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.3.5.5 Equivalent Members If the accurate assessment of boundary conditions cannot be made. Fewer elements are required to model for deflection and frequency analyses.5.13 1.g.0 Table 4.3 Flexural equilibrium in a deformed position may be iteratively satisfied by solving a set of simultaneous equations. their effects may be bounded.Arches COMMENTARY Live load and impact moments from a small deflection analysis shall be increased by the moment magnification factor. . e. Foundation conditions shall be modeled in such a manner as to represent the soil properties underlying the bridge.16 Fixed Arch 0.5.2~Moment Magnification .0.3.A A S H T O S R C H LRFD-SI-ENGL 17îd B Ob3180Li 0057527 ô73 Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation (SI) - = SPECIFICATIONS be computed for the member group with EP. dynamic.70 0.

6. the eccentricity of loads should be taken with respect to the centerline of the equivalent beam. The equivalent beam idealization does not alleviate the need to investigate warping effects in steel structures. and reaction forces and the attendant stresses are to be superimposed as appropriate. Aristizabal ( I 987) presents similar equations in a simple format that can be readily implemented into stiffnessbased computer programs.2. hence.6.A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation (SI) - 1998 Ob39804 0048b47 531 SPECIFICATIONS properties may be obtained by closed-form solutions. elements may be used that are based on the assumed tapers and cross-sections. o 0 - 4. Length for continuous andlor skewed bridges the length of the longest side of the rectangle that can be drawn within the plan view of the width of the smallest span. the superstructure may be idealized as a single-spine beam. the latter. The relative transverse distortion is a function of the ratio between structural width and height.0"may be analyzed as if the segment were straight.2. | |||| || | ||||||| -| || | || ||| | || | | || --- Width .1 General Segments of horizontally curved superstructures with torsionally stiff closed sections whose central angle subtended by a curved span or portion thereof is less than 12. The effects of curvature may be neglected on open cross-sections whose radius is such that the central angle subtended by each span is less than the value given in Table I. a equivalent beam idealization is appropriate. Karabalis (1983) provides a comprehensive examination of this issue.6.1.1 Influence of Plan Geometry 4. Hence. In all equivalent beam idealizations. Simultaneous torsion.5 times its width. . American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. Analytical experience indicates that eccentricity due to small curvatures causes only negligible force effects.6. Explicit forms of stiffness coefficients are given for linearly tapered rectangular. I. 4. Length for rectangular simply supported bridges . in turn.the core width of a monolithic deck or the average distance between the outside faces of exterior webs.15 COPYRIGHT 2002.the distance between deck joints. moment. The following dimensional definitions shall be used to apply this criterion: o C4.1. the former does not significantly affect load distribution. C4.S T D .1. 1 Where transverse distortion of a superstructure is small in comparison with longitudinal deformation. the limits of such idealization are determined in terms of the width-toeffective length ratio. submodel analysis. depending on the length.1 The specified threshold angle for a torsionally stiff closed section corresponds to an eccentricity of about 2. 4 .1 PLAN ASPECT RATIO If the span length of a superstructure with torsionally stiff closed cross-sections exceeds 2.5 percent of the length of the horizontal curve. numerical integration. flanged.6. and series and parallel analogies. shear.1. Significant bibliographiesare given in Karabalis (1983) and Aristizabal (1987). and box sections.6 STATIC ANALYSIS 4. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. COMMENTARY Alternatively.6. as defined herein. User=.2 STRUCTURES CURVED IN PLAN 4.

2.2. Similarly.1.1.6.2.2.6.Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation ( I S) - STDmAASHTO SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL COMMENTARY SPECIFICATIONS Table 4.6. straightened. The actual eccentricity of the segment between the nodes shall not exceed 2. Depending on the type of deck.1 DECKS 4. the extreme negative moment over any beam or girder shall be taken to apply to all negative moment regions.1. C4. specified in Article 4. 4.6.2.6. the extreme positive moment in any deck panel between girders shall be taken to apply to all positive moment regions.1.2. In determining the strip widths. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. I I. The location of the centerline of such a beam shall be taken at the center of gravity of the cross-section.1.1. Where the strip method is used.2 In order to apply the aspect ratio provisions of Article 4.6. as specified.6.1 General An approximate method of analysis in which the deck is subdivided into strips perpendicular to the supporting components shall be considered acceptable for decks other than fully filled and partially filled grids for which the provisions of Article 4.6. Force effects should be calculated on the basis of the actual curved layout. the effects of flexure in the secondary direction and of torsion on the distribution of internal force effects are accounted for to obtain flexural force effects approximating those that would be provided by a more refined method of analysis.6. I. the center of gravity of permanent loads falls outside the center of gravity.2.Limiting Central Angle for Neglecting Curvature in Determining Primary Bending Moments Angle for One Span Angle for Two or More Spans I 3" I 4. .3 Multiplebeam Superstructures Horizontally curved superstructures other than torsionally stiff single girders may be analyzed as grids or continuums in which the segments of the longitudinal beams are assumed to be straight between nodes. With symmetrical cross-sections.2. torsionally stiff single-girder superstructure meeting the requirements of Article 4.2. modeling and design in the secondary direction may utilize one of the following approximations: 0 Secondary strip designed in a manner like the primary strip.2. and the eccentricity of dead loads shall be established by volumetric consideration.6. C4.1 This model is analogous to past AASHTO Specifications.1. 4-16 COPYRIGHT 2002. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.6.1.8 shall apply.1-1 . | | || ---| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| (24.3 This provision is in line with the eccentricity limit as . the plan needs to be hypothetically 1.1.1 may be analyzed for global force effects as a curved spine beam.6. User=.6.5 percent of the length of the segment. 4.2 Single-Girder Torsionally Stiff Superstructures A horizontally curved. Shear center of the cross-section and the resulting eccentricity need to be investigated.2 Approximate Methods of Analysis 4. with all the limit states applicable.

strips supporting an axle load shall not be taken to be greater than 1000 mm for open grids.3. as is the case for most wood decks.1.2. the provisions of Article 4.6. User=.2 (Le. The equivalent strips for decks that span primarily in the transverse direction shall not be subject to width limits.6. or Minimum structural andlor geometry requirements specified for the secondary direction independent of actual force effects. the traditional approach for reinforced concrete slab in the previous editions of the AASHTO Standard Specifications. The following notation shall apply to Table 1: -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- C4. Currently about two-thirds of all bridges nationwide are skewed. divide the total load on one design traffic lane by the calculated strip width. Practical experience and future research work may lead to refinement.3 Values provided for equivalent strip widths and strength requirements in the secondary direction are based on past experience. and not greater than 3600 mm for all other decks where multilane loading is being investigated. the provisions of Article 3.2 Applicability The use of design aids for decks containing prefabricated elements may be permitted in lieu of analysis if the performance o the deck is documented f and supported by sufficient technical evidence. and a number of other structural phenomena that should be considered in the design.6.3.6. it produces negative moments at corners. 4. .2.6. torsional moments in the end zones. For slab bridges and concrete slabs spanning more than 4600 mm and which span primarily in the direction parallel to traffic.3 Width of Equivalent Interior Strips The width of the equivalent strip of a deck may be taken as specified in Table 1. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. Where decks span primarily in the direction parallel to traffic. S h = spacing of supporting components (mm) = depth of deck (mm) = span length of deck (mm) = axle load (N) 4-17 L P COPYRIGHT 2002.2.. 4.1.1. For deck overhangs.S T D .1.2. substantial redistribution of reaction forces.7.4 may be used in lieu of the strip width specified in Table 1 for deck overhangs.A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 M Ob39804 0048b51 LqT Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation (SI) - SPECIFICATIONS COMMENTARY Resistance requirements in the secondary direction determined as a percentage of that in the primary one as specified in Article 9. To get the load per unit width of the equivalent strip. While skew generally tends to decrease extreme force effects.3 shall apply. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. The Engineer shall be responsible for the accuracy and implementation of any design aids used. where applicable. The approximate strip model for decks is based on rectangular layouts.

0h + 760 2.18 COPYRIGHT 2002.0h + 760 2.~ ~ Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation ( I S) - STDoAASHTO SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 06391904 0048b52 02b m SPECIFICATIONS Sb COMMENTARY = spacing of grid bars (mm) = = -| || +M -M X positive moment negativemoment = distance from load to point of support (mm) Table 4.3-1 TYPE OF DECK .1.8 applies Article 9.07L 4.6.8.2. composite grids Prefabricatedglulam Main Bars Main Bars Main Bars 0.1. plus any additional integral local thickening or 4 . the notional edge beam shall be taken as a reduced deck strip width specified herein.cp ontinuous decks or .inplace concrete formwork Precast.0h + 1020 2280 + 0.25s 660 + 0.Equivalent Strips WIDTH OF PRIMARY STRIP (mm) Concrete: 0 Cast-in-place 0 Cast-in-placewith stay.55s 1220 + 0. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.0h + 1020 Plank Width 0 4. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.0h + 760 Stress-laminated 0.1.2.555 1220 + 0.2. . User=.OSb Article 4. posttensioned | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- DIRECTION OF PRIMARY STRIP RELATIVE TO TRAFFIC Overhang Either Parallel or Perpendicular Either Parallel or Perpendicular Either Parallel or Perpendicular 1140 + 0.4 applies 0 Wood: .2.0h + 760 4.007P + 4.4a General For the purpose of design.255 0 Steel: 0 0 Opengrid Filled or partially filled grid Unfilled.066s + 2740 OMS+ 610 2. I.4 Width of Equivalent Strips at Edges of Slabs 4.Noninterconnected .833X +M: -M: +M: -M: +M: -M: 660 + 0.Interconnected 0 Parallel Perpendicular Parallel Perpendicular Parallel Perpendicular Parallel Perpendicular Parallel Perpendicular 2.2.Noninterconnected panels Planks S ike-laminated interconnected panels 2.6.0h + 1020 0 .25s 660 + 0.55s 1220 + 0.6.6.

2. plus 300 mm.2 may be applied to the secondary direction.5-1) where: I . the effective width of a strip. with or without an edge beam.6.3.6. The width of the equivalent strips in both directions may be taken as specified in Table 4.3.1. 4.1. The effective width shall not exceed the full strip width specified in Article 4. plus one-half of the width of strip as specified in Article 4.1.5 times the spacing in the primary direction.5 Distribution of Wheel Loads If the spacing of supporting components in the secondary direction exceeds 1.6.1.2. specified in either Article 4. plus one-half of the strip width. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.1. The distribution shall be determined as the ratio between the stiffness of the strip and the sum of stiffnesses of the intersecting strips.3. 4.1.6.5 This article attempts to clarify the application of the traditional AASHTO approach with respect to continuous decks.3 or Article 4. Each wheel load shall be distributed between two intersecting strips.2. may be taken as the sum of the distance between the transverse edge of the deck and the centerline of the first line of support for the deck.4~ Transverse Edges The effective width of a strip.2. and the provisions of Article 9.6. a tributary portion of the design lane load. .3. the deck shall be modeled as a system of intersecting strips.6.5 times the spacing in the primary direction. usually taken as a girder web. where appropriate. 4. all of the wheel loads shall be considered to be applied to the primary strip. = moment of inertia of the equivalent strip (mm4) 4 .STD-AASHTO SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 M Ob3980Li 0048b53 Tb2 COMMENTARY Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation (SI) - S PECIF ICATIONS similar protrudence acting as a stiffener to the deck.2.1. The effective width shall not exceed either the full strip width or 1800 mm. (4. estimated as: | | || --| ||||||| -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || C4.6. In the absence of more precise calculations.2. may be taken as the sum of the distance between the edge of the deck and the inside face of the barrier.2.4b Longitudinal Edges Where decks span primarily in the direction of traffic.7.3-1.2.6. User=.6.2.2. the strip stiffness. k may be . If the spacing of supporting component in the secondary direction is less than 1. Edge beams shall be assumed to support one line of wheels and. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. as appropriate. with or without an edge beam.6.1.19 COPYRIGHT 2002.1.

6. the webs and bottom flange.1.2. Those components shall be included in the analysis of the deck. but it can be determined only by complex. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. the effects of frame action could be considerable.1. 4.1.7 Cross-Sectional Frame Action Where decks are an integral part of box or cellular cross-sections. but not exceeding 380 mm from the centerline of support. than force effects calculated using concentrated loads.one-quarter the flange width from the centerline of support.6may beused.2. A design section for shear is provided for use in nontraditional situations. The strips should be analyzed by classical beam theory. are likely to cause significant force effects in the deck. the force effects calculated using the footprint could be significantly lower. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.2.2.6. Reduction in negative moment and shear replaces the effect of reduced span length in the current code. ¡. 4.1.1.5. If the length of a frame segment is modeled as the width of an equivalent strip. Such action usually decreases positive moments. plus the depth of the deck.6.2. each web of a steel or concrete box beam may be treated as a separate supporting component.1. a degree of transverse frame action also exists. as appropriate. For short-spans.1. the unfactored design live load moments for many practical concrete deck slabs can be found in Appendix A4.1. Span length shall be taken as the center-to-center distance between the supporting components. where investigated.2.6. For smaller structures.6 This is a deviation from the traditional approach based on a continuity correction applied to results obtained for analysis of simply supported spans. If the slab is supported by box beams or is integrated into a cellular cross-section. refined analysis.6 Calculation of Force Effects The strips shall be treated as continuous beams or simply supported beams.~ STD-AASHTO SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation (SI) 1996 - = Ob39604 0046b54 7T7 W SPECIFICATIONS S COMMENTARY = spacing of supporting components (mm) C4.e.2.6.6. For larger structures. a threedimensional analysis may be appropriate. The design section for negative moments and shear forces.4. For steel and wood beams . The design sections indicated may be applied to deck overhangs and to portions of decks between stringers or similar lines of support. It is not the intent to investigate shear in every deck. cross-sectional frame action may safely be neglected.5. Extreme force effects may be calculated by combining the: 4-20 COPYRIGHT 2002.2. For the purpose of this article. and more realistic. the analysis could be restricted to a segment of the bridge whose length is the width of an equivalent strip. may be taken as follows: 0 For monolithic construction and concrete box beams -at the face of the supporting component. as specified in Article 3.7 The model used is essentially a transverse segmental strip. In openframed structures. 0 For precast i-shaped and T-shaped concrete beams -one-third the flange width. Such modeling is restricted to closed cross-sections only.6.. but may increase negative moments resulting in cracking of the deck. In lieu of more precise calculations. the supporting components shall be assumed to be infinitely rigid. For the purpose of determining force effects in the strip. -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- . In normal beam-slab superstructures. provisions of Articles 4.1.6. The wheel loads may be modeled as concentrated loads or as patch loads whose length along the span shall be the length of the tire contact area. in which flexural continuity provided by the webs and bottom flange is included.3. flexural and/or torsional stiffnesses of supporting components of the cross-section. Past practice has been to not check shear in typical decks. C4.and4. User=.

1.... along direction of traffic.. For all other fully filled grids .2. . unless supported by condition-specific data.2.1.. is a 510 mm by 385 mm rectangle. . .0 for simply supported and 0.. .8 The moment equations result from orthotropic plate theory and stiffness ratios obtained in full-scale laboratory tests of filled and partially filled grids based on a 500 mm wide. . and Transverse flexural response modeled as a crosssectional frame. The tire contact area.8 Live Load Distribution on Fully Filled and Partially Filled Grids Moments in N-mmímmof grid due to live load in filled and partially filled grids may be determined as: Main bars transverse to traffic: M = C4.5. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105...mm2/mm) D = D .6. User=..mm2/mm) For on-the-road tire loads greater than those indicated by the design truck.6. D. . . factored for the Strength I Load Combination... . the stiffness ratio.2.... Moments resulting from these equations compare well with full-scale test results and finite difference and finite element solutions.8-2) where: S = span length (mm). (N. 500 mrn < S < 10 O00 mm in Equation 1. specified in Article 3. 0 4.46] 200 a (4. 200 mm long tire contact area. .2. the factored tire pressure should not be taken to be greater than 0.10 200D0.86 MPa..0 overfill .1..3ln(O.1. and 500 mm < S < 5000 mm in Equation 2 C = continuity factor.5 (mm) = tire pressure taken as 0. Dy = Where test results are not available..8 for continuous spans Q p = tire length.. which includes the tire contact area.O39S) . Cf~pD~~~~[42..741 (4.. 1.. ..6. ..1.. = flexural rigidity in direction of main bars flexural rigidity perpendicular to the main bars (N. .291n(0.Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation ( I S) - SPECIFICATIONS COMMENTARY 0 Longitudinal response of the superstructure approximated by classical beam theory.039S).1.8-1) Main bars parallel to direction of traffic M = Cp[8060D0. . ....6..2.. may be taken as: 0 For fully filled grids with at least 38 mm monolithic 2.. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.. 2.6. as specified in Article 3.6.. therefore Equations 1 and 2 are expected to produce conservative results.5 o 4-21 -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- COPYRIGHT 2002. .2.86 MPa DAD. .

6. .6.2.6..2 and 4.2.3 that do not appear in earlier editions of the Standard Specifications come primarily from Zokaie et al. On the other hand. The distribution of live load. Moments Should be taken about the aSSUmed: Or notional. o For all other partially filled grids .. other than multiple steel box beams with concrete decks that meet the following conditions and any other conditions identified in tables of distribution factors as specified herein: I i I I The lever rule involves summing moments about one support to find the reaction at another support by assuming that the supported component is hinged at interior supports.2.2.3.2.. 10.2 BEAM-SLAB BRIDGES 4.1. .1. the notional model should be taken as shown in Fiaure cl.2.6. Correction factors for continuity have been deleted for two reasons: 0 Correction factors dealing with 5 percent adjustments were thought to imply misleading levels of accuracy in an approximate method.2. I I Figure C4. .6. Beams are parallel and have approximately the same stiffness... . American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105..Notional Model for Applying Lever Rule to Three-Girder Bridges Provisions in Articles 4.2.4. Bridges not meeting the requirements of this article shall be analyzed as specified in Article 4.6.may be used for girders. .2.2. .2and 4. The provisions of Article 3. .6.3. hence the two tend to cancel each other out. .. ..2. and thus are omitted from these Specifications.1 I I I I I I I Except as specified in Article 4. 0 Number of beams is not less than four. (1991). If one lane is loaded with a special vehicle or evaluation permit vehicle. For beam spacing exceeding the range of applicability as specified in tables in Articles 4.2. unless otherwise specified. .. 4. and stringers. 0 In Strength Load Combination II.2.3..2. .2. hinge in the deck over the middle girder to find the reaction on the exterior girder.2. User=.Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation (SI) - SPECIFICATIONS 0 COMMENTARY 8.2..1..0 For partially filled grids with at least 38 mm monolithicoverfill .. specified in Articles 4.. 0 Width of deck is constant.2 and 4. .6.2. the desinn force effect per girder resultina from the mixed traffic mav be determined as Specified in Article 4..6.9 InelasticAnalysis The inelastic finite element analysis or yield line analysis may be permitted by the Owner.6..2 specify that multiple presence factors shall not be used with the approximate load assignment methods other than statical moment or lever arm methods because these factors are already incorporated in the distribution factors. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.. or i Multiple lanes of live load yielding approximatelv the same force effect Der lane.6.6. When using the lever rule on a three-girder bridge.6.2..4.. it has been observed that stresses at or near an internal bearing are reduced due to the fanning of the reaction force.6...2. the live load on each beam shall be the reaction of the loaded lanes based on the lever rule unless specified otherwise herein.0 4. This reduction is about the same magnitude as the increase in distribution factors.2. and Analyses of many continuous beam-slab-type bridges indicate that the distribution coefficients for negative moments exceeds those obtained for positive moments by approximately 10 percent.. beams. applying a distribution factor procedure to a loading involving a 4-22 -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- COPYRIGHT 2002. .2.2.2...1-1.1 Application C4.6. the provisions of this article shall be taken to apply to bridaes beina analvzed for: i A sinnle lane of loading.

1-2) For closed thin-walled shapes: = = = = - D e 9 IP J- 4AO2 S E- (C4.2.2.2.6.. 0 Curvature in plan is less than the limit specified in Article 4.01.2.1-3) t J = K = - where: b t A = width of plate element (mm) = thickness of plate-like element (mm) = area of cross-section (mm2) = polar moment of inertia (mm4) = | | || ---| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| KB= L = N = .2. User=.6. = $ area enclosed by centerlines of elements (mm2) s = length of a side element (mm) w = = Equation C2 has been shown to substantially underestimate the torsional stiffness of some concrete COPYRIGHT 2002.6. does not exceed 910 mm. Most of the equations for distribution factors were derived for constant deck width and parallel beams.6.. specified herein. SPECIFICATIONS Unless otherwise specified.2 and 4. etc.6. Live load distribution factors.1. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. Past designs with moderate exceptions to these two assumptions have performed well when the W D " distribution factors were used.2b. e. the roadway part of the overhang. A . J. permanent loads of and on the deck may be distributed uniformly among the beams and/or stringers. and solid sections: J. beam or girder (mm') width of beam (mm) stiffness parameter depth of beam or stringer (mm) distance from exterior web of exterior beam and the interior edge of curb or traffic barrier (mm) width of distribution per lane (mm) correction factor distribution factor polar moment of inertia (mm4) St. In lieu of more refined information.2. I spacing of beams or webs (mm) depth of steel grid or corrugated steel plank (mm) depth of structural overlay (mm) depth of concrete slab (mm) edge-to-edge width of bridge (mm) For thin-walled open beam: I J. the equations in the tables of distribution factors may be used in conjunction with a suitable value for beam spacing.1-1) o For stocky open sections.2.6. prestressed I-beams. common sense indicates that some exceptions are still possible. Additional requirements for multiple steel box girders with concrete decks shall be as specified in Article 4.2.6. T-beams.40. may be used for permit and rating vehicles whose overall width is comparable to the width of the design truck.2. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.6. While the distribution factors specified herein are more representativeof actual bridge behavior. The following notation shall apply to tables in Articles 4. NL = s = i. the St. Venant torsional inertia.2. Venant's torsional inertia (mm4) constant for different types of construction longitudinal stiffness parameter (mm4) span of beam (mm) number of beams. o A A A ' (C4..g. especially if the parameter "S" is chosen with prudent judgment.S T D . N = . Where bridges meet the conditions specified herein. Use of a refined method of analysis will circumvent this situation.2.1. de.2: and Cross-section is consistent with one of the crosssections shown in Table I. tB= t .A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation (SI) - Ob39804 0 0 4 8 b 5 7 bO8 COMMENTARY heavy permit load can be overly conservative unless lane-by-lane distribution factors are available.2.1 b t 3 3 (C4. stringers or girders number of cells in a concrete box girder number of design lanes as specified in Article 3.3: A b c d de = = = = area of stringer. .1. may be determined as: 0 o Where moderate deviations from a constant deck width or parallel beams exist.

3 shall be taken as those of the cross-section to which traffic will be applied.2.14. with reference to Figure 1. column in tables in Articles 4.3. The longitudinal stiffness parameter.2 and 4.2.. or both.2 and 4.3. For beams with variable moment of inertia. 4-24 COPYRIGHT 2002.2.1 indicates that concrete decks less than 180 mm in thickness should not be used unless approved by the Owner.2.2. 1." "h.2. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. In some cases.6. we = e = c i = half the web spacing.6.e.1-2) where: Es = modulus of elasticity of beam material (MPa) modulus of elasticity of deck material (MPa) moment of inertia of beam (mm4) basic beam and deck (mm) The parameters A and I in Equation 1 shall be taken as those of the noncomposite beam.4. = distance between the centers of gravity of the || | || ||| I = | || ED = | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- . (1973). A minimum 1.2. Article 9. Generally. The use of transverse mild steel rods secured by nuts or similar unstressed dowels should not be considered sufficient to achieve full transverse flexural continuity unless demonstrated by testing or experience.6.This type of construction acts as a monolithic unit if sufficiently interconnected.6. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.6.2.2. This type of interconnection is enhanced by either transverse posttensioning of an intensity specified above or by a reinforced structural overlay.shown in the range of applicability. may be taken as representativeof the type of bridge to which each approximate equation applies.2.2.2." "i.7. the stiffness parameters for area.6.6. plus the total overhang (mm) skew angle (DEG) Poisson's ratio Unless othemvise stated. a fully interconnected joint is identified as a flexural shear joint. but more complex.2.6.6.2.3f.2. Lesser values shown in tables in Articles 4.6. Kg may be based on average properties.A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 M Ob39804 0048b58 544 Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation (SI) - SPECIFICATIONS COMMENTARY I-beams and a more accurate. Kg.4.2.14. which is also specified in Article 5.2.3. t.6.1-1) (4. For bridge types "f.2.7 MPa prestress is recommended."and "j.2 and 4.3 is less than 180 mm.2." longitudinal joints between precast units of the cross-section are shown in Figure I. User=.2.2.1. the lower limit of deck slab thickness. posttensioning is thought to be more effective than a structural overlay if the intensity specified above is achieved. ¡. moments of interia and torsional 'stiffness used herein and in Articles 4.3. shall be taken as: Kg = n ( / + Aeg> in which: (4.3f. The research used to develop the equation in those tables reflects the range of slab thickness shown. -- | e . The bridge types indicated in tables in Articles 4. The transverse posttensioning shown for some cross-sections herein is intended to make the units act together.2.S T D .6. usually the composite section. approximation can be found in Eby et al." "g.3 are not intended to override Article 9.2 and 4.7. Table Idescribes how the term L (length) may be determined for use in the live load distribution factor equations given in Articles 4. I.2.2 and 4. In Article 5.2.

e.1. User=. -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || 4 .25 | ||||||| | | || --- COPYRIGHT 2002.A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1978 Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation (SI) - 0637804 0048657 480 COMMENTARY SPECIFICATIONS Table C4.S T D .Other than near interior supports of continuous spans Shear Exterior Reaction Interior Reaction of Continuous Span - L (mm) The length of the span for which moment is being calculated The average length of the two adjacent spans The length of the span for which moment is being calculated The length of the span for which shear is being calculated The length of the exterior span The average length of the two adjacent spans Except as permitted by Article 2.. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.e.2.1-1 L for Use in Live Load Distribution Factor Equations FORCE EFFECT Positive Moment Negative Moment . no uniform load points of contraflexure. the region of negative moment near the interior supports would be increased to the centerline of the span.7. .2. and the L used in determining the live load distribution factors would be the average of the two adjacent spans. exterior girders of multibeam bridges shall not have less resistance than an interior beam.6..2. In the rare occasion when the continuous span arrangement is such that an interior span does not have any positive uniform load moment. approximate or refined. ¡. regardless of the method of analysis used. ¡.5.Near interior supports of continuous spans from point of contraflexure to point of contraflexure under a uniform load on all spans Negative Moment .

Common Deck Superstructures Covered in Articles 4. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office 4-26 Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.2.2. User=.3 1 SUPPORTING COMPONENTS Steel Beam | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --~~~~ ~ II Closed Steel or Precast Concrete Boxes II Cast-in-Piace Concrete -| || | || ||| | || TYPE OF DECK Cast-in-place concrete slab.6.2.6. Voided or Cellular Concrete Boxes with Shear Keys Cast-in-place concrete overlay COPYRIGHT 2002. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. stressed wood TYPICAL CROSS-SECTION Cast-in-place concrete slab I I I Cast-in-piace concrete slab. precast concrete slab.2.2.2. precast concrete deck slab Monolithic concrete n n Monolithic concrete Il Precast Solid.2 and 4. .6. glued/spiked panels. steel grid.1-1 .STDmAASHTO SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL L998 Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation ( I S) SPECIFICATIONS - Ob37804 0048bb0 L T 2 COMMENTARY Table 4.

or Cellular Concrete Box with Shear Keys and with or without Transverse Post-Tensioning COMMENTARY - TYPE OF DECK Integral concrete TYPICAL CROSS-SECTION Precast Concrete Channel Sectionswith Shear Keys Cast-in-place concrete overlay ~ Precast Concrete Double Tee Section with Shear Keys and with or without Transverse Posttensioning Precast Concrete Tee Section with Shear Keys and with or without Transverse Posttensioning Precast Concrete I or Bulb-Tee Sections Integral concrete n (i) n tension integral concrete n LI (i) n LI LI Lpost tension Cast-in-place concrete. 4-27 -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- COPYRIGHT 2002. . User=.3 shall be taken to auulv to a notional shaue consistinn of a web. Voided.6. gluedlspiked panels or stressed wood n For cast-in-Place concrete multicell box shown as cross-section Tvue "d" in Table 1. overhanas of an exterior web. precast concrete Wood Beams Cast-in-place concrete or plank. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.2.~ Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation (SI) SPECIFICATIONS SUPPORTING COMPONENTS Precast Solid.6. and the associated half flanaes between a web under consideration and the next adiacent web or webs. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.2.2. the distribution factors in Article 4.2 and 4.2.

American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.6. the distributed live load shear shall be determined by the following expression: V..2.Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation ( I S) - SPECIFICATIONS 4..2. one line of wheels is assumed to be carried by one bending member.2.50[0.2.2.. I a. Distribution Factor Method for Moment and COMMENTARY 4.2.2a-1 .Distributionof Live Load Per Lane for Moment and Shear in Interior Beams with Wood Decks Type of Deck Applicable CrossSection from Table 4. For undistributedwheel loads.6. I a. I s12000 SI2800 SI2500 s13000 SI2300 SI2700 SI2600 s13000 S 5 1500 S 5 1800 S s 1800 S i 1800 a. V .6.2. User=.. I a. = distributed live load vertical shear (N) = = maximum vertical shear at 3d or U4 due to undistributedwheel loads (N) maximum vertical shear at 3d or U4 due to wheel loads distributed laterally as specified herein (N) V .2a-1) where: V .6.2. When investigation of shear parallel to the grain in wood components is required.60 VLu)+ VD] (4. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.1-1 One Design Lane Loaded Two or More Design Lanes Loaded Range of Applicability Plank Stressed Laminated Spike Laminated Glued Laminated Panels on Glued Laminated Stringers Glue Laminated Panels on Steel Stringers a. .2. = 0.2 Shear . Table 4.2.6.2a interior Beams with Wood Decks The live load flexural moment and shear for interior beams with transverse wood decks may be determined by applying the lane fraction specified in Table 1 and Equation 1. I SI2670 SI2700 S 5 1800 4-28 -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- COPYRIGHT 2002.

6. taken at midspan. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.6.3 shall be used. other than box beams.1 . and If the stern spacing of stemmed beams is less than 1200 mm or more than 3000 mm. using the width.2..6. . The bridges considered in the development of the equations had interior end diaphragms only. 4-29 -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- COPYRIGHT 2002.2-1.2. showed that folded plate theory could be used to analyze the behavior of bridges of this type. specified in Table I 3. For the concrete beams. User=. the value of N shall be determined. The folded plate theory was used to obtain the maximum load per girder produced by various critical combinations of loading on 31 bridges having various spans.1. The results of analytical and model studies of simple span multiple box section bridges. are not applied because the multiple factors in past editions of the Standard Specifications were considered in the development of the equation in Table 1 for multiple steel box girders. rigid end diaphragms shall be provided to ensure proper load distribution. This improvement can be evaluated. reported in Johnston and Mattock (1967). Multiple presence factors. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. the transverse load distribution characteristics of the bridge will be improved to some degree. If interior or exterior diaphragms are provided within the span.2b The live load flexural moment for interior beams with concrete decks may be determined by applying the lane frction specified in Table 1. ¡.2.Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation(SI) - SPECIFICATIONS 4. a refined analysis complying with Article 4. using the analysis methods identified in Article 4. no interior diaphragms within the spans. numbers of box girders.e. if desired.1.J(LG3) and I J 1 may be taken as 1. For preliminary design. the live load flexural moment may be determined using the distribution factor specified in Table 1. and numbers of traffic lanes. the terms K.1.6. The lateral load distribution obtained for simple spans is also considered applicable to continuous structures. W. and no exterior diaphragms anywhere between boxes. . as specified in Article 3.26 Interior Beams with Concrete Decks COMMENTARY C4.O.6. For multiple steel box girders with a concrete deck.2.4. When the spacing of the box girders varies along the length of the bridge. used in multibeam decks with shear keys: Deep.

e. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. k and also i.2.6.1 -1 Distribution Factors Range of Applicability _ _ _ _ ~ ~~ ~~ Wood Deck on Wood or Steel Beams Concrete Deck on Wood Beams Concrete Deck. User=. I I See Table 4.2.j if sufficiently connected to act as a unit 1100 s s i 4900 110 s t. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office + [ 1-75 6) [I) 300 2100 I.Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation ( I S) - Table 4.2.= 8 1800 s S s 3500 6000 s L s 43 O00 450sds1700 N L3 b 0.6.> 8 use N.2. rule Cast-in-Place Concrete Multicell Box N =3 . Concrete T-Beams.2.2.6. T.2a-1 One Design Lane Loaded: U3700 Two or More Design Lanes Loaded: SI3000 One Design Lane Loaded: S i 1800 ~~ __ a. Filled Grid. s 300 6000 i L s 73 O00 N t4 b Two or More Design Lanes Loaded: use lesser of the values obtained from the equation above with N = 3 or the lever . S s 4000 18 O00 i L i 73 O00 N L3 .and Double TSections | | || --- a.2b-1 Distribution of Live Loads Per Lane for Moment in Interior Beams ~ ~ ~ - -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| 1 Type of Beams Applicable Cross-section from Table 4. . If N.125 S > 3500 4 30 - Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. or Partially Filled Grid on Steel or Concrete Beams.6 Sd O. d One Design Lane Loaded: Two or More Design Lanes Loaded: Concrete Deck on Concrete Spread Box Beams One Design Lane Loaded: Two or More Design Lanes Loaded: (&)(LI) Use Lever Rule COPYRIGHT 2002.

425 0. i.6 k(&) ( r ) (f) b 0.5(Nb)-0.\i-" J Steel Grids on Steel Beams Concrete Deck on Multiple Steel Box Girders COPYRIGHT 2002.5 .' 2 1.2 0.0.0 2.o 2.5 i .2.i 1.7 O. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.NJ g.8L where: 9 if sufficiently connected to act as a unit ) 900 s b 5 1500 6000 s L 2 37 O00 [.A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 3998 Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation (SI) Type of Beams Applicable CrossSection from Table 4.1 -1 - Ob37804 0048bb5 i 8 4 W Distribution Factors Range of Applicability Concrete Beams used in Multibeam f h e Design Lane Loaded: Decks k( b 2.N + 1.05 + 0.5 L D = 300 [11.06 h Regardless of Number of Loaded Lanes: S/D tvhere: C = K (W/L) D = 300 [li .2 2.5 Two or More Design Lanes Loaded: 0.0 S 2 1800mm a S 2 3200 mm N L 0. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- for preliminary design.6.8 1..5 Nb 4-31 Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.85.4NL (1 . 5 s Nbs 20 k = 2. j if connected only enough to prevent relative vertical displacement at the interface K= . User=. the following values of K may be used: Beam T w e Nonvoided rectangular beams Rectangular beams with circular voids: Box section beams Channel beams T-beam Double T-beam One Design Lane Loaded: S12300 If $e 100 mm S/3050 If $2 100 mm Two or More Design Lanes Loaded: S12400 If &< 100 mm S/3050 If t r 100 mm Regardless of Number of Loaded Lanes: K 0.+ *b NL NL 0.S T D .)O.2C)2] .2. .

6. User=.2. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105." "e. The recommended procedure is an interim provision until research provides a better solution.2.~ ~ STDaAASHTO SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation (SI) - Ob39804 OO4Bbbb bLO SPECIFICATIONS 4.1. Types "a. Table 4.2 shall apply.2. The distance. NL NL X t e m C R=-+ Nb (C4.1.6.2. g. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.2d-1) reaction on exterior beam in terms of lanes number of loaded lanes under consideration eccentricity of a design truck or a design lane load from the center of gravity of the pattern of girders (mm) horizontal distance from the center of gravity of the pattern of girders to each girder (mm) horizontal distance from the center of gravity of the pattern of girders to the exterior girder (mm) number of beams or girders 4 .2.2.Distribution of Live Load Per Lane for Moment in Interior Beams with Corrugated Steel Plank Decks One Design LaneLoaded COMMENTARY Two or More Design LanesLoaded SI2700 Range of Applicability SI2800 S s 1700 6 2 50 4.2~-I.6. g.2d This additional investigation is required because the distribution factor for girders in a multigirder crosssection. C4. In beam-slab bridge cross-sections with diaphragms or cross-frames.6. shall be taken as positive if the exterior web is inboard of the interior face of the traffic railing and negative if it is outboard of the curb or traffic barrier.2~ Interior Beams with Corrugated Steel Decks The live load flexural moment for interior beams with corrugated steel plank deck may be determined by applying the lane fraction.2." and "k" in Table 4. the distribution factor for the exterior beam shall not be taken to be less than that which would be obtained by assuming that the cross-section deflects and rotates as a rigid cross-section.2. de.2. was determined without consideration of diaphragm or crossframes.1-1.32 COPYRIGHT 2002. -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- where: .2.2.2d Exterior Beams The live load flexural moment for exterior beams may be determined by applying the lane fraction. The procedure outlined in this section is the same as the conventional approximation for loads on piles. specified in Table 1. The provisions of Article 3.2.6.6. specified in Table 1.6.

j if sufficiently connected to act as a unit Lever Rule -300 i de i 1700 2800 use lesser of the values obtained from the equation above with Nb= 3 or the lever rule Cast-in-Place Concrete Multicell Box d w e we we< s g=4300 O i de i 1400 1800 < S i 3500 ~ g=4300 Concrete Deck on Concrete Spread Box Beams Lever Rule de e = 0. or Partially Filled Grid on Steel or C û R C E k Beams.Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation (SI) - Table 4.77 + - Range of Applicability NIA NIA Wood Deck on Wood or Steel Beams Concrete Deck on Wood Beams Concrete Deck. . User=. T and Double T Sections a.2. k and also i. e.97 + 8700 Use Lever Rule Concrete Box Beams Used in Multibeam Decks Lever Rule 9 = e anterior de e = 1.O4 + 7600 S > 3500 -300 < de i 600 Concrete Beams Other than Box Beams Used in Multibeam Decks h i.6.Distributionof Live Loads Per Lane for Moment in Exterior Longitudinal Beams ~ Type of Superstructure Applicable CrossSection from Table 4.2.6. Filled Grid.2d-1 . I I Lever Rule Lever Rule ~ a. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. j if connected only enough to prevent relative vertical displacement at the interface a Lever Rule Lever Rule NIA Steel Grid Deck on Steel Beams Concrete Deck on Multiple Steel Box Girders Lever Rule Lever Rule As specified in Table b-I NIA 4-33 -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- COPYRIGHT 2002. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. Concrete T-Beams.1 -1 ~~~ One Design Lane Loaded Two or More Design Lanes Loaded Lever Rule Lever Rule 9 = e anterior de e = 0.2.2.

American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.0 If 6 > 60" use 8 = 60" Concrete Deck on Concrete Spread Box Beams. User=. 5 300 s e 600 1100 s S s 4900 6000 i L i 73 O00 Nb2 4 If 6 30"then c. . c.*5[ 5) 0. The fractions provided in Table 1 shall be used in conjunction with the 145 kN design axle load alone.O If 6 > 60" use 8 = 60" - o 5 e s 600 4. Cast-in-Place Multicell Box Concrete Box Beams and Double T Sections used in Multibeam Decks . 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.28 When the line supports are skewed and the difference between skew angles of two adjacent lines of supports does not exceed I O " .Reduction of Load Distribution Factors for Moment in Longitudinal Beams on Skewed Supports Type of Superstructure Applicable CrossSection from Table Any Number of Design Lanes Loaded Range of Applicability Concrete Deck.26 Skewed Bridges COMMENTARY C4.6. Accepted reduction factors are not currently available for cases not covered in Table 1. Filled Grid.2. the bending moment in the beams may be reduced in accordance with Table 1.25 tan 8 i 1. = 0.ci c. all of the design live loads shall be considered.O5 0.Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation (SI) - SPECIFICATIONS 4.2.i if sufficiently Mmnected to act as a unit i .25 I ( 3 . Table 4. and the lever rule may be used.2. e. the floorbeams may be designed for loads determined in accordance with Table 1.2. -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- 4-34 COPYRIGHT 2002.2e-1 . =o. 9 1.6. For spacings of floorbeams outside the given ranges of applicability.6.2. or Partially Filled Grid on Steel or Concrete Beams.2.2f Flexural Moments and Shear in Transverse Floorbeams If the deck is supported directly by transverse floorbeams. T or Double T Sections a. b.2. Concrete T-Beams.6.2. k and also i. b f.

09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation (SI) - SPECIFICATIONS Table 4.2f-1 Distributionof Live Load per Lane for Transverse Beams for Moment and Shear Type of Deck Fraction of Wheel Load to Each Floorbeam Range of Applicability COMMENTARY - Laminated Woad Deck Concrete S 1500 S 1800 S s 1500 S s 1800 Steel Grid S - 1400 fe s 100 S s 1500 fe2 Steel Grid S - 100 1800 S i 1800 Steel Bridge Corrugated Plank S 1700 6 2 50 4.6. the distribution factor for shear may be taken as that for moment. For interior beam types not listed in Table 1. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.2. lateral distribution of the wheel or axle adjacent to the end of span shall be that produced by use of the lever rule. User=.3a Interior Beams The live load shear for interior beams may be determined by applying the lane fractions specified in Table I.2.o. . if the values of I or J do not comply with the limitations in Table 1.2. For concrete box beams used in multibeam decks.2. the term I/J may be taken as 1. 4-35 -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- COPYRIGHT 2002.2.6. For preliminary design.2.3 Distribution Factor Method for Shear 4.6.

36+ - 0. S > 3500 d ( A)(): (&) ( 4) o'6 (A) (4) (&)""( 4)"' Lever Rule Concrete Deck on Concrete Spread Box Beams Lever Rule Concrete Box Beams Used in Multibeam Decks ~ 900 i b i 1500 6000 i L i 37 O00 5 i N i 20 b 1 . e. 1800 i S i 4000 6000 i L i 73 O00 890 i d i 2800 Ne>3 1800 i S i 3500 6000 i L s 43 O00 4 5 0 i d ' . Concrete TBeams.2.6. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.6. i 300 4x10's K.and Double T-Sections I Lever Rule S 7600 Lever Rule NIA 11O0 i S i 4900 6000 i L i 73 O00 110 i t. 1700 N 23 .Distribution of Live Load per Lane for Shear in interior Beams ~~ ~ Applicable CrossSection from Table 4.2. User=. j if connected only enough to prevent relative vertical displacement at the interface Concrete Beams Other Than Box Beams Used in Multibeam Decks Lever Rule Lever Rule NIA Steel Grid Deck on Steel Beams Concrete Deck on Multiple Steel Box Beams a Lever Rule Lever Rule NIA As specified in Table 4.j if sufficiently connected to act as a unit 0.36 -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- COPYRIGHT 2002. i 3 ~ 1 0 ' ~ N 24 .6.3a-1 Type of Superstructure . 0 ~ 1 0 ~ ~ 2.1 -1 One Design LaneLoaded Two or More Design Lanes Loaded Range of Applicability Wood Deck on Wood or Steel Beams Concrete Deck on Wood Beams Concrete Deck. k and also i. T.3600 10~OO)z'o S [ Lever Rule Cast-in-Place Concrete Multicell Box Lever Rule N =3 .2.7~1 i I i 25x1O" h i.Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation (SI) - Table 4.5~10" iJi O" 1.2b-1 4 . . or Partially Filled Grid on Steel or Concrete Beams. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.2 + -. a.2.2. Filled Grid.2.

2. The additional provisions for exterior beams in beam-slab bridges with cross-frames or diaphragms.Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation (SI) SPECIFICATIONS - COMMENTARY 4.2.2.3b Exterior Beams The live load shear for exterior beams shall be determined by applying the lane fractions specified in Table 1. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. The parameter de shall be taken as positive if the exterior web is inboard of the curb or traffic barrier and negative if it is outboard. the live load distribution to exterior beams shall be determined by using the lever rule. COPYRIGHT 2002. shall apply.2. .6.3a-1 and Table I .2.2.6. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- 4 37 - Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. specified in Articles 4.2d. User=.6. For cases not addressed in Table 4.

.2.j if sufficiently connected to act as a unit -300i de i 1700 3000 Lever Rule d Lever Rule N= 3 . j if connected only enough to prevent relative vertical displacement at the interface a b. c Lever Rule Lever Rule NIA As specified in Table 4. de s 600 Lever Rule Lever Rule NIA i.6.Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation (SI) - SPECIFICATIONS COMMENTARY Table 4. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office | || ||| a.2.Distribution of Live Load per Lane for Shear in Exterior Beams Type of Superstructure -| || Applicable CrossSection from Table 4.2.6.2. I I Lever Rule Lever Rule Lever Rule Lever Rule Lever Rule 9 = e ginterior e ‘ e = 0 6+ .2.1-1 One Design Lane Loaded Wood Deck on Wood or Steel Beams Concrete Deck on Wood Beams Concrete Deck. Filled Grid.3b-1 . User=.2. e. + de - 3050 Lever Rule Lever Rule 9=eQiior de e = 1 . or Partially Filled Grid on Steel or Concrete Beams. NIA NIA a.6. k and also i.O2+ 15 O00 h S > 3500 -300I. T.2b-1 4-38 Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. Concrete T-Beams.64 + O s de s 1400 e = 08 .and Double T-Beams | | || --| ||||||| | || | |||| || Cast-in-Place Concrete Multicell Box Concrete Deck on Concrete Spread Box Beams Concrete Box Beams Used in Multibeam Decks Concrete Beams Other Than Box Beams Used in Multibeam Decks Steel Grid Deck on Steel Beams Concrete Deck on Multiple Steel Box Beams COPYRIGHT 2002. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. -600 e ‘ 3800 9 = e ginterior i de i 1500 e Lever Rule = 0.

0 + LJfane 90 d < e <600 6000 s L s 37 O00 430sds1500 900 i b s 1500 00 I 4. j if sufficiently connected to act as a unit d Correction Factor Range of Applicability ~ Concrete Deck. the multide lane multiple { I Specified in Article 4.O in this equation.2. it is not necessarily conservative regarding uplift in the case of large skew and short exterior spans of continuous beams.e. is imdicitlv set eaual to 1. or Partially Filled Grid on Steel or Concrete Beams. User=.2. T. k and also i. e.3b-1 for exterior beams. Verifiable correction factors are not available for cases not covered in Table 1. which assumes onlv two lanes are loaded. or I I I smified in Article 4.6. A supplementary investigation of uplift should be considered using the correction factor from Table 1. ¡.Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation (SI) SPECIFICATIONS 4.2.6.2.3 i e s 600 1100 5 S i 4900 6000 5 L i 73 O00 00 N z4 .2.and Double T Section Cast-in-Place Concrete Multicell Box 0.2..2. The provisionsof I I this article shall not be aDDlkd where either: I 1 I I 2 the lever rule has been SDecified for both sinale I I lane and multiple lane loadinns. It is applied to the lane fraction specified in Table 4.0 + JE tane 6s e i 600 1800 5 S i 3500 6000 5 L s 43 O00 450sdi1700 00 | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- 1.25 + . Table 4.6.1-1 a.2 and slsb-tvne bridaes { presencefactor.0 + 0. taken as negative for the exterior beam at the acute comer.2. the provisions of this I I determine the multiple lane live load distribution I article mav be amlied where the approximatemethods I i of analvsis for the analvsis of beamslab bridaes I factor.2.4 I I Because the number of loaded lanes used to Except as specified herein.6. m.6. Filled Grid. g.2.3a-1 for interior beams and in Table 4. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.3~ Skewed Bridges - COMMENTARY Shear in the exterior beam at the obtuse corner of the bridge shall be adjusted when the line of support is skewed. However.3~-1 Correction Factors for Load Distribution Factors for Support Shear of the Obtuse Corner ~ ~~ - Type of Superstructure Applicable CrossSection from Table 4.O.6.2.6.2. The factor "2" is used to distinnuish between situations where the sinnle lane live load distribution 4-39 COPYRIGHT 2002. is not known.6.2. the skew correction at the obtuse corner shall be applied to all the beams. resultinn in a conservative final force effect over using the muitide presence factors for three or more lanes loaded.6.2. Concrete T-Beams. In determining the end shear in multibeam bridges. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.tan8 7id] [ < e i 600 1800 S i 4000 6000 5 L i 73 O00 900ids2700 00 . -- | || | || ||| | || Concrete Deck on Spread Concrete Box Beams 1.4 Special Loads with other Traffic I C4.2.3 are used. The value of the correction factor shall be obtained from Table 1.2. The equal treatment of all beams in a multibeam bridge is conservative regarding positive reaction and shear. Concrete Box Beams Used in Multibeam Decks 1. the terms other than 1.

2. - I I I I I E the special reauirement for exterior girders of I beam-slab bridge cross-sections with diaphraams I Specified in Article 4.3 I I 4 I I % E & E I I Z E I I I -| || | || ||| 4.6. The equivalent width of longitudinal strips per lane for both shear and moment with one lane. í1994ì in a report to the Pennsvlvania Department of Transportation in 1994.20 in Eauation 1 so that the distribution factor can be utilized in Eauation 1 to determine the force effect resulting from a multiple lane loading.1. . 4 2 m (4.6.2. This formula was developed from a similar formula presented without investigation bv Modieski and Masters.20 for a sinule lane loaded has been included in the algebraic eauation and must be removed bv usina Z = 1.2.6. as was examined in Zokaie (1998). Inc.3-1) In Equation 1. the multiple presence factor of 1.. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. ¡.6.e.20 where the lever rule was not utilized. such as I might be considered with Load Combination Strength I I in Table 3.4. User=.20 to account for the multiple presence effect. and 1.12JL1VVI s W NL (4. with spans greater than 4600 mm and under less than 600 mm of fill. loaded may be determined as: | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- E = 250 + 0 .6. The equivalent width of longitudinal strips per lane for both shear and moment with more than one lane loaded may be determined as: E=2100+0.6.2.Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation (SI) SPECIFICATIONS COMMENTARY factor was determined from a specified algebraic eauation and situation where the lever rule was specified for the determination of the single lane live load distribution factor. I Force effects resulting from heaw vehicles in one I lane with routine traffic in adiacent lanes.3-2) where: E = equivalentwidth (mm) 4-40 COPYRIGHT 2002.2. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.0 where the lever rule was used for a single lane live load distribution factor C4. the strip width has been divided by 1.2d has been utilized for I simplified analvsis.2. cast-inplace voided slab bridges may be considered as slab bridges.I sections shown schematically in Table 1 and culverts I are covered bv the provisions of Article 4.3 EQUIVALENT STRIP WIDTHS FOR SLABTYPE BRIDGES I Culverts with sDans eaual to or less than 4600 mm This article shall be applied to the types of cross.2. In the situation where an algebraic eauation was SDecified. For the purpose of this article.1-1 mav be determined as: I I I I I 1 I I I I I where: final force effect atmlied to a girder kN-mm) I PE I I I I íkN or I I I bp4 I 8 1 force effect due to overload truck íkN or kN-mm) single lane live load distribution factor force effect due to desiun loads íkN or kN-mm) multiple lane live load distribution factor a factor taken as 1. two lines of wheels.

1. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.25 tan 6 s 1. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. \ \ ~ \ l ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ i ) l ~ ~ J ~ l L <C> I The lever rule may be used for the distribution o f gravity loads in trusses and arches when analyzed as planar structures. Where loads. 4-41 -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- COPYRIGHT 2002.1 COMMENTARY W = NL = For skeweá briáges.6.2. modified span length taken equal to the lesser of the actual span or 18 O00 (mm) modified edge-to-edge width of bridge taken to be equal to the lesser of the actual width or 18 O00 mm for multilane loading.Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation (SI) - SPECIFICATIONS L. or 9000 mm for single-lane loading (mm) physical edge-to-edge width of bridge (mm) number of design lanes as specified in Article 3.3-3) where: 8 = skewangle(DEG) Table 4. = W = . If a space analysis is used.6. User=.3-1 .00 (4.6. other than the self-weight of the members and wind loads thereon. . are transmitted to the truss at the panel points.05-0. the longitudinai force effects may be reduced by the factor r: r = 1. either the lever rule or direct loading through the deck or deck system may be used.2.1.Typical Schematic Cross-Section SUPPORT!NG COMPONENTS TYPE OF DECK Monolithic TYPICAL CROSS-SECTION Cast-in-Place Concrete Slab or Voided Slab mm (a) POST Stressed Wood Deck Integral Wood TENS% (b) Glued/Spiked Wood Panels with Spreader Beam IntegralWood ~ ~ ~ ~ ' ~ ~ J ~ ~ . the truss may be analyzed as a pin-connected assembly.

K Physical column lengths shall be multiplied by an effective length factor. which is used to modify the length according to the restraint at the ends of the column against rotation and translation.5 EFFECTIVE LENGTH FACTOR.2. In the absence of a more refined analysis. diagonal bracing. the design values suggested by the Structural Stability Research Council are higher than the idealized values. or adjacent structures.0 1.1 1 I END CONDITION CODE i ROTATION FREE ROTATION FIXED /ROTATION FRP TRANSLPTION FIXE0 TRANSLATION FREE TRANSLATION FREE Because actual column end conditions seldom comply fully with idealized restraint conditions against rotation and translation.7 1. are given in Table C I for some idealized column end conditions. K. Table C4.5-1 .2. Theoretical values of K.2 1. it can be shown that: (C4. trusses. K.0. -- | || | || ||| Vierendeel trusses shall be treated as unbraced frames. K. If the stiffness of the beams is small in relation to that of the column. as provided by the Structural Stability Research Council.875 | ||||||| For bolted or welded end connections at both ends: K = 0. to compensate for rotational and translational boundary conditions other than pinned ends. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. K 0 iai ibi 1 BUCKLED SHAPE OF COLUMN IS SHOWN BI DASHED LINE ’ f I I IIIl I I TMEORETICAL K VALUE I .6.5 0. User=.65 I O . KL represents the length between inflection points of a buckled column influenced by the restraint against rotation and translation of column ends. is a function of the total flexural restraint provided by the beams at the ends of the column. for the compression members in triangulated trusses.2. K.5 Equations for the compressive resistance of columns and moment magnification factors for beam-columns include a factor.0 0.6. the effective length factor.6. II EFFECTIVE LENGTH F I I 11 | || | |||| || For pinned connections at both ends: K = 0. depends on the flexural stiffness of the rigidly connected beams.0 2.5-1) 4 -42 COPYRIGHT 2002.0 2.750 | | || --- .Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation (SI) - SPECIFICATIONS 4. where lateral stability is provided by diagonal bracing or other suitable means. Therefore.Effective Length Factors. Lateral stability of columns in continuous frames. unbraced by attachment to shear walls. 8 0 2. APPROXIYATEDI~) DESIGN VALUE OF K WHEN IDEAL CONDITIONS ARC I I 0. the value of K could exceed 2. K is the ratio of the effective length of an idealized pinend column to the actual length of a column with various other end conditions.2.6. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. Assuming that only elastic action occurs and that all columns buckle simultaneously in an unbraced frame. and frames may be taken as: 0 COMMENTARY C4. the effective length factor in the braced plane.0 1.0 2.

Disque (1973). unrealistic designs may result. and AISC (1993) may be used to evaluate end conditions more accurately.6. Yura (1971). Ga. User=. = unsupported length of beam or other restraining member (mm) K = effective length factor for the column under consideration Figure C I is a graphical representation of the relationship among K.Section 4 Structurai Analysis and Evaluation (Si) - SPECIFICATIONS COMMENTARY where subscripts "a" and "b" refer to the two ends of the column. Galambos (1988). American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- 4-43 Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. The development of the chart and formula can be found in textbooks such as Salmon and Johnson (1990) and Chen and Lui' (1991). 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.2.5-2) where: E = summation of the properties of components rigidly connected to an end of the column in the plane of flexure I . and Gbi and can be used to obtain values of K directly. = moment of inertia of beam or other restraining L. Duan and Chen (1989). -| COPYRIGHT 2002. = I . = moment of inertia of column (mm4) unbraced length of column (mm) member (mm4) L. Equation C I and the alignment chart in Figure C I are based on assumptions of idealized conditions. for which: (C4. . When actual conditions differ significantly from these idealized assumptions.

The effective flange width is a reduced width over which the longitudinal stresses are assumed to be uniformly distributed and yet result in the 4-44 Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. 1.0 9.5-1 .6.0 "f (o 4.2.2.0- 0- 1. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- a 30 .6.0 1.1 General C4.6.6. the longitudinal stresses are not uniform. o 1 SIDESWAY PERMITTED FOR COLUMN ENDS SUPPORTED BY BUT NOT RIGIDLY CONNECTED TO A FOOTING OR FOUNDATION. IT IS IMPORTANT TO PROPERLY EVALUATE THE DEGREE OF FIXITY IN THE FOUNDATION.0- Ga K m-.1 In the absence of a more refined analysis andlor unless otherwise specified. 3. 20.0 5.5-.0 - - 1 1.2.6 EFFECTIVE FLANGE WIDTH 4.6. shall be as specified herein.08..o FOOTINGANCHORED ON ROCK FOOTINGNOT ANCHORED ON ROCK FOOTING ON SOIL FOOTING ON MULTIPLE ROWS OF END BEARING PILES Figure C4.0.0 10.0 . 5.0 7.0 3. G IS THEORETICALLY EQUAL TO INFINITY.0 20. limits of the width of a concrete slab. IN COMPUTING EFFECTIVE LENGTH FACTORS FOR MONOLITHIC CONNECTIONS.0 2.6. BUT UNLESS ACTUALLY DESIGNEDAS A TRUE FRICTIONLESSPIN. 0 MAY BE TAKEN EOUAL TO 1.0 Gb 100. THE FOLLOWING VALUES CAN BE USED G 1.Alignment Chart for Determining Effective Length Factor.S 4. The calculation of deflections should be based on the full flange width. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation (SI) - SPECIFICATIONS COMMENTARY '9 20. IF THE S COLUMN END I RIGIDLY ATTACHED TO A PROPERLY DESIGNED FOOTING. for Unbraced Frames Longitudinal stresses in the flanges are spread across the flange and the composite deck slab by inplane shear stresses.0 4. For the calculation of COPYRIGHT 2002.06.0 - - 2. User=. .2. taken as effective in composite action for determining resistance for all limit states. Therefore. K. MAY BE TAKEN EQUAL TO 10 FOR PRACTICAL DESIGN. SMALLER VALUES MAY BE TAKEN IF JUSTIFIED BY ANALYSIS.

. the distance between the outside of webs at their tops will be used in lieu of the web thickness. (C4. 6.2. the effective flange width may be taken as the least of: 0 COMMENTARY same force as the nonuniform stress distribution would if integrated over the whole width.1.6.6. o In calculating the effective Range width for closed steel and precast concrete boxes. plus the least of: 0 One-eighth of the effective span length. the effective flange width of each web should be determined as though each web was an individual supporting element. as appropriate for either positive or negative moments.~ ~~ STDOAASHTO S R C H LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 9 Ob39804 0048b79 279 Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation (SI) - SPECIFICATIONS live load deflections. plus the greater of half the web thickness or one-quarter o f the width of the top flange of the basic girder. the effective flange width may be taken as one-half the effective width of the adjacent interior beam. The effective flange widths b and b are determined . which provides an equation for determining the effective flange width for use in calculating flexural resistances and stresses. One-quarter of the effective span length.6.6.0 times the average thickness of the slab.1-1) where: A .2.0 times the average thickness of the slab. . 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. where required. the provisions of Article 2. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office | | || --- 4-45 Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. as indicated in Figure 3. 12.2 shall apply. plus the greater of web thickness or one-half the width of the top flange of the girder.5.5. -- o Where a structurally continuous concrete barrier is present and is included in the models used for analysis as permitted in Article 4. The effective span length used in calculating effective flange width may be taken as the actual span for simply supported spans and the distance between points of permanent load inflection for continuous spans.2. as the product of the coefficient in Figure 2 and the physical distance b. or The average spacing of adjacent beams. For exterior beams. Cast-in-Place Box Beams The effective flange widths may be assumed equal to the physical flange width if: | |||| || | ||||||| || | || ||| | || | C4. User=. 0 0 b < 0.1 li b<0.6.2. the effective width of outstanding flanges may be taken as specified in Figures Ithrough 4. where: do = depth of superstructure (mm) COPYRIGHT 2002.6.6.3d0 Otherwise. or The width of the overhang. For open boxes. For interior beams.2 Segmental Concrete Box Beams and SingleCell.2 of the 1991 Ontario Highway Bridge Design Code. Superposition of local two-way slab flexural stresses due to wheel loads and the primary longitudinal flexural stresses is not normally required. and the spacing will be taken as the spacing between the centerlines of boxes.2 One possible alternative to the procedure specified in this article is contained in Clause 3-10. the width of overhang for the purpose of this article may be extended by: 0 = cross-sectional area of the barrier (mm’) = depth of deck slab (mm) 4.

The value of b.0 times the effective flange width. The section properties for normal forces may be based on the pattern according to Figure 4 or determined by more rigorous analysis. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. in a span. Figure 4 is intended only for calculation of resistance due to anchorage of post-tensioning tendons and other concentrated forces and may be disregarded in the general analysis to determine force effects. as shown in Figure 3 (mm) . The effects of unsymmetrical loading on the effective flange width may be disregarded. b. This is shown in Figure 3c. the pattern of the . adjoining support points. the effective flange width shall not be taken as greater than the physical width. the linear stress distribution is a trapezoid. 0 0 0 If b is less than b.S T D . it is a triangle. 4-46 -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- COPYRIGHT 2002. If the linear stress distributions intersect a free edge or each other before reaching the maximum width. e. . User=.A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 D Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation ( I S) - Ob39804 0 0 4 8 6 8 0 T90 SPECIFICATIONS b COMMENTARY = physical flange width on each side of the web. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. = effective flange width for interior portions of a b . the distribution of stresses due to the global force effects may be assumed to have a straight line pattern in accordance with Figure 3c. a special case of be(mm) be = b . The linear stress distribution should be determined from the constant stress distribution using the conditions that the flange force remains unchanged and that the maximum width of the linear stress distribution on each side of a web is 2.g. shall be determined using the greater of the effective span lengths adjacent to the support. = effective flange width at interior support or for cantilever arm as determined from Figure 2.. b and 4. otherwise. effective width within the span may be determined by the connecting line of the effective widths b at .. effective flange width corresponding to the particular position of the section of interest in the span as specified in Figure I(mm) span as determined from Figure 2. For the superposition of local and global force effects. a special case of be(mm) portion of span subject to a transition in effective flange width taken as the lesser of the physical flange width on each side of the web shown in Figure 3 or one quarter of the span length (mm) the purpose of determining effective flange widths using Figure 2 a = li = a notional span length specified in Figure 1 for The following interpretations apply: 0 In any event.

6. effective width physical width Figure 4.6.A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation (SI) SPECIFICATIONS System Single-Span Girder - 1778 Ob37804 OO48b8L 727 COMMENTARY Pattern of b. b..6. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.8 I Interior Span li = 0. User=.Pattern of Effective Flange Width. -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- .5 I t LL bnl bS I t iI -t 4 Figure 4. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.S T D . for .6 I Cantilever Arm li = 1. and b.Values of the Effective Flange Width Coefficients for b and b.2.2. b.oI bS -1" t Continuous Girder End Span li = 0./b li=l.2-1 .6.2-2 . the Given Values of b/li 4-47 COPYRIGHT 2002.

User=.Cross-Sections and Corresponding Effective Flange Widths.6. for Flexure and Shear 4-40 -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- COPYRIGHT 2002. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.6. . be.2-3 .STD-AASHTO SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation (SI) - 1798 Ob39804 0048682 863 E SPECIFICATIONS COMMENTARY b) Constant stress in bm as a result Cl Ø -be2 * bel Linear distribution of stresses in the top / flange Figure 4. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.2.

A I I "t.2.6.6. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. || | || ||| | || -| | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- 4-49 COPYRIGHT 2002. shall be as specified in Table 1.6.1.f A The effective width for cast-in-place multiweb cellular superstructures may be taken as specified in Article 4.6.3 Cast-in-Place Multicell Superstructures . 4.4 Orthotropic Steel Decks The effective width of the deck plate acting as the top flange of one longitudinal stiffener. C4.24 . or one rib.6.4 The assumption of effective width equal to actual rib spacing is permissible for calculations of relative rigidity ratio by the Pelikan-Esslinger method and for flexural effects of uniformly distributed load.6. Note that variation of the effective width of the deck plate does not significantly affect the rib rigidity or section modulus of the rib bottom.S T D . The specified value is an average based on more exact calculations.A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL m d Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation (SI) SPECIFICATIONS - m 0 b 3 9 ~ 1 1 4O O ~ B L B TT ~ rn COMMENTARY SECTION A .6. See discussion in Woichuk (I 963). with each web taken as a beam. In the latter case. b for . Figure 4.2.6.Effective Flange Widths.2.6. Normal Forces 4. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.2.6. the effects of shear lag in the end zones shall be investigated.2. or it may be taken to be the full width of the deck slab. The effective width of the deck plate for flexural effects due to wheel loads is based on unequal loads on individual ribs. User=. .

User=.6. .4-1 .3(a + e) . and La. 4 .la for calculation of flexural effects due to wheel loads ao + e = 1.2 I I as averaae of values of & for L p 2C.50 -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || Rib section properties % = a for calculation of deck rigidity and flexural effects due to dead loads | ||||||| | | || --- a + eo = a + e . 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.6.2.ZC.Effective Width of Deck Plate Acting with a Rib Rib section properties ao = 1.A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation (SI) - 1998 0639804 0048684 636 SPECIFICATIONS Table 4.6. I O O 5 -a 10 15 r I ¿ a ~ B P Figure 4.S T D . CL A A> tt A -lutal oreo o* stiffeners I iform lood web of a box girder but is believed to be adequate for use with other types of beams.2.4-1 COMMENTARY . American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.6. of flonqe / I I 0.Effective Width of Deck COPYRIGHT 2002.

d factored wind force per unit length applied to the flange (Nimm) design horizontal wind pressure specified in Article 3. || | || ||| | || 4.8. For composite members and noncomposite members with cast-in-place concrete or orthotropic steel decks. acting as a lateral diaphragm carrying this load to supports. noncomposite decks with concrete haunches. and appurtenances shall be assumed to be directly transmitted to the deck.2. L . horizontal force to be transmitted by diaphragms and cross-frames. W need not be applied to the top flange. transmitting the forces to the ends of the span. and horizontal force to be transmitted by lateral bracing may be calculated as indicated below. barriers. -| (C4. User=.. to the supports. or truss action of the wind bracing. and then by diaphragm action of the deck.1 I-Sections In bridges with composite decks. L shall be taken as 2.4.2.1 Precast concrete plank decks and timber decks are not solid diaphragms and should not be assumed to provide horizontal diaphragm action unless evidence is available to show otherwise.1 (MPa) depth of the member (mm) load factor specified in Table 3. for C4. vehicles. COMMENTARY = spacing as shown in Figure 1 (mm) shown in Figure 1 (mm) = distances between points of inflection as = total area of stiffeners (mm2) | | || --- As t = thickness of flange plate (mm) 4. the deck. W. For bridges with decks that cannot provide horizontal diaphragm action. the wind force. Unless a more refined analysis is made.6. the lever rule shall apply for distribution of the wind load to the top and bottom flanges.1-1 for the particular group loading combination = = Y = For the first two load paths.6.7. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. .7.0 times the length of the cantilever. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. The lateral forces applied at brace points by the flanges shall be transmitted to the supports by one of the following load paths: Truss action of horizontal wind bracing in the plane of the flange. Lateral bending of the flange subjected to the lateral forces and all other flanges in the same plane.1-1) L where: w = P . and other decks that can provide horizontal diaphragm action.2. Bottom and top flanges subjected to lateral wind load shall be assumed to carry that load to adjacent brace points by flexural action.2. The wind force. may be applied to the flanges of exterior members. Wind load on the lower half of the outside beam shall be assumed to be applied laterally to the lower flange.6. Frame action of the cross-frames or diaphragms transmitting the forces into the deck or the wind bracing in the plane of the other flange. This procedure is presented for beam bridges but may be adapted for other types of bridges. Such brace points occur at wind bracing nodes or at cross-frames and diaphragm locations.~ STDeAASHTO S R C H LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation ( I S) - Ob37804 0048b85 5 7 2 SPECIFICATIONS The following notation applies when using Figure 1 to determine the effective width of the deck plate acting with a transverse beam: B L. wind load on the upper half of the outside beam. wind moment.7. the maximum wind moment on the loaded flange may be determined as: 4-51 COPYRIGHT 2002.7 LATERAL WIND LOAD DISTRIBUTION IN MULTIBEAM BRIDGES | |||| || | ||||||| For cantilever portions of transverse beams.6.

= WL.1-4) Lb = 4 .2. where: P = .6. and N b should be taken as 1.STDmAASHTO S R C H LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation (SI) - Ob39804 0048686 409 COMMENTARY SPECIFICATIONS example.1-3) where: M = .6.2. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- For the third load path.1-2) maximum lateral moment in the flange due to the factored wind loading (Nmm) factored wind force per unit length applied to the flange (N/mm) spacing of brace points (mm) W = -| || b = COPYRIGHT 2002. WL. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.7. User=. total lateral moment in the flange due to the factored wind loading (N-mm) factored wind force per unit length applied to the flange (N/mm) spacing of cross-frames or diaphragms (mm) number of longitudinal members W = Lb = Nb = L = span length(mm) Equation C3 is based on the assumption that crossframes and diaphragms act as struts in distributing the wind force on the exterior flange to adjacent flanges. The horizontal wind force applied to each brace point may be calculated as: P.=where: M = . and there is no wind bracing in the plane of either flange.52 Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.0. 10 (C4.7.2. If there are no cross-frames or diaphragms. the first term should be taken as 0. W = lateral wind force applied to the brace point (N) wind force per unit length from Equation C I (N/mm) spacing of diaphragms or cross-frames (mm) (C4.O. the maximum wind moment on the loaded flange may be computed as: (C4. where the deck cannot provide horizontal diaphragm action. .6. M.7.

The provisions of Article 3. crossframes. barriers.3 Construction The need for temporary wind bracing during construction shall be investigated for I.and box-section bridges. SPECIFICATIONS 4. and 4.6.2. straightforward load path to the substructure exists and that all components and connections are capable of resisting the imposed load effects consistent with the chosen load path. plus the wind force on vehicles.2. connections.2.7. and appurtenances.9. COPYRIGHT 2002. lateral bracing. cross-frames. Slenderness and connection requirements of bracing members that are C4. bearings.8. Alternative design strategies may be considered if approved by the owner. slabto-girder interfaces.6.8. The flow of forces in the assumed load path must be accommodated through all affected components and details including. which are part of the seismic lateral force resisting system in common slab-on-girder bridges in Seismic Zones 2. -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- 4 . cross-frames.6. Past earthquakes have shown that when one of these elements responded in a ductile manner or allowed some movement.2 shall apply to Seismic Zone 1. Interbox lateral bracing shall be provided if the section assumed to resist the wind force is not adequate. The section assumed to resist the wind force shall consist of the bottom flange and a part of the web as determined in Sections 5 and 6.S T D .2.7. damage was limited. User=. 4.6. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office .2 Box Sections One quarter of the wind force on a box section shall be applied to the bottom flange of the exterior box beam.8 SEISMIC LATERAL LOAD DISTRIBUTION 4. 3. and all components of the bearing assembly from top flange interface through the confinement of anchor bolts or similar devices in the substructure.8.2 Diaphragms. it is assumed that ductile plastic hinging in substructure is the primary source of energy dissipation. The other three quarters of the wind force on a box section. In the strategy taken herein.10.1 Applicability These provisions shall apply to diaphragms.53 Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.2 Design Criteria The Engineer shall demonstrate that a clear. 4.6.6. The analysis and design of end diaphragms and cross-frames shall consider horizontal supports at an appropriate number of bearings.A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation (SI) - 1778 = Ob39804 0048687 345 COMMENTARY Lateral bracing systems required to support both flanges due to transfer of wind loading through diaphragms or cross-frames shall be designed for a horizontal force of 2Pwat each brace point.2. and lateral bracing.2. flanges and webs of main beams or girders. but not limited to. shall be assumed to be transmitted to the supports by diaphragm action of the deck. 4. and substructure elements are part of a seismic load resisting system in which the lateral loads and performance of each element are affected by the strength and stiffness characteristics of the other elements.

When this occurs. Members of diaphragms and cross-frames identified by the Designer as part of the load path carrying seismic forces from the superstructure to the bearings shall be designed and detailed to remain elastic. or A horizontal bracing system in the plane of the top flange.3 Load Distribution A viable load path shall be established to transmit lateral loads to the foundation based on the stiffness characteristics of the deck. if present. Astaneh-As1 et al.6. 4. bracing systems can allow for ductile behavior. in proportion to their relative rigidity and the respective tributary mass of the deck. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.S T D . Haroun and Sheperd 1986. and the bottom flange is not adequate to carry 4-54 Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. these design provisions require elastic behavior in end diaphragms (Astaneh-As1 and Goel 1984. under all design earthquakes. diaphragms.6. and lateral bracing. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office . the lateral loads applied to the deck shall be distributed through the intermediate diaphragms and cross-frames to the bottom lateral bracing or the bottom flange. high load concentrations can result at the location of the other bearings. In bridges with: 0 C4. Bearings do not usually resist load simultaneously. If a bottom lateral bracing system is not present. shall utilize assumed structural actions analogous to those used for the analysis of wind loadings.2. Although studies of cyclic load behavior of bracing systems have shown that with adequate details. The development and analysis of the load path through the deck or through the top lateral bracing. Because the end diaphragm is required to remain elastic as part of the identified load path.2. an approximate load path shall be assumed as noted below.A A S H T O S R C H LRFD-SI-ENGL Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation (SI) SPECIFICATIONS - L77d W Ob39804 0048b88 281 W COMMENTARY part of the lateral force resisting system shall comply with applicable provisions specified for main member design. regardless of the type of bearings used. the lateral loading of the intermediate diaphragms and cross-frames is minimal. User=. based on the applicable gross area criteria. A concrete deck that can provide horizontal diaphragm action. their response approaches a rigid body motion. Concrete decks have significant rigidity in their horizontal plane. Therefore. The applicable provisions for the design of main members shall apply. a significant change in the load distribution among end cross-frame members may occur. -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- COPYRIGHT 2002. which should be taken into account in the design of the end cross-frames or diaphragms. and then to the bearings. In bridges that have: Decks that cannot diaphragm action and 0 provide horizontal No lateral bracing in the plane of the top flange. and damage to only some of the bearings at one end of a span is not uncommon. and in short to medium slab-on-girder spans.8. Also.3 A continuous path is necessary for the transmission of the superstructure inertia forces to the foundation. 1985. and through the end diaphragms and cross-frames. cross-frames. Unless a more refined analysis is made. the lateral loads applied to the deck shall be assumed to be transmitted directly to the bearings through end diaphragms or crossframes. stressing of intermediate cross-frames need not be considered. Goel and El-Tayem 1986).8.

9.55 COPYRIGHT 2002. and normal forces may be evaluated by using the correspondingfactored resistances. Ketchum (i986).9 ANALYSIS BRIDGES 4.6.9. and Danon and Gamble (1977). For spans in excess of 75 O00 mm.g.A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation (SI) - = Ob39804 COMMENTARY 0048b89 118 SPECIFICATIONS the imposed force effects. Flanges shall be analyzed as variable depth sections.1 General Elastic analysis and beam theory may be used to determine design moments.6.6.2.9..2. C4.6.2. The capacity of a cross-section at the strength limit state may be determined by considering the full compression flange width effect.2. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.3 Effective Flange Width Effective flange width for service load stress calculations may be determined by the provisions of Article 4.6. Wheel loads shall be positioned to provide maximum moments.2. 4 . considering the fillets between the flanges and webs. e. This. several are in the public domain and may be purchased for a nominal amount.2. shear.2.2 Strut-and-Tie Models Strut-and-tie models may be used for analysis in areas of load or geometrical discontinuity.24 or determined by more rigorous analysis. ~ .4 Transverse Analysis The transverse design of box girder segments for flexure shall consider the segment as a rigid box frame.6. i Analysis of concrete segmental bridges requires consideration of variation of design parameters with time as well as a specific construction schedule and method of erection. shears. results of elastic analyses should be evaluated with consideration of possible variations in the modulus of elasticity of the concrete. 4.3. and the impact of variations in the construction schedule on these and other design parameters.2. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.6.2. and elastic analysis shall be used to determine the effective longitudinal distribution of wheel loads for each load location.9.6.6. Among the many programs developed for this purpose. Bending. User=. Shear lag shall be considered in accordance with the provisions of Article 4. shrinkage. 4. the first procedure shall be used. The section properties for normal forces may be based on Figure 4.9. and the deck shall be designed and detailed to provide the necessary horizontal diaphragm action. requires the use of a computer program developed to trace the time-dependent response of segmentally erected. and temperature differentials shall be considered as well as the effects of shear lag.2 See references for background on transverse analysis of concrete box girder bridges.2.6. variations in the concrete creep and shrinkage properties. 4. 4. and deflections. in turn.6.S T D .9. The effects of creep. prestressed concrete bridges through construction and under service loads.6.2. Shushkewich (1986). Consideration shall be given to the increase in web shear and other effects on | | || --|||| || | ||||||| | || | -| || | || ||| OF SEGMENTAL CONCRETE C4.9.

The provisions of Articles 4. 4. 4.56 COPYRIGHT 2002. and stability considerations specified in Article 5. 4.3.6.6.6.14. shrinkage.6.2.3. and prestress losses.6.6. the secondary force effects induced by prestressing. At the strength limit state. .9.4. stresses.2.9. shall be added algebraically to the force effects due to factored dead and live loads and other applicable loads.3. In such analyses.5a General Longitudinal analysis of segmental concrete bridges shall consider a specific construction method and construction schedule as well as the time-related effects of concrete creep.3 shall apply. The effect of secondary moments due to prestressing shall be included in stress calculations at the service limit state.5b Erection Analysis Analysis of the structure during any construction stage shall consider the construction load combinations.2.2 influence surfaces. The transverse design of beam-type segmental bridge decks may be in accordance with the provisions of Article 4.2. The effect of secondary moments due to prestressing shall be included in stress calculations at the service limit state and construction evaluation.1 -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.0. listed in Article 4.5 Longitudinal Analysis 4.6.6.0.2.2.S T D . with a load factor of 1. 4.6.5c Analysis of the Final Structural Sysfem The provisions of Article 5. consideration shall be given to aspect ratios of elements.3.1 GENERAL Refined methods.2. or other elastic analysis procedures and Pucher (I may be used to evaluate live load plus impact moment effects in the top flange of the box section.9. Transverse elastic and creep shortening due to prestressing and shrinkage shall be considered in the transverse analysis. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.3 Refined Methods of Analysis 4. may be used for the analysis of bridges.9. At the strength limit state.2. with a load factor of 1.1 and 4. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office C4. User=.2. positioning and number of nodes.14. and other features of 4 . the secondary force effects induced by prestressing. shall be added algebraically to other applicable factored loads.6. such as those by Homberg (1968) 964).A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL Section 4 Structurai Analysis and Evaluation (Si) - 3998 0639804 0048b90 93T COMMENTARY SPECIFICATIONS the cross-section resulting from eccentric loading or unsymmetrical structure geometry.

5.6. C4.3.3 Orthotropic Plate Model In orthotropic plate modeling. The wheel loads shall be modeled as patch loads distributed over an area. User=. Poisson's ratio may be neglected.3. When a refined method of analysis is used. crown.3. and haunches. Locations of flexural discontinuity through which shear may be transmitted should be modeled as hinges. have uniform or close to uniform depth. The torsional stiffness of the deck may be estimated using Equation C4. three-dimensional analysis.2 Isotropic Plate Model For the purpose of this section.2.3. COPYRIGHT 2002.2 DECKS 4.3. a table of live load distribution coefficients for extreme force effects in each span shall be provided in the contract documents to aid in permit issuance and rating of the bridge. Inplane shear deformations. or median. may be considered to be structurally active at service and fatigue limit states. and their contribution to vertical deflection is not significant.1-1 where b = unity.2 Analysis is rather insensitive to small deviations in constant depth. barrier. .2.2. In the absence of other information. C4.1.2.6. and whose stiffness is close to equal in every in-plane direction shall be considered isotropic.6. the flexural rigidity of the elements may be uniformly distributed along the cross-section of the deck. Large torsional moments exist in the end zones of skewed girder bridges due to differential deflection. 4.2.3. provided that full composite behavior is assured.1 General Unless otherwise specified.STD-AASHTO SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation (SI) - 1998 W Ob3980Y 0 0 4 8 b î L 8 7 b SPECIFICATIONS topology that may affect the accuracy of the analytical solution. 57 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. as specified in Article 3.6.3 More restrictive limits for aspect ratio may be specified for the software used. C4.6.6.6.6.6. | | || --| ||||||| -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || COMMENTARY This provision reflects the experimentally observed response of bridges. In most deck types. 4.0. Where the torsional stiffness of the deck is not contributed solely by a solid plate of uniform thickness. shear stresses are rather low.2.6.3 BEAM-SLAB BRIDGES l h e aspect ratio of finite elements and grid panels should not exceed 5. In slightly cracked concrete slabs. even a large difference in the reinforcement ratio will not cause significant changes in load distribution. should not be neglected. This source of stiffness has traditionally been neglected but exists and may be included.3 The accuracy of the orthotropic plate analysis is sharply reduced for systems consisting of a small number of elements subjected to concentrated loads. A structurally continuous railing.3. acting compositely with the supporting components. flexural and torsional deformation of the deck shall be considered in the analysis. bridge decks that are solid. or generally accepted and verified approximations. the torsional rigidity should be established by physical testing.3. In the analysis of decks that may crack andlor separate along element boundaries when loaded. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office C4.3. Abrupt changes in size and/or shape of finite elements and grid panels should be avoided. such as those due to superelevation. 4. 4.2.2. extended by half of the deck depth on all four sides. the following guidelines may be used at the discretion of the Engineer: 4 -Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.2. the wheel load-carrying contribution of torsion is comparable to that of flexure.6. which gave rise to the concept of effective width for composite bridge decks.1 In many solid decks. These live load distribution coefficients should be provided for each combination of component and lane. but vertical shear deformation may be neglected.

2.6. but it need not be less than as specified in Article 4. nodes per beam span should be used. stiffness should be computed by assuming a width of the slab to be effective.A A S H T O S R C H LRFD-SI-ENGL 3778 Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation (SI) - D Ob39804 0048b72 702 W SPECIFICATIONS Nodal loads shall be statically equivalent to the actual loads being applied.6. it is preferable to maintain the relative vertical distances between various elements.1. provided that the eccentricities are included in the equivalent properties of those sections that are composite. longitudinal and transverse elements may be positioned at the midthickness o the platef bending elements. .2.S T D . and preferably nine. For K-frame and X-frame diaphragms. the slab shall be assumed to be effective for stiffness in both positive and negative flexure. For bridges with widely spaced diaphragms. If this is not possible. In a filled or partially filled grid system. COPYRIGHT 2002. User=. Transformation of concrete and steel to a common material should be on the basis of shear modulus. it may be desirable to use notional transverse beam members to model the deck. an element should have membrane capability with discretization sufficient to properly account for shear lag. COMMENTARY A minimum of five. Such a sensitivity study often shows that this effect is not significant. 0 For finite element analyses involving plate and beam elements. The number of such beams is to some extent discretionary. Live load force effects in diaphragms should be calculated by the grid or finite element analysis. The significance of shear lag in the transverse beam-slab width as it relates to lateral load distribution can be evaluated qualitatively by varying the stiffness of the beam-slab elements within reasonable limits and observing the results. G. composite section properties should be o used. Venant torsional inertia may be determined using the equation in Article C4.6. The force effects so computed should be applied to the appropriate composite or noncomposite section for computing resistance. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- o 0 o o 4-58 Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. For longitudinal composite members in grid analyses. 0 -| In finite element analysis. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. The St.2. equivalent beam flexure and shear stiffnesses should be computed. For grid analysis or finite element and finite difference analyses of live load. The easiest way to establish extreme force effects is by using influence surfaces analogous to those developed for the main longitudinal members.

3. In many cases. Experience has shown that dead load force effects calculated using either plane frame or space frame analysis in a truss with properly cambered primary and secondary members and detailed to minimize eccentricity at joints. -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- (24. .59 provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. Where not controlled through proper detailing. a complete three-dimensional frame analysis may be the only way to accurately calculate forces in secondary members. User=.6.6. Continuity among the components.2.3. Models intended to quantify torsional warping andlor transverse frame action should be fully three-dimensional. For single box cross-sections. The use of large deflection analysis of arches of longer spans should be considered in lieu o the moment f magnificationcorrection as specified in Article 4.STDeAASHTO S R C H LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation (SI) - 0637604 0046693 649 COMMENTARY which can be taken as G = 0. A refined plane frame or space frame analysis shall include consideration for the following: Composite action with the deck or deck system. the deformation of the floorbeams due to vehicular loading shall be considered. SPECIFICATIONS 4. Document 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.4. the superstructure may be analyzed as a spine beam for both flexural and torsional effects. as described above.6. Venant rigidity of composite sections utilize only one-half of the effective width of the flexural section.3.5E/(l+~). Any single-step correction factor cannot be expected to accurately model deflection effects over a wide range of stiffnesses. except the yield line method. A steel box should not be considered to be torsionally rigid unless internal bracing is provided to maintain the box cross-section. 4. of which the floorbeams are a part.6. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office 4 . which accounts for the two dimensions seen in plan view and for the modeling of boundary conditions.6.3. 4. Force effects due to self-weight of components. before transformation.6.3.3.3. change in geometry due to deformation. particularly live load force effects. It is recommended that the St. rib shortening should be investigated.4 CELLULAR AND BOX BRIDGES A refined analysis of cellular bridges may be made by any of the analytic methods specified in Article 4. COPYRIGHT 2002.6 ARCH BRIDGES The provisions of Article 4.5 TRUSS BRIDGES C4. will be quite close to those calculated by the conventional approximations.5 shall apply where applicable.5. If the truss derives its lateral stability from transverse frames.2~. Out-of-plane buckling of the upper chords of pony truss bridges shall be investigated. and In-plane and out-of-plane buckling of components including original out-of-straightness. The effect of the extension of cable hangers shall be considered in the analysis of an arch tie.5 Load applied to deck or floorbeams instead of to truss joints will yield results that more completely quantify out-of-plane actions. The transverse position of bearings shall be modeled. and axial offset at panel points. continuity among the components and the effect axial forces present in those components.6 Rib shortening and arch design and construction are discussed by Nettleton (1977).

6.g. and stresses due to change of temperature and rib shortening are essentially eliminated. considerable latitude is available in design for distribution of stresses between the top and bottom chords dependent on the manner of erection. from which the particular forms of Equations 1 and 2 were taken. In such cases. and a report by the ASCE Committee on Cable Suspended Bridges (ASCE 1991).A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation (SI) 1998 - Ob398Oq 00Y8b94 585 SPECIFICATIONS COMMENTARY When the distribution of stresses between the top and bottom chords of trussed arches is dependent on the manner of erection.. number of planes of stays. H2 2 2 (4.7-1) =E where: E = W = total weight of cable (N) 4-60 COPYRIGHT 2002. Arches may be analyzed.3. The change in cable sag at all limit states. . and the torsional stiffness of the deck superstructure.7 CABLE-STAYED BRIDGES The distribution of force effects to the components of a cable-stayed bridge may be determined by either spatial or planar structural analysis if justified by consideration of tower geometry. and constructed as hinged under dead load or portions of dead load and as fixed at some hinged locations for the remaining design loads. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office + i' (HI + H2)EAW2(coca)5~~1 24 H.6. applied iteratively. designed. o 0 Cable sag may be investigated using an equivalent member modeled as a chord with modified modulus of elasticity given by Equation 1 for instantaneous stiffness and Equation 2. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.7-2) modulus of elasticity of the cable (MPa) Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.6. C4.3. e. the manner of erection shall be indicated in the contract documents. Troitsky (1977). (4. Podolny and Scalzi (1976). Cable-stayed bridges shall be investigated for nonlinear effects that may result from: 0 -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- If a hinge is provided at the crown of the rib in addition to hinges at the abutment. 4. the arch becomes statically determinate.S T D .7 Nonlinear effects on cable-stayed bridges are treated in several texts. for changing cable loads.3.6. User=.3. In trussed arches. Deformation of deck superstructure and towers at all limit states. the manner of erection should be indicated in the contract documents. and Material nonlinearity at the extreme event limit states.

4. combined with the relatively f small effect o live load compared to dead load. and inelastic behavior due to shear and/or uncontrolled buckling shall not be permitted. suspenders.3. C4.6.. a stiffening truss. Therefore. short suspension bridges have been analyzed by conventional small deflection theories.AASHTO S R C H LRFD-SI-ENGL 179í3 m ob3qao4 004ab95 411 m Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation ( I S) - SPECIFICATIONS A COMMENTARY = cross-sectional area of cable (mm2) = angle between cable and horizontal (DEG) a H. the span would probably be long enough that the influence of the torsional rigidity o the deck.g. -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- . will make f the simple sum-of-moments technique suitable to assign loads to the cables and suspenders and usually even to the deck system. e..5.3. 4-61 COPYRIGHT 2002. which is especially significant for calculating deck system moments.8 In the past.2. Correction factor methods have been used on short. and components of stiffening trusses. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.8 SUSPENSION BRIDGES Force effects in suspension bridges shall be analyzed by the large deflection theory for vertical loads. H .6. The effects of wind loads shall be analyzed. Inelastic behavior shall be restricted to the flexure of beams or girders.~ STD.6. or girder superstructures. 4.3. H.6. with consideration of the tension stiffening of the cables. User=. Redistribution of loads shall not be considered in the transverse direction. multibeam.1 GENERAL The Owner may permit the redistribution of force effects in multkpan. For the same economic reasons. there is little rationale to use anything other than the large deflection solution. Any contemporary suspension bridge would have a span such that the large deflection theory should be used.4. The reduction of negative moments over the internal supports due to the redistribution shall be accompanied by a commensurate increase in the positive moments in the spans. = horizontal component of cable force (N) The change in force effects due to deflection may be investigated using any method that satisfies the provisions of Article 4. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. The torsional rigidity of the deck may be neglected in assigning forces to cables. Suitable computer programs are commercially available. Cable-stayed bridges shall be investigated for the loss of any one cable stay.1 and accounts for the change in orientation of the ends of cable stays.to moderate-span bridges to account for the effect o f deflection.4 Redistribution of Negative Moments in Continuous Beam Bridges 4.

and/or verified by physical testing.4. The rotation per unit length corresponding to this curvature may be determined as: ~p = 'c a J J T.6 Analysis for Temperature Gradient C4. 4.S T D .6.4. respectively.6 Where determination of force effects due to vertical temperature gradient is required. 4. may be used. a curvature is imposed on the superstructure to accommodate the linearly variable component of the temperature gradient.6. simply supported or cantilevered. (C4. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. The moment-rotation relationship shall be established using material characteristics. User=.6.e.6-2) | | || ---| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| o FLEXURAL DEFORMATION . Gradients shall be as specified in Article 3. may be decreased by a redistribution process considering the moment-rotation characteristics of the cross-section or by a recognized mechanism method.A A S H T O S R C H LRFD-SI-ENGL Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation (SI) - L778 Ob37804 0048b7b 358 SPECIFICATIONS 4. the analysis should consider axial extension..6.6.6.12. The response of a structure to a temperature gradient can be divided into three effects as follows: 0 AXIAL EXPANSION .5 Stability The investigation of stability shall utilize the large deflection theory.12. It may be calculated as: T UG =- I! [ T G dwdz A.idwdz =- I R (C4.6-3) If the structure is externally unrestrained. flexural deformation.This is due to the uniform component of the temperature distribution that should be considered simultaneously with the uniform temperature specified in Article 3.3. as specified herein.Because plane sections remain plane.6-1) The corresponding uniform axial strain is: 'U =a IT().2.3 APPROXI MATE PROCEDURE In lieu of the analysis described in Article 4.2 REFINED METHOD COMMENTARY The negative moments over the support. as established by linear elastic analysis. simplified redistribution procedures for concrete and steel beams.6.4. and internal stresses. ¡. 4- (C4. as specified in Sections 5 and 6. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.2. no external force effects 4-62 COPYRIGHT 2002.6.6. 4. .

. (C4. due to this superimposed SPECIFICATIONS The axial strain and curvature may be used in both flexibility and stiffness formulations. Strains induced by other effects.transformed for steel beams (mm4) IC a = = coefficient of (mm/mm/ C) O thermal expansion E R W modulus of elasticity (MPa) radius of curvature (mm) width of element in cross-section (mm) cross-section (mm) = = 2 = vertical distance from center of gravity of 4-63 -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- COPYRIGHT 2002.6-6) = temperature gradient (AOC) section (OC) = temperature averaged across the cross= uniform specified temperature (OC) steel beams (mm’) = cross-section area . G where: T G TG U Tu A . internal stresses in addition to those corresponding to the restrained axial expansion and/or rotation may be calculated as: u = E [a T . American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. E. such as shrinkage and creep. In the former. User=.6. and cp may be used in place of MIEI in traditional displacement calculations.cpz] .64) (C4.transformed for = inertia of cross-section . . In the latter. may be used in place of P/AE. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. the fixed-end force effects for a prismatic frame element may be determined as: N = E&&.6-5) M = El.A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation (SI) - Ob39804 0048b97 294 COMMENTARY are developed deformation. (C4.6.a Tu.6. may be treated in a similar manner. 0 INTERNAL STRESS .Using the sign convention that compression is positive.cp An expanded discussion with examples may be found in Ghali and Neville (1989).S T D .

a standard condensation procedure may be employed. The minimum number of degrees-of-freedom included in the analysis shall be based upon the number of natural frequencies to be obtained and the reliability of the assumed mode shapes.2. . I Typically. Distribution of stiffness. If the number of degrees-of-freedom in the model exceeds the number of dynamic degrees-of-freedom used. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. the flexural deformation part of the gradient flexes a prismatic superstructure into a segment of a circle in the vertical plane. tends to disappear.1.7. 0 0 The relevant aspects of excitation may include the: o o o 4-64 COPYRIGHT 2002. as specified in Article 3. in flexible bridges and long slender components of bridges that may be excited by bridge movement. dynamic force effects may exceed the allowance for impact given in Article 3. These cases may require analysis for moving live load. Distribution of mass.AASHT0 SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 Ob39804 0048698 120 m SPECIFICATIONS COMMENTARY For example. The relevant aspects of the structure may include the: 0 C4. Although a vehicle crossing a bridge is not a static situation. Accuracy of the higher modes can be compromised with condensation. For a Wo-span structure with span length L.2.Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation (SI) - STD.1 GENERAL For analysis of the dynamic behavior of bridges. Condensation procedures may be used to reduce the number of degrees-of-freedom prior to the dynamic analysis. in mm. Dynamic models shall include relevant aspects of the structure and the excitation. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.7. the stiffness. the unrestrained beam would lift off from the central support by A = L2/2Rmm. This behavior also indicates the need for ductility to ensure structural integrity as rigidity decreases. such procedures should be used with caution.0 at the strength limit state. User=. and | | || --- Frequency of the forcing function. -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || Direction of application. In most observed bridge vibration problems.1. analysis for vehicle. the natural structural damping has been very low. 4. Forcing the beam down to eliminate A would develop a moment whose value at the pier would be: M. The model shall be compatible with the accuracy of the solution method. | ||||||| Duration of application. and damping characteristics of the structural components shall be modeled.7.7 DYNAMIC ANALYSIS 4. M.6.1 Basic Requirements of Structural Dynamics 4. The number of frequencies and mode shapes necessary to complete a dynamic analysis should be estimated in advance or determined as an early step in a multistep approach. = -Elcq 3 2 (C4. mass.6. to account for the dynamic responses caused by the moving vehicle. As rigidity approaches 0. However.and wind-induced vibrations is not to be considered in bridge design.6-7) Therefore. Thus if higher modes are required. and Damping characteristics. Having determined that number. Flexible continuous bridges may be especially susceptible to vibrations. the moment is the function of the beam rigidity and imposed flexure. the bridge is analyzed by statically placing the vehicle at various locations along the bridge and applying a dynamic load allowance.6.

The distribution of stiffness and mass should be modeled in a dynamic analysis. such as a beam. the following 4 . In lieu of a consistent formulation.2 DISTRIBUTION OF MASSES C4. The discretization of the model should account for geometric and material variation in stiffness and mass.7. User=. .4 Equivalent viscous damping may be used to represent energy dissipation. COPYRIGHT 2002. The number of degrees-of-freedom and the associated masses should be selected in a manner that approximates the actual distributive nature of mass. a manner that approximates the distributive nature of the mass (Clough and Penzian 1975).3 STIFFNESS The bridge shall be modeled to be consistent with the degrees-of-freedom chosen to represent the natural modes and frequencies of vibration.1. 4. The rotational inertia effects should be included where significant.1. Sufficient degrees-of-freedom should be included to represent the mode shapes relevant to the response sought. For systems with distributive mass associated with larger stiffness. 4. such as in-plane stiffness of a bridge deck. For distributive mass systems modeled with polynomial shape functions in which the mass is associated with distributive stiffness. The number of required frequencies also depends on the frequency content of the forcing function.1.4 DAMPING C4.1. In lieu of measurements.1. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. One rule-of-thumb is that there should be twice as many degrees-of-freedom as required frequencies. lumped masses may be associated at the translational degrees-of-freedom.2 The modeling of mass shall be made with consideration of the degree of discretization in the model and the anticipated motions.65 Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. a consistent mass formulation is recommended (Paz 1985). American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- Damping may be neglected in the calculation of natural frequencies and associated nodal displacements. In seismic analysis.7.7. 4.7.7.S T D . nonlinear effects. Suitable damping values may be obtained from field measurement of induced free vibration or by forced vibration tests.A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation (SI) SPECIFICATIONS - 1998 Ob39804 0048699 Oh7 U COMMENTARY the model should be developed to have a larger number of applicable degrees-of-freedom. the mass may be properly modeled as lumped. The selection of the consistent or lump mass formulation is a function of the system and the response sought and is difficult to generalize. which decrease in stiffness. The stiffness of the elements of the model shall be defined to be consistent with the bridge being modeled. should be considered. such as inelastic deformation and cracking. The effects of damping should be considered where a transient response is sought.

elastic undamped natural modes and frequencies of vibration shall be used.2 WIND-INDUCED VIBRATION 4.7. speed.2.S T D . American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.5 I . For the purpose of Articles 4.5.7.7.7.6. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584..2. In no case shall the dynamic load allowance used in design be less than 50 percent of the dynamic load allowance specified in Table 3.3 .1-2) ((24.5 NATURAL FREQUENCIES For the purpose of Article 4. the Owner shall specify and/or approve surface roughness.2.A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation (SI) - 3996 Ob39604 0046700 b 0 î m SPECIFICATIONS COMMENTARY values may be used for the equivalent viscous damping ratio: o 0 0 Concrete construction: Welded and bolted steel construction: Timber: 2 percent 1 percent 4.1-1) . C4.2.1 Wind Velocities For important structures.7. M AC M .2.2. and unless otherwise specified by the Owner.2 Elastic Dynamic Responses 4.2. -| || | || ||| 5 percent The limitation on the dynamic load allowance reflects the fact that deck surface roughness is a major factor in vehicle/bridge interaction and that it is difficult to estimate long-term deck deterioration effects thereof at the design stage.7. Impact shall be derived as a ratio of the extreme dynamic force effect to the corresponding static force effect. and magnitude of extreme pressure and suction values shall be established by simulated wind tunnel tests. 4-66 COPYRIGHT 2002. and dynamic characteristics of the vehicles to be employed for the analysis.2. the location.1.1-1. except that no reduction shall be allowed for deck joints.2.* 1 61 not: (C4.1 4.7.7. all relevant damped modes and frequencies shall be considered. | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- 4.1 VEHICLE-INDUCED VIBRATION When an analysis for dynamic interaction between a bridge and the live load is required. User=.4 and 4. which may be expected to be sensitive to wind effects. The proper application of the provision for reducing the dynamic load allowance is: I C L 2 0.7.7.7.

2 Dynamic Effects Wind-sensitive structures shall be analyzed for dynamic effects.3 Inelastic Dynamic Responses 4. "Design Manual" (1981).2. moment-rotation hysteresis curves may be determined by using verified analytic material models.3. and user inconvenience or discomfort shall be avoided.7. energy absorbed by inelastic deformation in a structural component may be assumed to be concentrated in plastic hinges and yield lines.7.2. User=.7.S T D = A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation (SI) - 3998 0639804 0048703 545 W COMMENTARY SPECIFICATIONS 4. cable stays. C4. "Analytic Study" (1981). such as galloping and flutter. Bridge decks. Permanent displacement of the masses of the structure and its attachments.3 Additional information on design for wind may be found in AASHTO (1985). ASCE (1961).2 PLASTIC HINGES AND YIELD LINES For the purpose of analysis. and unstable wind-structure interaction.3. energy may be dissipated by one or more of the following mechanisms: 0 Elastic and inelastic deformation of the object that may collide with the structure. Scanlan (1975). 0 0 0 4. structural fatigue. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.2.7.7. and Inelastic deformation of special-purpose mechanical energy dissipators. Basu and Chi. Where dampers or shape modification are not practical. The location of these sections may be established by successive approximation to obtain a lower bound solution for the energy absorbed. such as buffeting by turbulent or gusting winds. the structural system shall be changed to achieve such control. Inelastic deformation of the structure and its attachments.2. and ASCE (1991).3 Design Considerations Oscillatory deformations under wind that may lead to excessive stress levels. and hanger cables shall be protected against excessive vortex and wind-rain-induced oscillations.1 GENERAL During a major earthquake or ship collision. 4. Basu and Chi. 4-67 COPYRIGHT 2002. Simiu and Scanlan ( I 978). For these sections. excessive thrust.2. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. the employment of dampers shall be considered to control excessive dynamic responses. Where practical. and divergence. Slender or torsionally flexible structures shall be analyzed for lateral buckling. -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| . | | || --- 4.2.7.

4.4. the minimum analysis requirements shall be as specified in Table Iin which: C4.7.4. no abrupt or unusual changes in weight.3.1-1.3 MULTISPAN BRIDGES 4.1-1 Parameter Number of Spans Maximum subtended angle for a curved bridge .4.4.4.7.Regular Bridge Requirements Maximum span length ratio from span to span Maximum bentlpier stiffness ratio from span to span. Regular bridges have less than seven spans.10.S I .4.3.10. the elastic design spectrum shall be that given by Equation 3. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office 4-68 Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.1 The selection of the method of analysis depends on seismic zone.7.S T D * A A S H T O SRCH L R F D . shall apply. -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- .4 and 3. Connections between the bridge superstructure and the abutments shall be designed for the minimum force requirements as specified in Article 3.4.7. excluding abutments COPYRIGHT 2002. as specified in Articles 4. For the modal methods of analysis.7.7. Any bridge not satiswing the requirements of Table C I is considered to be "irregular. 4.4.4.1-1.4.9. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. However. abutments excluded.9.3. Minimum seat width requirements shall be satisfied at each abutment as specified in Article 4. specified in Articles 4. User=. or geometry: and no large changes in these parameters from span to span or support-to-support.7. stiffness.7.3.2 and 4. the minimum requirements." A more rigorous analysis procedure may be used in lieu of the recommended minimum.7. Bridges in Seismic Zone 1 need not be analyzed for seismic loads.4.10.4. and importance of the bridge.7.3. regularity. Regularity is a function of the number of spans and the distribution of weight and stiffness.2 SINGLE-SPAN BRIDGES Seismic analysis is not required for single-span bridges.3. They are defined in Table Cí. * UL SM MM TH = no seismic analysis required = uniform load elastic method = single-mode elastic method = multimode elastic method = time history method Table 12.E N G L Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation ( I S) - 1998 m Ob39804 0048702 481 SPECIFICATIONS 4. regardless of seismic zone.3. regardless of their importance and geometry.4 Analysis for Earthquake Loads COMMENTARY 4.1 GENERAL Minimum analysis requirements for seismic effects shall be as specified in Table 4.6.7.1 Selection of Method For multispan structures.7.

0 0 If these requirements are not satisfied.2a General Either of the two single-mode methods of analysis specified herein may be used where appropriate. C .2b The single-mode method of spectral analysis shall be based on the fundamental mode of vibration in either the longitudinal or transverse direction. provided all of the following requirements are satisfied: 0 The bridge is regular as defined in Table C I . and The span lengths of the equivalent straight bridge are equal to the arc lengths of the curved bridge.3.2 Single-Mode Methods of Analysis 4.Minimum Analysis Requirementsfor Seismic Effects Multispan Bridges Other Bridges regular irregular Essential Bridges regular irregular Critical Bridges regular irregular MM TH TH 1 2 3 4 No seismic analysis required * SMIUL SM/UL SM/UL * S M MM MM * SMIUL MM MM * * MM MM TH MM MM MM 4.3.3.. specified in Article 3.4. 0 COPYRIGHT 2002. This amplitude shall be used to determine force effects. This mode shape may be found by applying a uniform horizontal load to the structure and calculating the corresponding deformed shape.4.1-1 Seismic Zone Single-Span Bridges . -- | || 4-69 | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- Calculate the static displacements V.7.7.2b Single-Mode Spectral Method C4.7. Table 4.6. except that for a two-span bridge the maximum span length ratio from span to span must not exceed 2. Examples illustrating its application are given in AASHTO (1983) and ATC (1981).4.A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation (SI) Ob39804 0048703 318 - SPECIFICATIONS COMMENTARY A curved bridge may be analyzed as if it were straight.(x) due to an assumed uniform loading Po as shown in Figure CI: .3. The single-mode spectral analysis method described in the following steps may be used for both transverse and longitudinal earthquake motions. The natural period may be calculated by equating the maximum potential and kinetic energies associated with the fundamental mode shape. User=.4. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. then curved bridges must be analyzed using the actual curved geometry. and the corresponding spectral displacement. The amplitude of the displaced shape may be found from the elastic seismic response coefficient. The subtended angle in plan is not greater than 90".4.3.10. 4.7.7. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.S T D .

4.3. . and (N-mm2). unfactored dead load of the bridge Calculate the period of the bridge: (C4. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.. and y as: a= ß= I V.Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation (SI) - STD. and y have units of (mm2). ß.3.2b-1) (C4.(x) W(x) a uniform load arbitrarily set equal to 1. calculate C .AASHTO SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL m a œ o b m 0 4 ooi.2b-3) y= I W(x)V:(x)dx = = where: P O V.i m SPECIFICATIONS COMMENTARY I I i X PLAN VIEW.ia7oi.(x)dx W(x)V. a.(x)dx (C4.4.7. User=.2b-1 . LONGITUDINAL LOADING Figure C4.(Namm).3.4. .Bridge Deck Subjected to Assumed Transverse and Longitudinal Loading 0 Calculate factors a. 4 70 -- - | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- COPYRIGHT 2002. TRANSVERSE LOADING ELEVATION VIEW.respectively.1-1.10.7.6. 0 = nominal.7.0 (Nlmm) deformation corresponding to Po(mm) superstructure and tributary substructure (Nlrnm) The computed factors.2b-2) (C4.4.3.7.2b-4) where: g = acceleration of gravity (mis') o Using T and Equation 3.3. ß.i 25i. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.7.4.

4. 0 Calculate the static displacements v.2b is recommended. specified in Article 3.(x) to the structure. The stiffness of this equivalent spring shall be calculated using the maximum displacement that occurs when an arbitrary uniform lateral load is applied to the bridge..2~ Uniform Load Method The uniform load method shall be based on the fundamental mode of vibration in either the longitudinal or transverse direction.2~-I -| || | || ||| | || 0 W= s W(X)dX (C4.2c The uniform load method.(x) due to an assumed uniform load po. displacement v. The period of this mode of vibration shall be taken as that of an equivalent single mass-spring oscillator.(x) has units of length.7.4.7.3.6 shall . Calculate the bridge lateral stiffness. If such conservatism is undesirable. The method is suitable for regular bridges that respond principally in their fundamental mode of vibration.7.0.1-1 loading applied to represent the primary mode of vibration (Nlmm) p.6.2~-2) where: L 4-71 COPYRIGHT 2002.(x) = the intensity of the equivalent static seismic 0 Apply loading p.7.7. The uniform loading po is applied over the length of the bridge.3. | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- .2b-5) where: csln = the dimensionless elastic seismic response coefficient given by Equation 3. the method is known to overestimate the transverse shears at the abutments by up to 100 percent. It is essentially an equivalent static method of analysis that uses a uniform lateral load to approximate the effect of seismic loads. may be used for both transverse and longitudinal earthquake motions. and determine the resulting member force effects.3. W.4.10. C.3. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office = total length of the bridge (mm) Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. K.4. User=.A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation (SI) - = Ob39804 0048705 L q O SPECIFICATIONS COMMENTARY Calculate the equivalent static earthquake loading PAX): (C4. then the single-mode spectral analysis method specified in Article 4. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.3.10. as shown in Figure CI.3. from the following expressions: ) (C4. it has units of f o r c e h i t length and may The static be arbitrarily set equal to 1. described in the following steps. c4. and total weight. 4. be used to calculate the equivalent uniform seismic load from which seismic force effects are found.4.S T D . Whereas all displacements and most member forces are calculated with good accuracy.7.4. The elastic seismic response coefficient.

the inertia effects of live loads are not included in the analysis.1-1 = equivalent uniform static seismic loading per unit length of bridge applied to represent the primary mode of vibration (Nlmm) 0 Calculate the displacements and member forces for use in design either by applying pe to the structure and performing a second static analysis or by scaling the results of the first step above by the ratio p$po.72 Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. unfactored dead load of the bridge superstructure and tributary substructure (N/mm) The weight should take into account structural elements and other relevant loads including. however. S Pe (C4. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office . Other loads. but not limited to.10. User=. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. maximum value of vs(x) (mm) ~ = nominal.6. = L where: C. expression: using the where: g 0 = acceleration of gravity (m/SEC2) Calculate the equivalent static earthquake loading pe from the expression: Csm W P. T . pier caps.7. -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- 4 . abutments. COPYRIGHT 2002.A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1978 Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation (SI) - W Ob39804 004870b 027 SPECIFICATIONS COMMENTARY v w(x) ~ = . may be included. Generally. such as live loads. 0 Calculate the period of the bridge.3.2c-4) = the dimensionless elastic seismic response coefficient given by Equation 3.4. columns. and footings. the probability of a large live load being on the bridge during an earthquake should be considered when designing bridges with high live-to-dead load ratios that are located in metropolitan areas where traffic congestion is likely to occur.~ ~ ~~~~ ~ S T D .

COPYRIGHT 2002.3. alternative methods include the square root of the sum of the squares method (SRSS). The member forces and displacements may be estimated by córnbining the respective response quantities (moment.4.3. five spectrum-compatible time histories shall be used when site-specific time histories are not available. Bearings restrained for longitudinal movement shall be designed in compliance with Article 3.10.4.3.5 shall be provided. The percentages of N.3.7. specified by Equation 1. The number of modes included in the analysis should be at least three times the number of spans in the model. or relative displacement) from the individual modes by the Complete Quadratic Combination (CQC) method.6 shall be used for each mode.9.3 Multimode Spectral Method COMMENTARY (24. Unless otherwise directed.7. as specified in Article 3.4.10. c4. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- I Bridge seat widths at expansion bearings shall either accommodate the greater of the maximum displacement calculated in accordance with the provisions of Article 4. N.4. applicable to each seismic zone.4 MINIMUM DISPLACEMENT REQUIREMENTS Rigorous methods of analysis are required for critical structures.7. . Time history methods of analysis are recommended for this purpose. force. modified for the appropriate soil profile.10. shall be as Specified in Table 1. linear dynamic analysis using a three-dimensional model shall be used to represent the structure. but this method is best suited for combining responses from well-separated modes.3 The multimode spectral analysis method shall be used for bridges in which coupling occurs in more than one of the three coordinate directions within each mode of vibration. Member forces and displacements obtained using the CUC combination method are generally adequate for most bridge systems (Wilson et al.3. 1981).4 Time-History Method Any step-by-step time-history method of analysis used for either elastic or inelastic ana!ysis sha!! satisfy the requirements of Article 4.4. longitudinal restrainers complying with Article 3. As a minimum. Otherwise. except for bridaes in Zone 1 or a percentage of . If the CQC method is not readily available. A sensitivity study shall also be carried out to investigate the effects of variations in assumed material hysteretic properties. Site-specific spectrum is preferred. which are defined in Article 3. The elastic seismic response spectrum as specified in Article 3.4. displacement.10.7.6. and/or those that are geometrically complex or close to active earthquake faults. The spectrum used to generate these five time histories shall be the same as that used for the modal methods. if available. the empirical seat width. The sensitivity of the numerical solution to the size of the time step used for the analysis shall be determined.7.3.10.Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation (SI) - SPECIFICATIONS 4. User=. the absolute sum of the modal responses should be used.7. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. provided care is taken with both the modeling of the structure and the selection of the input time histories of ground acceleration.7. The time histories of input acceleration used to describe the earthquake loads shall be selected in consultation with the Owner. For closely spaced modes.4 4.9. 4. The empirical seat width shall be taken as: 4-73 Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.

the effect of other loads that may also be present. 4-74 COPYRIGHT 2002. or to the end of the bridge deck. dynamic analysis for ship collision may be replaced by an equivalent static elastic analysis. shall be considered. or pier height (mm) for hinges within a span. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.7.4. average height of columns supporting the bridge deck to the next expansion joint (mm) for columns and/or piers. column. User=. for hinges within a span. . for single-span bridges.0 for single-span bridges (mm) L = | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- H = s = skew of support measured from line normal to span (DEG) Table 4.000125 S2) where: N = | || ||| | || -| || minimum support length measured normal to the centerline of bearing (mm) length of the bridge deck to the adjacent expansion joint. average height of the adjacent two columns or piers (mm) 0.0067 H) (1 + 0.0017 L + 0.4. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.4-1 Percentage N by Zone and Acceleration Coefficient - 4.7. L shall be the sum of the distances to either side of the hinge. Where an inelastic analysis is specified. L equals the length of the bridge deck (mm) for abutments.Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation ( I S) - SPECIFICATIONS COMMENTARY (4.5 Analysis for Collision Loads Where permitted by the provisions of Section 3.4-1) N = (200 + 0.7.

2 Bridge Testing C4.75 -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- COPYRIGHT 2002. and damping functions shall be applied as appropriate. load/excitation. factored dead load shall be simulated. the Owner may require the testing of scale models of structures and/or parts thereof. as well as its boundary conditions and loads. . shall be modeled as accurately as possible. These measured force effects may be used to project fatigue life.8. or to establish a basis of prioritizing rehabilitationor retrofit. inertial scaling. For dynamic analysis.8. to aid in issuing permits. 4.8 ANALYSIS BY PHYSICAL MODELS 4. 4 . to serve as a basis for similar designs. The dimensional and material properties of the structure.AASHT0 - = Ob39804 0048709 836 SPECIFICATIONS 4.SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1778 Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation (SI) STD. The instrumentation shall not significantly influence the response of the model. to establish permissible weight limits.2 Existing bridges may be instrumented and results obtained under various conditions of trafic and/or environmental loads or load tested with special purpose vehicles to establish force effects and/or the loadcarrying capacity of the bridge. User=. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.1 COMMENTARY Scale Model Testing To establish and/or to verify structural behavior. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.8. For strength limit state tests.

Basu. No. "Stability Design of Steel Frames. pp. FHWA. and W. 4-76 -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- COPYRIGHT 2002. Chi. M." Civil Enaineerina Studies. C. Fahrbahnplatten mit Verandlicher Dicke. Structural Research Series (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. AASHTO.. ASCE Committee on Cable-Suspended Bridges. 1991. Vol. R. 2036-2055. J. "Cyclic In-Plane Buckling of Double Angle Bracing. C." Journal of Structural Enaineerinq. 380. Penzian.S. I 11.. ASCE. Washington. "Inelastic K-Factor in Design. and E. R. and J. 1983. 2528-2539. "Cyclic Out-of-Plane Buckling of Double Angle Bracing.. Kulicki. Pennsylvania. 1973. El-Tayem. and A. Disque. A. Vol. D. Sheperd. pp. C. A. L. 5. 764-780. Ghali. No.C. FHWA.C. ASCE. W. The Evaluation of St. Vol. D. S. No." Journal of Computing in Civil Enaineerinq. April 1986. N. No. A. and A. Danon. Aristizabal. J. Helmut. M. Report No. T. Lehigh University." Journal of Structural Enciineerinq.." Journal of Structural Enaineerina.. Vol. and S. pp. J. Bethlehem. 1991. Inc. "Time-Dependent Deformations and Losses in Concrete Bridges Built by the Cantilever Method. Structural Analvsis: A Unified Classical and Matrix Approach. pp... Gamble. Eby. John Wiley and Sons.12. pp. ASCE. 112. Chi. Basu. New York. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. W. ASCE. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. Springer-Verlag: New York. C. No. State-of-Art Report on Temperature-Induced Deflections of Reinforced Concrete Members. Fritz Laboratory Report No. Zellin. 9. Washington. Vol. September 1984.A A S H T O S R C H LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation (SI) - Ob39804 0048730 558 REFERENCES AC1 Committee 435. and M. January 1977. Guyan. N. Analytic Study for Fatigue of Highway Bridge Cables. Goel. 1989. February 1965. May 1985. 1986. "Cyclic Load Behavior of Angle X-Bracing. January 1989. 1981.. and W." AIAA Journal. A. and M. 1I O . 400. S.C. M. ed. Venant Torsional Constants for Prestressed Concrete I-Beams. Report No. 1. 1981. Neville. R.7R-85. D... Guide Specification for Seismic Design of Hiahwav Bridaes. Haroun. 3. User=. 2. American Concrete Institute.S T D . Department of Transportation." In Blackwell Scientific Desian of Steel Frames. Actaneh-Asl. . Department of Transportation.and M.C. M. Astaneh-Ad. Chapman Hall: New York. A. AC1 435. "Inelastic Behavior of X-Bracing in Plane Frames.: New York. Guide to Stabilitv Desian for Metal Structures. 437. "Tapered Beam and Column Elements in Unbraced Frame Structures. Vol. F. 1. V. U. Galambos. November 1986. Goel. and R. No. SP86-1." AISC Enaineerina Journal. D. Guidelines for Desian of Cable-Staved Bridaes. R. 1988. 149-165.. pp. Goel. Massachusetts. Design Manual for Bridge Structural Members under Wind-Induced Excitation. 112. 169 p. 33. Chen. Lui. Hanson. pp. 4th ed. Homberg. "Reduction of Stiffness and Mass Matrices. 1135-1153. pp. FHWA TS-81-206. No. Vol. O. McGraw Hill: New York. Blackwell Scientific Publications: Cambridge.. S. 1. 1973. 11.4. Department of Civil Engineering). 1968. Vol. January 1987. I O . Chen.. US. Structural Stability Research Council. 1975.ASCE." Journal of Structural Engineerinq. Dvnamic of Structures. Duan. 3549.. S. Washington. "Effective Length Factor for Columns in Unbraced Frames. C. 2nd Qtr. F. 115. Kostem.. No. L.. 3rd ed. and R. Clough." Journal of Structural Enaineerinq. FHWA-RD-81-090. D. J.

1968. Record No. S. H.. Theorv of Matrix Structural Analvsis.and P." Computers and Structures. Csagoly P.. 167. 1976. 1986. and J. Vol. 1073-1083. Mario. B. 3rd ed. and P. Foundation Enaineerinq. 1975. and J.. and J. L. Fisher. .. J. Dowling. D. 1985. Adolf. 5. 1964.: New Podolny.Thombum. R. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. E. Simiu.and A. I I Load and Resistance Factor Desian. J.. Vol. 16. R. Highway Engineering Division. B. Highway Research Karabalis. Vol. Seismic Desian Guidelines for Hiahwav Bridaes. M.Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation (SI) - Johnston. A. Chicago. October 1975. "Dynamic Condensation. R. ReDOrt to Pennsvhrania Department of TransDortation.. D. 731-748. 6. Ontario Hiahwav Bridae Desian Code." Structural Enaineerina Practice: Manaaement. "Shear Lag in Steel Box Girder Bridges. FHWA-RD-75-115. U. Mattock.. Modieski and Masters. Shushkewich. McGraw Hill: New. Dowling. 1974. Bridge Division. G. 2. W. . 1991. Peck. Nettleton. E. Vol. 514 pp. 1967.S. 1983. Inc. Ontario. pp. B. E. Lateral Distribution of Load in Composite Box Girder Bridges. No. John Wiley and Sons. 1986. Steel Structures: Desian and Behavior. pp. H. May 1984. Scanlan. H. 'Time-Dependent Analysis of Segmental Bridges. W. Wiley-lnterscience: New York. Specification for Structural Steel Buildings and Commentary. New Jersey. pp. Liu. Arch Bridaes.C. Springer-Verlag: New York. 23. FHWA." The Structural Enaineer. pp. No. AISC. Prentice Hall: Englewood Cliffs. H. C. Dynamic and Stability Analysis of Structures Composed of Tapered Beams. "Short Cuts for Calculating Deflections. 1990." Computers and Structures. F. 99.C. King. Vol.4-77 -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- COPYRIGHT 2002. Emohasizina Load and Resistance Factor Desian.York. "Logarithmic Profiles and Design Wind Speeds. 83-91. Ministry of Transportation and Communications. Washington. Recent Methods in the ADDlication of Test Results to the Wind Desian of Lona Suspended-Span Bridaes. Harper and Row: New York. Paz. 1977. 95-118. August 1976. pp. No. Scalzi. Applied Technology Council. Inc. California. Wind Enaineerina: A Handbook for Structural Enaineers. D. pp. 1975. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. 2nd ed. K." Journal of the Mechanic Division. 1. Field Testina of the Aauasabon River Bridae. York. 285-297.. K. 724-727. Influence Surfaces of Elastic Plates. ATC-6. 1994. J. 1991. 2nd ed. "Discussion. EM5. 3." The Structural Enaineer. Johnson. S. W.S. 1981. No. ASCE. Ketchum. Moffatt. R. Department of Transportation. Analvsis.! W. Przemieniecki. K. 22. and T." AIAA Journal. Washington. Toronto.. Pucher. S. Paz. 1993.. "Static. 2nd ed. Mohtt.Van Nosstrand Reinhold Company: New York. Berkeley. Canada. Structural Dvnamics. 439-447. Office of Engineering. pp. User=. 2nd edition. Salmon. Construction and Desian of Cable-Staved Bridaes. Hanson. Illinois. U. No. Desian. 4th ed. October 1973. D. Report No. Mario. Department of Transportation. FHWA. Canada.

Cable-Staved Bridaes. 1990." International Journal of Earthauake Enaineerinaand Structural Dvnamics. Der Kiureghian." AISC Enaineerina Journal. W. Washington. Desian Manual for OrthOtrODiC Steel Plate Deck Bridaes. D. and J. Wind Effects on Structures. T. 4-78 COPYRIGHT 2002. N." A m Enaineerina Journa1. . TRB. pp. White.. 1998. 86-88." Journal of the Structures Division. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. No. 1978. eds. "Application of Second-Order Elastic Analysis in LRFD: Research to Practice. H. 9. Vol. 102. Troitsky. and E. Washington.. Vol. Wolchuk. Crosby Lockwood Staples: London. No. Illinois. McGraw-Hill: New York. 1981.C. S. Hajjar. pp. 126. Osterkarnp. A. E. 133-148. L. F. 3269.C. 19-1 to 19-28. Chicago. H. . Bayo. i Private CorresDondence. 1976. D. Gaylord and C. A. April 1976. C. M. Simiu. "Equivalent Static Wind Loads for Tall Building Design. Distribution of Wheel Loads on Hiahwav Bridaes. "Wind Forces on Structures. R. pp. Vol. R. AASHTO. 13. A. A." in Structural Enaineerina Handbook. NCHRP Report 12-2611. Standard Specifications for Structural SUDDO& for Hiahwav Sians. Wilson. Scanlan. J.. Zokaie. and R." Transactions of the ASCE. 3742. pp. No. Gaylord. D. . 28. Wiley-Interscience: New York. 1963. 1977. ST4. pp. | | || ---| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| - I Zokaie. Wolchuk. E. Luminaries and Traffic Sianals. 4. V. National Research Council. 1991.. 3rd ed. 385 pp. 1991. 1961. 187-194. Imbsen." AISC Enaineerina Journal.. "The Effective Length of Columns in Unbraced Frames. Jr. pp.. 3rd Qtr. 8. Yura. E. Smith. R. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. T. Vol. Vol. E. 2.Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation ( I S) Simiu. ASCE. 719-737.. April 1971. No. P. AISC. User=. 1985..Vol. "A Replacement for the SRSS Method in Seismic Analysis.. "On Inelastic Column Buckling. "Steel-Plate-Deck Bridges.

The following assumptions and limitations were used in developing this table and should be considered when using the listed values for design: The moments are calculated using the equivalent strip method as applied to concrete slabs supported on parallel girders. and (b) Maximum tota! overhang width equaf to the smaller of 0. the following two cases of overhang width were considered: (a) Minimum total overhang width of 530 mm measured from the center of the exterior girder. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.1. assuming different number of girders in the bridge cross-section.Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation (SI) - APPENDIX A4 DECK SLAB DESIGN TABLE Table 1 may be used in determining the design moments for different girder arrangements.2. for any specific girder spacing.6 for the distance between the center of the girders to the location of the design sections for negative moments in the deck. For each combination of girder spacing and number of girders. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. The moments do not apply to the deck overhangs and the adjacent regions of the deck that need to be designed taking into account the provisions of Article A13. The moments are applicable for decks supported on at least three girders and having a width of not less than 4200 mm between the centerlines of the exterior girders. Interpolation between the listed values may be used for distances other than those listed in Table 1.1.6. the difference in the moments in the interior regions of the deck is expected to be within the acceptable limits for practical design. A4-1 -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- COPYRIGHT 2002. Multiple presence factors and the dynamic load allowance are included in the tabulated values. A railing system width of 530 mm was used to determine the clear overhang width. See Article 4. were taken as the maximum value calculated. For other widths of railing systems. .4.625x girder spacing and 1800 mm. The moments represent the upper bound for the moments in the interior regions of the slab and. User=.

09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- . American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. User=. N*mm/mm - A4-2 COPYRIGHT 2002.Section 4 Structural Analysis and Evaluation(SI) - Table A4-1 Maximum Live Load Moments Per Unit Width.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .4... . . 5. . .. . . . . . . . . . .3 SPECIAL APPLICATIONS . . . . . . . . . .. . 20 5-20 5-20 5-21 5. . . . . . . . . . 5.. . . . . . . . . . .. . . .4 MATERIAL PROPERTIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .10 5 . .. . . . .5 PosttensioningAnchorages and Couplers .. . . ... . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .1 SCOPE . . 5-i COPYRIGHT 2002. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . .. . . . . .2 STRUCTURAL MODELING ... . .1 GENERAL . 5. . .. . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 22 5. . . . 26 5. . . . . . . .. . .. . .12 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. ... . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . .12 5-13 5 . . .1 Conventional Construction . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. .2 COEFFICIENT OF THERMAL EXPANSION .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. ... . . . . 5. . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . .. . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . 5. .. . .. . . . . .4. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 5.. . . .6.. . . .4. . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . ... . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . .. . . .1 GENERAL .3 Fatigue Limit State . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 5. . . . . . . .. .. . . . .4. . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . .. . . .. .3 ReinforcingSteel . . . .2 Segmental Construction . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . .. . . . . . . . .. . .. .. .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . .2 Effects of Imposed Deformation . . . . . . .1 General . . . . . . 22 5-23 5-23 5-23 5. ... 5.. ... . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . .10 5 .. . . . TABLE OF CONTENTS 5. .. . . . . . .12 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .... . .. .. . . .. .4. . . . . . . . . . 5. .. . . .3. . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .5. 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . .. . . .5. .16 5 . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . ..5. .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. .4.. . .. .2. . . . . 5. .. . . . .2 Creep . .. . . .. .. . . . . . . .5 Extreme Event Limit State . . . 5-4 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .4.. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . .5. . . . . .. . . . . . .. ..6 MODULUS OF RUPTURE . . . .6. . ..2 RESISTANCE FACTORS . .3 DUCTS AT DEVIATIONSADDLES . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .5. . . . .4. . . . . . . . . .3.3. . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . .... . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 5. . . . 5. . . . .. . . . . . . . .6.. . . . .. . . .5. . . . . . . . . .. . . .3 PROPORTIONINGOF COMPRESSIVE STRUTS . .. . . . . .1 GENERAL .. . . . . . 5. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 5-17 5-18 5-18 5 . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . .. .. . 5-1 5 . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Shrinkage . . . . . . .2. . . . . . .. . . . .6. . . . . . .2 DEFINITIONS 5. . . . . . .. ... . .. .4. .. . . . ... 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. .4. . . . . .. . .. . . . . .4 WELDED OR MECHANICALSPLICES OF REINFORCEMENT . . . . . .. . . . . .2 Normal and Structural Low-Density Concrete . .2 MODULUS OF ELASTICITY . . . . . . . . 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. . 26 5-26 5. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .2.10 5-10 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 5. .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .2 SIZE OF DUCTS . 5.. 5. . . . . . . . . .. ... . . . . .2 REINFORCING BARS . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .6. .. . . . . . . . . . . . 5... . . . American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. .. .6 Ducts .. . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . .6. . .... . . . .. . . . .3.5. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . .. . ... 24 5-25 5-26 5. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . .. . . User=.5 LIMITSTATES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . ... . .. . .. . . . . . . .1 GENERAL . . . . . .. .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . 26 5-26 5-27 5-28 -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- 5..3 NOTATION . . . . . .3 STABILITY .. . .18 5 .. .. . . . . . 5. . . . .3 PRESTRESSINGTENDONS .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2..4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 23 5. .. . . . . . . .3.3 Special Requirements For Seismic Zones 3 and 4 . . . . . . . . . .6 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS . .. . . . . . .. .4. 5. .19 5-20 5-20 5... . . . . . . .. . ... 5. . . . . .. . . .2 MODULUS OF ELASTICITY . .. . . . . . . . 26 5. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 MODULUS OF ELASTICITY . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . 5. . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . 5. 5. . . . . . . . . .. . . 5.. . . .. . . . . .16 5 . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . .. .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . 5. . .4. . . . . . . . . . . .1 COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 5. . .. .. . . . .3.4. . . . .4. . .. . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . .1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2. .. . . . .. . . .1 General . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .1 General . . . . . . . . .4. . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .3 SHRINKAGE AND CREEP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 5. . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. .2. . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . 21 5-21 5.. . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . . . .. .3 Strut-and-TieModel .. . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . .17 5 ... . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . .. . . ..7 TENSILE STRENGTH . . .. . . . . .. . . .4. . . .6. . . . .. . . . . . . . . .4. . .5. . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . ... . . . .3.. .. . . . . .4. . . .. . .. . . . .. 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..4. . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Strength Limit State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 POISSONS RATIO . . . . . . . . .2 ServiceLimitState . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . ..2. . .2. . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . .. . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 5. . . . . . . . . .. . . 5. . . .SECTION 5 (SI) . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .4. .. . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .16 5 .. . .17 5-17 5 . . .. . . . . .. . . .2. . . . . . . . .4 PrestressingSteel .4. 5. . . ..4.5. . . . . . 5. . .6.. . . . .14 5 . . 5.3. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . .6.. . . . . .. .. . . . . .. . . . ..2.. . .. . . . .. .4. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 22 5. . . . .. . . .. . . . . ..5. . . . .. . .3. . . . . .i 5. . . . . . ... . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . .1 General . . .5... .. .. . . . . .3.. . . . . . .

. . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . 5. .. . . . . .3. . . . . . . 36 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . User=. . . . .. .1. .. . . . .4 PROPORTIONINGOF TENSION TIES . . . . . . . . .2 Flanged Sections . . . . . . . .3. . .. . . . . . . . . . ..1. . . . . . . .. . . . .1 Strength of UnreinforcedStrut . . . American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- TABLE OF CONTENTS Continued) 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 43 5. . . 5. . . FLEXURALREGIONS . . . . . . . 5-35 5. 5. . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . 49 5. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .2a General . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . .3. . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 5-36 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . .2 Anchorage of Tie . . .7. . REGIONS NEAR DISCONTINUITIES . . .. . . .. .3. . . .3. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . .4. . . . . . .. . . . .3 Rectangular Sections . . . . . . . . . . . .3.8. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .3. .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-32 5. . . . . . . . . . . .7. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . 5-44 5. . . . . . .. . .. . .7. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 LIMITS FOR REINFORCEMENT . . . . . .. . ..3. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 54 Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. 5. . . . . . . . . . .. .7. . .. . . . . . . . . . .3 FlexuralMembers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .4. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Limitations on the Use of the Rectangular Stress Block Method . . . . .2 Minimum Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . 5-44 5. 5. . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 5-39 5. . . . . .. . . 5-51 5. . . . . . . 5-52 5. . . .4. . . .3. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 5.7. .. . .1 StrengthofTie . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . .3. . . .2. .4 Compression Members . . .3. . . . . . . . . . .3.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INTERFACE REGIONS .. .. . .5 PROPORTIONINGOF NODE REGIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 5. . . . .7.. . . . . . .2~Approximate Methodfor Adjusting Factored Resistance . 5 . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . 5.. . . . . . . . . 5-28 5-29 5-30 5-30 5-30 5-30 5-31 5-31 5-32 . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . .3 Axial Deformation . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 5. .7. . . .. . . . . .. .. . .. . . . .1 Design Procedures COPYRIGHT 2002. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .1. . . 5-38 5-38 5. . .4. . . . . . . 5 . . . . . . . . . . 5 32 5 7 2 Assumptions for Strength and Extreme Event Limit States . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . 5. . . 5. . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ii 5-53 5. . . . .. . .5. . . . . .7. .. . .7. .8. . . .3. . . . ... . . . . . . 5-51 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 5. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 RESISTANCE TO COMBINATIONS OF TENSION AND FLEXURE . .. . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . ... . . .. .7. . . SLABS AND FOOTINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 5-50 5. .7 HOLLOW RECTANGULAR COMPRESSION MEMBERS . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . .3 APPROXIMATE EVALUATIONOF SLENDERNESS EFFECTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .2 LIMITS FOR REINFORCEMENT. . 51 5. . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . .8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .3. . . 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. .3 Limiting Compressive Stress in Strut . . . . . . .6. . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . .. .7. . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . .7. . .. . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . .. . . . . 5-44 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-34 5. . . .3. . . 50 5.4 FACTOREDAXIAL RESISTANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .1 GENERAL . . . . . . .6.1 .6. .2 Components with Unbonded Tendons . . . . .4 CONTROL OF CRACKING BY DISTRIBUTION OF REINFORCEMENT. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . .6.1 Factored Flexural Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-33 5. . . . . . . . 5-34 5. . . . . .. . . . . . . . 5-36 5. . . .5 BIAXIAL FLEXURE . . . . . . . . . . . 53 5-53 5. . .. . . . . .. . .7. .. . . . . . . .. . . .1 Components with Bonded Tendons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . ... . . . . .5 MOMENT REDISTRIBUTION . . . . . . . . .. . . .6 DEFORMATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . .7. . .7. . . . . . . . . .. . .1 Maximum Reinforcement . . . . .6 SPIRALS AND TIES . . .1 STRESS IN PRESTRESSINGSTEEL AT NOMINAL FLEXURAL RESISTANCE . . . . . .3. . 32 5-32 5. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . 5-45 5. . . .6 CRACK CONTROL REINFORCEMENT . . . . . . . . .7.. . .. . . . . . . . .4. . . . . 53 5 8 SHEARANDTORSION . . . . . . . 38 5. . . . . . . . . 38 5. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 5-34 5. 54 5. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .4 Other Cross-Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . 5. . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . .. . .7. . . . . . . . . .5 Bearing . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . .3. . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .3.4. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . 5-46 5. .7. . . . . .. . . . .. . .7. .4 Reinforced Strut .3. . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . ..4.. .. . . . . . . .2.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 5. . . . . . . .4. . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2b RefinedMethodfor Adjusting Maximum Usable Strain Limit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. 5.. . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-40 5.. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .2 FLEXURAL RESISTANCE . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . .4. . . 42 5. . . .. . . . . . 5-51 5. . . . . . .. . . . .3. .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .1 FACTORED TENSION RESISTANCE . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . .. . ... . . . . .2 RECTANGULARSTRESS DISTRIBUTION . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..7. . . . .1 Wall Slenderness Ratio . .. .6. . .. . . .6..6. . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . .. . .. . .. . . .4. . . . . . . . . .2. .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8.2 Deflection and Camber . 5-53 5.7. . . .1 General . . .. . . .4.6 Tension Members . . .. 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . .7. .7. .7. . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . .7 DESIGN FOR FLEXURALAND AXIAL FORCE EFFECTS . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .6.. . 43 5-43 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . .1 Assumptions for Service and Fatigue Limit States . . . . .6. . .3. . . . .. . . .. . . 5.2. .. . . . . .. . . . .2. . . .6. . . . . . . . . . .2 Effective Cross-SectionalArea of Strut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 5. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 5-48 5-48 5. . . . . .7. 5. . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . .6. 5-53 5. .3. . . .3. . . .1. . .

. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Simplified Procedure for Nonprestressed Sections . . 5.9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. 5. . .9. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8. . . .8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Compression Stresses . . . 5. . . .8. . . . . . .8. .9. . . . . . . .8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .9. ..TABLE OF CONTENTS Continued) 5. . . . . 85 5. . . . . . . . .4 SECTION PROPERTIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . .5. . . . . . . . . .3 NOMINAL SHEAR RESISTANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-73 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 5. . . . . . .1. . . .3. . . . . .. . .1 Compression Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . .86. .4. .. . . 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. .2. . . . . . .3. . . . . . .9 SHEAR STRESS ON CONCRETE 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .2 General Procedure . . . . . . .8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 GENERAL .. . .. . . . . . .. . 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .3 APPROXIMATE LUMP SUM ESTIMATE OF TIME-DEPENDENT LOSSES . . . . . . . . . . .3a Prefensioned Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . .8. . . .9. . . . . . . Postfensioned Members . . .. . . . . . . . . .8. . .2 SPECIFIED CONCRETE STRENGTHS . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. 5 . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . .. .8 DESIGN AND DETAILING REQUIREMENTS . . . . . ..9. . 54 5-54 5-55 5-55 5-56 5-56 5-56 5. . . 5-80 5. . . . 78 5-79 5. . 5.9. . 5-82 5. . .FULLY PRESTRESSED 5-78 COMPONENTS .4. . . . . . . .9. .. .7 6 5.. . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 TOTAL LOSS OF PRESTRESS . . . . . . .2 SECTIONS NEAR SUPPORTS . . . . . . . . . .. . 76 5. . . . .2 General Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 74 5.2b Postfensioned Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 5-69 5-71 5-72 | | || ---| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . .. . .. . . . .9. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 5. . . . . . . . . . .2. 5.6. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .1. . . . .2. . . . . . . . . 5 . . . .7 MAXIMUM SPACING OF TRANSVERSE REINFORCEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . .8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. .5. . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 5. . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .9. .4.9. . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-82 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. .5 Lossofprestress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8.. . . . 5. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-81 5.4. . . . . . . . . .4. . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. .. . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . 5 . . 5 . 5. .1. .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 . . . . . . . . . 5-75 5. . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 5-67 5-68 5-69 5. . . . . . 74 5. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 PRESTRESSING AND PARTIAL PRESTRESSING . . . .3 BUCKLING . . . .3 Stress Limitationsfor PrestressingTendons . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .2a Prefensioned Consfruction . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . 5. . . .. . . . . . .2. . . . . . .2 COHESION AND FRICTION . . . . . . .6 TYPES OF TRANSVERSE REINFORCEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 TRANSFER AND DEVELOPMENT LENGTHS .3.1 FOR TEMPORARY STRESSES BEFORE LOSSES-FULLY PRESTRESSED COMPONENTS . . . . . . . . . .5 MINIMUM TRANSVERSE REINFORCEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...3 Elastic Shortening . . . . . . .8. . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . 5. . .7 3 5. . 5-75 5. . . . . . . .. 5. . .1. . . . 5. . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . .2 Stresses Due to Imposed Deformation . . . . . . ..2. . .4. . . . .5. . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 GENERAL ..4 REGIONS REQUIRING TRANSVERSE REINFORCEMENT . . . . . . . . . 5-@ 5. . . . . . . 5. . . . . .. .2. . .4 DETERMINATIONOFßAND8 . . . . . . . . 66 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . .5 LONGITUDINAL REINFORCEMENT . . . . . . . . . 87 5.. . 5. . . . . . . . . .4 REFINED ESTIMATES OF TIME-DEPENDENT LOSSES . . . . . . . .2 MODIFICATIONS FOR LOW-DENSITY CONCRETE . . .7 6 5. . . . 5-64 5-64 5-64 5. . . . . .8. . . . . . . . . . . .3 Sectional Design Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . User=. . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . .8. . . 81 5. . . . . . . . . . .2 Tension Stresses . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . .8. .4. . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Tension Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. . . . . . . . . . 5-74 5.8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 5. . 57 5-58 5-59 5-59 5-60 5-63 . . .. . . .9... . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . .. . . . . . .1 Transverse Reinforcement . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .9... . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . .. .6 TENDONS WITH ANGLE POINTS OR CURVES .2 FOR STRESSES AT SERVICE LIMIT STATE AFTER LOSSES . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . .8.. . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . .8. . . . . . . . 5-73 5. . . 5. . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .8. . . . . . . . . .6. . .9. . . . .5. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. 57 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .3. . . . . . .. . . . .6 SECTIONS SUBJECTED TO COMBINED SHEAR AND TORSION . . . . .. . . . . .5. . .2. . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . 5-83 85 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4 Stress Limits for Concrete .4. . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .8. . .8. . . . . . .2 INSTANTANEOUSLOSSES . . .4. . . .8. . . . . . . . . . . 83 5. .5 CRACKCONTROL . . . . iii COPYRIGHT 2002. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. .8. . . . . . . . . .8. . 5. . . . .. . . . . .. . . .2. . . . . . . . . . 5.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .1 GENERAL . . . . . . .3 PARTIALLY PRESTRESSED COMPONENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Interface Shear Transfer Shear Friction . . . . . . . . . .7 4 5.1 GENERAL . . . . .. . . . . . .31. . . . .. . . . . . . .2 Torsional Resistance . .. . . . . . .. . .1 5. . . . . . .4. . . . . .1 General Design Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . .2 Friction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. .5. .5. . 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. . .. . . . . . . . .1 Anchorageset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . .9. . . 83 5. .5 Direct Shear Resistance of Dry Joints . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 . . .2. . . . . 5. .8. . .3 Longitudinal Reinforcement . . . . . .

. . .. . . . . . . . . . .. 5. . . . 92 5.2 HooksandBends . . .. . . . . . .10. . . . . .. .. .. . . .. ..10. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . .3. . . . .9. . . .9. ... . . . . .10. . 5-101 5. . . . ..4. . . .. . . . . . . .3 Creep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 97 5. . . .10. .. . . .. . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . 5-87 5-88 5-88 5-89 5-89 5-89 5-89 5-90 5. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . .. .5. . . . . . . . . . .4 Tendon Confinement . . . . . . . . .. .. 100 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 5.. . . . . 95 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 5. . .100 5. . . .. 5-95 5. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 5. . 5-103 5. . . . . . .. . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . i . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . .1 GENERAL . . . . . . . .9.10. . . . . .3 Special Anchorage Devices . . . . . . 5. . 5. . . . 5. . .. . . . . . .. 5. . . . ..2 MAXIMUM SPACING OF REINFORCING BARS . . . . .2 COMPONENTS LESS THAN 1200 mm THICK . . . . . . 5. . . . . .. . . . .4. . . 94 5. . . 103 5.10. . . . . . . ... . . . .. .. . . . . .. 5 . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .2 SEISMIC HOOKS . . . . American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. . . . . . . . . . User=. . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . .10. . . . . . . . . . .5 LOSSES FOR DEFLECTIONCALCULATIONS .1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . .10..3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 . . . . . . 5.. .10. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Transverse Reinforcementfor Compression Members . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . ..5 External Tendon Supports .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . .4~ AîlerTransfer . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .105 5-105 5. . . . . . . 93 5. . . . . . . . . . .10. . . . . . . . . .. . .4. . . . .. 94 5.. .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. 5. . . . . .. . . . . . . . 5 . . . . . . .. . . . 5. . . . 5-100 5. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ..10. . . . . . . .10. . . . . . . . .10. . . 5. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.. .9.. . .... . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 5. . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . 5. .3 Spacing of Reinforcement . . .10. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Transverse Reinforcement for Flexural. . . . . .1. . . . .10. . . . .3 Curved Posttensioning Ducts . . . . . . . .4. . .10. . . . 5. . . . . . . .6.. . . . . . .10. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .3. . . .5. 5. . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . 5 -101 5. . .. . . . . . . . .. .10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . .101 5. . . . . . . .. . .4 Relaxation . . . . . ... . .. . . . . .3. . .. . . . . .. . . 109 5. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 0. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .iv -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- COPYRIGHT 2002. . . . . . . . . . .10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10. . . .. . . . .. . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . .. . 5. . . . .10. . .2 Out-of-Plane Force Effects . .. . . . .. . . . . ... .. . . . . ..9 PosttensionedAnchorage Zones . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 105 5. .. . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . .1. .. . .10.. . . . . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .2. . .5 BundledBars . .. .1 MINIMUM SPACING OF REINFORCING BARS . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .3. .10. . . . 5. . . . . .10. . . . . . . . 5. . . . . .. .. . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .10. . . . . . . . . . . . 5 .. . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . .. . . . . . . .10.. 96 : . . . . 93 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. 5.. . . . . . . . . . .. 91 5. .1 Cast-in-Place Concrete .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .1 General . .. Members . . 5.1. . . . 93 5. .10. . . 90 5. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .8. . . . . . . .10. . . . . . . . . .. . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 COUPLERS IN POSTTENSIONING TENDONS . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . 5.3 TIES . . . . . . . . . . .1 General . . . . . . . 92 5. . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . 90 5. . .. . .. . . . . .3. . . . . . . . .4 Responsibilities . . .. . ..9. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .5. . .3.3. . . . . . .. . . . . . . .2 GENERAL ZONE AND LOCAL ZONE . . . . . . . 100 5. . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . .2 Posttensioning Ducts Not Curved in the Horizontal Plane .1 GENERAL . . . . . .3 Localzone . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 IntermediateAnchorages . . . . . . . . .1 Concrete Cover . .. . . . . .3. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .10. .3 Multilayers . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . .. . .4 MAXIMUM SPACING OF PRESTRESSING TENDONS AND DUCTS IN SLABS . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 104 5. . . . . . . 5. . . . . 5. . .. . . . .2 Shrinkage . . . . . . . .. . . . . ... .. . 90 91 5. . . . . . .. . . . ... . . . . . . .10. . . . .. . . . . . .10. . .4a General .3 MINIMUM BEND DIAMETERS . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . :' . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. .. . . 5-92 5..3. . . . . . . . . . 5-104 5. . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . ..3. . . . .10. . . . . .4. . . . . . . .. .10. .. .. . . . . . . . .. . 5 . . . . . .. ... . . 109 5.1 Pretensioning Strand .. . . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. .1. . . . . . . . 5-98 5. .9. . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . .2 Generalzone . .. . . . . .2. . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. .3. . . . .. 5. . . . . . . . .. .10. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . 5 . . . 5-92 5. . . . .. . . . .2 Design Principles . . . . .9. . . . . . .. . .10. 5 . .1 STANDARD HOOKS . . . . . . . . .10.. . . . 95 5. .9. .. ..3.. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . .10. . . .. 5.9. . . . .. . . . .. . .3. .10 DETAILS OF REINFORCEMENT . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 . . . .. . . . . . . . .4. . . ... . . . . . . . . . . .4b AtTransfer . . .. . . . . ..2. . . .. . . . . . . . . 5-90 5. . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . .. . . .3. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 5. . . . . 94 5. . . . . 98 5. . .10. . . . . 5. . . . . . . . ..2 Precast Concrete . . . ..2. . .. 5.. .. . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . '. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . .2 SPIRALS . 5-103 5..6. . . . .9. . . . . . . . . 98 5. . .. . . . . . . . . .3 MASS CONCRETE . . .. . . .. . . . . . .10. . .. .. . .10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..10. . . . ..10. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 5. . . . .. . . . . . .3 EFFECTS OF CURVED TENDONS . : . . . . .. . .8 Shrinkage and Temperature Reinforcement . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. .3 DESIGN OF THE GENERAL ZONE ... . . . . . . . . .10. . . . . 92 5. . . . .. . . . . . .2. . . . . ... . . . . .3. . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . 5-98 5. . . . . . .10. . . 5-99 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... .. . . .1.. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . .. . .2 WOBBLE EFFECT IN SLABS . . . . .. .1 DesignMethods . .. . . . . . . . . .4. . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .5. . .. . . . .10. . . .3 MINIMUM SPACING OF PRESTRESSING TENDONS AND DUCTS .. . .. . . . . . . . . . .5.. . .. .1 GENERAL ..9. . . . . .3. . . . .. . . . . 5. .1 In-Plane Force Effects . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : .. . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . .TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) 5. . . . .5. .9. . . . .. . . . .9. . . . . . . . . .. .4 Splices . . .5. . . . . . . . .

.10.134 5-134 5. . . . . . .127 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 -111 5 . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . .3 Special Anchorage Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12. .112 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . .121 5.2 SEISMICZONE 1 . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .128 5. .1 1. . . . . . . . .10. . . 5 .11. . . .4 APPLICATION OF THE STRUT-AND-TIE MODEL TO THE DESIGN OF GENERAL ZONE . . . . . . . . . . . .l e Spacing of Transverse Reinforcement for Confinement . . 5. . . . .4.4. . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . 5. . .7. . . . . . . . . . . 5 . . . .121 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . .TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) 5.2 Nodes . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Column Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .122 5 124 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11. . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Edge Tension Forces . . . . . . . .12. . .4 Moment Resisting Joints . .1 FACTORED BURSTING RESISTANCE . . .. . .. . .1 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. .1.1 GENERAL . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10. . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . .10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Requirements for Wall-Type Piers . . . . . . .1 BASIC REQUIREMENTS . . . . . . . 5 . 5 . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Struts .11 Provisions for Seismic Design . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Pretensioned Anchorage Zones . . . . . . .4 Construction Joints in Piers and Columns . . . . 4 ~ Blister and Rib Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. . . 5-v COPYRIGHT 2002. .4. . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .l a Longitudinal Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11. . . .2 Positive Moment Reinforcement . .11 1. . . . . . . . . . .41. . . . . . 5.2 CONFINEMENT REINFORCEMENT . . . . . . . . . . .2 Development of Reinforcement . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-125 5-127 5. . .2. . . . . .4. . . . .1. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 3 .117 5. . .133 5. . . . . . . .9. . . .1i. . 5 -116 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10. . . . . . . 5. . . 5 134 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..10. . . . . 5 . . .2. . . . . 5 . . 5 .4. .10. . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . TieBacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11. . .121 5 . . . . . .12. . . . . . 5.4. . .10. . .4 SEISMIC ZONES 3 AND 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . .10. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . .10. . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . .10. . 5 133 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . .11. . . . . . .7. . . .118 Fûr~es. .12 Reinforcementfor Hollow Rectangular Compression Members . . . . .3 B ü ~ t i n g 5. . . .11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 0.129 5. . .9. . . . . . . . . .3 TIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-114 5. . .70. .11.12. .10. . . .10. . . . . . User=. . . . . . . .11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . .120 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . 5 134 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 5-134 5.127 5. . .132 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 .6 Multiple Slab Anchorages . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 DESIGN OF LOCAL ZONES . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. .10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10. . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 . . . . . . .125 5.9. . . . . . . . . .11. . . . . .124 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . .125 5. . . . . . .I I . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . .10. . . .9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 1. . . . . .11. . . . . . .6. . . . . . 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . .10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10. . . .. . . .5 ELASTICSTRESSANALYSIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10. . .9. . . .2 Compressive Stresses . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 1. . . . . . . . . . .3 SEISMICZONE2 . . . . 5. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-116 5. . . . .. . . .2 FLEXURAL REINFORCEMENT . . . .10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11. .10. . . .1 Dimensions of Local Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. .4 SPLICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . 5-132 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11.5 HOOPS . . . . . . . . .137 5 . . . . . . . . . 5. . .138 | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- . . . . 5 . . .lb Flexural Resistance . .10. . . . . . . .1O. . . . . . . . . . .1 DEFORMED BARS AND DEFORMEDWIRE IN TENSION . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IO.6 APPROXIMATE STRESS ANALYSES AND DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . .10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .2 Bearing Resistance .4. . . . . . .10. . . . . . 5-127 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .138 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10.. . .11 DEVELOPMENTAND SPLICES OF REINFORCEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . .124 5 .7. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .12.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9.127 5 . . . . . .7 Deviation Saddles . .. . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . .10. . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .lc Column Shear and Transverse Reinforcement . . . .10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 GENERAL . . . .9. . . . .10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . 5 . . . . . . . . . .. 5-110 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Column Connections . . . . 5-109 5. . . . .10. . . . .1O.1O. .1. . . .11. . . . . . . . . .ld Transverse Reinforcement for Confinement at Plastic Hinges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . 5-135 - i - 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .138 5 . . . . . . . .117 5. . . . .5 Diaphragms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 5-135 5.131 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .135 5 . . . . . . . . . .2 SPACING OF REINFORCEMENT . . . . . . . . . .4a General . . . . .10. . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 -115 5. . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Genera! . . .112 5-112 5. .10. . . . . . . . . .1 Limitations of Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10. . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111 5. . . . . . . .10. . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 General . .110 5. . . . . . .10. . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 . . . . . . 5. . .10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . -- | || . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1f Splices . . . . . .. . . . . .136 5 .3 Negative Moment Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10. .11. . . . . . . . .128 5. . . . . . . . .4 Ties . . . 5 . . .135 5 . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . .11. . . . . . . . . . . 5. . .150 5 . . . . .. . 5. . .5. . . . . . . . . . . .11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .150 - I I I I 55 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . 5. . . . 5. . . 5. . . . . . . .148 5 148 5 . . . . . .1. .141 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . .144 5 .11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . .2. . . . . .144 5 . .2 Mechanical Connections . . .11. . . . .2 Anchorage of Deformed Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .3 End-Bearing Splices . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . .148 - 5-148 5 . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..6. . . . .4 Development of Prestressing Strand .144 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11. . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 DETAILING REQUIREMENTS FOR DEEP BEAMS . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 ModificationFactors That Decrease fid . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . .148 5 .3 Hooked-Bar Tie Requirements . . . . . .3 Concrete Cover . .2. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . .1 General . .11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.5 Splices of Bar Reinforcement . .2 DEFORMED BARS IN COMPRESSION . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 5. .155 5-155 5 . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 DURABILITY . . . . . . .148 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .152 5 152 5 . . .4. . . .11. . . . . . .2 Mechanical Connections or Welded Splices in Tension . . . . . .6. . . .145 5 . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .2. . . . . .1 Deckslabs . . . . . . 5. . . . . . .141 i II I I 5 . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13.157 5 -157 5 -vi Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .151 5. . . . . . . .11. . . 5. . . . . . .146 5-146 5 .1 GENERAL . . . . .156 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Lap Splices in Compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . 5. .11. . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Deformed Wire Fabric . . . . . . .11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .155 5-155 5 . . . . . .155 5 .11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 DIAPHRAGMS . . . . . . ..2 ModificationFactors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . | | || --- COPYRIGHT 2002. .2 BONDED STRAND . . . .11. . . . . . . . . .139 5 . . . . . . .13. . .6 SHEAR REINFORCEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . .2 Modification Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 SPLICES OF REINFORCEMENT IN TENSION . . . . . . .1. . . . .11. . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . Brackets. . . . . . . 5. 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .142 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .147 5 147 5 . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. .1 Tension Development Length . . . .11. . .11. . . .11. . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Splices of Welded Wire Fabric . . . . . . . . . .11. . . . .11. . . -| || | || ||| | || | 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Beam Ledges . ..139 5 . . . . . . . .141 5 . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .4 Protective Coatings . . . . . . . . . . .2 Plain Wire Fabric . . . . . . . . .11. . . . . .2. . . . 5. . . . .. . . . . . . .138 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office |||| || | ||||||| 5-151 5-151 5 . . . .5 Protection for Prestressing Tendons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11. . . . . . .12. . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . .1 Compressive Development Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 General . . .11. . . . . . User=. . . . . . . . 5. . . . . .5 SPLICES OF BARS IN COMPRESSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .140 5 .1. . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . .2 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS . . . . 5.11.. . . . . . . . . . . .149 5 .6. .2. . . . . .149 5 .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .2. . . . . . . . .3 PARTIALLY DEBONDED STRANDS . . . . . .13. . . . . . . .2. . . . . .11. .12. . . .5.1 Basic Hook Development Length . . . . . .151 5 . . .11S. . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11. . .3. . . . . . . .11. . . . . . .2. . . . . . .3. . . . . . .1 1. . .3 Welded Splices . . . . . . . . . . . . .11. . . . 5. . . . . .5. . . . 5. . . .5. . . . . . . . .3 Anchorage of Wire Fabric Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . .140 5 . . . . .145 5 . . .6. . . . .4 STANDARD HOOKS IN TENSION . . . . . . . . . . . .144 5 . . .1 SPLICES OF WELDED DEFORMEDWIRE FABRIC IN TENSION . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Development by Mechanical Anchorages . .143 5 . . . . . . . . . . . .154 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 DETAILING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11. . . . . . . . . .11.140 5 . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . .TABLE OF CONTENTS Continued) 5. . . .1 GENERAL . . . . .11. 5.4 Closed Stirrups . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11. . . . .4 BRACKETS AND CORBELS . . . .143 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11. . . . . . . . . . . . .145 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Alkali-Silica Reactive Aggregates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. .. . . .146 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12.155 - 5 . . . . . . . .142 5 . 5. . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 MechanicalConnections or Welded Splices in Compression .. . . . . . Deep Beams. . . . . . . .2 SPLICES OF WELDED SMOOTH WIRE FABRIC IN TENSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.13. . . . . . . 5. . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . .11. . . . .5. . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . .11. . . . .150 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . .3 BUNDLED BARS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . 5.5. . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . .11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Lapsplices . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Lap Splices in Tension . . . . .2 Modification Factors That Increase fid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13. . . 5. . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . .11. . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Diaphragms. . . . 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. . .151 5 . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . .147 5 . 5. .2. . . . . .5 WELDED WIRE FABRIC . . . . . . 5. . . . . . .13 SPECIFIC MEMBERS . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . .4 SPLICES IN TENSION TIE MEMBERS . . . . . Corbels. .4. . . 5. . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Concrete Quality . . . . . . . .174 5 . . . . . . . . .170 5 .4. .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . .6. . . . . . . . .2. . 5. . . .14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . .4. .13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Two-WayAction . . . . . . . . . . . .2 PRECAST BEAMS . . . . . . . . . . .173 5-174 5-174 5 . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . .4. .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . .6. . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .173 5 . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3e Precast Piles . . .161 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .171 5 171 5 . . .166 5 . . 5. .167 5-167 5 -168 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . .1 Critical Sections for Shear . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . .13. . .13. . . .13. . . . . . . .2 ExtremeDimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . .163 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.6. . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . 5. . . . . .165 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .170 5 . . . . . . . . . . .175 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .161 5 .172 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Footings . .13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . 5. . . .3 Lifting Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13. . . .3. .4. .6.13. . . . .14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Transverse Construction Joints . . 5. . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . .3. . . User=. . . . . . .13. . . . . . . . .13. . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . .1. . .3 RESISTANCE FACTORS . . . . . . .1 PreserviceConditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . .172 5 . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . .14. . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 TRANSFER OF FORCE AT BASE OF COLUMN . . .2 Designforshear . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Detail Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13. . . . . . . . .170 5-170 5 . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . .13. . . .4.165 5-165 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . .13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . .3. .13. . . . . . . . 5. . . . . .2. . .2b Cast-in-Place Piles . . . . .6. . . . . . .167 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.160 5 . . . . . . . . . . . .13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Reinforcement .3. . . . . .13. . . .3.174 5. . . .2. . . . . . . . . 5.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Beams and Girders . . . . .6 Design for Bearing . . . 175 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . 5.13.2 One-WayAction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . .2d Precast Prestressed Piles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13. . . . . . .172 5-172 5-173 5-173 5 . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . .165 5 . . . . . .171 5 . . . . . American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- - - - 5 . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. .1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . 5 . . . . .14.2. . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 PROVISIONS FOR STRUCTURE TYPES . . . . . . .13. . . . . . .4 Design for Punching Shear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . .162 5 . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . .2 Reinforcing Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 LOADS AND REACTIONS . . . . . . . . . . .3~ Volumetric Ratio for Confinement . . 5. . . . . . .171 5 . . . . . . . .2a General .13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . .5 CAST-IN-PLACE PILES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . .13. . . . . . . .4.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Reinforcing Steel . . . . . .13. . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . 5. . .13. . . . .166 5 166 5 . . . . . . . . . .6 SEISMIC REQUIREMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13. . . . . .3. . . . . . 5. . .6 SHEAR IN SLABS AND FOOTINGS . . . . . . . . . . .3 Design for Flexureand Horizontal Force .3a General . . . . . . 5. . . . .6. 5. . . . . . . . . . .2~ Precast Reinforced Piles . .13. . . . . . . . . . . .172 5 . . . . 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . .174 5 . . . . . 5. . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Concrete Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . .13. . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . .3 Zones3and4 . . . . . . . . . . . .13. . .3b Confinement Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .176 5 . . . . .1 Pile Dimensions . . . . . . . . . .1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . .13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13. . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . .TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) 5. . . . . .3. .2 Zone2 . . .13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Concrete Piles . .4. . . . . . . . . . .2. . . .14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13. 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .175 5 -175 5 -176 5 . . . . . . .13. . . . . . .162 5 . . . .13. . . . . . . .175 5-175 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .176 Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . .13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .162 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . .3. . . . . . . .4. . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . .3 PRECAST REINFORCED PILES . . . . . .3d Cast-in-Place Piles . . . . . . .174 5 . . . .4. . . .168 5 168 5 169 5-169 5 . . . . . vii COPYRIGHT 2002.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . .5 BEAM LEDGES . . . . . . . . .13. . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . .14. . . .4 PRECAST PRESTRESSED PILES . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . 5. . . . . .13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. .4. . . . . 5. . . .13. . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . 5.13. . . . . .173 5 .2 SPLICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13. . . .5 DISTRIBUTION OF MOMENT REINFORCEMENT . . . . . .1 Pile Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. .1 PileDimensions . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . .1 GENERAL . . . . . .2 Alternative to Strut-and-Tie Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . .14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.7 DEVELOPMENT OF REINFORCEMENT .5. . . . . . . . .13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .176 5 . . . . . .4. . . . .13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 MOMENT IN FOOTINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6.5 Design of Hanger Reinforcement . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . .13. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Zone1 . . . . .13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. .

. . . . . . . .. .8 Provisional Posttensioning Ducts and Anchorages . . . . . . . .1 Loads . . . . 5 177 5. . 5-195 5. .14. . . .4.14. . . . . . . . . . . . 1Od Overall Cross-Section Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 5. . . i . . . .2. . . . .. .3. . . . . .2. . .. .. .. . .4. . . .2. . . .14. . . . . . . .187 5. . . .14. . .. . . . 5 . . . . . . .. . .190 5. . . . . . . . . ... 5 . . . .6b Force Effects Due to Construction Tolerances .. . .1a TopFlange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .10a Minimum Flange Thickness .. . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . .1~Web . . . . . . . . ... .2. . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..14. . . .14. . . . . . . . .14. . . . . . . . .4 TYPES OF SEGMENTAL BRIDGES . . . . . . . .14. . . . .2. . . . . . .. . .2. . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 196 5. .9~ Contract Documents Prepared According to Method B . . . . . .. . . 5 188 5. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . lob Minimum Web Thickness . . . . . . . . .197 5 197 5. .14. User=.3. . .14. . . .. . .. .2 ANALYSIS OF SEGMENTAL BRIDGES . .14. . . . . . . . .. . . .14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. .. . . .. . .8a General . . . . . . . . . .4. 5 178 5. . . .2. .. . . . . . .. . .. . . 5.2. . . . . . . 5 . American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. . . .3 CAST-IN-PLACE GIRDERS AND BOX AND T-BEAMS .4. . . . . . - - - - - - - - 5. . . . . .4 Construction Load Combinations at Strength Limit States . . . . . . .14. . .14. .14. . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. .. . . . . . . .190 5. . . . . . . . . .178 5. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . ... .14. . . . . . . . .3. . . . . 5 . . . . . ..1. . . .. . . . . .14. . 1. . . . . . .3. . . . .14. . . . . . . .3 Construction Load Combinations at the Service Limit State . . . 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14. . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .2a Deck Slab Reinforcement Cast-in-place in T-beams and Box Girders . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .3 Details for Cast-in-Place Construction . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 178 5. .4. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 5 . . . . . . . . .6~Design Details . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . .177 5. . . . . .. . . .. . . . ..2. .3.2. . . . . . . .1b Bottom Flange . . . . .. .6b Fully Effective Construction Joints . ... . . . . . .3. . .14. . . . . . . .. . .2. .1. . 5-182 5.1. . .2. . . . .14. . .1.1. . . . .14.. . . . . . . . . . 5 . . . . . . . .3.. . . . . . . . .4. . .TABLE OF CONTENTS Continued) 5. . .2. .2. .14. . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .1. . .. . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . .179 5. . . . 5-180 5 . . . . . . . . ..14. . . ..2. . . 5 195 5 . . . . ..14. . .9 Posttensioning Plan Presentation . . . . .3. . .. . . .. .14. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . viii -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- COPYRIGHT 2002. . . . . . . . . .2 Details for Precast Construction . . 5-178 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . .195 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . .2b Bottom Slab Reinforcement in Cast-in-Place Box Girders . . . . . .7 Bridges Composed of Simple Span Precast Girders Made Continuous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 5 188 5. . 5. .. .. . . . . . . . . .177 5. . . . . . . . 5 . . . . .1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . .2.. . .. . . . . . . . . .9a General . .. . . . . . .3. . . . .14.14. . . .14. . . . . . . . .14. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . .1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . 5 . .14. . . . .í4. . . .. . . . . . . .7 Precast Segmental Beam Bridges . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14.. .189 5. . . . .14. . .14. . . . . .8b Bridges with Internal Ducts . . . . . . .. . . . . . .3. . . .. . . . . . . . . 5-176 5. .. .2. . . . . .2. .. . . . . . . . . .192 5-192 5. . .. .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 181 5 181 5. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . ..1.6 Incrementally Launched Construction . . . . ... . .. . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8~Provision for Future Dead Load or Deflection Adjustment . . .. .. . . . . . .181 5. . . . . . . . . . . . ... 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. . . .180 5. . . . .2. . . . . . . .14. . . . . . . . . . . .. .14.186 5. . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .2. .. .2. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 5 . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. .9b Contract Documents Prepared According to Method A . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . .. . .4. . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . .2. . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .3. . . . . . 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . ..2 Segmental Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Box Girder Cross-Section Dimensions and Details . . . . . .14. . . . . . . . . . . . .3. .. . . . . . . . . . . 5 193 5 194 5.190 5. . .7 Prestress Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2..14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 . . 5-182 5. . . 5. . 5 . . .6a General .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-188 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... .. . . . . . .190 5. .. . .. . . . . .. . 5 188 5. . . . . . 7 ~ Degree of Continuity at Various Limit States . .1. . . . . . . . . .3.3 DESIGN . . . . . .3. . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . .1.. . .3.. . . . . . . . . . . 5-179 5. .. . . .. . . . . . .. . . . .2 .5 Span-by-Span Construction . . . . .3. . . .8 Longitudinal Construction Joints . . . . . . . . . .14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .9d Shop Drawings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Flange and Web Thickness . .4 Cantilever Construction . 5 . . . . . .14. .. . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14. . . . .1 1 Seismic Design .14. . . . . . .. . .14. 5-182 5. . .. . . . . . . . . . .14. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .2.. . . . .. . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 ... . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 5 179 5.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . .2 Construction Loads . . . . . . .. . . . .3 Analysis of the Final Structural System . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . ..186 5 . . .. . . . . . . .6 Creepandshrinkage . .192 5.14. . . . . . . . 5 194 5. . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . 5 . . 5 179 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 . . .. . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . 5-177 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6a General . . . .. . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Thermal Effects During Construction . . . . ..1. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 5 . . . . . . 5 186 5. . . . . . . .1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.. . .. . . . . .2 Reinforcement . . .3. . . . . . .2. . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 183 5. . 5 177 5. . . .14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. .187 5. ..2. . . .. . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .181 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14. . . . . . . .6d Design of Construction Equipment .14.2. . . 5 189 5. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .7b Reinforcement . . . .. . .191 5. . .14. . . .14. . . . . .3. . 5 189 5. . .3.3. . . . .. . . . . . . .14. . .2. . . ..2 Construction Analysis . . . . . . . 5 . . .. . . . .. . . . 5. . . . .3. . . . . . . . .3. .14. . . . .14. . . .. . . 5-187 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 5 195 5. . . . .10~ Length of Top Flange Cantilever . . . .7a General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . .. . .2. . 5-179 5. . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .200 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . .. 5.2. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .3.. . .4. . . . . . . . .. . . . 5. . . . .200 5-201 5-201 5 .1 General . . . . . .14. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14. . .1 Cross-Section bimensions . . . . . . . . . . . .2. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . A5-1 A5. . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . ..5 SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Minimum Number of Bearings .3 PRECAST DECK BRIDGES . . . . . . . 5.2. . .. . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . .. .. .. . . . . . . .4.14. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .3 DESIGN FOR SHEAR IN SLABS OF BOX CULVERTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . .14. . . . . .. . . . . . . .74. . ... . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Slab Superstructures . . . . . . . .2 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS A5 . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . 5:14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 5. 5. .TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A5A SLABBRIDGES . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . .. . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . .3 BEAM AND GIRDER SUPERSTRUCTUREDESIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 General Design Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . .201 5 .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .7a General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. .14. . . . . . . . . . . .14. . . .14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rectangular Precast Segmental Piers . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. .2. . . . . . . .4. . . . . .14. 5. . . . . . . . User=. . . . . . . . . . . .3. .. . . . .2. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 GENERAL . . . . .6 Drainage of Voids . .3. .. . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . .. . .1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . A5.. . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . . . .. . . . . 5. . . . . . .14. . . . ..3a General . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.4. . . . . .6 SEGMENTAL BRIDGE SUBSTRUCTURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .14. . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . .3.3. . . . . . . . .6. . .5. .202 5 202 5 202 5 . ... . .14. . . . . . . . 5. . .2€ pQS&?nS¡O!ljRg .3d Longitudinal ConstructionJoints .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . / I 5 197 5 198 5-198 5-198 5 . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . .14. . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.5 CompressiveZones in Negative Moment Area . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 5. . 5.7~ Joints . .14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .14. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . 5. . . 5. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . 5. . . . 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . 5. . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . .2. .. .14. . .. . . . .205 5-205 5 . . . . 5. .. . . .. . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . .14. . . . . .1 General . . . .. . .14. . . . . . .2 Shear Transfer Joints . . . . .14. . . .2 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE . . . . . . . . . . ..4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 5. .2. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . .14. .. . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . ... . . . . . . . ..2 ARCH RIBS .4. . . . . . . . . .14. . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . .. . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . .. . .3. . . . . . . . .. . . . ..14. . . . . .. 5.. . . . .. .3 Solid End Sections .206 5-206 5 -206 5 206 - - - - APPENDIX A5. . . . . . . .. . . . . .205 5 205 5-206 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .202 5 203 5 203 5 203 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. 5. . . .3e Cast-in-Place Closure Joint . . . . . .198 5 . . .3 Arches . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. .. . . 5. . .5 USE OFALTERNATIVE CONSTRUCTIONMETHODS .. . . . . . . . American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 GENERAL . . . .2 Construction Load Combinations .14.. . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 A5 . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 Posttensioning . 5. .200 5 . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .3f StructuralOverlay . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . .4. . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . .. 5. . . 5. . . . . . ..14. . . .. .. . . . . . .. . . . .. . .. . .4. . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . .200 5 .2 CAST-IN-PLACE VOIDED SLAB SUPERSTRUCTURES . . 5.14. . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . .14. .2. . .. . . . .204 5-204 5 205 5 .. . . . .1 CAST-IN-PLACE SOLID SLAB SUPERSTRUCTURES . . . .14. . . . . . .3. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .14. .4. . 1 A5-3 A5-4 A5. . . . . .3 Shear-Flexure Transfer Joints .. . . .. . . . .205 5 = 205 5 . .3 Longitudinal Reinforcementof Hollow.7b Segment Reinforcement .14. . . . . . . .14. . . . 5. . . . . ..5 Additional Provisions for Culverts . . .4. .. . . . . . . .4. .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14. . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .14.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5...3b Design . .14.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...4. . . . . . . .204 5 204 5 . . 5. . . . ix -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- COPYRIGHT 2002. . .

and then distributed more widely into the general zone of the structure.2 DEFINITIONS Anchorage . Concrete Cover The specified minimum distance between the surface of the reinforcing bars. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. Cast-in-Place Concrete . analysis by the strut-and-tie model. prestressed. and the prestressing force has been transferred to the concrete. in pretensioning.A build-out area in the web. Composite Construction . flange. a mechanical device used to anchor the tendon to the concrete. and design of segmentally constructed concrete bridges and bridges made from precast concrete elements have been added.Concrete placed in its final location in the structure while still in a plastic state. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. posttensioning ducts. Such loads include prestressing forces and permanent loads but generally not live loads.In posttensioning.5 times the width of the anchorage devices in the direction considered. or other embedded items. At Jacking -At the time of tensioning. 5. or a mechanical anchor or hook.1 SCOPE The provisions in this section apply to the design of bridge and retaining wall components constructed of normal density or low-density concrete and reinforced with steel bars and/or prestressing strands or bars. Provisions for seismic design.Tensile forces in the concrete in the vicinity of the transfer or anchorage of prestressing forces. the prestressing tendons. anchorages. or flange-web junction for the incorporation of tendon anchorage fittings. At Transfer Immediately after the transfer of prestressing force to the concrete.Concrete components or concrete and steel components interconnected to respond to force effects as a unit. and the surface of the concrete.A tendon that is bonded to the concrete.The portion of the structure in which the prestressing force is transferred from the anchorage device onto the local zone of the concrete. . a length of reinforcement. either directly or by means of grouting. or combination thereof at the end of a bar needed to transfer the force carried by the bar into the concrete. The provisions of this section combine and unify the requirements for reinforced. Closure . a device used to anchor the tendon until the concrete has reached a predetermined strength. Anchorage Blister . At Loading The maturity of the concrete when loads are applied. Bonded Tendon . - - - 5-1 -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- COPYRIGHT 2002. for reinforcing bars. and partially prestressed concrete. Closely Spaced Anchorages .Anchorage devices are defined as closely spaced if their center-to-center spacing does not exceed 1. User=. The provisions are based on concrete strengths varying from 16 to 70 MPa. Bursting Force .A placement of cact-in-place concrete used to connect two or more previously cast portions of a structure. strands. A brief outline for the design of some routine concrete components is contained in Appendix A.Section 5 Concrete Structures (Si) - STD-AASHTO SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1778 Ob39804 0048724 0 4 2 W SPECIFICATIONS COMMENTARY 5. Anchorage Zone .

Development Length . Decompression . are overcome by the tensile stresses.An arrangement of reinforcement in which the bars are orthogonal.Friction resulting from the tendon moving against the duct when tensioned. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. external tendons. Creep .The depth of a component effective in resisting flexural or shear forces. usually in the form of embedded anchors. due to the curvature of the duct. Jacking Force . Effective Depth . Effective Prestress .The force exerted by the device that introduces tension into the tendons. and the reinforcement ratios in the two directions are equal. Deviation Saddle A concrete block build-out in a web.The stage at which the compressive stresses. External Tendon . Isotropic Reinforcement . Intermediate Anchorage Anchorage not located at the end surface of a member or segment for tendons that do not extend over the entire length of the member or segment. usually inside a box girder General Zone .Temporary bearings with low friction characteristics used for construction of bridges by the incremental launching method.0 shear to the face of the support is less than 2d or components in which a load causing more than one-third of the shear at a support is closer than 2d from the face of the support. User=.Region adjacent to a posttensioned anchorage within which the prestressing force spreads out to an essentially linear stress distribution over the cross-section of the component. induced by prestress. 5-2 COPYRIGHT 2002. or web-flange junction used to control the geometry of. . Confinement Anchorage . or to provide a means for changing direction of. Edge Distance The minimum distance between the centerline of reinforcement or other embedded elements and the edge of the concrete.A posttensioning tendon placed outside of the body of concrete. blisters. flange. steel or composite tubes or similar devices. Deep Component .Time-dependent deformation of concrete under permanent load.A posttensioning tendon placed within the body of concrete. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.The distance required to develop the specified strength of a reinforcing bar or prestressing strand. | | || ---| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| - S T D .A A S H T O S R C H LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 Ob39804 0048725 T B 9 9 - - - - Internal Tendon . ribs. Launching Bearing . or recess pockets.Anchorage for a posttensioning tendon that functions on the basis of containment of the concrete in the local anchorage zone by special reinforcement.Section 5 Concrete Structures (SI) Confinement A condition where the disintegration of the concrete under compression is prevented by the development of lateral and/or circumferential forces such as may be provided by appropriate reinforcing. Curvature Friction .The length of reinforcement or anchor provided beyond a critical section over which transfer of force between concrete and reinforcement may occur.Components in which the distance from the point of 0. Embedment Length . Deck Slab .A solid concrete slab resisting and distributing wheel loads to the supporting components.The stress or force remaining in the prestressing steel after all losses have occurred.

A method of prestressing in which the strands are tensioned before the concrete is placed. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. Low-Density Concrete . Reinforcement . Pretensioning . Reinforced Concrete .Temporary steel assembly attached to the front of an incrementally launched bridge to reduce superstructure force effects during launching.A method of prestressing in which the tendons are tensioned after the concrete has reached a predetermined strength. Sand-Low-Density Concrete A class of low-density concrete containing low-density coarse aggregate and natural sand fine aggregate. Partially Prestressed Concrete .Reinforcing bars andlor prestressing steel.Prestressing strand in which the steel relaxation losses have been substantially reduced by stretching at an elevated temperature.The time-dependent reduction of stress in prestressingtendons. Flexible Duct .Concrete having a density between 2150 and 2500 kg/m3. The following types are in general use: Rigid Duct . . Also called shielded or blanketed strand.Structural concrete containing no less than the minimum amounts of prestressing tendons or nonprestressed reinforcement. specified herein. Posttensioning Duct A form device used to provide a path for posttensioning tendons or bars in hardened concrete. Relaxation . Partially Debonded Strand .Concrete components in which stresses and deformations are introduced by application of prestressing forces. and posttensioned together to act as a monolithic unit under loads.Concrete containing low-density aggregate and having an air-dry density not exceeding 1925 kg/m3.Concrete elements cast in a location other than their final position.A prestressing strand that is bonded for a portion of its length and intentionally debonded elsewhere through the use of mechanical or chemical means.Seamless tubing stiff enough to limit the deflection of a 6000 mm length supported at its ends to not more than 25 mm. Slab . | | || ---| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| - - - 5-3 COPYRIGHT 2002.A loosely interlocked duct that can be coiled into a 1200 mm diameter without damage. Segmental Component A component made up of individual elements. Normal-Density Concrete .as determined by ASTM C 567.A corrugated duct of metal or plastic sufficiently stiff to be regarded as not coilable into conventional shipping coils without damage. Prestressed Concrete . Precast Members . American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.STDnAASHTO SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 3798 Section 5 Concrete Structures (SI) - Ob37804 0048726 715 I Launching Nose . User=. Posttensioning .Concrete with a combination of prestressing strands and reinforcing bars. Semirigid Duct .The volume of concrete that surrounds and is immediately ahead of the anchorage device and that is subjected to high compressive stresses.A component having a width of at least four times its effective depth. Low Relaxation Steel . either precast or cast-in-place. Local Zone .

torsion.10. Spiral . 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.A high-strength steel element used to prestress the concrete.3.2) area of core of spirally reinforced compression member measured to the outside diameter of the spiral (mm2) (5. User=.Reinforcement used to resist shear. .Cast-in-placejoints of wet concrete andlor epoxy between precast units.2) (5.A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENCL 1998 = Ob39804 ~~ 0048727 8 5 1 M Special Anchorage Device . ¡.4b) 5-4 -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- COPYRIGHT 2002.Continuously wound bar or wire in the form of a cylindrical helix.9. Yield Strength .7.The operation of imparting the force in a pretensioning anchoring device to the concrete.6." and "spirals" are applied to transverse reinforcement in compression members. and lateral forces or to confine concrete in a structural member. for segmental construction: static weight of precast segment being handled (N)(5.Variation of temperature of the concrete over the cross-section.2) (5. net area of a bearing plate (mm2) (5. tensile ties in the reinforcement.2) (5.2. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. the maximum area of the portion of the supporting surface that is similar to the loaded area and concentric with it and that does not overlap similar areas for adjacent anchorage devices (mm'). Splitting Tensile Strength The tensile strength of concrete that is determined by a splitting test made in accordance with AASHTO T 198 (ASTM C 496). Structural Mass Concrete . 5.Anchorage device whose adequacy should be proven in a standardized acceptance test. and the geometry of nodes at their points of intersection. Stress Range The algebraic difference between the maximum and minimum stresses due to transient loads.10.7. Specified Strength of Concrete .3 NOTATION - - - - A - % A . = = % = area of concrete having the same centroid as the principal tensile reinforcement and bounded by the surfaces of the cross-section and a straight line parallel to the neutral axis. effective bearing area (mm').14.6) the area of the continuing cross-section within the extensions of the sides of the anchor plate or blister.Any large volume of concrete where special materials or procedures are required to cope with the generation of heat of hydration and attendant volume change to minimize cracking. Most multiplane anchorages and all bond anchorages are Special Anchorage Devices.3. Type A Joints . Transfer Length The length over which the pretensioning force is transferred to the concrete by bond and friction in a pretensioned member.10. divided by the number of bars or wires (mm2). Type B Joints Dry joints between precast units." "hoops.3.9. Temperature Gradient . Tendon . Strut-and-Tie Model . Transfer .8. the area of the blister or rib shall not be taken as part of the cross-section (mm2)(5.7.The nominal compressive strength of concrete specified for the work and assumed for design and analysis of new structures.9.10. Transverse Reinforcement .The friction caused by the deviation of a tendon duct or sheath from its specified profile. The terms "stirrups" and "web reinforcement'' are usually applied to transverse reinforcement in flexural members and the terms "ties.4.9.4) (5.~ Section 5 Concrete Structures ( I S) - S T D .The specified yield strength of reinforcement.2) area of an individual bar (mm2).e.10.A model used principally in regions of concentrated forces and geometric discontinuities to determine concrete proportions and reinforcement quantities and patterns based on assumed compression struts in the concrete..7. Wobble Friction .

9. spacing from centerline of bearing to end of beam (mm) (5.5) depth of equivalent rectangular stress block (mm).1 . the lateral dimension of the anchorage device measured parallel to the larger dimension of the cross-section (mm) (5.8. cone.5.1) width of the compression face of the member (mm).3.I for segmental construction: specialized construction equipment (N) (5.Section 5 Concrete Structures (SI) - 5-5 COPYRIGHT 2002. including area of holes. (mm’) (5.1) gross area of section (mm’).9.2) area enclosed by shear flow path.5) area of the lower base of the largest frustum of a pyramid.6.8.3.13.9.5) area of reinforcement in bracket or corbel resisting tensile force Nu.1) area of compression reinforcement (mm’) (5.13.14.1) (5.3.3.5.4) area of contact between smooth surfaces on the failure plane (mm’) (5.2) area of the base of all keys in the failure plane (mm’) (5.7.2) lateral dimension of the effective bearing area measured parallel to the smaller dimension of the cross-section (mm) (5.6.4.1) (5.13.1) area of nonprestressedtension reinforcement (mm’) (5.7.5.2) area of a transverse reinforcementwithin distance s (mm’) (5.I ) area of one leg of hanger reinforcement in beam ledges and inverted T-beams (mm’) (5.10.2) area enclosed by centerline of exterior closed transverse torsion reinforcement.4) area of an individual wire to be developed or spliced (mm’) (5.2.2) area of shear reinforcement parallel to flexural tension reinforcement (mm’) (5.9.2.7.3.2.5) total area of steel in short direction of a footing (mm2)(5. the lateral dimension of the anchorage device measured parallel to the smaller dimension of the cross-section (mm) (5.1) area of steel in the footing band width (mm’) (5.3.3.2.8.6.6.9) |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- . including area of holes.4.1) (5.13.2.3b) area of reinforcement in an assumed strut of a strut-and-tie model (mm’) (5.1) (C5.3.8.4.8.13.9.4. 11.8. User=.5) cross-sectional area of a tendon in the larger group (mm‘) (C5. if any (mm2)(5.9) (5.4.13.2.5.7.7.2.6.2.2. required concrete cover over the reinforcing steel (mm).14.8.13.6.10. if any (mm‘) (5.1) j web width or diameter of a circuiar section (mmj (5.1) shear span: distance between concentrated load and face of support (mm) (5.14.5.2.3. width of the interface (mm) (5.9.2.7.13.4.4.8.8.1) loaded area (mm’) (5.7.13.5) area of one leg of closed transverse torsion reinforcement (mm’) (5.5.2) for segmental construction: distributed construction live load (MPa) (5. total area of reinforcement.2.4.7.6) (5.2) (5.2.3.3. -- | || | || ||| | || | area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section.2.3.2.6.2) distance between concentrated load and reinforcement parallel to load (mm) (5.4.2.3.1O.4.9.1) (5.3b) cross-sectional area of a tendon in the smaller group (mm’) (C5.1) cross-sectional area of a concrete strut in strut-and-tie model (mm’) (5.8.Id) area of skin reinforcement per unit height in one side face (mm’) (5.3. or tapered wedge contained wholly within the support and having for its upper base the loaded area and having side slopes of 1 vertical to 2 horizontal (mm’) (5.1) lateral dimension of the effective bearing area measured parallel to the larger dimension of the cross-section (mm) (5.10.4.1) area of concrete section resisting shear transfer (mm’) (5. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.4) total area of longitudinal mild steel reinforcement (mm’) (5.2) area of prestressing steel (mm’) (5.8.1.I O .5) area of shear-friction reinforcement (mm’).2) external diameter of the circular member (mm) ((25.6.10.5.1) width of web adjusted for the presence of ducts (mm).3. including area of holes. 11.2) loss of prestress due to creep of concrete (MPa) (5.5.7.3.2. gross area of bearing plate (mm’) (5.10.14. area of reinforcement for interface shear between concretes of slab and beam (rnm’/rnm).4.2) for segmental construction: longitudinal construction equipment load (N) (5.6.7.9.2.2.3.14.10.9.5) for segmental construction: dynamic response due to accidental release or application of a precast segment (N)(5. cohesion factor (MPa).1.6.2) perimeter of critical section for slabs and footings (mm) (5.2) distance from the extreme compression fiber to the neutral axis (mm).3.I) cross-sectional area of column tie reinforcements (mm’) (5.10.3. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. if any (mm’) (5.2. the anchor plate width (mm).5.11.8.8.2.3.2.6.3.2.2) (5.4. including flexural reinforcement (mm’) (5.

2.5.1.1) out-of-plane force effect per unit length of tendon (Nimm) (5.2.9.4.7.2.3a) effective modulus of elasticity (MPa) ((25.2) reduction factor (5.14.7.2) reduced force resultant accounting for creep in time corresponding to the 9 used (N) (5.6.10. minimum concrete cover over the tendon duct.3.1) concrete compressive stress ahead of the anchorage devices (MPa) (5.9. eccentricity of the anchorage device or group of devices with respect to the centroid of the cross-section.2) average splitting tensile strength of lowdensity aggregate concrete (MPa) (5.3.3.4. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.2) unfactored dead load compressive stress in the region behind the anchor (MPa) (5.2) modulus of elasticity of concrete (MPa) (5.10.10.4) nominal diameter of a reinforcing bar.2.9.3.5.2) nominal concrete-bearing stress (MPa) (5.10.4.7.8.7.3.9.3.14.2) modulus of elasticity of reinforcing bars (MPa) (5.1) average eccentricitv at midepan ímm) IC5.2) stress in Prestressing steel immediatelv Drior to transfer IMPa) íC5.10.9.1) distance from top of ledge to cornpression reinforcement (mm) (5.7.2) diameter of the circle passing through the centers of the longitudinal reinforcement (mm) (C5.4) modulus of elasticity of concrete at transfer (MPa) (5.3.3) (C5.3.2.7.3.9.2.1) effectivedepth from extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the tensile force in the tensile reinforcement (mm) (5.3.1) distance from anchorage device to the centroid of the bursting force.5.4.2) distance from compression face to centroid of tension reinforcement(mm) (5. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- 5-6 Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. minimum edge distance for anchorage devices as specified by the supplier (mm) (5. User=.10.3.1.2.2.6.8.2) in-plane deviation force effect per unit length of tendon (Nimm) (5.3.9.2.3.6.1) permissible fatigue stress range (MPa) (5.2.14.6) flexural stiffness (N.3.2) limiting concrete compressive stress for design by strut-and-tie model (MPa) (5.3.6.9.2.5) effective stress in the prestressing steel aíter losses (MPa) (5.5.4.3. or prestressing strand (mm) (5. always taken as positive (mm).4.3. fw is the resultant compressive stress at the centroid of the composite section or at the junction of the web and flange when the centroid lies within the flange that results from both prestress and the bending moments resisted by the precast member acting alone (MPa) (C5.3.4.9) modulus of elasticity of the bearing plate material (MPa) (5.10.9.9. that results from the prestressing force at either transfer or jacking and the self-weight of the member at sections of maximum moment (MPa) (5.I) distance from extreme cornpression fiber to the centroid of the nonprestressed tensile reinforcement (mm) (5.14.3) COPYRIGHT 2002.3a) compressive stress in concrete after all prestress losses have occurred either at the centroid of the crosssection resisting live load or at the junction of the web and flange when the centroid lies in the flange (MPa).9.5. wire.2) (5.2) specified compressive strength of concrete at 28 days.6.2) base of Napierian logarithms.2.4) (5.3) a parametertaken as modulus of elasticity of prestressing tendons multipliedby the locked in difference in strain between the prestressing tendons and the surroundingconcrete (MPa) (5.13.4.2.5.3.9.2.7.9) superimposed dead load (N) or (Nimm) (5. .2.2.2) algebraic minimum stress level (MPa) (5.2) average stress in prestressing steel at the time for which the nominal resistance of member is required (MPa) (C5.4b) concrete stress at the center of gravity of prestressing tendons.3.2) for segmental construction: differential load (N) (5.7.3a) (5.8.2.2) thickness of concrete cover measured from extreme tension fiber to center of bar or Wire located closest thereto (mm).3a) force effect calculated using instantaneous modulus of elasticity at time loading is applied (N) (5.1) stress in the prestressing steel at jacking (MPa) (5.10.3) modulus of elasticity of prestressing tendons (MPa) (5.4.3.10.5.7.10.2) stress in anchor plate at a section taken at the edge of the wedge hole or holes (MPa) (5.5) distance from extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the prestressing tendons (mm) (5.10.3.4. in a composite section.7.2.9.3.3b) specified cornpressive strength of concrete at time of initial loading or prestressing (MPa) (5.3.6.2) distance from extreme cornpression fiber to the centroid of cornpression reinforcement (mm) (5. plus one-half of the duct diameter (mm) (5.8.2) effective shear depth (mm) (5.7.3.10. unless another age is specified (MPa) (5.4.5.8.4. Tburst (mm) (5.9.9.9.Section 5 Concrete Structures ( I S) - weight of supported structure (N) (5.9.3.9.mm2) (5.3.

2) moment of inertia of the reinforcing taken about the centroid of the column (mm4) (5.2.4.2) overall thickness or depth of a member (mm).6. wobble friction coefficient (per mm of tendon) (5.1.9.4.5.2.2.7.3.7) (5.6.7.2.7.11. .2)(5.5) component of moment due to factored load in the direction of the y-axis (Nsmm) (5.3a) nominal flexural resistance (Nmm) (5.2.7.10. length of lap for compression lap splices (mm) (5.4.9. development length (mm) (5.4. or 1.3.3.4.3.2.1) largest lateral dimension of member (mm) (C5.1) (5.2) humidity factor (5.4.1) maximum moment in a member at the stage for which deformation is computed (N-mm) (5.1.7.1.5) smaller end moment at the strength limit state due to factored load acting on a compression member.3.2) (5.3. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.4.5.4) specified minimum yield strength of reinforcing bars (MPa) (5.2.10.1) effective tendon length (mm).11.7.4.7.4.2.2.11.2) longitudinal extent of confining reinforcement of the local zone but not more than the larger of 1.1) length of tendon between anchorages (mm) (5.1) basic development length for straight reinforcement to which modification factors are applied to determine ed (mm) (5.5) uniaxial factored flexural resistance of a section in the direction of the y-axis (Nmn) (5.2.9. transformed to concrete (mim4) (5.3) modification factor (5.6.2.3.6) tensile stress in the reinforcementat service loads (MPa) (5.5. embedment length beyond standard stirrup hook (mm) (5.4.7.1) specified minimum yield strength of compression reinforcement (MPa) (5.3.3.1. 4 kh L Qa QC k.8.3. lateral dimension of the cross-section in the direction considered (mm) (5.5.4.11.7. always positive (N-mm) (5.4.3.7.2) magnified moment used for proportioning slender compression members (Nmm) (5.6) average annual ambient mean relative humidity (percent) (5.2) basic development length of standard hook in tension (mm) (5.11.2.4.4.3.3.1.7.7.7.9.3) core dimension of tied column in direction under consideration (mm) (5.2) moment of inertia o the cracked section.7.I5 a b (mm).Sec:tion 5 .3.4.10.7.5) factored moment at the section (N-mm) (C5.3.3.3) specified tensile strength of prestressing steel (MPa) (5.9.2) moment of inertia of the gross concrete section about the centroidal axis.Concrete Structures (SI) stress in prestressing steel immediately after transfer (MPa) (5.7.1) uniaxial factored flexural resistance of a section in the direction of the x-axis (N-mm) (5.3) size factor (5.7.1) factored flexural resistance of a section in bending (N-mm) (5. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- M 2 m N 5-7 Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.4.3.54) additional embedment length at support or at point of inflection (mm) (C5.4.4.5.5.2) midsDan moment due to member self-weight IN-mrn) íC5.4.14.3) span length (mm): length of bearing plate or pad (mm) (5.9.6.4.5) the number of identical prestressing tendons (5.1) development length for deformed wire fabric (mm) (5.6.7.1O.1) .1.6.13.9.2) least lateral dimension of member (mm) (C5.2.4.2.4.7.3.1.3) effective length factor for compression members.2.2) factor for the effect of concrete strength (5.6.7. neglecting the reinforcement (mm4) (5.2) f for segmental construction: dynamic load from equipment (N) (5.1 d) compression flange depth (mm) (5.3.2.4.4.7.3) cracking moment (N-mm) (5.10.11.7. I 5 .2.3) larger end moment at the strength limit state due to factored load acting on a compression member.2b) factor for the effect of the volume-to-surface ratio (5.1) component of moment due to factored load in the direction of the x-axis (N-mm)(5.2.11.5.2. positive if the member is bent in single curvature and negative if bent in double curvature (Nmm) (5. 11.1) yield strength of prestressing steel (MPa) (5.2. I ) development length of standard hook in tension as measuredfrom critical section to outside end of hook (mm) (5.7. COPYRIGHT 2002.1) specified yield strength of transverse reinforcement (MPa) (5.14.2) unsupported length of a compression member (mm) (5. User=.2.1) modulus of rupture of concrete (MPa) (5.2) effective moment of inertia (mm4) (5.7.3.1.6.3.6.2.3.4.9.2)(5.7.3b) h K k.

.3.1) tie-back tension force at the intermediateanchorage (N) (5.2. center-to-center spacing of anchorages (mm).4.2.3.2. anchorage spacing (mrn).8.3. spacing of hanger reinforcing bars (mm) (5.9.9.7.6.4) radius of curvature of the tendon at the considered location (mm) (5.2) factored axial force normal to the cross-section.1) (5.2.10.13.1) radius of gyration of gross cross-section (mm) (5.8.10. .8.2.2) center-to-center spacing of bearing along a beam ledge (mm) (5.10.5.0 eccentricity (N) (5. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.3.8. User=. occurring simultaneously with Vu.2) age of concrete when load is initially applied (Day) (5.4.9. (N) (5.6.7.2) (5.10.4.2. taken to be positive for tension and negative for compression.5.13.3.1) crack spacing parameter (mm) (C5.8.2) (5. factored tendon load on an individual anchor (N) (5.2) nominal shear resistance provided by tensile stresses in the concrete (N) (5.3. nominal bearing resistance (N) (5.9.4.1) edge tension force (N) (5.8.2)(5.5) factored axial resistance with biaxial loading (N)(5. includes effects of tension due to creep and shrinkage (N) (5.8. positive if resisting the applied shear (N) (C5.9.8.4.9.5.5.1) number of tendons in the larger group (C5. 1O.10.9.14.1)(5.1) nominal axial resistance of a section (N). number of anchorages in a row.3) torsional cracking resistance (Nmm) (5.1) ratio of base radius to height of rolled-on transverse deformations (5.3.7.8.2.3.4.4.3.5) nominal axial resistance of a section at 0.6) bursting force (N) (5.10. nominal axial resistance of strut or tie (N).10. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.3.4.2.7.11.1)(5.10.5) maximum unfactored anchorage stressing force (N) (5.2.8.10.4b) nominal torsion resistance (N-mm) (5.4.7.2) width of bearing plate measured along the length of a corbel. bracket.3.3.2.6.2.4) nominal shear resistance of the section considered (N) (5.2.5) factored axial resistance corresponding to M.8.6.6.7.2) for segmental construction: segment unbalance (N) (5.4.1) (5.5.10.8.1) perimeter of the centerline of the closed transverse torsion reinforcement (mm) (5.3.2) tensile force in the anchorage zone acting ahead of the anchorage device and transverse to the tendon axis (N) (5.2) force effect in associated units (5.7.10.13.13.2)(5.2.6.4.8.3.9.4. thickness of the section (mm).2.7.9.10.6.5.2.10.9. thickness of wall (mm).factored bearing resistance of anchorages (N).2.1) factored torsional resistance provided by circulatory shear flow (N-mm)(5.3) factored shear resistance (N) (5.3.5. factored bursting resistance of pretensioned anchorage zone provided by transverse reinforcement (N) (5.8.9.2.9.3) number of support hinges crossed by the tendon between anchorages or discretely bonded points (5. spacing of rows of ties (mrn). 1) factored axial resistance corresponding to M.4.2) (5.3.5) maximum permitted spacing of transverse reinforcement (m) (5.2.3.2)(5.3. or EJE.4.7.4b) factored axial force effect or factored tendon force (N).1) 5-8 -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- - COPYRIGHT 2002.7.7.7.6) (5.3. projection of base plate beyond the wedge hole or wedge plate.6) outside perimeter of the concrete section (mrn) (5.9.5.8.6.1) shear resistance provided by shear reinforcement (N) (5.3.5.9.14.3b) number of tendons is the smaller group (C5.1.3.3.7.4.9.14.2) spacing of reinforcing bars (mm).2.8.6) time (Day).2.3) factored shear force at section (N) (C5.10.1O.2.13. average thickness of bearing plate (mm) (5.8.1) factored shear stress (MPa) (5.2.7) spacing of wires to be developed or spliced (mm) (5.5) (5.4. as appropriate (mm) (5.4.3) (5.6.2.4.2) permanent net compressive force (N) (5.7.2) applied factored axial force taken as positive if tensile (N) (5.2.3. or beam ledge (mm) (C5.3b) modular ratio = E$E.1) factored axial resistance of strut or tie (N).Section 5 Concrete Structures (SI) factored tensile resistance of transverse pair of reinforcing bars (N) (5.2) shrinkage (5.5) partial prestressing ratio (5.1) factored torsional moment (Nmm) (C5.2) (5.2. (N) (5.1) component in the direction of the applied shear of the effective prestressing force.

-- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- .3) ratio of the depth of the equivalent uniformly stressed compression zone assumed in the strength limit state to the depth of the actual compressionzone (5.5. of prestressing steel due to all dead loads.9.9.8.2.4.3.6.8.14.4.7.8.6. 1I = creep coefficient .4.3.1) total loss in prestressing steel stress due to relaxation of steel (MPa) (5.7.3) ratio of maximum factored dead load moments to maximum factored total load moment.9.5.13.5.1) loss in prestressing steel stress due to creep (MPa) (5.3.7.3.5.2.3) length of a prestressing tendon from the jacking end to any point under consideration (mm) (5.4b) loss in prestressing steel stress due to relaxation of steel after transfer (MPa) (5.4.11.9.9.3) total vertical angular change of prestressing steel path from jacking end to a point under investigation (RAD) (5.3) loss in prestressing steel stress due to anchorage set (MPa) (5.6.3.3.3.4.13.3) longitudinal strain in the web reinforcement on the flexural tension side of the member (mmimm) (5.7. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.7.2) ratio of area of vertical shear reinforcementto area of gross concrete area of a horizontal section (5.6.8.3.2.2) principal tensile strain in cracked concrete due to factored loads (mmimm) (5.7.2) minimum ratio of tension reinforcement to effective concrete area (5.4.3) (5.7.3.9.4) ratio of the area of reinforcement cut off to the total area of tension reinforcement at the section (5.1.2.2) ratio of spiral reinforcement to total volume of column core (5.2) tensile strain in cracked concrete in direction of tension tie (mmimm) (5.3.4.2) For segmental construction: wind uplift on cantilever (MPa) (5.1) loss in prestressing steel stress due to elastic shortening (MPa) (5.9.3) concrete shrinkage strain at a given time (mmimm) (5.2) f ratio of area of horizontal shear reinforcement to area of gross concrete area o a vertical section (5.7.7.4.9.2) clear length of the constant thickness portion of a wall between other walls or fillers between walls (mm) (5.3.2b) (5. the angle of inclination of a tendon force with respect to the centerline of the member (DEG) (5.6.3) angle of inclination of diagonal compressive stresses (DEG) (5.1) ratio of the long side to the short side of the concentrated load or reaction area (5.3.3.4) angle of inclination of transverse reinforcement to longitudinal axis (DEG).7.3. always positive (5.2) crack control parameter (5.2b) factor relating effect of longitudinal strain on the shear capacity of concrete.g. except dead load acting at the time the prestressing force is applied (MPa) (5.10.3.1 1.7.4.2) parameter used to determine friction coefficient p (5.1) resistance factor (5.2.9.4.10.6) .9.9.4.1. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.1) hollow column reduction factor (5.3.8.5.2.2.9.10.4.3) (5.3.7.7.8. User=.2) load factor change in concrete stress at c.1) coefficient of friction (5.5.4~) loss in prestressing steel stress due to shrinkage (MPa) (5.1) total loss in prestressing steel stress (MPa) (5.3.3.5.14.2) 5-9 COPYRIGHT 2002.~ S T D * A A S H T O S R C H LRFD-SI-ENGL 1778 Section 5 Concrete Structures (SI) Ob37804 0057538 8 8 b - w.2.2.6.4.2.the ratio of the creep strain that exists t days after casting to the elastic strain caused when load pi is applied t.5.1) water-cement ratio (5. total angular change of prestressing steel path from jacking end to a point under investigation (RAD).3) total horizontal angular change of prestressing steel path from jacking end to a point under investigation (RAD) (5.1) loss in prestressing steel stress due to friction (MPa) (5.4.5.1) loss in prestressing steel stress due to relaxation of steel at transfer (MPa) (5.9.3.6.2b) angle between compressive strut and adjoining tension tie (DEG) (5.12.2.9.5.1) failure strain of concrete in compression (mmímm) (5.3.5.5.5.4.5.6.2b) density of concrete (kg/m3)(5.4.4) distance from the neutral axis to the extreme tension fiber (mm) (5.4. as indicated by the ability of diagonally cracked concrete to transmit tension.3.1O.5) (5.2) correction factor for closely spaced anchorages (5.9. ratio of long side to short side of footing (5.9.3) angle between compression strut and longitudinal axis of the member in a shear truss model of a beam (DEG) (5.ti) P Y for segmental construction: horizontal wind load on equipment (N) (5.5. days after casting (5.3.7.3.2.2) wall slenderness ratio for hollow columns (5.

2 Normal and Structural Low-Density Concrete 5. Section 8. -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- . The minimum acceptable properties and test procedures for such materials shall be specified in the contract documents. the specified compressive strength.1 Designs should be based on the material properties cited herein and on the use of materials that conform to the standards for the grades of construction materials as specified in AASHTO LRFD Bridqe Construction Specifications. including statistical variability. when concretes are modified to obtain very high-strengths through the introduction of special admixtures. It is recommended that the classes of concrete shown in Table C I and their corresponding specified strengths be used whenever appropriate. and evaluated in accordance with Section 8 of the AASHTO LRFD Bridqe Construction Specifications It is common practice that the specified strength be attained 28 days after placement. Concrete strengths above 70 MPa shall be used only when physical tests are made to establish the relationships between the concrete strength and other properties. When other grades or types of materials are used.4. Concrete with strengths below 16 MPa at 28 days should not be used in structural applications. 5-10 COPYRIGHT 2002. 5. Occasionally. except when another class is more appropriate. shall be established prior to design. The contract documents shall define the grades or properties of all materials to be used. and Other types of reinforcing materials." from which Table C I was taken. For low-density structural concrete. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.4 MATERIAL PROPERTIES 5. tested.2.2.STD*AASHTO SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL Section 5 Concrete Structures (SI) 1778 M Db39804 0057537 7 1 2 - SPECIFICATIONS 5.1 General COMMENTARY C5. User=. their properties.1 COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH For each component. Proprietary high early strength cements.4.I The evaluation of the strength of the concrete used in the work should be based on test cylinders produced. These classes are intended for use as follows: Class A concrete is generally used for all elements of structures.4. strength. it may be appropriate to use materials other than those included in the AASHTO LRFD Bridqe Construction Specifications. Other maturity ages may be assumed for design and specified for components that will receive loads at times appreciably different than 28 days after placement. and any other properties required for the application shall be specified in the contract documents. and specifically for concrete exposed to saltwater. or the class of concrete shall be shown in the contract documents.4. such as: o 0 Silica fume. the properties of such materials should be established by a specified testing program. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. for example. air dry density. According to AASHTO LRFD Bridae Construction Specifications. "Concrete Structures. The classes of concrete indicated in Table C I have been developed for general use and are included in AASHTO LRFD Bridqe Construction Specifications. YC.4. all materials and tests must conform to the appropriate standards included in the AASHTO Standard Specifications for Transportation Materials and Methods of Samplina and Testing andlor the standards of the American Society for Testing and Materials. The Specified compressive strength for prestressed concrete and decks shall not be less than 28 MPa. (25. 0 o In these cases. Cements other than Portland or blended hydraulic cements.

Both are specified because W/C ratio is a dominant factor contributing to both durability and strength. and gravity walls. Such modified f'. and P used in or over saltwater. The specified strengths shown in Table C I are generally consistent with the waterlcement ratios shown. the contract documents should alter the recommendations in Table C I appropriately. consideration should be given to limiting the nominal aggregate size to 20 mm. .A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 Section 5 Concrete Structures (SI) - Ob39804 0048734 T 9 1 SPECIFICATIONS COMMENTARY Class B concrete is used in footings. Class P concrete is used when strengths in excess of 28 MPa are required.S T D . it is possible to satisfy one without the other. for filler in steel grid floors. deicing salts. -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- 5-11 COPYRIGHT 2002. User=. or other potentially damaging environments. such as reinforced railings less than 100 mm thick. A(AE). Class C concrete is used in thin sections. There is considerable evidence that the durability of reinforced concrete exposed to saltwater. Class S concrete is used for concrete deposited underwater in cofferdams to seal out water.45. massive pier shafts. and other attendant structural properties specified for the original construction to recognize the strength gain or any strength loss due to age or deterioration after 28 days. saltwater. simply obtaining the strength needed to satisfy the design assumptions may not ensure adequate durability. with reasonable use of admixtures. For concrete Classes A. However. Strengths above 35 MPa should be used only when the availability of materials for such concrete in the locale is verified. tested in accordance with AASHTO T 24 (ASTM C 42). shall be specified where the concrete will be subject to alternate freezing and thawing and exposure to deicing salts. or sulfates is appreciably improved if. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. the waterlcement ratio shall be specified not to exceed 0. Air-entrained concrete. The sum of Portland cement and other cementitious materials shall be specified not to exceed 475 kg/m3. as recommended by AC1 318. either or both the cover over the reinforcing steel is increased or the water-cement (W/C) ratio is limited to 0. designated "AE" in Table CI.40. pedestals. In the evaluation of existing structures. will produce a workable concrete at W/C ratios lower than those listed in Table C I . it may be appropriate to modify the f'. Low-density concrete is generally used only under conditions where weight is critical. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. should be determined by core samples of sufficient number and size to represent the concrete in the work. For prestressed concrete. etc. If materials.

2 to 10. These values in conjunction with the moment of inertia. In the absence of more precise data. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office -| || | || ||| | || C5. and chert and quartzite the higher.AASHT0 SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1778 Ob39804 0048735 928 SPECIFICATIONS Table C5.4. They are in the range of 7.2. h and in Articles 5. shall be used to determine the effects of shrinkage and creep on the loss of prestressing force in bridges other than segmentally constructed ones.75 25 to 4.0 i 1.7.4.4. some o f which may not be known at the time of design.75 or 19 to 4.75 7.5 0. with limestone and marble aggregates producing the lower values.49 0.2 COEFFICIENT OF THERMAL EXPANSION The coefficient of thermal expansion should be determined by the laboratory tests on the specific mix to be used.0 f 1.4 to 14.75 25 to 4. I General Values of shrinkage and creep.9.3 and 5.75 25 to 4.4. spAfied h e .4. the use of the empirical methods referenced in these Specifications cannot be expected to yield results with errors less than 150 percent.Concrete Mix Characteristics By Class Coarse Aggregate Per AASHTO M 43 (ASTM D 448) 28-Day Compressive Strength Maximum Ratio Range Class of Concrete A WE) kg/m3 362 362 307 307 390 390 334 390 334 I 1 kg Per kg % Square Size of Openings (mm) 25 to 4. C5. User=.75 12. Without specific physical tests or prior experience with the materials. Only limited determinations of these coefficients have been made for low-density concretes.5.0 f 1.5.2.1-1 Minimum Cement Content COMMENTARY .58 50 to 25 25 to 4. the thermal coefficient of expansion may be taken as: o 0 For normal density concrete: 10.6.8 x 104/'C.45 0.2. 5-12 Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.5 to 4.75 12.2.4.5 to 4.3.8 x 104/'C and depend on the amount of natural sand used.Section 5 Concrete Structures (SI) - STD. Additional information may be found in AC1 209.2.3. .1 Creep and shrinkage of concrete are variable properties that depend on a number of factors.75 MPa 28 28 17 17 28 28 As specified elsewhere 6.3. may be used to determine the effects of shrinkage and creep on deflections. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. AC1 343 and AC1 213. COPYRIGHT 2002.9.2.5 B B(AE) C C(AE) 5. as specified in Article 5.2 As specified in the contract documents The thermal coefficient depends primarily on the types and proportions of aggregates used and on the degree of saturation of the concrete.3 SHRINKAGE AND CREEP 5.0 x 104/oC 5.49 0.5 As specified elsewhere P S Lowdensity | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- 5.4. The thermal coefficient of normal density concrete can vary between 5.4 x 10%2.2. and For low-density concrete: 9.

2. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.3. Bazant and Wittman (1982). When mix-specific data are not available. Creep is influenced by the same factors as shrinkage.2-1) for which: k. depending primarily on concrete maturity at the time of loading.3.4.3. estimates of shrinkage and creep may be made using the provisions of: Articles 5. are taken from Collins and Mitchell (1991).3.2.2 o 5. or ACI209. For segmentally constructed bridges. and Ghali and Favre (1986). The creep coefficient is applied to the compressive strain caused by permanent loads in order to obtain the strain due to creep.3.3. = 62 42 + : f (5. Structural dimensions. These methods are based on the recornmendation of AC1 Committee 209 as modified by additional recently published data. = factor for the effect of the volume-to-surface ratio of the component specified in Figure 1 kt t = factor for the effect of concrete strength = maturity of concrete (Day) = age of concrete when load is initially applied (Day) Creep shortening of concrete under permanent loads is generally in the range of 1. the shrinkage coefficients may be assumed to be 0. ti 5-13 Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.2. C5.0 times the initial e l a h shórtening.2and 5. (1983). and Temperature of concrete. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- Magnitude and duration of the stress. a more precise estimate shall be made.4.4.2. . and Construction methods.2.0005 after one year of drying.3. User=.3. Other applicable references include Rusch et al.4. as specified herein and in Article 5.5 to 4.' (5. 0 - COMMENTARY The CEB-FIP model code.Section 5 Concrete Structures(SI) SPECIFICATIONS In the absence of more accurate data.4. including the effect of: 0 0 0 Specific materials.0002 after 28 days and 0.2.2-2) The methods of determining creep and shrinkage.fi)'. Site conditions. and also by: o COPYRIGHT 2002.4.2 Creep -- I The creep coefficient may be taken as: VJ (tl $1 = (f . where: H o = relative humidity (percent) o k. Maturity of the concrete at the time of loading.4.2.3.

2. = humidity factor specified in Figure 1 and Table 1 .2.4. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. for Volume to Surfa& Ratio In determining the maturity of concrete at initial loading. Volume to surface area ratio of member.3-1) | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| (C5. For steam-cured concrete devoid of shrinkage-prone aggregates. = specified compressive strength at 28 days (MPa) 1.3. If the moistcured concrete is exposed to drying before five days of curing have elapsed.3.3 Shrinkage C5.2. User=. only 50 percent of the interior perimeter should be used in calculating the surface area. .2.3.6 Figure 5.3. e at time.3-1.4 volume surface area Figure 1 is based on the equation below (PCI 1977): = L u 12 1.2.2-1) 100 1000 (t t i ) time under load (days) .2-1 Factor k. Type of cure.4. 10000 - The maximum V/S ratio considered in the development of Figure 1 and Equation C1 was 150 mm. and Duration of drying period..0 0.3. 5. Waterkement ratio.3.4. The surface area used in determining the volume to area ratio should include only the area that is exposed to atmospheric drying. 4.4 5 0. the shrinkage as determined in Equation 1 should be increased by 20 percent.2. one day of accelerated curing by steam or radiant heat may be taken as equal to seven days of normal curing. where: t Average ¿umidity at the bridge site. . For poorly ventilated enclosed cells. The constraining effects of reinforcement and composite actions = drying time (Day) size factor specified in Figure 2 k. H may be taken from Figure 5.2 0.8 -- f a 3 0. Shrinkage of concrete can vary over a wide range from nearly nil if continually immersed in water to in excess of 0.3 | | || --- For moist cured concretes devoid of shrinkage-prone aggregates.Section 5 Concrete Structures (SI) SPECIFICATIONS - COMMENTARY In the absence of better information. f'. Shrinkage is affected by: Aggregate characteristicsand proportions. = k.0008 for thin sections made with high shrinkage aggregates and sections that are not properly cured. the strain due to shrinkage.4. may be taken as: (5. 5-14 COPYRIGHT 2002. Large concrete members may undergo substantiaily less shrinkage than that measured by laboratory testing of small specimens of the same concrete. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. t.4.4.

.3.3-1) 1000 10000 - Factor k.AASHT0 SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL Section 5 . .2.3.3-3) 5 . American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office + hsh = -kskh ( 55. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.56 x 1 (5.4.3.Concrete Structures (SI) SPECIFICATIONS 1998 Ob39804 0048738 b 3 7 I COMMENTARY ~ Figure 5.3.loo m m ..3-2) with other elements of the bridge tend to reduce the dimensional changes in some components.3-1 ..'.4.50 m m .''.3..15 -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.2.Annual Average Ambient Relative Humidity in Percent volume surface area 1 2 5 1 0 drying time (days1 Figure 5.-38 m m ..4.. '..4. for Volume-to-Surface The maximum V/S ratio considered in the development of Figure 2 and Equation C i was 150 mm.STD..i li 0..2..4.2.*'* 125 m m '-150 m m 1 O0 f I t 1 45.2.4.. Figure 2 is based on the equation below (PCI 1977): .t *' I 1 J I 1 1064 .25 m m ::.3-2) o ForHz80% kh = 3(100-H) 70 (C5.75m m :.70(VIS) 923 L J 1 (C5. User=.3. ~ .3-2 Ratio COPYRIGHT 2002.2.3. The values in Table 1 may be approximated by the following equations: 0 ForHc80% kh = ~ 140-H 70 (C5.

For components expected to be subject to cracking. 5.5 This is a ratio between the lateral and axial strains of an axially and/or flexurally loaded structural element.4. E .2.'.4.4. may be taken as: o C5. Poisson's ratio may be assumed as 0. .Section 5 Concrete Structures (SI) - STD-AASHTO SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 Ob39804 0 0 4 8 7 3 9 5 7 3 I SPECIFICATIONS Table 5.O43y.16 -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- COPYRIGHT 2002. E . American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.2. For normal density concrete with y = 2320 kg/m3. may be taken as 5.o0 0. the modulus of rupture. for concretes with densities between 1440 .4 MODULUS OF ELASTICITY In the absence of more precise data. The direct tensile strength stress should be used for these cases. f'.Factor k.43 50 60 70 I . .6 The given values may be unconservative for tensile cracking caused by restrained shrinkage.52 8 5 . .2.86 0. . . .14 1.4. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. .4. the effect of Poisson's ratio may be neglected. anchor zone splitting. .1.43 80 90 I0 O o O0 C5. = density of concrete (kg/m3) specified strength of concrete (MPa) C5.4-I) where: y . . for Relative Humidity COMMENTARY 40 1.4. may be taken as: E. the modulus of elasticity. .63 8 o For sand-low-density concrete . 0.2. .3. 0. fr in MPa.2.4-1) E. and 2500 kg/m3. .4 See commentary for specified strength in Article 5.4. = O. = 4800 fi (C5. = 5.2.4.3-1 .' 8 (5.4. and other such tensile forces caused by effects other than flexure.6 MODULUS OF RUPTURE Unless determined by physical tests. User=.2.2. For normal density concrete .2. .2.5 POISSON'S RATIO Unless determined by physical tests. .2. .4.29 1..

shall be assumed as 200 O00 MPa.Section 5 Concrete Structures ( I S) - SPECIFICATIONS For all-lowdensity concrete . hoops.45 fi (3.2. steel conforming to the requirements of ASTM A 706M. . 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. The yield strength or grade of the bars or wires shall be shown in the contract documents. .3." should be specified.4.1 GENERAL Reinforcing bars. .3 SPECIAL APPLICATIONS Reinforcement to be welded shall be indicated in the contract documents. and wire fabric. Reinforcement shall be deformed. = 0.4. User=. ." or the split tensile strength method in accordance with AASHTO T 198 (ASTM C 496) "Standard Method for Splitting Tensile Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens. 5. . "Low Alloy Steel Deformed Bars for Concrete Reinforcement. . 5.4.4.2. . except that yield strengths in excess of 520 MPa shall not be used for design purposes. "Standard Test Method for Pullout Strength of Hardened Concrete.3.4.7 TENSILE STRENGTH Direct tensile strength may be determined by either using ASTM C 900. 5-17 COPYRIGHT 2002.3.3. ..1 A 706M reinforcement should be considered for seismic design because of the greater quality control by which unanticipatedoverstrength is limited. deformed wire.2 of the AASHTO LRFD Bridae ConstructionSpecifications. Bars with yield strengths less than 420 MPa shall be used only with the approval of the Owner. except that plain bars or plain wire may be used for spirals.4.62Jf'. 5.3 ReinforcingSteel COMMENTARY 0." 5.7 For most regular concretes. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. welded plain wire fabric. E of steel reinforcing . the direct tensile strength may be estimated as f. colddrawn wire. | | || ---| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| 5. and the welding procedure to be used shall be specified.4. and welded deformed wire fabric shall conform to the material standards as specified in Article 9. c5. Locations where epoxy-coated reinforcement is to be used shall be identified in the contract documents. . The nominal yield strength shall be the minimum as f specified for the grade o steel selected. Where ductility is to be assured or where welding is required.2 MODULUS OF ELASTICITY The modulus of elasticity.

or uncoated plain or deformed.except 90% of fpu for lowrelaxation strand 85% of fpu 80% of fm Bar 5-18 COPYRIGHT 2002. Tensile and yield strengths for these steels may be taken as specified in Table 1.4.4. fnv(MPa) 85% of fpu.Propertiesof Prestressing Strand and Bar Tensile Strength. Table 5.Uncoated.24 9. stress-relieved or low-relaxation.35 to 15.4. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.1 GENERAL Uncoated. Seven-Wire. Stress-Relieved Strand for Prestressed Concrete. high-strength bars.4 Prestressing Steel 5. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.53 to 15.1-1 . -- 0 - | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| . User=. seven-wire strand.4.4. fDu (MPa) 1725 1860 1035 1035 Material Strand Grade or Type 1725 MPa (Grade 250) 1860 MPa (Grade 270) Type 1. Plain Type 2. Deformed Diameter in mm 6. as specified for use in AASHTO LRFD Bridae Construction Specifications: o | | || --- AASHTO M 203M (ASTM A 416M) . High-Strength Steel Bar for Prestressing Concrete. shall conform to the following materials standards.24 19 to 35 @to% Yield Strength. or AASHTO M 275M (ASTM A 722) Uncoated.Section 5 Concrete Structures (SI) SPECIFICATIONS COMMENTARY - 5.

020 0. including the anchorage or coupler. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- O O O 5-19 Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.5 Posttensioning Anchorages and Couplers c5.002 0. O Anchorages and couplers are to develop at least 95 percent of the minimum specified ultimate strength of the prestressing steel without exceeding the anchorage set movement assumed for the design.4.5 - Typical Stress-Strain Curve for Anchorages and tendon couplers shall conform to the requirements of Article 10. Complete details for qualification testing of anchorages and couplers are included in Article 10.3.050 0. User=.040 0.4. O O -- COPYRIGHT 2002. Unbonded systems are to also pass a dynamic loading test. and couplers.A A S H T O S R C H LRFD-SI-ENGL 1996 Section 5 Concrete Structures (SI) - Ob39804 0048742 Ob8 I COMMENTARY 300 (1 1 SPECIFICATIONS a I 12.-. Characteristics of anchorages and couplers related to design and detailing are summarized below from AASHTO LRFD Bridge Construction SDecifications. Couplers are not to be used at points of sharp tendon curvature.3. Couplers are to be enclosed in housings long enough to permit the necessary movements.l t 3 O 0.S T D .7 rnrn 7 Wire Strand I I 6 z I- 200 2 o .4.2-1 Prestressing Steels 5. Bearing stresses on concrete under anchorage distribution plates are not to exceed specified limits. the strength required of the bonded tendons is not to exceed the resistance of the tendon assembly. v1 5 C 100 . Where bonded anchorages or couplers are located at sections that are critical at strength limit state. tested in an unbonded state. end fittings.4.010 0. anchorages. .2 of AASHTO LRFD Bridge Construction Specifications. Corrosion protection shall be provided for tendons.2 of AASHTO LRFD Bridge Construction Specifications.060 Unit Strain mrn per rnrn Figure C5.030 0. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. Couplers are to be used only at locations shown on the contract documents or approved by the Engineer.

For multiple bar or strand tendons. The effects of grouting pressure on the ducts and the surrounding concrete shall be investigated. the inside cross-sectional area of the duct shall be at least 2. The maximum support interval for the ducts during construction shall be indicated in the contract documents and shall conform to Article 10.5 LIMIT STATES 5.1 GENERAL Ducts for tendons shall be rigid or semirigid either galvanized ferrous metal or polyethylene.1 General Structural components shall be proportioned to satisfy the requirements at all appropriate service. 5. and extreme event limit states. 5-20 -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- COPYRIGHT 2002. .4 times the least gross concrete thickness at the duct. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. The size of ducts shall not exceed 0. strength. User=.5 times the net area of the prestressing steel. Type E.4.1 of the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Construction Specifications.6.6.6. The contract documents should indicate the specific type of duct material to be used when only one type is to be allowed.4.1 The use of polyethylene duct is generally recommended in corrosive environments. Polyethylene duct should not be used on radii under 9000 mm because of its lower resistance to abrasion during pulling-through and stressing tendons. or they shall be formed in the concrete with removable cores.4. qualification of anchorages and couplers are to be verified by testing.5. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. C5.4. The radius of curvature of tendon ducts shall not be less than 6000 mm. Polyethylene ducts shall not be used when the radius of curvature of the tendon is less than 9000 mm. the duct area shall be at least 2.2 SIZE OF DUCTS The inside diameter of ducts shall be at least 6 mm larger than the nominal diameter of single bar or strand tendons.4.Section 5 Concrete Structures ( I S) - STDaAASHTO SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1778 0639804 0048743 T T 4 SPECIFICATIONS COMMENTARY 0 Unless waived by the Engineer because of suitable previous tests and/or experience. 5.6 Ducts 5. the bonding characteristics of polyethylene ducts to the concrete and the grout should be investigated.1.2 in AASHTO LRFD Bridqe Construction Specifications.2 The pull-through method of tendon placement is usually employed by contractors where tendons exceed 120 O00 in length. 5. Grade B. Pertinent requirements for ducts can be found in Article 10.4. 5.8. except in the anchorage areas where 3600 mm may be permitted. C5.4. fatigue.3 DUCTS AT DEVIATION SADDLES Ducts at deviation saddles shall be galvanized steel pipe conforming to the requirements of ASTM A 53. Where polyethylene ducts are used and the tendons are to be bonded.0 times the net area of the prestressing steel with one exception: where tendons are to be placed by the pullthrough method. The nominal wall thickness of the pipe shall be not less than 3 mm.6.6.

7. Fatigue of the reinforcement need not be checked for fully prestressed concrete components designed to have extreme fiber tensile stress due to Service 111 Limit State within the tensile stress limit specified in Table 5. fatigue shall be considered only if this compressive stress is less than twice the maximum tensile live load stress resulting from the fatigue load combination as specified in Table 3.2 Service Limit State COMMENTARY Actions to be considered at the service limit state shall be cracking.5. The cracking stress shall be taken as the modulus of rupture specified in Article 5.0 specified in this Article is applied to the factored live load for a total of 1.Section 5 Concrete Structures (SI) - SPECIFICATIONS Prestressed and partially prestressed concrete structural components shall be investigated for stresses and deformations for each stage that may be critical during construction. as specified in Articles 5. The factor 2.7.6.3.9. 5. 5-21 Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.1 Stresses measured in concrete deck slabs of bridges in service are far below infinite fatigue life. The section properties for fatigue investigations shall be based on cracked sections where the sum of stresses.5. handling.3 Fatigue Limit State I I COPYRIGHT 2002. 5. girder distribution factors.6.1-1. transportation.5 times the fatigue load is tensile and exceeds 0.1. and concrete stresses.4. is almost always less than the steel fatigue stress range limit specified in Article 5. deformations.2-1.3.2. In determining the need to investigate fatigue.6. the calculated flexural stresses are significantly reduced. For fully prestressed concrete components. respectively.5.4.4.9.5. and 5.5. which is equal to the modular ratio times the concrete stress range. most probably due to internal arching action. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- 5. the net concrete stress is usually significantly less than the concrete tensile stress limit specified in Table 5. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. C5. due to unfactored permanent loads and prestress.1 GENERAL Fatigue need not be investigated for concrete deck slabs in multigirder applications.3. the stress range shall be determined using the fatigue load combination as specified in Table 3. . the calculated steel stress range.4.4.2.1-1 in combinationwith the provisions of Article 3.1-1 specifies a load factor of 0..25 RI.2.9.7. 5. Stress concentrations due to prestressing or other loads and to restraints or imposed deformations shall be considered. Table 3. and erection as well as during the service life of the structure of which they are part. For this situation.4. In regions of compressive stress due to permanent loads and prestress in reinforced and partially prestressed concrete components. I Where consideration of fatigue is required.2-1.4. and 1. and dynamic allowance cause fatigue limit state stress to be considerably less than the corresponding value determined from Service Limit State 111.4. stressing.75 on the live load force effect resulting from the fatigue truck. see Article C9. Fatigue limit state load factor.4.3.3.3. Therefore. User=.50 times the unfactored force effect from the fatigue truck.2.

shall satisfy: f < 145 . such as sound welding and proper dimensional tolerances.2 REINFORCING BARS The stress range in straight reinforcement resulting from the fatigue load combination. and o 70 MPa for radii of curvature not exceeding 3600 mm. will sustain 1 million cycles of a 28 MPa constant amplitude stress range.1-1. A linear interpolation may be used for radii between 3600 and 9000 mm.4.5. - COMMENTARY C5. to be accounted for in the development of permissible fatigue stress ranges.3.2-11 where: f' frnh - stress range (MPa) the minimum live load stress resulting from the fatigue load combination specified in Table 3. or fretting.5. negative if compression (MPa) transverse deformations. and it also agrees well with the limit of 32 MPa for Category E from the provisions for fatigue of structural steel weldments.5. specified in Table 3. COPYRIGHT 2002. and creep-induced external loads. The strength requirements of Articles 5. + 5 5 ( . or metal-to-metal fretting caused by prestressing tendons rubbing on holddowns or deviations is apt to be a consideration. 0.3.0.4 WELDED OR MECHANICAL SPLICES OF REINFORCEMENT For welded or mechanical connections that are subject to repetitive loads. combined with the more severe stress from either the permanent loads or the permanent loads. Metal-to-metal fretting is not normally expected to be a concern in conventional pretensioned beams.5.1 1.5.4.2 and 5.5.5.2.11.3 Where the radius of curvature is less than shown.2. f shall . shrinkage. it will be necessary to consult the literature for more complete presentations that will allow the increased bending stress in the case of sharp curvature.3.Section 5 Concrete Structures (SI) SPECIFICATIONS 5. 5.2 Bends in primary reinforcement should be avoided in regions of high stress range.33fm.1-1.3 PRESTRESSINGTENDONS The stress range in prestressing tendons shall not exceed: o | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- 125 MPa for radii of curvature in excess of 9000 mm.5.3 may be used c5. Splices that do not meet these requirements for 5-22 rlh = ratio of base radius to height of rolled-on 5.4 Review of the available fatigue and static test data indicates that any splice that develops 125 percent of the yield strength of the bar. positive if tension.5.3.3. . 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. not exceed the nominal fatigue resistance given in Table 1. I I i) /5.3 also will generally ensure that a welded splice or mechanical connector will also meet certain minimum requirements for fabrication and installation. the range of stress. This lower limit is a close lower bound for the splice fatigue data obtained in NCHRP Project 10-35. if the actual value is not known.3. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office -| || | || ||| Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.3. User=. C5.

3.5. 0.5.3.4. all types of splices appeared to exhibit a constant amplitude fatigue limit for repetitive loading exceeding about I million cycles.4 are based on statistical tolerance limits to constant amplitude staircase test data. 5.5.000. therefore.2 RESISTANCE FACTORS 5.13.2. The stress ranges for over 1 million cycles of loading given in the table in Article 5. 5.000 cvcles Grout-filled sleeve.5. and 5.5.ENGL Section 5 Concrete Structures ( I S) - 1998 D O639804 0048746 703 COMMENTARY fabrication and installation may have reduced fatigue performance. such that there is a 95 percent level of confidence that 95 percent of the data would exceed the given values for 5 million cycles of loading. and with or without epoxy-coated bar.o0 | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- .4-1 . This is the same basis used to establish the fatigue design provisions for unspliced reinforcing bars in Article 5.5.5.5.3. 5. f. 1.3.J in MPa to a total not greater than the value of ff given by Equation 5. be regarded as a fatigue limit below which fatigue damage is unlikely to occur during the design lifetime of the structure.STDgAASHTO SRCH L RF D.1 1.3.5.90 For flexure and tension of prestressed concrete .3. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.2.. 5.4. -- | || | || ||| o For flexure and tension of reinforced concrete . splices designed to the lesser force requirements of Article 5.6. unless another limit state is specifically identified. Factored resistance shall be the product of nominal resistance as determined in accordance with the applicable provisions of Articles 5.10.2-1. and the resistance factor is as specified in Article 5. Fatigue Strenqth of Hioh-Yield Reinforcino Bars.2. which is based on fatigue tests reported in NCHRP Report 164.3. up to the value given by Equation 5.5.2. Further. with or without epoxy coated bar: Cold-swaged coupling sleeves without threaded ends. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.5.5.4. may be increased by the quantity 168 (6 logN.1 GENERAL C5.I Conventional Construction Additional resistance factors are specified in Article 12.2.14.1 The strength limit state issues to be considered shall be those of strength and stability.Nominal Fatigue Resistance of Splices Type of Splice I for greater f' than 1.1 Resistance factor cp shall be taken as: 0 5-23 COPYRIGHT 2002. These values may. Steel sleeve with a wedge.4 Strength Limit State 5.7.2 may not have the same fatigue performance as splices designed for the greater force requirement.2-1 in Article 5.5. Consequently. and Single V-groove direct butt weld All other types of splices 126 MPa 84 MPa 28 MPa Where the total cycles of loading. It was found in NCHRP Project 10-35 that there is substantial variation in the fatigue performance of different types of welds and connectors.4. 5. User=. . may be used if justified by fatigue test data on splices that are the same as those that will be placed in service.5. Higher values of ff. One-piece taper-threaded coupler.5 for buried pipes and box structures made of concrete. However.8. 5.N are less than .SI .5. C5. SPECIFICATIONS Table 5. Integrally-forged coupler with upset NC threads.4. the minimum strength requirement indirectly provides for a minimum fatigue performance. 5.9.4. I million.

. . . User=. . .1 for conditions not covered in Table 1. .2. 1I b . . . the value of cp may be increased linearly to the value for flexure as the factored axial load resistance. . .5. . .Section 5 Concrete Structures (SI) - STD.8 for normal density concrete reflects the importance of the anchorage zone. cpvi and shear in dry joints.1 1. . . . 0. . . . . 0. . and the load deflection curve was identical to that calculated for a monolithic specimen. . . . .O0 For compression members with flexure. . . . . For partially prestressed components in flexure with or without tension. . The design of intermediate anchorages. shear and torsion.5. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. 0. . .2. . . + 0.4. . . . . . . . .5.5.2.5.4.2. 0. . . . diaphragms.2 Comprehensive tests of a large continuous three-span model of a twin-cell box girder bridge built from precast segments with fully bonded internal tendons and epoxy joints indicated that cracking was well distributed through the segment lengths. .1 for Seismic Zones 3 and 4 at the extreme event limit state . .8. . . . 0.70 For compression in strut-and-tie models .AASHT0 SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 = Ob39804 OOq8747 b 4 T M SPECIFICATIONS 0 COMMENTARY 0 o o 0 o o For shear and torsion: normal density concrete . . .90 The cp-factor of 0. . No epoxy joint opened at failure. . . c P decreases from p. . .90 lowdensity concrete . the brittle failure mode for compression struts in the anchorage zone.5. . . . 0. and the relatively wide scatter of results of experimental anchorage zone studies. The model had substantial ductility and full development of calculated deflection at failure. . . . . . . . .80 low-density concrete .4. . . . Section 11. .10 (PPR) (5. . 5-24 | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- COPYRIGHT 2002. . .0.70 For axial compression with spirals or ties. . . In order for a tendon to be considered as fully bonded at a section. cpjl as determined by the provisions of Article 5. . 4 to o. . . anchorages.2 Segmental Construction Resistance factors for the strength limit state shall be taken as provided in Table 1 for the conditions indicated and in Article 5. .1 O. . . . . . . . -| || | || ||| | || C5. the values of cp may be taken as: (4 = 0. . both the type of joint between segments and the degree of bonding of the posttensioning system shall be considered. . 0. .70 For compression in anchorage zones: normal density concrete .4.1-2) where: PPR = partial prestress ratio of nonprestressed reinforcement (mm’) tension & = area bS = area of prestressing steel (mm2) 5 fPY = specified yield strength of reinforcing bars (MPa) = yield strength of prestressing steel (MPa) Resistance factors shall not be applied to the development and splice lengths of reinforcement as specified in Article 5.1.4. cpt. . . 1.4. . 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. 1. The q-factor of 0.65 For tension in steel in anchorage zones . . . . . . . . . 5.2. . . and multiple slab anchorages are addressed in Breen et al. . . . (1994). . . .75 For bearing on concrete .65 for low-density concrete reflects its often lower tensile strength and is based on the multipliers used in AC1 318-89. .O0 For resistance during pile driving . In selecting resistance factors for flexure. except as specified in Article 5.2. .10 f‘.2. . . . . . . . . The complete ultimate strength of the tendons was developed at failure. . .1-1) for which: PPR = APSfPY fPY A S 5 + (5. . .

-- | || | || ||| Figure C5. Where the posttensioning is a combination of fully bonded tendons and unbonded or partially bonded tendons.3 DL+6. The increase in stress in the unbonded tendons at failure was 3890 MPa as compared to the 103 MPa value permitted by the AASHTO Guide Specifications. The span carried 112 percent of the capacity predicted by the AASHTO Guide SDecification for Desian and Construction of Seamental Concrete Bridaes (first edition).2-1 .80 0. the resistance factor at any section shall be based upon the bonding conditions for the tendons providing the majority of the prestressing force at the section.85 . Based on this limited test data. The most recent tests of a large segmental bridge model with external tendons and both Type A and Type B joints resulted in a flexural failure in the span with dry joints at factored loads of 1.85 0.1 5.3 Special Requir ments For Seismi Zones 3 and 4 A reduced resistance factor for columns in Seismic Zones 3 and 4 shall be taken as specified in Article .90 0.60 - .5. Under service loads.4. substantially above the AASHTO LRFD-factored load requirements (MacGregor et al.5.65 0. 5-25 COPYRIGHT 2002.2-1 . Cast-in-place concrete joints and fresh concrete or epoxy joints between precast units shall be considered as Type A joints.8 (LL+I). A comparison of shear behavior of various types of joints is presented in Figure C I . The (P factors for flexure and shear have been increased to reflect the results of the more recent tests discussed above as well as the addition of the capacity reduction factor.65 5. Table 5.10.4. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. a maximum cp of 0. The 45 250 mm span had a deck width of 10 200 mm and consisted of 14 segments.4.90 Y- I 0.85 0.1 I b. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. Shorter embedment lengths may be permitted if demonstrated by full-size tests and approved by the Engineer.Il1 0. The midspan deflection at failure was 326 mm. 1989).2.5.2.75 ~ F A I L U A ELOAD FOR MONOUTHIC SPECIMENS ) Fully Bonded Tendons: Type A Joint Unbonded or Partially Bonded Tendons: Type A Joint Type B Joint 0. (1995). Koseki and Breen (1983).STDmAASHTO SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL Section 5 Concrete Structures (Si) - 1998 Ob39804 0048748 58b COMMENTARY Flexural cracking concentrated at joints and final failure came when a central joint opened widely and crushing occurred at the top of the joint.4.4.95 was selected. the deflections were U6000 for the exterior spans and U7500 for th interior span.Resistance Factor for Joints in Segmental Construction i (Pf (4" Flexure I 1 Shear I Joint Normal Density Concrete Fully Bonded Tendons: Type A Joint Unbonded or Partially Bonded Tendons: Type A Joint Type B Joint 0.Shear Key Behavior | || | RELATIVE JOINT DISPLACEMENT |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- I 0. SPECIFICATIONS it should be fully developed at that section for a development length not less than that required by Article 5. to provide for separate calculation of the shear capacity of dry joints. Dry joints shall be considered as Type B joints.11. User=. A full-scale test of a prototype tes span of the Bangkok second-stage expressway span-by-span design with dry joints and external tendons was reported in Tassin et al.95 0.2. 'pi.

the AASHTO Guide Specifications for Design and Construction of Seqmental Concrete Bridqes (1989) and the Ontario Hiqhway Bridge Desiqn Code (I 991). as may be appropriate to its site and use. overturning. equilibrium and strain compatibility shall be maintained in the analysis. the load paths may be visualized and the geometry of concrete and steel selected to implement the load path. User=. the strut-and-tie modeling may provide a convenient way of approximating load paths and force effects in the structure. More detailed information on this method is given by Schlaich et al. as specified in Section 3. Traditional section-by-section design is based on the assumption that the reinforcement required at a particular section depends only on the separated values of the factored section force effects Vu.A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 0639804 0048749 412 SPECIFICATIONS 5.3. The strut-and-tie model is new to these Specifications.3 Strut-and-Tie Model 5.6 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 5.1-1. creep.6. and movements of supports shall be investigated.6. including those during construction. at all stages during the life of the structure. specified in Table 3.6. temperature change. Effects of eccentricity of loads shall be considered in the analysis and design. Buckling of precast members during handling. transportation. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.1 General C5.1 Where the conventional methods of strength of materials is not applicable because of nonlinear strain distribution.6. and Tu and does not consider the mechanical interaction among -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- 5-26 Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.~ Section 5 Concrete Structures (SI) - S T D .6. (25.6. The strut-and-tie model should be considered for the design of deep footings and pile caps or other situations in which the distance between the centers of applied load and the supporting reactions is less than about twice the member thickness.4. COMMENTARY 5.5. In fact. For common structure types.3 STABILITY The structure as a whole and its components shall be designed to resist sliding.3. 5. COPYRIGHT 2002.2 Effects of Imposed Deformation This article reflects the AASHTO Standard Specifications for Hiahwav Bridqes. prestressing. Mu.1 GENERAL Strut-and-tie models may be used to determine internal force effects near supports and the points of application of concentrated loads at strength and extreme event limit states. and buckling. As specified in Section 4. experience may show that evaluating the redistribution of force effects as a result of creep and shrinkage is unnecessary. and erection shall be investigated. 5. uplift. C5.5.2 The effects of imposed deformations due to shrinkage.6. (1987) and Collins and Mitchell (1991). 5.1 Components and connections shall be designed to resist load combinations. Load factors shall be as specified in Section 3. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office .5 Extreme Event Limit State The structure as a whole and its components shall be proportioned to resist collapse due to extreme events.4.

13. and the assumed member sizes are verified. For members such as the deep beam shown in Figure C5.STD-AASHTO SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL Section 5 .3. the flow of compressive stresses going from the loads P to the supports and the required tension force to be developed between the supports should be established. may be modeled as an assembly of steel tension ties and concrete compressive struts interconnected at nodes to form a truss capable of carrying all the applied loads to the supports. The factored resistance. thereof. and 5. C5. can be predicted more accurately if the flow of forces through the complete structure is studied. Pr. User=.4. The behavior of a component.6.2-1) Pn = nominal resistance of strut or tie (N) resistance factor for tension or compression specified in Article 5.6.2 STRUCTURAL MODELING The structure and a component or region. A strut-and-tie truss model is shown in Figures C I and C2.5. Because of the significant transverse dimensions of the struts and ties.3.3.4.13. Establishing the geometry of the truss usually involves trial and error in which member sizes are assumed. Aíter significant cracking has occurred. 5.10. The regions of the concrete subjected to multidirectional stresses.2. are represented by nodal zones. 5. such as the deep beam. these assumptions are not valid. The zones of high unidirectional compressive stress in the concrete are represented by compressive struts.1. Instead of determining Vu and Mu at different sections along the span.2-1.2. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. The traditional method further assumes that shear distribution remains uniform and that the longitudinal strains will vary linearly over the depth of the beam. a "truss joint" becomes a "nodal zone" with finite dimensions.2. The required widths of compression struts and tension ties shall be considered in determining the geometry of the truss.6. where the struts and ties meet the joints of the truss.6.6.3.2 Cracked reinforced concrete carries load principally by compressive stresses in the concrete and tensile stresses in the reinforcement. the truss geometry is established.Concrete Structures (SI) SPECIFICATIONS 1998 = Ob39804 COMMENTARY 0048750 i134 If the strut-and-tie model is selected for structural analysis. For additional applications of the strut-and-tie model see Articles 5. Articles 5. member forces are determined.3.9. Tension ties are used to model the principal reinforcement.6 shall apply. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office -| || = 5-27 Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. . the principal compressive stress trajectories in the concrete tend toward straight lines and hence can be approximated by straight compressive struts.6. as appropriate cp | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- COPYRIGHT 2002.3.4. The shear stresses on a section just to the right of a support will be concentrated near the bottom face. of struts and ties shall be taken as that of axially loaded components: Pr = (PPn where: (5. these force effects as the strut-and-tie model does.2 through 5.3.

6.3 (MPa) -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- = limiting compressive stress as specified in Article 5-28 Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.3.3.2-1 Beam - Strut-and-Tie Model for a Deep Figure C5. User=.3.3.6. COPYRIGHT 2002.3.2-2 Deep Beam 5.3 STRUTS PROPORTIONING OF COMPRESSIVE . 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.6.6.3.Concrete Structures (SI) SPECIFICATIONS 1998 Ob39804 0048753 O70 a COMMENTARY (C)TRUSS MODEL Figure C5. I Strength of UnreinforcedStrut The nominal resistance of compressive strut shall be taken as: an unreinforced (5.3.6.~ - STDaAASHTO SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL Section 5 .Strut-and-Tie Model for Continuous 5. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office .1-1) where: Pn = fa nominal resistance of a cornpressive strut (N) 5.3.3.6.

Concrete Structures (SI) SPECIFICATIONS S T D .6.. User=.Influence of Anchorage Conditions on Effective Cross-Sectional Area of Strut COPYRIGHT 2002.2 9 provided by IHSQuestions or comments about this message: please call 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.2-1 . 5 . a) Strut anchored by rsinforcsment flY b) Strut anchored by bearlng and reinforcement -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- V c) Strut anchored by bearing and strut Figure 5. = effective cross-sectional area of strut as specified in Article 5.A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1798 Ob39804 0048752 T O 7 W COMMENTARY A.3. as shown in Figure l(a). as shown in Figure I.3. When a strut is anchored by reinforcement.Section 5 .3.3. the effective concrete area may be considered to extend a distance of up to six bar diameters from the anchored bar.2 Effective Cross-Sectional Area of Strut The value of A.2 (mm2) 5.3. shall be determined by considering both the available concrete area and the anchorage conditioiis at the ends of the strut.6. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.6.3. . ¿a sine.

E.STDmAASHTO SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 Section 5 Concrete Structures (SI) W 0639804 0048753 943 - SPECIFICATIONS 5. User=.. can be taken as 0. The tension force shall be developed at the inner face of the nodal zone. The increase in stress corresponding to this action is arbitrarily limited to the same increase in stress that the mild steel will undergo. If the strain E.1 The second term of the equation for Pnis intended to ensure that the prestressing steel does not reach its yield point.3 = 0. + (E. + 0.3.3.f as: shall be taken COMMENTARY C5.6. there should be significant tensile strains imposed on the concrete.4 PROPORTIONING OF TENSION TIES 5. for which: E. would equal (fp. E. = O. It does. = the tensile strain in the concrete in the direction of the tension tie (mmlmm) specified compressive strength (MPa) f'.6.85 f'.002 and that the tensile strain in the direction of the tension tie equals E. | | || --- .3-1) If the concrete is not subjected to principal tensile strains greater than about 0. fw decreases. For a tension tie consisting of prestressing. The nominal resistance of a tension tie in N shall be taken as: P = fy n %i + C5.6.3. the nominal resistance of the strut shall be taken as: Pn = fw 4 s + fy where: Ass (5.1 Strength of Tie Tension tie reinforcement shall be anchored to the nodal zones by specified embedment lengths.3.6.3.3. fy may 5 30 4 s [fpe + fyl (5.3.6.8 + 170 E. . a.3. E. varies over the width of the strut.4 Reinforced Strut If the compressive strut contains reinforcement that is parallel to the strut and detailed to develop its yield stress in compression. The reinforcing bars of a tension tie are bonded to the surrounding concrete. As the angle between the strut-and-tie decreases. it i s appropriate to use the value at the centerline of the strut.3. in the direction of the strut equals 0..4. = the smallest angle between the compressive strut and adjoining tension ties (DEG) E.002. increases and hence fw decreases.-fpe)lEp.4.6.85 f: (5. -- where: | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| 'C s 0.3. If the reinforcing bars are to yield in tension. a situation that violates compatibility. = 5. The expression for E.3. For higher stresses. it can resist a compressive stress of 0.3. For a tension tie consisting of reinforcing bars.002) cot2 a . or mechanical anchorages.3 Limiting Compressive Stress in Strut The limiting compressive stress.4. If there is no mild steel. = E. (5...e.6.3.3. no compressive stresses would be permitted in a strut that is superimposed on a tension tie. hooks.6. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. can be taken as the tensile strain due to factored loads in the reinforcing bars.3.4-1) % = area of reinforcement in the strut (mm2) . E. is based on the assumption that the principal compressive strain E.6. This will be the limit for regions of the struts not crossed by or joined to tension ties. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. As these tensile strains increase.3.0 until the precompression of the concrete is overcome. 5. acknowledge that the stress in the prestressing elements will be increased due to the strain that will cause the concrete to crack. ¡. In the limit.6. however.3-2) a . thus a measure of control over unlimited cracking is maintained.1-1) - COPYRIGHT 2002.

6.4.6.75 cp f'.7.4.3.85 cpf'.3.6.85 cp f'. Dimensions of the compressive struts.3.5.1 and 5.6. In addition to satisfying strength criteria for compression struts and tension ties.11. -- | || | || ||| The tension tie reinforcement shall be uniformly distributed over an effective area of concrete at least equal to the tension tie force divided by the stress limits Specified herein. The bearing stress on the node region produced by concentrated loads or reaction forces shall satisfy the requirements specified in Article 5. o o where: cp = the resistance factor for bearing on concrete as specified in Article 5. limit is appropriate. 5-31 COPYRIGHT 2002.5. For this case. | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- .65 cp f'.A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 Section 5 Concrete Structures (SI) - = Ob39804 COMMENTARY 0048754 ö 8 T SPECIFICATIONS where: be taken as 420 MPa for the second term of the equation. User=. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. Size of the bearing plates. total area of longitudinal mild steel reinforcement in the tie (mm2) area of prestressing steel (mm2) mild steel longitudinal reinforcement (MPa) ht= bs= fy = yield strength of fp = stress in prestressing steel due to prestress after losses (MPa) 5. the concrete compressive stress in the node regions of the strut shall not exceed: 0 C5.4.3. the node regions shall be designed to comply with the stress and anchorage limits specified in Articles 5. 5. The reduced stress limits on nodes anchoring tension ties are based on the detrimental effect of the tensile straining caused by these ties.6. The stresses in the nodal zones can be reduced by increasing the: 0 0 0 For node regions bounded by compressive struts and bearing areas: 0. For node regions anchoring a one-direction tension tie: 0. and Dimensions of the tension ties.2 Anchorage of Tie The tension tie reinforcement shall be anchored to transfer the tension force therein to the node regions of the truss in accordance with the requirements for development of reinforcement as specified in Article 5.3. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.5 PROPORTIONING OF NODE REGIONS Unless confining reinforcement is provided and its effect is supported by analysis or experimentation.5 The limits in concrete compressive stresses in nodal zones are related to the degree of expected confinement in these zones provided by the concrete in compression.S T D .2. For node regions anchoring tension ties in more than one direction: 0. If the ties consist of posttensioned tendons and the stress in the concrete does not need to be above fpc.no tensile straining of the nodal zone will be required.4. the 0.2.

The ratio of reinforcement area to gross concrete area shall not be less than 0. For thicker members.5. 5. In lieu of more precise information. 0 The strains in the concrete vary linearly. except for slabs and footings.7. For thinner members.3.7 DESIGN FOR FLEXURAL AND AXIAL FORCE EFFECTS 5. o o o 5.1 The following assumptions may be used in the design of reinforced. C5. except for anchorages and similar details.7. shall contain an orthogonal grid of reinforcing bars near each face. one near each face.4. n.6.4.2. An effective modular ratio of 2n is applicable to permanent loads and prestress. and brackets. and the following assumptions: C5. except as specified in Article 5. The spacing of the bars in these grids shall not exceed 300 mm.6 This reinforcement is intended to control the width of cracks and to ensure a minimum ductility for the member so that.6. and partially prestressed concrete components: 0 Prestressed concrete resists tension at sections that are uncracked.1 Assumptions for Service and Fatigue Limit States COMMENTARY C5. this crack control reinforcement will consist of two grids of reinforcing bars.1I.1 The first paragraph of C5. Examples of components for which the assumption of linearly varying strains may not be suitable include deep components such as deep beams.2.3.7.2 Assumptions for Strength and Extreme Event Limit States 5. where the design is totally a function of the tendon force and for which a load factor is specified in Article 3.7.0.3.This represents a philosophical dichotomy. except in components or regions of components for which conventional strength of materials is inappropriate.003 in each direction.7. The modular ratio is not less than 6. -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- . if required.2. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. 5-32 COPYRIGHT 2002. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. The modular ratio.7.7. significant redistribution of internal stresses is possible.Section 5 Concrete Structures ( I S) - S T D . corbels. External reactions caused by prestressing induce force effects that normally are taken to be part of the loads side of Equation 1.6 CRACK CONTROL REINFORCEMENT Structures and components or regions thereof.A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 = Ob39804 0048755 7Lb SPECIFICATIONS 5. in these Specifications the load factor for these induced force effects should be taken as that for the permanent loads.6. multiple grids of reinforcement through the thickness may be required in order to achieve a practical layout. which have been designed in accordance with the provisions of Article 5. may be considered as part of the tension tie reinforcement. prestressed. User=. located within the tension tie. the resistance factors as specified in Article 5.3. Prestressing is treated as part of resistance.1 GENERAL Factored resistance of concrete components shall be based on the conditions of equilibrium and strain compatibility.3. is rounded to the nearest tenth. Crack control reinforcement.1 applies.2.6.

STD-AASHTO SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL
Section 5 Concrete Structures (SI)

-

1998

Ob39804 O048756 b 5 2 W

S PECIFICATIONS '
O

COMMENTARY

In components with fully bonded reinforcement or prestressing, or in the bonded length of locally debonded or shielded strands, strain is directly proportional to the distance from the neutral axis, except for deep members that shall satisfy the requirements of Article 5.13.2, and for other disturbed regions,. In components with fully unbonded or partially unbonded prestressing tendons, ¡.e., not locally debonded or shielded strands, the difference in strain between the tendons and the concrete section and the effect of deflections on tendon geometry are included in the determination of the stress in the tendons. If the concrete is unconfined, the maximum usable strain at the extreme concrete compression fiber is not greater than 0.003. If the concrete is confined, a maximum usable strain exceeding 0.003 may be utilized if verified. Except for the strut-and-tie model, the stress in the reinforcement is based on a stress-strain curve representative of the steel or on an approved mathematical representation, including development of reinforcing and prestressing elements and transfer of pretensioning. The tensile strength of the concrete is neglected. The concrete compressive stress-strain distribution is assumed to be rectangular, parabolic, or any other shape that results in a prediction of strength in substantial agreement with the test results. The development of reinforcing and prestressing elements and transfer of pretensioning are considered.
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O

O

O

O

O

O

O

The natural relationship between concrete stress and strain may be considered satisfied by an equivalent rectangular concrete compressive stress block of 0.85 f', over a zone bounded by the edges of the cross-section and a straight line located parallel to the neutral axis at the distance a = ß, c from the extreme compression fiber. The distance c shall be measured perpendicular

For practical design, the rectangular compressive stress distribution defined in this article may be used in lieu of a more exact concrete stress distribution. This rectangular stress distribution does not represent the actual stress distribution in the compression zone at ultimate, but in many practical cases it does provide essentially the same results as those obtained in tests. 5 - 33
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5.7.2.2 RECTANGULAR STRESS DISTRIBUTION

(25.7.2.2

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Additional limitations on the maximum usable extreme concrete compressive strain in hollow rectangular compression members shall be investigated as specified in Article 5.7.4.7.

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Section 5 Concrete Structures ( I S)

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S T D - A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL L978

Ob39804 0048757 579 W

SPECIFICATIONS to the neutral axis. The factor ß, shall be taken as 0.85 for concrete strengths not exceeding 28 MPa. For concrete strengths exceeding 28 MPa, ß, shall be reduced at a rate of 0.05 for each 7 MPa of strength in excess of 28 MPa, except that ß, shall not be taken to be less than 0.65. Additional limitations on the use of the rectangular stress block when applied to hollow rectangular compression members shall be investigated as specified in Article 5.7.4.7.

COMMENTARY All strength equations presented in Article 5.7.3 are based on the rectangular stress block. The factor ß, is basically related to rectangular sections; however, for flanged sections in which the neutral axis is in the web, ß, has experimentally been found to be an adequate approximation.

5.7.3 Flexural Members
5.7.3.1 STRESS IN PRESTRESSING STEEL AT NOMINAL FLEXURAL RESISTANCE 5.7.3.1. I Components with Bonded Tendons For rectangular or flanged sections subjected to flexure about one axis where the approximate stress distribution specified in Article 5.7.2.2 is used and for which fpe is not less than 0.5 fpu, the average stress in prestressing steel, , may be taken as: f (5.7.3.1.1-1) C5.7.3.1.1 Equations in this article and subsequent equations for flexural resistance are based on the assumption that the distribution of steel is such that it is reasonable to consider all of the tensile reinforcement to be lumped at the location defined by d and all of the prestressing steel , can be considered to be lumped at the location defined by d Therefore, in the case where a significant number , . of prestressing elements are on the compression side of the neutral axis, it is more appropriate to use a method based on the conditions of equilibrium and strain compatibility as indicated in Article 5.7.2.1. The background and basis for Equations I and 5.7.3.1.2-1 can be found in Naaman (1985), Loov ( I 988), Naaman (1989), and Naaman ( I 990-1992). Values of fpJfpuare defined in Table CI. Therefore, the values of k from Equation 2 depend only on the type of tendon used.

for which: (5.7.3.1.1-2)

for T-section behavior:

Apsfpu ASfy- ASfy 0.85 ß, fC(b - b w )h, + C=
t -

I I

0.85fLß, b,+ k A
Ps

dp
(5.7.3.1 .I-3) Low relaxation strand 0.90 0.85 0.28
0.38

for rectangular section behavior:

I

0.85f:ß1b +
ps

pu

(5.7.3.1 . I A )

Stress-relieved strand and Type 1 highstrength bar

dp

1 bar

Type 2 high-strength

I

0.80

1

0.48

where: A ,

= area of prestressing steel (mm’)
specified tensile strength of prestressing steel (MW 5 34

fpu =

-

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Section 5 Concrete Structures ( I S)

STD-AASHTO SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL

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1998

= Ob39804
COMMENTARY

0048758 425

S PECIFICATIONS

fPY

=

yield strength of prestressing steel (MPa)
| | || ---

A,

area of mild steel tension reinforcement (mm’) area of compression reinforcement ( mm2)

P,
b b , h, d , c

= yield strength of compression reinforcement
(MPa) = width of compression flange (mm)

= width of web (mm) = depth of compression flange (mm) = distance from extreme compression fiber to the
centroid of the prestressing tendons (mm) = distance between the neutral axis and the compressive face (mm) stress block factor specified in Article 5.7.2.2

PI =

The stress level in the compressive reinforcement shall be investigated, and if the compressive reinforcement has not yielded, the actual stress shall be used in Equation 3 instead of P. , 5.7.3.1.2 Components with Unbonded Tendons For rectangular or flanged sections subjected to flexure about one axis and for biaxial flexure with axial load as specified in Article 5.7.4.5, where the approximate stress distribution specified in Article 5.7.2.2 is used, the average stress in unbonded prestressing steel may be taken as: (5.7.3.1.2-1) for which:
‘e=[%]

C5.7.3.1.2

A first estimate of the average stress in unbonded prestressing steel may be made as:
fps= f p e + 103 (MPa)
(C5.7.3.1.2-1)

In order to solve for the value of fps. Equation 1, the in equation of force equilibrium at ultimate is needed. Thus, two equations with two unknowns (fp, and c) need to be solved simultaneously to achieve a closed-form solution.

(5.7.3.1.2-2)

for T-section behavior: Apsfps+ A s f y - A ,/f y - 0.85ß1f,!(b-b,)h, /
C=

0.85f l ß , bw
(5.7.3.1.2-3)

5-35
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, f

= yield strength of tension reinforcement (MPa)

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A’, =

Section 5 Concrete Structures (SI)

-

STDmAASHTO S R C H LRFD-SI-ENGL 1996

0639804 0048759 3bL

SPECIFICATIONS
for rectangular section behavior: (5.7.3.1.2-4)

COMMENTARY

0.85f& b
where: c =

distance from extreme compression fiber to the neutral axis assuming the tendon prestressing steel has yielded, given by Equations 3 and 4 for T-section behavior and rectangular section behavior, respectively (mm)

e,
ei

= effective tendon length (mm) = length of tendon between anchorages (mm)
number o support hinges crossed by the tendon f between anchorages or discretely bonded points yield strength of prestressing steel (MPa) effective stress in prestressing steel at section under consideration after all losses (MPa)

N = ,

fPY
fpe

-

The stress level in the compressive reinforcement shall be investigated, and if the compressive reinforcement has not yielded, the actual stress shall be used in Equation 3 instead of P,. 5.7.3.2 FLEXURAL RESISTANCE 5.7.3.2.1 Factored Flexural Resistance The factored resistance M, shall be taken as: C5.7.3.2.1 Moment at the face of the support may be used for design. Where fillets making an angle of 45” or more with the axis of a continuous or restrained member are built monolithic with the member and support, the face of support should be considered at a section where the combined depth of the member and fillet is at least one and one-half times the thickness of the member. No portion of a fillet should be considered as adding to the effective depth when determining the nominal resistance. (25.7.3.2.2 Note that the coefficient ß, is included in the last term of Equation Iand in the numerator of Equation 5.7.3.1.13, which is not the case in previous editions of the Standard Specifications. It is believed that the inclusion of ß, will simplify not only the case of T-sections, but also those of sections having unusual shapes. The reason to include ß, in such a way is primarily due to an inconsistency that occurs when, assuming a rectangular section behavior at first, it is found that c > hf while a =
5 - 36
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M, = OM”
where:

(5.7.3.2.1-1)

M, = nominal resistance (Nemm)
cp

= resistance factor as specified in Article 5.5.4.2

5.7.3.2.2 Flanged Sections For flanged sections subjected to flexure about one axis and for biaxial flexure with axial load as specified in Article 5.7.4.5, where the approximate stress distribution specified in Article 5.7.2.2 is used and the tendons are bonded and where the compression flange depth is less than c, as determined in accordance with Equation 5.7.3.1.1-3, the nominal flexural resistance may be taken as:

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Section 5 - Concrete Structures (SI)
SPECIFICATIONS

S T D - A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998

Ob39804 00487b0 083 W

COMMENTARY ß,c is < h,. Recomputing the c value using the AC1 approach may lead to values of c smaller than h, or even negative. This is due to the fact that in computing the nominal flexural resistance, the factor ß, was applied to the web of the T only but not to the overhanging portions of the flange. A correction was introduced in the 1983 AC1 Building Code, and another correction was made in the 1989 Code, stating essentially that once T-section behavior is identified, the value of c should be taken to be 2 the flange thickness h, (Figure 1). Moreover, T-section behavior is assumed to start when the depth of the rectangular compression block a exceeds hf, instead of when the neutral axis c exceeds h,, as would be the case in a compatibility analysis. Additional information on this problem and a comparison between the AC1 approach and this approach can be found in Appendix B of Naaman (1992). The inclusion of the factor ß, amounts, in effect, to stating that the compression resultant of the stress block is equal to the average stress at ultimate (¡.e., 0.85f',) multiplied by an equivalent stress block area that is equal to the compression area times the factor ß,. Although the validity of such an approach may be argued, it is extremely convenient not only for T-sections but also for circular and annular sections as well. It allows a smooth transition between rectangular and T-section behavior and leads to an accurate computation of the depth of neutral axis c at ultimate, as shown in Figure C i . It also simulates the real case that T-section behavior starts when c, not a, exceeds h,. Neither treatment of flanged sections has a significant effect on the value of the nominal flexural resistance because it is primarily controlled by the steel; however, each significantly affects provisions based on c/de, such as the limit of maximum reinforcement, moment redistribution, and ductility requirements.

-Asfy d s - -

"(

2a)

I

+0.85fc(b-b,)ß,h, (5.7.3.2.2-1)

where:
-| || | || |||

% s
fps

=

area of prestressing steel (mm2) average stress in prestressing steel at nominal bending resistance specified in Equation 5.7.3.1.1-1 (MPa) distance from extreme compression fiber to the centroid of prestressing tendons (mm)

=

| || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || ---

d ,

% = area of nonprestressed tension reinforcement
(mm2)

fY

-

specified yield strength of reinforcing bars (MPa) centroid of nonprestressed tensile reinforcement (mm)

d ,

= distance from extreme compression fiber to the

A', =
fY

area of compression reinforcement (mm2) specified yield strength reinforcement (MPa) of compression

-

d', =

distance from extreme compression fiber to the centroid of cornpression reinforcement (mm) specified compressive strength of concrete at 28 days, unless another age is specified (MPa) width of the compression face of the member (mm) web width or diameter of a circular section (mm)

f',
b b ,
ß1

=
=

=

= stress block factor specified in Article 5.7.2.2 = compression flange depth of an I or T member
(mm) = cß,; depth of the equivalent stress block (mm)

h, a

5 - 37
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Section 5 Concrete Structures ( I S)

-

S T D - A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1778

W Ob39804 00487bL T L T M

SPECIFICATIONS

COMMENTARY

c

1

100

3

2

50

I

7

REINFORCEMENT AREA As (mm2xlO3)
Figure C5.7.3.2.2-1 Flanged Sections 5.7.3.2.3 Rectangular Sections For rectangular sections subjected to flexure about one axis and for biaxial flexure with axial load as specified in Article 5.7.4.5, where the approximate stress distribution specified in Article 5.7.2.2 is used and where the compression flange depth is not less than c as determined in accordance with Equation 5.7.3.1.I-3, the nominal flexural resistance M may be determined by , using Equations 5.7.3.1 .I-1 through 5.7.3.2.2-1, in which case 4, shall be taken as b. 5.7.3.2.4 Other Cross-Sections For cross-sections other than flanged or essentially rectangular sections with vertical axis of symmetry or for sections subjected to biaxial flexure without axial load, the nominal flexural resistance, M shall be determined , by an analysis based on the assumptions specified in Article 5.7.2. The requirements of Article 5.7.3.3 shall apply* 5.7.3.3 LIMITS FOR REINFORCEMENT 5.7.3.3. I Maximum Reinforcement The maximum amount of prestressed nonprestressed reinforcement shall be such that: and C5.7.3.3. I The definition of decould be extended to multilayered f systems, such as columns having different layers o prestressing reinforcement and/or reinforcing bars. 5 38
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-

Comparison of Treatment of

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Section 5 Concrete Structures (SI)
SPECIFICATIONS
C - s 0.42

-

COMMENTARY Although it is generally assumed that the reinforcing steel yields at the ultimate, the stress, fps, in the prestressing steel is unknown and should be determined as indicated in Article 5.7.3.1. In a preliminary or conservative design, the value of fpsused in Equation 2 can be estimated by assuming fps= fpy The nominal flexural resistance for an overreinforced section with a PPR greater than 50 percent may be computed from the following expressions, which were permitted in past editions of the Standard Specifications:
0

de

(5.7.3.3.1-1)

for which:

(5.7.3.3.1-2)

where: c de

Rectangular section behavior:
M = (0.36ß, -O.OSßf)f;bd,' ,

= the distance from the extreme compression fiber
to the neutral axis (mm)

(C5.7.3.3.1-1)

= the corresponding effective depth from the
extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the tensile force in the tensile reinforcement (mm)

o

Flanged section behavior: M = (0.36ß1-0.08ß:)f;bwd~ ,

If Equation 1 is not satisfied, the section shall be considered overreinforced. Overreinforcedsections may be used in prestressed and partially prestressed members only if it is shown by analysis and experimentation that sufficient ductility of the structure can be achieved. Overreinforced reinforced concrete sections shall not be permitted. For the purpose of this provision, components shall be considered reinforced concrete if the partial prestressing ratio (PPR), specified in Article 5.5.4.2.1, is less than 50 percent.

+ 0.85ß1f,/(b-bw)h,(de-0.5h,)

((25.7.3.3.1-2)

Figure C5.7.3.3.1-1 Illustration of Relationship of Reinforcementto Various d Values 5.7.3.3.2 Minimum Reinforcement

-

I

[COMMENTARY DELETED IN 20001

Unless otherwise specified, at any section of a flexural component, the amount of prestressed and nonprestressed tensile reinforcement shall be adequate to develop a factored flexural resistance, M at least. , equal to the lesser of:
0

1.2 times the cracking strength determined on the basis of elastic stress distribution and the modulus of rupture, f, of the concrete as specified in Article 5.4.2.6, or

5-39
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Section 5 Concrete Structures ( I S)

-

SPECIFICATIONS
o

COMMENTARY

1.33 times the factored moment required by the applicable strength load combinations specified in Table 3.4.1-1.

The provisions of Article 5.10.8 shall apply. 5.7.3.4 CONTROL OF CRACKING BY DISTRIBUTION OF REINFORCEMENT The provisions specified herein shall apply to the reinforcement of all concrete components, except that of deck slabs designed in accordance with Article 9.7.2, in which tension in the cross-section exceeds 80 percent of the modulus of rupture, specified in Article 5.4.2.6, at applicable service limit state load combination specified in Table 3.4.1-1. c5.7.3.4 All reinforced concrete members are subject to cracking under any load condition, including thermal effects and restraint of deformations, which produces tension in the gross section in excess of the cracking strength of the concrete. Locations particularly s vulnerable to cracking include those where there i an abrupt change in section and intermediate posttensioninganchorage zones. Provisions specified, herein, are used for the distribution of tension reinforcement to control flexural cracking in beams. Structures subject to very aggressive exposure are beyond the scope of these provisions. For such conditions, more restrictive limits on crack widths may be required. Narrower surface crack widths may be obtained by using the recommendations in AC1 350 R. Crack width is inherently subject to wide scatter, even in careful laboratory work, and is influenced by shrinkage and other time-dependent effects. Steps should be taken in detailing of the reinforcement to control cracking. From the standpoint of appearance, many fine cracks are preferable to a few wide cracks. The best crack control is obtained when the steel reinforcement is well distributed over the zone of maximum concrete tension. Several bars at moderate spacing are more effective in controlling cracking than one or two larger bars of equivalent area. Extensive laboratory work involving deformed reinforcing bars has confirmed that the crack width at the service limit state is proportional to steel stress. However, the significant variables reflecting steel detailing were found to be the thickness of concrete cover and the area of concrete in the zone of maximum tension surrounding each individual reinforcing bar. Equation 1 is expected to provide a distribution of reinforcement that should control flexural cracking. The equation is written in a form emphasizing reinforcement details, rather than crack width, per se. Using a value of 30 O00 N/mm in the numerator of Equation 1 corresponds to a limiting surface crack width of about 0.40 mm. There appears to be little or no connection between surface crack width and corrosion. Thicker or additional cover for reinforcement will result in greater surface crack widths. These wider surface cracks are not detrimental to the corrosion protection of the 5-40

I

Components shall be so proportionedthat the tensile stress in the mild steel reinforcement at the service limit state does not exceed fS8, determined as:

(5.7.3.4-1)

where: d ,

= depth of concrete measured from extreme
tension fiber to center of bar or wire located closest thereto; for calculation purposes, the thickness of clear cover used to compute d shall , not be taken to be greater than 50 mm

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Section 5 Concrete Structures ( i S)

-

SPECIFICATIONS

COMMENTARY reinforcement. In applying Equation 1, the actual clear cover should be used where the clear cover is 50 mm or less. Where the actual clear cover exceeds 50 mm, a value of 50 mm should be used for calculation purposes related to Equation 1. Additional cover may be regarded as added protection. Where members are exposed to aggressive exposure or corrosive environments, additional protection beyond that provided by satisfying Equation I may be provided by decreasing the permeability of the concrete and/or waterproofing the exposed surface. Cracks in segmental concrete box girders may result from stresses due to handling and storing segments for precast construction and to stripping forms and supports from cast-in-place construction before attainment of the nominal P,.

A = area of concrete having the same centroid as the principal tensile reinforcement and bounded by the surfaces of the cross-section and a straight line parallel to the neutral axis, divided by the number of bars or wires (mm’); for calculation purposes, the thickness of clear concrete cover used to compute A shall not be taken to be greater than 50 mm
2 = crack width parameter (N/mm)

I

Except as specified below for cast-in-place reinforced concrete box culverts, the quantity Z in Equation 1 shall not exceed 30 O00 N/mm for members in moderate exposure conditions, 23 O00 N/mm for members in severe exposure conditions, and 17 500 N/mm for buried structures. The quantity Z shall not exceed 23 O00 for the transverse design of segmental concrete box girders for any loads applied prior to the attainment of the full nominal concrete strength. For cast-in-place reinforced concrete box culverts, the quantity Z in Equation 1 shall satisfy:

I z s p
for which:

27 500

(5.7.3.4-21

ß=

[

A+-

O?d)

(5.7.3.4-3)

The basic derivation of the crack control parameter, Z, includes an assumption that a typical ratio of the distance from the neutral axis to the location of the crack at the concrete surface divided by the distance from the neutral axis to the centroid of the tensile reinforcing, ß, is 1.2, which is a typical value for reinforced concrete beams. However, cast-in-place reinforced concrete box culvert sections may have a range of ß ratios from about 1.1 for thick slabs to about 1.6 for thin slabs. Thus, the variation in the ß ratio for typical box culvert sections is greater than the range of ß values for typical reinforced concrete beams. Equation 2 was derived to take into account the variation in ß for reinforced concrete box culverts.

where: d

= distance from compression face to centroid of
tension reinforcement (mm)

Bonded prestressing steel may be included in the calculation of A, in which case the increase in stress in the bonded prestressing steel beyond the decompression state calculated on the basis of a cracked section or strain compatibility analysis shall satisfy the value of fsadetermined from Equation 1. Where flanges of reinforced concrete T-girders and box girders are in tension at the service limit state, the flexural tension reinforcement shall be distributed over the lesser of:

Distribution of the negative reinforcement for control of cracking in T-girders should be made in the context of the following considerations.

5-41

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Section 5 Concrete Structures (SI)

-

SPECIFICATIONS
o

COMMENTARY
0

The effective flange width, specified in Article 4.6.2.6, or A width equal to 1/10 of the average of adjacent spans between bearings.

Wide spacing of the reinforcement across the full effective width of flange may cause some wide cracks to form in the slab near the web. Close spacing near the web leaves the outer regions of the flange unprotected.

o

0

I

If the effective flange width exceeds 1/10 the span, additional longitudinal reinforcement, with area not less than 0.4 percent of the excess slab area, shall be provided in the outer portions of the flange. If the effective depth, de, of reinforced concrete or partially prestressed concrete members exceeds 900 mm, longitudinal skin reinforcement shall be uniformly distributed along both side faces of the component for a distance dí2 nearest the flexural tension reinforcement. The area of skin reinforcement & in mm2/mmof height on each side face shall satisfy: A,
A s A, -

The 1/10 of the span limitation is'to guard against an excessive spacing of bars, with additional reinforcement required to protect the outer portions of the flange. The requirements for skin reinforcement are based upon AC1 318. For relatively deep flexural members, some reinforcementshould be placed near the vertical faces in the tension zone to control cracking in the web. Without such auxiliary steel, the width of the cracks in the web may greatly exceed the crack widths at the level of the flexural tension reinforcement.

1200

where:

bS =
4 =
de =

area of prestressing steel (mm2) area of tensile reinforcement (mm2) flexural depth taken as the distance from compression face to centroid of the steel (mm)

The maximum spacing of the skin reinforcementshall not exceed either d/6 or 300 mm. Such reinforcement may be included in strength computations if a strain compatibility analysis is made to determine stresses in the individual bars or wires.
5.7.3.5 MOMENT REDISTRIBUTION

20 1-2.36-

5-42

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(

4-

(5.7.3.51)

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In lieu of more refined analysis, where bonded reinforcement that satisfies the provisions of Article 5.11 is provided at the internal supports of continuous reinforced concrete beams and where the dd, ratio does not exceed 0.28, negative moments determined by elastic theory at strength limit states may be increased or decreased by not more than the following percentage:

+

2 0.001 (de-760) s

(5.7i3.4-4)

S T D - A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL
Section 5 Concrete Structures (SI)

-

1998

Ob39804 00487bb 5TL

SPECIFICATIONS Positive moments shall be adjusted to account for the changes in negative moments to maintain equilibrium of loads and force effects. 5.7.3.6 DEFORMATIONS 5.7.3.6.1 General The provisions of Article 2.5.2.6 shall be considered. Deck joints and bearings shall accommodate the dimensional changes caused by loads, creep, shrinkage, thermal changes, settlement, and prestressing.

COMMENTARY

For more precise determinations of long-term deflections, the creep and shrinkage coefficients cited in Article 5.4.2.3 should be utilized. These coefficients include the effects of aggregate characteristics, humidity at the structure site, relative thickness of member, maturity at time of loading, and length of time under loads. C5.7.3.6.2 For structures such as segmentally constructed bridges, camber calculations should be based on the modulus of elasticity and the maturity of the concrete when each increment of load is added or removed, as specified in Articles 5.4.2.3 and 5.14.2.3.6.
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5.7.3.6.2 Deflection and Camber Deflection and camber calculations shall consider dead load, live load, prestressing, erection loads, concrete creep and shrinkage, and steel relaxation. For determining deflection and camber, the provisions of Articles 4.5.2.1, 4.5.2.2, and 5.9.5.5 shall apply. In the absence of a more comprehensive analysis, instantaneous deflections may be computed using the modulus of elasticity for concrete as specified in Article 5.4.2.4 and taking the moment of inertia as either the gross moment of inertia, I,, or an effective moment of inertia, I, given by Equation 1: , (5.7.3.6.2-1)

for which: (5.7.3.6.2-2) where:

M = cracking moment (N-mm) ,
fr

=
=

modulus of rupture of concrete as specified in Article 5.4.2.6 (MPa) distance from the neutral axis to the extreme tension fiber (mm) maximum moment in a component at the stage for which deformation is computed (N-mm)

y,

Ma =

For prismatic members, effective moment of inertia may be taken as the value obtained from Equation 1 at 5-43
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|||| ||

(25.7.3.6.1

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Section 5 Concrete Structures (SI)

-

S T D - A A S H T O S R C H LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 U Ob3980Li 0048767 438
COMMENTARY

SPECIFICATIONS midspan for simple or continuous spans, and at support for cantilevers. For continuous nonprismatic members, the effective moment of inertia may be taken as the average of the values obtained from Equation I for the critical positive and negative moment sections. Unless a more exact determination is made, the long-time deflection may be taken as the instantaneous deflection multiplied by the following factor:
0

If the instantaneous deflection is based on I 4.0 , :

0

3.0 - 1.2(A',/A,)
where:

If the instantaneous deflection is based on I , : 2 1.6

In prestressed concrete, the long-term deflection is usually based on mix-specific data, possibly in combination with the calculation procedures in Article 5.4.2.3. Other methods of calculating deflections which consider the different types of loads and the sections to which they are applied, such as that found in (PCI 1992) may also be used.

A', =

area of compression reinforcement (mm2) area of nonprestressed tension reinforcement (mm2)

4 =

Instantaneous shortening or expansion due to loads shall be determined using the modulus of elasticity o the f materials at the time of loading. Instantaneous shortening or expansion due to temperature shall be determined in accordance with Articles 3.12.2, 3.12.3, and 5.4.2.2. Long-term shortening due to shrinkage and creep shall be determined as specified in Article 5.4.2.3. 5.7.4 Compression Members 5.7.4.1 GENERAL Unless otherwise permitted, compression members shall be analyzed with considerationof the effects of:
0
0

C5.7.4. I Compression members are usually prestressed only where they are subjected to a high level of flexure.

Eccentricity, Axial loads, Variable moments of inertia, Degree of end fixity, Deflections,

0

o o

5-44
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5.7.3.6.3 Axial Deformation

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The contract documents shall require that deflections of segmentally constructed bridges shall be calculated prior to casting of segments based on the anticipated casting and erection schedules and that they shall be used as a guide against which actual deflection measurements are checked.

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STD-AASHTO SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL
Section 5 Concrete Structures (SI)

-

1798

Ob37804 00487b8 374

SPECIFICATIONS
0

COMMENTARY

Duration o loads, and f Prestressing.

o

In lieu of a refined procedure, nonprestressed columns with the slenderness ratio, KeJr < 100, may be designed by the approximate procedure specified in Article 5.7.4.3. where: K = effective length factor specified in Article 4.6.2.5 unbraced length (mm) radius of gyration (mm)

P,
r

= =

The requirements of this Article shall be supplemented and modified for structures in Seismic Zones 2, 3, and 4, as specified in Article 5.10.1 1. Provisions shall be made to transfer all force effects from compression components, adjusted for secondorder moment magnification, to adjacent components. Where the connection to an adjacent component is by a concrete hinge, longitudinal reinforcement shall be centralized within the hinge to minimize flexural resistance and shall be developed on both sides of the hinge. 5.7.4.2 LIMITS FOR REINFORCEMENT Additional limits on reinforcement for compression members in Seismic Zones 3 and 4 shall be considered 1.4.1a. as specified in Article 5.10.1 The maximum area of prestressed and nonprestressed longitudinal reinforcement for noncomposite compression components shall be such that: (5.7.4.2-1) C5.7.4.2

and
A f
ps

c 0.30

(5.7.4.2-2)

The minimum area of prestressed and nonprestressed longitudinal reinforcement for noncomposite compression components shall be such that:

f According to current AC1 codes, the area o longitudinal reinforcement for nonprestressed noncomposite compression components should be not , less than 0.01 A. Because the dimensioning of columns is primarily controlled by bending, this limitation does not
5-45

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~~

Section 5 Concrete Structures (Si)
SPECIFICATIONS COMMENTARY account for the influence of the concrete compressive strength. To account for the compressive strength of concrete, the minimum reinforcement in flexural members is shown to be proportional to f'Jfy in Article 5.7.3.3.2. This approach is also reflected in the first term of Equation 3. For fully prestressed members, current codes specify a minimum average prestress of 1.6 MPa. Here also the influence of compressive strength is not accounted for. A compressive strength of 35 MPa has been used as a basis for these provisions, and a weighted averaging procedure was used to arrive at the equation.

-

STDmAASHTO SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL

1998 W Ob39804 0048769 200

(5.7.4.2-3)
--

where: A,

=
| ||

| || | || |||

area of nonprestressed tension steel (mm2) gross area of section (mm2) area of prestressing steel (mm2) specified tensile strength of prestressing steel (MPa) specified yield strength of reinforcing bars (MPa) specified compressive strength of concrete (MPa) effective prestress (MPa)

4

=
|||| || | ||||||| | | || ---

hs=
fpu = fy = f',

=

fw =

The minimum number of longitudinal reinforcing bars in the body of a column shall be six in a circular arrangement and four in a rectangular arrangement. The minimum size of bar shall be No. 16. For bridges in Seismic Zone 1, the minimum area of longitudinal reinforcement may be that required for a component with a reduced effective area of concrete, provided that both the full section and the reduced effective section are capable of resisting the factored loads and that the area of reinforcement is not less than 0.7 percent of the gross area of the column. 5.7.4.3 APPROXIMATE SLENDERNESS EFFECTS EVALUATION

For members not braced against sidesway, the effects of slenderness may be neglected where the slenderness ratio, KeJr, is less than 22. For members braced against sidesway, the effects of slenderness may be neglected where KeJr is less than 34-12(Ml/M,), in which M1 and M, are the smaller and larger end moments, respectively, and the term (M1/M2) is positive for single curvature flexure. The following approximate procedure may be used for the design of nonprestressed compression members with KeJr less than 100:
o

The design is based on a factored axial load, Pu, determined by elastic analysis and a magnified factored moment, M,, as specified in Article 4.5.3.2.2b.

COPYRIGHT 2002; American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office

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Where columns are pinned to their foundations, a small number of central bars have sometimes been used as a connection between footing and column.

OF

c5.7.4.3 These procedures were developed for reinforced concrete columns but are currently used for prestressed concrete columns as well. For members in structures, which undergo appreciable lateral deflections resulting from combinations of vertical load or combinations of vertical and lateral loads, force effects should be determined using a second-order analysis.

5-46
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S T D - A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998
Section 5 Concrete Structures ( I S)

-

Ob39804 0048770 T 2 2 9
COMMENTARY

SPECIFICATIONS

, l h e unsupported length, e of a compression member is taken as the clear distance between components capable of providing lateral support for the compression components. Where haunches are present, the unsupported length is taken to the extremity of any haunches in the plane considered.
The radius of gyration, r, is computed for the gross concrete section. For a rectangular compression member, r may be taken as 0.30 times the overall dimension in the direction in which stability is being considered. For a circular compression member, r may be taken as 0.25 times the diameter.

0

For members braced against sidesway, the effective length factor, K, is taken as 1.O, unless it is shown by analysis that a lower value may be used. For members not braced against sidesway, K is determined with due consideration for the effects of cracking and reinforcement on relative stiffness and is taken as not less than 1.O.

In lieu of a more precise calculation, EI for use in determining P as specified in Equation 4.5.3.2.2b-5, , shall be taken as the greater of:

(5.7.4.3-1)

-

El = 1+ßd
where:

2.5

(5.7.4.3-2)

E, =

modulus o elasticity of concrete (MPa) f moment of inertia of the gross concrete section about the centroidal axis (mm4) modulus of elasticity of longitudinal steel (MPa) moment of inertia of longitudinal steel about the centroidal axis (mm4) ratio of maximum factored permanent load moments to maximum factored total load moment; always positive

I,

=

E, =
I ,

=

ßd

=

For eccentrically prestressed members, consideration shall be given to the effect of lateral

5-47
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Section 5 Concrete Structures (SI)

-

S T D = A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998

0639804 0048771 9b9

m

SPECIFICATIONS deflection due to prestressing in determining the magnified moment. 5.7.4.4 FACTORED AXIAL RESISTANCE The factored axial resistance of reinforced concrete compressive components, symmetrical about both principal axes, shall be taken as: Pr = CP P n for which:
0

COMMENTARY

c5.7.4.4 Procedures for extending the provisions of this article to prestressed columns with or without flexure can be found in many text books, Nilson (1987), and Lin and Burns (1981). The values of 0.85 and 0.80 in Equations 2 and 3 place upper limits on the usable resistance of columns to allow for unintended eccentricity.

(5.7.4.4-1)

For members with spiral reinforcement:

' , P = 0.85 [0.85 f (A, -Ast)+ fy A,,] ,
(5.7.4.4-2)
0

For members with tie reinforcement:

P = 0.80[0.85 f', (Ag- kt)+, , fy AJ
where: P, = P ,

(5.7.4.4-3)

factored axial resistance, with or without flexure (N) nominal axial resistance, with or without flexure (N) another age is specified (MPa)

=

f', = specified strength of concrete at 28 days, unless
A, = Ast = fy = gross area of section (mm2) total area of longitudinal reinforcement (mm') specified yield strength of reinforcement (MPa) resistance factor specified in Article 5.5.4.2 c5.7.4.5 Equations 5.7.3.2.1 -1 and 5.7.4.4-1 relate factored resistances, given in Equations Iand 2 by the subscript ''I'', e.g., M to the nominal resistances and the ,, resistance factors. Thus, although previous editions of the Standard Specifications included the resistance factor explicitly in equations corresponding to Equations I and 2, these Specifications implicitly include the resistance factor by using factored resistances in the denominators.

o =

5.7.4.5 BIAXIAL FLEXURE In lieu of an analysis based on equilibrium and strain compatibility for biaxial flexure, noncircular members subjected to biaxial flexure and compression may be proportioned using the following approximate expressions:
o

If the factored axial load is not less than 0.10 cp f A ' , , :
1 1 1

1

(5.7.4.5-1)

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5-48
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Section 5 Concrete Structures (SI)
SPECIFICATIONS for which: Po= 0.85 f',
0

-

COMMENTARY

(4- &I) + 4 fy 1

(5.7.4.5-2)

If the factored axial load is less than O. 1O 4 f',

4:

(5.7.4.5-3)
M m

The procedure for calculating corresponding values of M and P or M and P, can be found in most texts on , , , reinforced concrete design.

where: resistance factor for members in axial

compression
factored axial resistance in biaxial flexure (N) factored axial resistance determined on the basis that only eccentricity e, is present (N) factored axial resistance determined on the basis that only eccentricity e is present (N) , factored applied axial force (N) factored applied moment about the X-axis (N-mm) factored applied moment about the Y-axis (N-mm) eccentricity of the applied factored axial force in the X direction, ¡.e., = MJP, (mm) eccentricity of the applied factored axial force in the Y direction, ¡.e., = MJP, (mm) , The factored axial resistance P and P, shall not be taken to be greater than the product of the resistance factor, 4, and the maximum nominal compressive resistance given by either Equations 5.7.4.4-2 or 5.7.4.43, as appropriate.
5.7.4.6 SPIRALS AND TIES

The area of steel for spirals and ties in bridges in Seismic Zones 2, 3, or 4 shall comply with the requirements specified in Article 5.1O. 11 Where the area of spiral and tie reinforcement is not controlled by:
o

Seismic requirements, Shear or torsion as specified in Article 5.8, or
5-49

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Section 5 Concrete Structures (SI)

-

SPECIFICATIONS
o

COMMENTARY

Minimum requirements as specified in Article 5.10.6,

I

the ratio of spiral reinforcement to total volume of concrete core, measured out-to-out of spirals, shall satisfy:

J5.7.4.6-1)

where:

4

= gross area of concrete section ( m d )
area of core measured to the outside diameter of the spiral (mm2) specified strength of concrete at 28 days, unless another age is specified (MPa) (MW

A, =
f', =

,f

= specified yield strength of spiral reinforcement

Other details of spiral and tie reinforcement shall conform to the provisions of Articles 5.10.6 and 5.10.11. 5.7.4.7 HOLLOW RECTANGULAR COMPRESSION MEMBERS 5.7.4.7.1 Wall Slenderness Ratio The wall slenderness ratio of a hollow rectangular cross-section shall be taken as:
= -X" W t

c5.7.4.7.1 The definition of the parameter X, is illustrated in Figure CI, taken from Taylor et al. (1990).

(5.7.4.7.1-1)

r
-

b

1

Xu = b (lesser of 22 or

where:

X, = the clear length of the constant thickness portion
of a wall between other walls or fillets between walls (mm) t
TypicalMondilhic~secaon
Typical Segmented Pier S&n

= thickness of wall (mm)

Figure C5.7.4.7.1-1 - Illustration of X, The test program, reported in Taylor et al. (1990), was limited to the case of loading under simultaneous axial and uniaxial bending about the weak axis of the section. The results of the study have not been confirmed for the case of biaxial bending. Until such a study is completed, the Designer should investigate the effects of biaxial loading on hollow sections.

& = wall slenderness ratio for hollow columns
wall greater than 35 may be used Only when the behavior and resistance of the wall is documented by analytic and evidence acceptable to the owner.

5-50

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Section 5 - Concrete Structures (SI)
SPECIFICATIONS

S T D = A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1778

Ob39804 0048774 b78
COMMENTARY

5.7.4.7.2 Limitations on the Use of the Rectangular Stress Block Method
5.7.4.7.2a General

Except as specified in Article 5.7.4.7.2c, the equivalent rectangular stress block method shall not be employed in the design of hollow rectangular compression members with a wall slenderness ratio ; I 15. Where the wall slenderness ratio is less than 15, the rectangular stress block method may be used based on a compressive strain of 0.003.
5.7.4.7.2b Refined Method for Adjusting Maximum Usable Strain Limit

Where the wall slenderness ratio is 15 or greater, the maximum usable strain at the extreme concrete compression fiber is equal to the lesser of the computed local buckling strain of the widest flange of the crosssection, or 0.003. The local buckling strain of the widest flange of the cross-section may be computed assuming simply supported boundary conditions on all four edges of the flange. Nonlinear material behavior shall be considered by incorporating the tangent material moduli of the concrete and reinforcing steel in computations of the local buck1ing strain. Discontinuous, nonposttensioned reinforcement in segmentally constructed hollow rectangular compression members shall be neglected in computations of member strength. Flexural resistance shall be calculated using the principles of Article 5.7.3 applied with anticipated stressstrain curves for the types of material to be used.
5 . 7 . 4 . 7 . 2 ~Approximate Method Resistance
| |||| || | ||||||| | | || ---| || | || ||| | ||

for Adjusting

Factored

The provisions of this article and the rectangular stress block method may be used in lieu of the provisions of Articles 5.7.4.7.2a and 5.7.4.7.2b where the wall slenderness is 5 35. The factored resistance of a hollow column, determined using a maximum usable strain of 0.003, and the resistance factors specified in Article 5.5.4.2 shall be further reduced by a factor cp, taken as: If A,
2

15, thencp,

=

1.0

(5.7.4.7.2~1)

5 - 51
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Section 5 Concrete Structures (SI)

-

STDeAASHTO SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL

1998

= Ob34804

-

0046775 504

SPECIFICATIONS If 15 < Aw c 25, then p ',
=

COMMENTARY 1-0.025(hw-15) (5.7.4.7.2~-2)

0

If 25 < Aw < 35,then p ',

=

0.75

(5.7.4.7.2~-3)

5.7.5 Bearing
In the absence of confinement reinforcement in the concrete supporting the bearing device, the factored bearing resistance shall be taken as: Pr = CP Pn for which: Pn = where: P = , A, = m = A2 = nominal bearing resistance (N) area under bearing device (mm') modification factor a notional area defined herein (mm2) (5.7.5-1)

c5.7.5

0.85 f',A, m

(5.7.5-2)

The modification factor may be determined as follows: Where the supporting surface is wider on all sides than the loaded area: rn = j$s 2.0 (5.7.5-3)

Where the loaded area is subjected to nonuniformly distributed bearing stresses:

m = 0.75

K
-

s 1.50

(5.7.54)

Where the supporting surface is sloped or stepped, A2 may be taken as the area of the lower base of the largest frustum of a right pyramid, cone, or tapered wedge contained wholly within the support and having for its upper base the loaded area as well as side slopes of 1.O vertical to 2.0 horizontal. Where the factored applied load exceeds the factored resistance, as specified herein, provisions shall be made to resist the bursting and spalling forces in accordance with Article 5.10.9.

.

w
W-WIDTH

t=
FOR COMPUTING A,

W

i

Figure C5.7.5-1 support
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Determination of A2 for a Stepped

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~

S T D - A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998
Section 5 Concrete Structures ( I S)

-

Ob39804 004ö77b 440
COMMENTARY

SPECIFICATIONS

5.7.6 Tension Members
5.7.6.1 FACTORED TENSION RESISTANCE Members in which the factored loads induce tensile stresses throughout the cross-section shall be regarded as tension members, and the axial force shall be assumed to be resisted only by the steel elements. The provisions of Article 5.1 1.5.4 shall apply. The factored resistance to uniform tension shall be taken as:
p = cp pll r

(5.7.6.1-1)

where:

P = ,
cp

nominal tension resistance specified in Article 5.6.3.4
| | || ---

=

resistance factor specified in Article 5.5.4.2 COMBINATIONS OF

5.8 SHEAR AND TORSION
5.8.1 Design Procedures

5.8.1.IFLEXURAL REGIONS Where it is reasonable to assume that plane sections remain plane after loading, regions of components shall be designed for shear and torsion using either the sectional model as specified in Article 5.8.3 or the strutand-tie model as specified in Article 5.6.3. The requirements of Article 5.8.2 shall apply. Components in which the distance from the point of 0.0 shear to the face of the support is less than 2d, or components in which a load causing more than 112 of the shear at a support is closer than 2d from the face of the support, may be considered to be deep components for which the provisions of Article 5.6.3 and the detailing requirements of Article 5.13.2.3 apply.

C5.8.1.1 The sectional model is appropriate for the design of typical bridge girders, slabs, and other regions of components where the assumptions of traditional engineering beam theory are valid. This theory assumes that the response at a particular section depends only on the calculated values of the sectional force effects, ¡.e., moment, shear, axial load, and torsion, and does not consider the specific details of how the force effects were introduced into the member. Although the strut-and-tie model can be applied to flexural regions, it is more appropriate and generally yields less conservative designs for regions near discontinuities where the actual flow of forces should be considered in more detail.

5 - 53
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Members subjected to eccentric tension loading, which induces both tensile and compressive stresses in the cross-section, shall be proportioned in accordance with the provisions of Article 5.7.2.

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5.7.6.2 RESISTANCE TO TENSION AND FLEXURE

~

~

~~

Section 5 Concrete Structures ( I S)

-

S T D - A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 H Ob39804 0048777 387
COMMENTARY C5.8.1.2 The response of regions adjacent to abrupt changes in cross-section, openings, dapped ends, deep beams, and corbels is influenced significantly by the details of how the loads are introduced into the region and how the region is supported.

SPECIFICATIONS 5.8.1.2 REGIONS NEAR DISCONTINUITIES Where the plane sections assumption of flexural theory is not valid, regions of members shall be designed for shear and torsion using the strut-and-tie model as specified in Article 5.6.3. The provisions of Article 5.13.2 shall apply. 5.8.1.3 INTERFACE REGIONS Interfaces between elements shall be designed for shear transfer in accordance with the provisions of Article 5.8.4. 5.8.1.4 SLABS AND FOOTINGS Slab-type regions shall be designed for shear in accordance with the provisions of Article 5.13.3.6 or Article 5.6.3.

5.8.2 General Requirements
5.8.2.1 GENERAL The factored torsional resistance, Tr, shall be taken as: Tr = VTn where: T, = cp nominal torsional resistance specified in Article 5.8.3.6 (N-mm) resistance factor specified in Article 5.5.4.2
-|

C5.8.2.1

(5.8.2.1-1)

=

The factored shear resistance, V,, shall be taken as:
||

v r

= cv p,

(5.8.2.1 -2)

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V = ,

nominal shear resistance specified in Article 5.8.3.3 (N)
| || | |||| || | |||||||

cp

= resistance factor as specified in Article 5.5.4.2
If the factored torsional moment is less than onequarter of the factored pure torsional cracking moment, it will cause only a very small reduction in shear capacity or flexural capacity and, hence, can be neglected.
| | || ---

For normal density concrete, torsional effects shall be investigated where:

Tu> 0.25cp T,,
for which:

(5.8.2.1-3)

5-54
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Section 5 Concrete Structures ( I S)

-

SPECIFICATIONS

COMMENTARY

(5.8.2.14)

where: Tu = T , factored torsional moment (N-mm)

= torsional cracking moment (N-mm)
total area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section (mm2) concrete section (mm)

b=
Pc

= the length of the outside perimeter of the

fw

-

compressive stress in concrete after prestress losses have occurred either at the centroid of the cross-section resisting transient loads or at the junction of the web and flange where the centroid lies in the flange (MPa) resistance factor specified in Article 5.5.4.2 LOW-DENSITY C5.8.2.2 The tensile strength and shear capacity of lowdensity concrete is typically somewhat less than that of normal density concrete having the same compressive strength.

o =

5.8.2.2 MODIFICATION8 FOR CONCRETE

Where low-density aggregate concretes are used, the following modifications shall apply in determining resistance to torsion and shear:
0

Where the average splitting tensile strength of lowdensity concrete, fH, is specified, the term JrC in the expressions given in Articles 5.8.2 and 5.8.3 shall be replaced by: 1.8 fH I; Jf',

0

Where fd is not specified, the term 0.75ff', for all lowdensity concrete, and 0.85ff', for sand-lowdensity concrete shall be substituted for Jf', in the expressions given in Articles 5.8.2 and 5.8.3

Linear interpolation may be employed when partial sand replacement is used. 5.8.2.3 TRANSFER AND DEVELOPMENT LENGTHS The provisions of Article 5.1 1.4 shall be considered. C5.8.2.3 The reduced prestress in the transfer length reduces V,, fw, and,f The transfer length influences the tensile . force that can be resisted by the tendons at the inside edge of the bearing area, as described in Article 5.8.3.5.

5 - 55

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Section 5 Concrete Structures (SI)

-

SPECIFICATIONS 5.8.2.4 REGIONS REQUIRING TRANSVERSE REINFORCEMENT Except for slabs, footings, and culverts, transverse reinforcement shall be provided where: Vu > 0.5 @ (V, + V , ) or
0

COMMENTARY C5.8.2.4 Transverse reinforcement, which usually consists of stirrups, is required in all regions where there is a significant chance of diagonal cracking.

(5.8.2.4-1)

Where consideration of torsion is required by Equation 5.8.2.1-3

where: Vu = V = , V = , factored shear force (N) nominal shear resistance of the concrete (N) component of prestressing force in direction of the shear force (N)

JI = resistance factor specified in Article 5.5.4.2
5.8.2.5 MINIMUM TRANSVERSE REINFORCEMENT C5.8.2.5 A minimum amount of transverse reinforcement is required to restrain the growth of diagonal cracking and to increase the ductility of the section. A larger amount of transverse reinforcement is required to control cracking as the concrete strength is increased.

I

Where transverse reinforcement is required, as specified in Article 5.8.2.4, the area of steel shall satisfy:

i5.8.2.5-,1

A ,

= area of a transverse reinforcement within distance s (mm2) = width of web adjusted for the presence of ducts
as specified in Article 5.8.2.9 (mm)

I

b ,

s = spacing o transverse reinforcement (mm) f
f,,

= yield strength of transverse reinforcement (MPa)
C5.8.2.6 Stirrups inclined at less than 45" to the longitudinal reinforcement are difficult to anchor effectively against slip and, hence, are not permitted. Inclined stirrups and prestressed tendons should be oriented to intercept potential diagonal cracks at an angle as close to normal as practical.

5.8.2.6 TYPES OF TRANSVERSE REINFORCEMENT Transverse reinforcement may consist of: Stirrups making an angle not less than 45" with the longitudinal tension reinforcement,

5-56

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S T D - A A S H T O SRCH

LRFD-SI-ENGL 1778 9 Ob39804 005754b 7 5 2

Section 5 Concrete Structures (SI)

-

SPECIFICATIONS
0

COMMENTARY
To increase shear capacity, transverse reinforcement should be capable of undergoing substantial strain prior to failure. Welded wire fabric, particularly if fabricated from small wires and not stressrelieved after fabrication, may fail before the required strain is reached. Such failures may occur at or between the cross-wire intersections. For some large bridge girders, prestressed tendons perpendicular to the member axis may be an efficient form of transverse reinforcement. Because the tendons are short, care must be taken to avoid excessive loss of prestress due to anchorage slip or seating losses.

Welded wire fabric, with wires located perpendicular to the axis of the member, provided that the transverse wires are certified to undergo a minimum elongation of 4 percent, measured over a gage length of at least 100 mm including at least one cross wire: or Anchored prestressed tendons, detailed and constructed to minimize seating and timedependent losses, which make an angle not less than 45" with the longitudinal tension reinforcement.

0

Torsional reinforcement shall consist of both transverse and longitudinal reinforcement. Transverse reinforcement shall consist of closed stirrups perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the member. 5.8.2.7 MAXIMUM SPACING OF TRANSVERSE REINFORCEMENT The spacing of the transverse reinforcement shall C5.8.2.7 Sections that are highly stressed in shear require more closely spaced reinforcement to provide crack control.

I not exceed the maximum permitted spacing, s ,
I determined as:

I

0

If vue 0.125 PC,then:

I
1
I
e

, , s

= 0.8 d ,

I 600

mm

(5.8.2.7-1)

If vu2 0.125 VC, then:

, , s
where:

= 0.4 d ,

i

300 mm

(5.8.2.7-2)

I I I

V"

= the shear stress calculated in accordance
with 5.8.2.9 (MPa)

I d"

= effective shear depth as defined in Article
5.8.2.9 (mm)

Transverse reinforcement shall be anchored at both ends in accordance with the provisions of Article .2.6. For composite flexural members, extension of 5.1I beam shear reinforcement into the deck slab may be considered when determining if the development and anchorage provisions of Article 5.1I are satisfied. .2.6

To be effective, the transverse reinforcement should be anchored at each end in a manner that minimizes slip.
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5.8.2.8 DESIGN AND DETAILING REQUIREMENTS

C5.8.2.8

|

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In determining b at a particular level, the diameters , of ungrouted ducts or one-half the diameters of grouted ducts at that level shall be subtracted from the web width.

Posttensioning ducts act as discontinuities and, hence, reduce the crushing strength of concrete webs. This provision applies for even a single duct in a crosssection. The reduction of web applies over the whole depth d , .
| | || ---

2 I I I In determining the web width at a particular level.2. In determining which level over the effective depth of the beam has the minimum width.7.4.9 SHEAR STRESS ON CONCRETE I C5. V.2. I width.9-I . -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| .8h. 1 I between the resultants of the tensile and 1 I compressive forces due to flexure. of the section is close to the minimum value. plus 420 MPa. for the section shown in Figure CI.9 x 0.8h.9-1) I l I Note that other limitations on the value of d to be . it is the additional strain required to increase the stress above the effective stress caused by the prestress that is of concern. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. . The 0. measured parallel to the neutral axis.Illustration of the Terms b. | | || --- I 5.8. Thus. the value of b would be reduced. used are specified.9-1) 1 I l where: I l b = effective web width taken as the minimum web .8. the distance between the resultants of the tensile and compressive forces due to flexure can be determined as: d.8. I measured perpendicular to the neutral axis. can reduce the crushing strength of concrete webs.3. For prestressed tendons. I 1 one-half the diameters of ungrouted ducts or one. and hence controls b levels which contain a posttensioningduct . I I modified for the presence of ducts where I applicable (mm) I I I I I d = effective shear depth taken as the distance. and d. or I I 0. the diameter of the section.002 to develop its yield strength.9 I I I The shear stress on the concrete shall be I determined as: I (5. I I l I I I I Figure C5. it need not I be taken to be less than the greater of 0.5. The design yield strength of prestressed transverse reinforcement shall be taken as the effective stress.8.8. 5 58 COPYRIGHT 2002. = M" A s f y + Apsfps (C5. Posttensioning ducts act as discontinuities and hence.3.A A S H T O S R C H LRFD-SI-ENGL 1778 D Ob3780Li 00575117 877 I Section 5 . If the location of the tendon were raised such that the tendon is locatedwithin the narrow portion of the web.1 -1.3 are based on the assumption that the strain in the transverse reinforcement has to attain a value of 0.9 d.. Previouseditions of these Standard Specifications permitted d for prestressed members to be taken as 0. or several ducts shall have their widths reduced. .72h limit on d is 0. . I between the resultants of the tensile and I I compressive forces due to flexure. For flexural members complying with Equation 5.Concrete Structures (SI) SPECIFICATIONS The design yield strength of nonprectressed transverse reinforcement shall not exceed 420 MPa.72h (mm) I l l l 4 = resistance factor for shear specified in Article I I 5.2. the posttensioning duct in the position shown would not reduce b because it is not at a level where the width . COMMENTARY Some of the provisions of Article 5. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.8. or for 1 I circular sections.. after allowance for all prestress losses.2.2. User=. Components o inclined flexural compression andíor f flexural tension in variable depth members shall be considered when calculating shear resistance.S T D . The components in the direction of the applied shear of inclined flexural compression and inclined flexural tension can be accounted for in the same manner as the component of the longitudinal prestressing force. 1 . but not greater than fp.I I quarter the diameterof grouted ducts at that level shall I I be subtracted from the web width.

can be determined from Equation C I provided that M.8. the highest shear stresses typically occur near the middepth of the section.8.3.9-2) D I d =-+J D e 2 n I I where: I I D = external diameter of the circular member (mm) I I D.2. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. d. 1 for additional requirements ~ for Seismic Zones 3 and 4. This is also true when the s section is not cracked. It i for this reason that the I effective webwidth can be taken as the diameter of the I section.59 Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. d can be taken as 0. . = diameter of the circle passing through the I centersof the longitudinalreinforcement (mm) I I -T I I 1 I I I 1 1 I I Figure C5.3. User=. taken as the . is calculated ignoring the effects of axial load and that the reinforcement areas..1.8. See Article 5. Usually this check is made at the tenth points of the span and at locations near the supports.3 Sectional Design Model | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- 5. COPYRIGHT 2002.8.STD-AASHTO SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL Section 5 Concrete Structures (SI) SPECIFICATIONS 1998 - üb31804 0057548 725 E COMMENTARY I I I I I I I I For circular members. are reinforcementin one-half of the section. .8. A and b.11 .1 In the sectional design approach. the component is investigated by comparing the factored shear force and the factored shear resistance at a number of sections along its length. 4 .9-2 -Illustration of Terms b d and d.. C5. such as reinforced concrete columns or prestressed concrete piles. 5 .2.1 GENERAL The sectional design model may be used for shear design where permitted in accordance with the provisionsof Article 5. where: . When the member cracks.8. Alternatively. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office -- 5. ((25. Circular Sections Circular members usually have the longitudinal reinforcement uniformly distributed around the perimeter of the section. for .9d.10.

the location of the critical section for shear shall be taken as the larger of 0.2 shall be considered. the shear demand and resistance provided is assumed to be as shown in Figure CI. The stirrups are then detailed such that this spacing is not exceeded over a length of the beam extending from the design section to the next design section out into the span.3. (25. where d. Knowledge of these may help to reconcile published research to traditional design practice.Concrete Structures (SI) Ob39804 0057547 bbL SPECIFICATIONS In lieu of the methods specified herein.60 U '99 900 COPYRIGHT 2002. For nonprestressed beams supported on bearings that introduce compression into the member. the design section on each side of the reaction shall be determined separately based upon the loads on each side of the reaction and whether their respective contribution to the total reaction introduces tension or compression into the end region. anchorage zone reinforcement shall be provided as specified in Article 5. the design section shall be taken at the internal face of the support. shear failures occur over an inclined plane and a shear crack typically intersects a number of stirrups.1.9. There are. COMMENTARY An appropriate nonlinear finite element analysis or a detailed sectional analysis would satisfy the requirements of this article. investigation shall be based either on the principles outlined above or on a three-dimensional strut-and-tie model. -- | || | || ||| 5. more theoretically exact stirrup designs. For pretensioned beams. User=. More information on appropriate procedures and a computer program that satisfies these requirements are given by Collins and Mitchell (1991). and 9 are measuredat the critical section for shear.Traditional Shear Design Unlike flexural failures. Each of the stirrups intersected by this crack participates in resisting the applied shear. from the internal face of the support. The length of the failure along the longitudinal axis of the member is approximately d cot . and a corresponding computer-aided solution is presented in Rabbat and Collins (1976).8.8.3.2-1 .2 SECTIONS NEAR SUPPORTS | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- . American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. Where consideration of simultaneous shear in a second direction is warranted.S T D . Where the reaction force in the direction of the applied shear introduces compression into the end region of a member.10. The traditional approach to proportioning transverse reinforcement involves the determination of the required stirrup spacing at discrete sections along the member.10. Otherwise. In such an approach. Location along member e-stirrupzone I I 1 l l 1 / 1 1 Figure C5. a reinforcement cage confining the ends of strands shall be provided as specified in Article 5. only minimal transverse reinforcement may be provided between the inside edge of the bearing plate or pad and the end of the beam. however. The relationship between the location of the design section and the longitudinal zone of stirrups that resist the shear 5 . 0.5 d cot 0 or d . For posttensioned beams. Where the beam-typeelement extends on both sides of the reaction area. A discussion of the effect of biaxial shear on the design of reinforced concrete beamto-column joints can be found in Pauley and Priestley (1992).2 The provisions of Article 5..A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1978 Section 5 .8.3. the resistance of members in shear or in shear combined with torsion may be determined by satisfying the conditions of equilibrium and compatibility of strains and by using experimentally verified stress-strain relationships for reinforcement and for diagonally cracked concrete. One possible approach to the analysis of biaxial shear and other complex loadings on concrete members is outlined in Rabbat and Collins (1978). . Loads close to the support are transferred directly to the support by compressive arching action without causing additional stresses in the stirrups. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.8.10.

A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL Section 5 .3. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.2-3 .Simplified Design Section For Loads Applied at or Above the Middepth of the Member || O | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| . M !-O5 ci. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. the design section could be located by determining where the vertical centroid of the applied loads intersects a shear crack inclined at an angle 8 as shown in Figure C2. The approach taken in Figure C3 has the effect of extending the required stirrup spacing for a distance of 0. it is more practical to take the traditional approach as shown in Figure C I or a more liberal yet conservative approach as shown in Figure C3. '99 'O0 -- | I Figure C5. User=.Concrete Structures ( I S) S PECI FICATIONS 1778 Ob37804 0057550 3 8 3 M COMMENTARY at that design section is a function of the vertical position of the load applied to the member. cot e Figure C5. Location I "u Mu design section Effective zone of stirrups d.3.8. including its selfweight. cot û A ---OS cot û-ri d.2-2 .5dV 8 toward the bearing. cot I I Location design section | | || --- I Vu. Ideally.S T D . ~ 5-61 COPYRIGHT 2002.8.Theoretical Shear Design Section Location For typical cases where the applied load acts at or above the middepth of the member.

In this case. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. cot * I Figure C5.8.S T D .62 -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- O '99 'O0 COPYRIGHT 2002.Effective Transverse Reinforcement to Members Subjected Primarily to Concentrated Loads Figure C5 shows a case where an inverted T-beam acts as a pier cap and the longitudinal members are supported by the flange of the T. all of the stirrups falling within the failure zone may be assumed effective in resisting the applied shear force. The traditional approach shown in Figure C I is even more conservative in this case. .8. 4 I I I Location I I I-d.3. a significant amount of the load is applied below the middepth of the member.2-4 . Z I T Section 5 .A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1778 E Ob39809 fl0. Cross Section Elevation Figure (3.Concrete Structures (SI) SPECIFICATIONS COMMENTARY If the significant portion of the loads being resisted by the member are applied at a bearing resting on top of the member.3. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. and it is more appropriate to use the traditional approach to shear design shown in Figure CI.2-5 .5755. User=.Inverted T-Beam Pier Cap 5 . load application as shown in Figure C4. As with the previous case. the shear failure zone extends for a distance of approximately d cot 8 beyond the point of .

= v.9(mm) spacing of stirrups (mm) concrete to transmit tension as specified in Article 5. a component. stresses in the concrete.8. a = angle of inclination of transverse reinforcement A . V that relies on tensile ..25 f'.3. V determined as the lesser of: C5. = 0.8. V that is the vertical component of the .d. (5. Equation 4 reduces to: shall be v. .2.13.3. Provisions for beam ledge design are given in Article 5.3. positive if resisting the applied shear (N) 5-63 1'99 'O0 COPYRIGHT 2002.8.3-1) I d . V = 0. = v. is . User=. | ||||||| . 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. . prestressed and nonprestressed sections. and a component.8. + v. V. The nominal shear resistance. 5.Concrete Structures (SI) SPECIFICATIONS Ob39804 0057552 L5h I COMMENTARY The T-beam pier cap shown in Figure C5 acts as a beam ledge and should be designed for the localized effects caused by the concentrated load applied to the Tbeam flange.3-1) tensile stresses in the transverse reinforcement. cote S (C5.3-4) where a = go".8. apply to both .3.9 (mm) effective shear depth as determined in Article 5. that relies on (5.3.v. = effective web width taken as the minimum web width within the depth d as determined in Article .3-3) The upper limit of V given by Equation 2.A A S H T O S R C H LRFD-SI-ENGL 3998 Section 5 .. prestressing force. -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || v. (5.3.083ß@ bvdv v.8. .2.8.3.dv(cot8 + cota)sina S where: b. = Avf.3.2. therefore.S P D .8.4 to longitudinal axis (DEG) The angle 8 is. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. b d + V. (5.3 The shear resistance of a concrete member may be separated into a component.8. +.3 NOMINAL SHEAR RESISTANCE .8.3. intended to ensure that the concrete in the web of the beam will not crush prior to yield of the transverse reinforcement. 5. also taken as the angle between a strut and the longitudinal axis of a member.. = area of shear reinforcement within a distance s (mm2) | | || --- = component in the direction of the applied shear of the effective prestressing force.4 Avf.8. with the terms ß and 8 depending on the applied loading and the properties of the section. = = I s ß = factor indicating ability of diagonally cracked e = angle of inclination of diagonal compressive (DEG) stresses as determined in Article 5. for which: V.5.3-2) The expressions for V and V.

the values of ß and ti shall be as specified in Table 2. of the section can be determined by considering the biaxial stress conditions at just one location in the web.4.A. the procedure illustrated in Figure C3. User=.Mu. The more direct procedure given herein assumes that the concreteshear stresses are uniformly distributed over an area b wide and d deep. ex I shall be determined as: I If the section contains at least the minimum I transverse reinforcement as specified in Article I 5. The area of the compressionflange is taken as the area on the flexure compression side of the member. it is appropriate to perform the biaxial stress calculations at the location in the web subject to the highest longitudinal tensile strain. .and Vuas shown in Figure 1.3. E can be determined by . 1 1 5 0.1 VVith ß taken as 2.0 -- e = 450 I 5. and Vu as shown in Figure 2.In using this table. specified in Table i. see Figure C i .8.8.2-1) 0 I I If the section contains less than the minimum transverse reinforcement as specified in Article 5.4 DETERMINATION OF p AND e 5.5: I | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- I | || I I I I (F + 0.8.. and a web.2.2-2) I I 1 I I 5 0.2 General Procedure | || | || ||| I I I l l I C5.3.5(V. the values of ß and ti shall be as . would show that the shear stresses are not uniform over the depth of the web and that the direction of the principal compressive stresses changes over the depth of the beam. it is appropriate to use the middepth of the member as the location at which the biaxial stress conditions are determined. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. have less capacity for shear stress redistribution.8.0 and 0 as 45". however.4.3. Recent large-scale experiments (Shioya et al. + 0.8. Nu. 2(E. For sections containing less transverse reinforcement than specified in Article 5.4.5N. Hence.5Nu + 0. The longitudinal strain. E shall be taken as the calculated longitudinal strain at the middepth of the memberwhenthesection is subjected to Mu.8. The actual section is represented by an idealized section consisting of a flexural tension flange. or the following values may be used: ß = 2.002 I I I I I (5.3.ApCfpo l l l I E.8.3.5. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.3.5. Le.3.8. Such an analysis. principal compressive stresses (defined by angle 0) remains constant over d and that the shear strength .4. Members that contain no transverse reinforcement.2. a flexural compression flange. see Figure 2. In using this table.5.5(Vu.4. Because of this capacity to redistribute. for such members.2. the expressions for shear strength become essentially identical to those traditionally used for evaluating shear resistance. the total area 5 64 COPYRIGHT 2002.3. E shall be taken as the largest .8.Apsfpo = EsAs + EpAps I l I I (5.8. having an overall depth of less than 400 mm.2. that the direction of .Vp)cotû ..8.1 Sections Simplified Procedure for Nonprestressed C5. 1989).8.8.A A S H T O S R C H LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 I Ub39E04 0057553 O92 W Section 5 Concrete Structures (SI) SPECIFICATIONS 5.002 I The shear resistance of a member may be determined by performing a detailedsectional analysis that satisfies the requirementsof Article 5. Members containing at least the minimum amount of transverse reinforcement have a considerable capacity to redistribute shear stresses from the most highly strained portion of the cross-section to the less highly strained portions.S T D .5: (?+ I EX 0. calculated longitudinal strain which occurs within the web of the member when the section is subjected to I Nu. I Unless more accurate calculations are made. See Figure C2.2.4.2 I I I I I I l I l I l I I For sections containing at least the minimum I amount of transverse reinforcement specified in Article 5. or contain less than the minimum amount of transverse reinforcement.1. have demonstrated that these traditional expressions can be seriously unconservative for large members not containing transverse reinforcement. COMMENTARY - For nonprestressed concrete sections not subjected to axial tension and containing at least the minimum amount of transverse reinforcement specified in Article 5. - Vp)cotû . . = + EpAp.

E N G L Section 5 . is not greater than 0. pretensioned simple beams made continuous for live load will be estimated in a very conservative manner by Equations 1 through 3 because. .V . will primarily be carried by diagonal compressivestresses in the web concrete. User=. bars which are terminated at a distance less than their development length from the section under consideration shall be ignored.4. = A. .A A S H T O SRCH L R F D . = Ex =. .75 x I O 3 and vlf'. If. Thus from Table 1.3. Equation2 makes ..8. Equilibrium requires that this longitudinal compressive force in the web needs to be balanced by tensile forces in the two flanges. becomes one half of e. for use in this equation. The crack spacing parameters. the values of ß and 8 given in a particular cell of the table can be applied over a range of values. For members containing less than the minimum amount of transverse reinforcement. Note that in both Table Iand Table 2. f - a parameter taken as modulus of elasticity of prestressing tendons multiplied by the locked in difference in strain betweenthe prestressing tendons and the surrounding concrete (MPa). taken as positive if tensile and negative if compressive (N) but not to be taken less than V . are positive for tensile strains and negative for compressive strains. as illustrated in Figure 1.3.4. . as shown in Figure 1. For members containing at least the minimum amount of transverse reinforcement.2-1) o . used in Table 2 shall be determined as: where e. the shear capacity of sections near the ends of precast.4" and ß=2. These diagonal compressive stresses will result in a longitudinal compressive force in the web concrete of (Vu-V. For posttensioned members.7 fpu be appropriatefor both pretensioned will and posttensioned members. taken as positive quantity. 2 ((25. it will be more appropriate to . American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. d (Nemm) Nu = Mu = factored moment. (mm') A.2-3) where: A. the resulting axial strains. the strain E. will not be included in Aps. minus the area of the tension flange as defined by A. the strain shall be taken as: [9 + OSN. taken as positive quantity (NI vu = Within the transfer length. approximately equal to the jacking stress. After the required axial forces in the two flanges are calculated. For example. and E can be . therefore.. can be taken as the f stress in the strands when the concrete is cast around them. as shown in Figure I(mm2) area of nonprestressed steel on the flexural tension side of the member at the section under consideration. for a member subject to flexure. e. the prestressing strands are located on the flexural compression side and... then e.Vp) cot 0 . calculated based on the axial force-axial strain relationship shown in Figure C4. 0=34. at these locations. with half the force being taken by each flange.- ~ __ -~ _ __ S T D . the conservative simplification that E is equal to E. and E. Equations I For pretensioned members.5(Vu . = area of concrete on the flexural tension side of the member as shown in Figure 1 (mm2) area of prestressing steel on the flexural tension side of the member. V u . 1. This will result in the benefits of prestressing not accounted for by through 3.Apsfpo 1 (5. the shear force applied to the web concrete.Concrete Structures (SI) SPECIFICATIONS 1978 m Ob39804 0057551i T29 m COMMENTARY . In calculating A. After diagonal cracks have formed in the web. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. is not greater than 5-65 -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- COPYRIGHT 2002.8. fposhall be increased linearly from zero at the location where the bonc between the strands and concrete commences to its full value at the end of the transfer length. factored axial force. determine E using the more accurate procedure of Equation C1 rather than the simpler Equations 1 through 3. In some situations. is assumed to be negligibly small.f can be conservatively taken as the average stress in the tendons when the posttensioning is completed. This is the basis for the expression for e given in Equation .)cotO.. factored shear force. For the usual levels of prestressing. The flexural tension side of the member shall bt taken as the half-depth containing the flexural tensior zone.26 can be used provided that e. Le. + 0.E t +E ..S I . a value o1 0. ex can be taken as: I I o If the value of e from Equations 1or 2 is negative.

V.2-2 . As in most design problems. the moment required to cause this chosen value of E ~ .4. as shown in Figure 3 (mm) "' - '' + 12000mm C | | || --- I tension side "U T Forces I I Figure 5.3. ¡. from Equations I through 3.3.3. User=.4. for Sections 1 Containing Less than the Minimum Amount of 1 Transverse Reinforcement I I I I I I l I I Section Longitudinal Strains Longitudinal Forces I 5 .125. The shear capacity corresponding to the provided shear reinforcement can be found by linearly interpolating between the values of V. but will ag = maximum aggregate size (mm) I increase the tension force required to be resisted by the I longitudinal reinforcement. After V..-M. Smaller values of û will typically I require less transverse shear reinforcement. see Figure C6.e.4. For a known concrete strength and a certain value of E each cell of Table 1 .8. interaction diagram.8.2.ag 0. 8. 5. The predicted moment capacity will be the lower of these two values. I For sections containing a specified amount of transverse reinforcement.003b.8. can be calculated directly from the procedures in this article.2-1 through 5. where the area of the reinforcement in each layer is not less than 0.4. it is appropriate to replace Vuby V.8. .3. and 8 have been found .S T D . l I I I l 1 I I Figure 5. but is not recommended for . a shear-moment interaction diagram. the moment required to yield the reinforcement. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.3. f between layers o longitudinal crack control reinforcement.8. corresponding to two consecutive cells where one cell requires more transverse reinforcement than actually provided and the other cell requires less reinforcement than actually provided. . a certain . in this manner.8.3.2-1 . In using Equations 5.9-1. Figure C5 illustrates the .2-4) I the tables may be used. value of V This value of V requires an amount of transverse reinforcement expressed in terms of the parameter &frJ(bvs). from Equation 5.2-3 of the procedure to calculate a V.4.sx.8...A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENhL 1198 M Ob3980Y fl057555 9b5 E Section 5 Concrete Structures (SI) SPECIFICATIONS COMMENTARY - I I I l I l I l I l I I 0. corresponds to a certain value of vif'.65.5-1.63 I hand calculations.3. Linear interpolation between the values given in (5.5-1 and 5.=O. = the lesser of either d or the maximum distance I shear design process by means of a flow chart. .8.Illustration of Shear Parameters for Section Containing at Least the Minimum Amount of I Transverse Reinforcement. the corresponding moment capacity M can be found by calculating.1 COPYRIGHT 2002. -- | || | || ||| Section Sectional Forces Diagonal Cracks Equivalent Longitudinal Strains | || | |||| || | ||||||| . 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. and calculating. I choosing appropriate values of ß and 0 may require where: I some trial and error.Longitudinal Strain.

8.3. if there is no transverse I reinforcement. (a) Member without transverse reinforcement and with concentrated longitudinal reinforcemeni I I (b) Member without transverse reinforcement but with well distributed longitudinal reinforcement I I Figure 5. The ability of the crack surfaces to s transmit shear stresses i influenced by the aggregate size of the concrete.1 Cross Section Shear Stresses Longitudinal Strains I Sectional Forces Figure C5.More Direct Procedure to Determine Shear Resistance in Accordance with Article 5.S T D . For members containing at least the s minimum amount of transverse reinforcement.4.2 -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- COPYRIGHT 2002. I Muby M. having larger values of s are calculated to have more widely spaced cracks and hence.3.2 5 . .2-1 .Detailed Sectional Analysis to Determine Shear Resistance in Accordance with Article 5. will have a smaller shear strength. the stress that can be transmitted decreases.the spacing of diagonal cracks inclined at 9" to the longitudinal reinforcement is assumed to be sJsinû.Definition of Crack Spacing Cross Section Shear Stresses Longitudinal Strains Principal Compressive Stress Trajectories Figure C5.2-3 I Parameters.3.8. I With an appropriate spreadsheet.4. I I I I I l I I I I I I I l I I I The values of ß and 9 listed in Table 1 and Table 2 are based on calculating the stresses that can be transmitted across diagonally cracked concrete. Members made from concretesthat have a smaller maximum aggregate size will have a s I larger value of .8.4.A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1 7 7 0 Section 5 Concrete Structures (SI) SPECIFICATIONS flexural compression zone - COMMENTARY . Hence. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. deeper members . For members without transverse reinforcement.8. the use of shearl moment interaction diagrams is a convenient way of I performing shear design and evaluation. as shown in Figure 3.8. and hence. . As the cracks become wider. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. User=. cannot transmit such high shear stresses.O. it i assumed that the diagonal cracks will be spaced about 300 mm apart.3.4. and Nuby N and to take the value of cp as 1.2-2 .65.3.

More Accurate Calculation Procedurefor DeterminingE.3.23 .24 -AssumedRelationsBetweenAxial I Force in Flange and Axial Strain of Flange 5 .4.4.8. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. User=. .65. I I I Apk&0 T A Axial Strain (Tensile Positive) b I I Figure(25.3.Section 5 Concrete Structures (SI) - SPECIFICATIONS COMMENTARY I T flange Actual Section Idealized Section External Sectional Forces Calculated Strains Forces in Flanges I I Figure C5. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.8.3 -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- COPYRIGHT 2002.

longitudinal reinforcement I Figure C5.S T D = A A S H T O SRCH L R F D .8.2-1 | || | |||| || Calculate shear stress ratio v/.E N G L Section 5 Concrete Structures (SI) L77ô m Ob3980Y 0057558 b 7 4 - SPECIFICATIONS COMMENTARY ~ I Calculate Vp Calculate E* Eo.3. calculsiu Lhe average effective value offP the development length of any reinforcing bars calculate the effective value o1 A. -- | || | || ||| | ||||||| üetermine &. I I I I I Oeiunnine lranswrse reinforcement to ensure Vus +Vn Eq. User=.2.9 Q i I Assume value of E# and taka 0 and ß from corresponding coil of Table 1. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.S I . t | | || --- .3 I Yes I Choose valuer o r e I and B CONespOnding t larger E Table 1 a .3.Flow Chart for Shear Design of I Section Containing at Least Minimum Transverse I Reinforcement I 5 .8.65.4 COPYRIGHT 2002.0.8.Z.and dv Eq. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.3. . 5. 5.2-5 .9-1 than assumed t If the section is within lhe transfer lenglh oi any strands.E.4. 5. 5.= Ea.4.

. 4 7- I I FigureC5.AASHTO SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL Section 5 ..Concrete Structures (SI) SPECIFICATIONS L778 Ub3180q 0057557 soo m COMMENTARY -3 I L E. .2-6 -Typical Shear-MomentInteraction I Diagram I I More details on the procedures used in deriving I the tabulated values of 0 and ß are given in Collins and I Mitchell (1991).65.. -- | || | || ||| | || 5 . .5 | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- .ST9.4. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.. User=.8..1 x 10 1o3 Vn I I Longitudinal reinforcement . American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105..= -0. .3. COPYRIGHT 2002....

44 30.61 38.5 2.6 1.67 43.4 4.2-2 Values of 9 and ß for Sections without Transverse Reinforcement - 5 .7 2. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.40 29.69 43.3 1.5 1.1 2.7 2.9 2.7 2.33 10.9 2.8 1.60 28.6 2.3 2.8 2.7 2.93 41.82 39.8 2.08 36.8 1.0 4.7 2.61 42.4. -- | || | || ||| | || | I I |||| || | ||||||| I | | || --- .79 24.36 32.70 ~0.54 41.2 1.0 1.59 30.43 30.52 29.4 2.63 26.2 2.14 34.59 27.9 3.10 22.94 34.51 38.62 28.8 3.5 2.8 2.67 42.25 26.75 22.74 26.8 2.3 3.3 1.9 2. User=.23 36.71 39.175 50.14 32.39 20.29 I l I I 50.32 18.3 6.7 1.95 40.94 27.0 2.24 24.2 2.05 SO 21.38 a2.9 1.6 2.3 2.250 1 I l l l I Table 5.32 34.5 3.79 35.2 1.34 30.99 23.52 27.00 36.88 23.1 2.1 3.79 19.38 34.18 37.50 31.60 27.4 2. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.39 a-0.53 27.1 2.64 35.7 2.4 3.33 I I I I I l 50.4 2.0 .7 1.51 28.125 10.7 2.2 1.96 36.73 24.73 34.6 COPYRIGHT 2002.45 28.75 27.150 ~~ 21.9 2.4 3.90 40.6 2.2 1. Section 5 Concrete Structures (SI) - 1778 D Ob37804 00S75b0 2 2 2 COMMENTARY SPECIFICATIONS I I V f: ~ .0 2.3 1.8 2.9 2.75 33.9 2.14 23.28 32.91 25.65 26.75 20.47 41.93 50.78 25.87 25.50 40.6 2.0 1.42 32.8 1.S T D = A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL. 2 0 5-0.7 1.38 21.24 22.66 26.5 2.14 31.72 26.1 1.8 1.94 24.100 50.7 2.10 21.00 43.9 2.50 11.4 2.125 24.5 2.6 2.65.37 30.8.8 1.1 2.18 21.26 34.7 2.21 35.3.2 2.200 10.1 1.8 1.86 32.42 29.52 29.5 1.0 2.1 2.225 60.0 2.12 10.075 10.8 1.0 2.3 2.39 41.58 11.0 2.4 1.2 2.13 37.50 30.

is greater than or equal to the force T calculated as: I where: (5. shear and axial resistance If the reaction force or the load at the maximum moment location introduces direct compression into the flexural compression face of the member.e. has a negligible moment about Point O.5-1 . For sections not subjected to torsion.4 PEG) resistancefactors taken from Article 5. longitudinal reinforcement shall be proportioned so that at each section the tensile capacity of the reinforcement on the flexural tension side of the member.3.3.Forces Assumed in Resistance Model Caused by Moment and Shear 5-66 COPYRIGHT 2002. angle û becomes steeper.0.3. taking into account any lack of full development of that reinforcement.. except V.3. The tension in the reinforcement does not exceed that due to the maximum moment alone. -- | || | || ||| | || At maximum moment locations. ¡. The tension in the longitudinal reinforcement caused by the shear force can be visualized from a free body diagram such as that shown in Figure CI.3. assuming that the aggregate interlock force on the crack. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.STDWAASHTO SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL Section 5 .5. User=. and hence the inclination of the diagonal compressive stresses changes. the shear force changes sign. this change of inclination is associated with a fan-shaped pattern of compressive stresses radiating from the point load or the direct support as shown in Figure C2. becomes larger.2 as appropriate for moment. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. .Concrete Structures (SI) SPECIFICATIONS 5.8.5 LONGITUDINAL REINFORCEMENT COMMENTARY C5. This fanning of the diagonal stresses reduces the tension in the longitudinal reinforcement caused by the shear.3-4. At direct supports and point loads.5 d.8. this tension becomes larger as 9 becomes smaller and as V. which contributes to V .5-1) shear resistance provided by the transverse reinforcement a t the section under investigation as given by Equation 5. | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- .. For a given shear.8. Taking moments about Point O in Figure CI. Cot e .8.5 Shear causes tension in the longitudinal reinforcement.4. leads to the requirement for the tension force in the longitudinal reinforcement caused by shear. shall not be taken as greater than vu4 (NI angle of inclination of diagonal compressive stresses used in determining the nominal shear resistance of the section under investigation as determined by Article 5. cot 0 I- I Figure C5.3.8. the area of longitudinal reinforcement on the flexural tension side of the member need not exceed the area required to resist the maximum moment acting alone.5 i.8. 0. and neglecting the small difference in location of Vu and V.

or d from the face . a linear variation of resistance over the development length or the transfer length may be assumed. and for the concurrent torsion.5-2 .6 SECTIONS SUBJECTED TO COMBINED SHEAR AND TORSION 5.6. Tension due to shear 1 (b) Tension Foice in Longitudinal Reinforcement Figure C5.8.8. as specified in Article 5.2.3.3. Usually the loading that causes the highest torsion differs from the loading that causes the highest shear. ) simple end supports. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.~ ~ S T D * A A S H T O S R C H LRFD-SI-ENGL L998 Section 5 Concrete Structures (SI) SPECIFICATIONS - = Ob39804 0048790 810 I COMMENTARY The longitudinal reinforcement on the flexural tension side of the member shall resist a tensile force of (VJq 0.2. it is only necessary to design for the highest shear and its concurrent torsion. Although it is sometimes convenient to design for the highest torsion combined with the highest shear. V and 8.5 d cote. The transverse reinforcement is designed for the side where the effects are additive.3.Force Variation in Longitudinal Reinforcement Near Maximum Moment Locations In determining the tensile force that the reinforcement is expected to resist at the inside edgb of .1 The shear stresses due to torsion and shear will add on one side of the section and offset on the other side. C5. 5.8.V cot0 at the inside edge of the bearing area at . of the support may be used.8.3. the bearing area. COPYRIGHT 2002.5 V . . In calculating the tensile resistance of the longitudinal reinforcement.3. the values of Vu.1 and 5. and the highest torsion and its concurrent shear.1 Transverse Reinforcement The transverse reinforcement shall not be less than the sum of that required for shear.6. . as specified in Articles 5.8. V.3. .6..8.8. User=. calculated for the section 0.3. 5-67 Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- (a) Beam Subjected to Pdnt Load Tension due to m m no e t.

3.3. v. including any area of holes therein (mm2) area of one leg of closed transverse torsion reinforcement (mm2) angle of crack as determined in accordance with the provisions of Article 5." there is the possibility of considerable redistribution of shear stresses.____________ S T D .2 The term A.3.8. User=.2-2.4 with the modifications to the expressions for v and Vu herein (DEG) For a box girder.. with the shear stress.fcotû S COMMENTARY C5.4.2-1) where: & = A.8.4. = (5.8. it is safe to use a root-mean-square approach in calculating the nominal shear stress for these cross-sections. shall be determined using Equation 5.3.2-3) 0 For other sections (5.3. as appropriate. û = For combined shear and torsion.8.4. T.8.A A S H T O S R C H LRFD-SI-ENGL 3998 Section 5 Concrete Structures (SI) - Ob39804 0048793 757 W SPECIFICATIONS 5.3.3.85 Aoh.3.8.6.6. The justification for this generally conservative substitution is given in Collins (1991). the shear stress due to shear and the shear stress due to torsion will add together on one side of the box girder.8.8.6. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. To make some allowance for this favorable redistribution. = area enclosed by the shear flow path.8.68 | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- . as indicated in Equations 2 and 4.3.2-1 or Table 5. -- 5 .6. can usually be taken as 0. taken as: 0 For box sections (5. For other cross-sectional shapes.2-2.2-4) where: perimeter of the centerline of the closed transverse torsion reinforcement (mm) area enclosed by centerline of exterior closed transverse torsion reinforcement. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.2-2) The angle 8 shall be as specified in either Table 5. with V.6. including area of any holes (mm') COPYRIGHT 2002.3. such as a rectangle or an "I. replaced by: (5.8.6.2 Torsional Resistance The nominal torsional resistance shall be taken as: 2AoA.

1-3) I I The nominal shear resistance& shall satisfy: V. Relative displacement is considered to be resisted by cohesion and friction.1 GENERAL Interface shear transfer shall be considered across a given plane at: C5.8. .8.8.5. = A discontinuity is assumed to occur along the shear plane.4. (5. herein. where: V.3-1) 5. Equations 2 and 3 provides an upper limit on V nominal shear resistance (N) area of concrete engaged in shear transfer (mm2) plane (mm2) A. + ~ ~ [ b+f P J n yc (5. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. = A .4. shear displacement will cause a widening of the discontinuity.3. the equivalent tension used in the design equation is taken as the square root of the sum of the squares of the individually calculated tensions in the web. A.. This opening will cause tension in the reinforcement crossing the discontinuity balanced by compressive stresses on the concrete discontinuity surfaces. . i 0.1-1) used in the design (5. .8.3.8. or | | || --- o An existing or potential crack.6.8. = area of shear reinforcement crossing the shear 5-69 COPYRIGHT 2002.1 An interface between two concretes cast at different times.2 5. Because the interface is rough.4. or v. -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| o An interface between dissimilar materials.1-2) (5.8.5 shall apply as amended.Section 5 Concrete Structures ( I S) - SPECIFICATIONS Tu = factored torsional moment (N-mm) COMMENTARY 4 = resistance factor specified in Article 5.8.4.5A.6.3. User=. The nominal shear resistance of the interface plane shall be taken as: V =CA.4. The resistance of the face to shear is assumed to be a function of both cohesion and friction. maintained by the shear friction reinforcementcrossing the crack.3. The longitudinal reinforcement shall be proportioned to satisfy Equation 1: C5. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.4 Interface Shear Transfer Shear Friction - 5.4.2 f’.6.3 Longitudinal Reinforcement The provisions of Article 5. to include torsion.3 To account for the fact that on one side of the section the torsional and shear stresses oppose each other.8.8. i 5.

= Vu = de = de ((25.8.4.4. c p - COMMENTARY = yield strength of reinforcement (MPa) = cohesion factor specified in Article 5. Mu.V" (5. weaker concrete (MPa) P = . de.7 MPa. the value of these forces per unit length of the girders at the strength limit state can be taken as: I Reinforcementfor interface shear between concretes of slab and beams or girders may consist of single bars.8. 4.4. P = 0. can be taken as the distance between the centroid of the tension steel and the midthickness of the deck.+ Vude .4./de+ Vudelde 5 70 -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- - COPYRIGHT 2002.4.8..8. of the reinforcement per unit length of the beam or girder should satisfv either that required by Equation 1 or: Afl> fv 0.1-4) where: V. vh = .Section 5 Concrete Structures (Si) SPECIFICATIONS f.35 b.2 permanent net compressive force normal to the shear plane.J& is less than 0.2 (MPa) = friction factor specified in Article 5.8. C .0 (N) . the depth. = width of the interface (mm) horizontal shear per unit length of the girder (N) the factored vertical shear (N) the distance between the centroid of the steel in the tension side of the beam to the center of the compression blocks in the deck (mm) The minimum reinforcement requirement of A may .4.8. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.8.1-2) (C5. multiple leg stirrups. it can be derived as follows using the free body diagram shown in Figure CI: M = Mu.8. if force is tensile.4.1-1) where: b . As an alternative to the classical elastic strength of materials approach. Equation C I is a reasonable approximation for either elastic or inelastic behavior and cracked or uncracked sections. .4.1-3) (C5. User=.1-5) I : Md J. The cross-sectional area. For simplicity.14) (C5. i ' . = specified 28-day compressive strength of the Horizontal shear forces develop along the interface between concrete girders and the deck. or the vertical legs of welded wire fabric. I : ((25. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.. be waived if V.

8.8. = the width of the interface between the girder and the deck (mrn) If the width of the contact surface exceeds 1225 rnm.8. the longitudinal spacing of the rows of reinforcing bars shall not exceed 600 mm.1-6) (C5.8.4.71 Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. = cb.4. .4. and consideration should be given to locating one bar in each outstanding portion of the flange. a minimum of four bars should be used for each row. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office -| || | || ||| | || I I | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- d! Girder Figure (25. where it exists.Free Body Diagrams (C5. p: COPYRIGHT 2002.8.8.4.1-8) By substituting the area of the interface between the girder and the deck in Equation 1.Concrete Structures (SI) SPECIFICATIONS 1778 = Ob37804 COMMENTARY 0048774' 4bb a For beams and girders. 5 . shall be resisted by reinforcement additional to that required for shear. + p [& fy + PJ (C5. Shear friction reinforcement shall be anchored to develop the specified yield strength on both sides of the shear plane by embedment.~~ S T D * A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL Section 5 . 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. Net tension force across shear plane. and friction factor. c.2 COHESION AND FRICTION The following values shall be taken for cohesion factor.1-1 . hooks. 5. User=.4.4.1-9) where: b . the nominal shear resistance of the interface per unit length of the girder may be taken as: V . The bars shall be anchored in both the beam or girder and the slab. or welding.1-7) for a unit length segment vh = VJd. ((25.

.\/fC [ + 0. Figure C5.5 Direct Shear Resistance of Dry Joints For structures utilizing dry joints.4A | || | |||| || | ||||||| O For concrete placed against clean.70 MPa p = 1. I where: A = k area of the base of all keys in the failure plane (mm2) (5.$.. . The critical failure plane will have the greatest area of slip and the least area of key breakage. . . . . A and the smooth contact areas.205$. The areas of the base of the sheared keys. . hardened concrete with surface intentionally roughened to an amplitude of 6 mm c = 0. .7A The following values shall be taken for A: O For normal density concrete O For sand-low-density concrete . . but not intentionally roughened c = 0.52 MPa p = 0. shown. .8. . .A A S H T O S R C H LRFD-SI-ENGL 1778 Section 5 Concrete Structures (SI) Ob37804 0048775 I T 2 W - SPECIFICATIONS O For concrete placed monolithically c = 1.O0 O Linear interpolation for A may be applied in case of partial sand replacement. .. 5. . . . .~ S T D . .6As. . . (1989). User=. .0 MPa p = 1. . . P. the nominal resistance of the joint shall be determined as: VNj= A. .72 COPYRIGHT 2002.85 For all other low-density concrete .6A O For concrete anchored to as-rolled structural steel by headed studs or by reinforcing bars where all steel in contact with concrete is clean and free of paint c = 0. . The equation may also be used to determine the acceptable number of broken keys to be allowed before repair is deemed necessary. .17 MPa p = 0.8.I . American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. . 0. 0. .. . A are .5 The joint shear capacity must be checked in dry jointed structures to ensure the integrity of the joint. .5-1) C5. . 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. .OA | | || --- O For concrete placed against hardened concrete clean and free of laitance. . .75 -| || | || ||| COMMENTARY . .8. .) + 0. The equation was derived in Roberts (1993) with guidance from work by Mattock (1974) and confirmed by test data from the experimental programs of Koseki and Breen (1983) and Bakhoum et al. . .8. = compressive strength of concrete (MPa) compressive stress in concrete after allowance for all prestress losses determined at the centroid of the cross-section (MPa) fw = 5 .5-1 illustrates a typical failure plane of a keyed joint in direct shear. .

1. o o COPYRIGHT 2002.5-1 . shall be used with any applicable service load combination in Table 3. and the Ontario Highway Bridge Design Code. They shall satisfy the requirements at service.1-1. and A prestressed concrete member in which the effective prestress in the prestressed reinforcement is purposely kept lower than its maximum allowable value. specified in Article 5.6.1 GENERAL The provisions herein specified shall apply to structural concrete members reinforced with any combination of prestressing tendons and conventional reinforcing bars acting together to resist common force effects.4. Tensile stress limits.73 .9. Figure C5.9 PRESTRESSING AND PARTIAL PRESTRESSING 5. fatigue.the failure plane in a) is most critical because it contains a larger smooth contact surface and a smaller area of key breakage. provided that they meet the intent of Article 5. except Service Load Combination III. For the same joint configuration.1-1. C5.5.8.7.2-1 for shear in Type B joints shall be used. A .. A prestressed concrete member designed to crack in tension under service load.9. the provisions of which are extended herein to accommodate partial prestressing. and extreme event limit states. Direct shear failure along | | || ---| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| failure plane (mm2) In determining the factored resistance of the dry joint. the resistance factor specified in Table 5. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. Partial prestressing can be considered a design concept that allows one or a combination of the following design solutions: 0 A concrete member reinforced with a combination of prestressed and nonprestressed reinforcement designed to simultaneously resist the same force effects. User=.1 The introduction of partial prestressing permits the development of a unified theory of concrete structures in which conventional reinforced and prestressed concrete become boundary cases. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. AC1 318.4. Compressive stress limits.6.9. The background material in this article is based on previous editions of the Standard Specifications and AC1 343.4.4. strength. Prestressed and partially prestressed concrete structural components shall be designed for both initial and final prestressing forces.4. as Specified in Article 5. and 5.4 and 5. but other materials satisfying desired strength. 5. and ductility requirements could also be used.4.1 General Design Considerations 5.1. Prestressing tendons of high-strength steel bars or strands are generally used.S T D . = area of contact between smooth surfaces on the Direct shear keys. stiffness. provided it is shown that performance of the structure satisfies all limit states and the requirements of Articles 5. Unstressed prestressing tendons or reinforcing bars may be used in combination with stressed tendons.1.8. smooth joint contact area. specified in Article 5.Joint Shear Failure Plane 5.5. and in accordance with the assumptions provided in Articles 5. Service Load Combination III shall apply when investigating tension under live load. which shall not apply to the investigation of compression.9.2.A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL Section 5 Concrete Structures (SI) - 1778 = Ob3980Li 0048796 2 3 9 9 SPECIFICATIONS COMMENTARY A . shall be used with any applicable service load combination in Table 3. 5 .9.

and corrosion considerations shall be investigated in accordance with the provisions of Articles 5. is shown for negative moment in Figure CI.9.10.6.9. 5.6 for the curvature o f f ducts shall apply.1.1. 5.1. and 5. User=.9.9. and buckling of thin webs and flanges shall be investigated.2 SPECIFIED CONCRETE STRENGTHS The specified strengths. 5.6 TENDONS WITH ANGLE POINTS OR CURVES The provisions o Article 5. 5.3 BUCKLING Buckling of a member between points where concrete and tendons are in contact. The location of the tendon center of gravity. f'. section properties may be based on either the gross or transformed section. with respect to the centerline of the duct. and Pei. crack width.A A S H T O SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 D Ob39804 0048797 175 COMMENTARY SPECIFICATIONS 5. consideration shall be given to the difference between the center of gravity of the tendon and the center of gravity of the duct when determining eccentricity.9.4 shall apply to the investigation of stress concentrations due to changes in the direction of prestressing tendons.Location of Tendon in Duct COPYRIGHT 2002. 5.9. fatigue of reinforcement. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. The provisions of Article 5. For tendons in draped ducts that are not nominally straight.1. effects of loss of area due to open ducts shall be considered.9.7.1. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office 5 74 Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. buckling during handling and erection.1. < 75 OD over 100 C.4. C5. shall be identified in the contract documents for each component.G.1.9.5 CRACK CONTROL Where cracking is permitted under service loads.4 SECTION PROPERTIES For section properties prior to bonding of posttensioning tendons. I .6-1 .Section 5 Concrete Structures (SI) - S T D .4 Bonding means that the grout in the duct has attained its specified strength. Stress limits relating to specified strengths shall be as specified in Article 5.6 Vertically draped strand tendons should be assumed to be at the bottom of the duct in negative moment areas and at the top of the duct in positive moment areas. of Strands Figure C5. | | || --|||| || | ||||||| -| || | || ||| | || | C5. For both pretensioned or posttensioned members after bonding of tendons. - . Concrete strength at transfer shall be adequate for the requirements of the anchorages or for transfer through bond as well as for camber or deflection requirements.9.4.5.

force effects in columns and piers resulting from prestressing the superstructure may be based on the initial elastic shortening.4. For conventional monolithic frames. provided that the other values in Table Iare not exceeded. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.2 Stresses Due to Imposed Deformation The effects on adjoining elements of the structure of elastic and inelastic deformations due to prestressing shall be investigated. ti) (5.1-1. For posttensioning.4.2.e"('*"))IiV(t. or Recommended by the manufacturer of the tendons or anchorages.9.9. ti) = -- creep coefficient at time t for loading applied at time t. any increase in column moments due to long-term creep shortening of the prestressed superstructure is considered to be offset by the concurrent relaxation of deformation moments in the columns due to creep in the column concrete.75 . as specified in Article 5.3. o The tendon stress at the strength and extreme event limit states shall not exceed the tensile strength limit specified in Table 5. The restraining forces produced in the adjoining structural elements may be reduced due to the effects of creep.9. COPYRIGHT 2002. The reduction of restraining forces in other members of a structure that are caused by the prestress in a member may be taken as: 0 Additional information is contained in Leonhardt (1964).STDmAASHTO SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL Section 5 Concrete Structures (SI) - 1998 Ob39804 0048798 001 a SPECIFICATIONS COMMENTARY C5. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.90 fpy may be allowed for short periods of time prior to seating to offset seating and friction losses.2-2) where: F = force effect determined using the modulus of elasticity of the concrete at the time loading is applied (N) F' = where: reduced force effect (N) V(t.2 5.9. For suddenly imposed deformations 0 For slowly imposed deformations F' = F(1 . 5 .3 Stress Limitations for Prestressing Tendons The tendon stress due to prestress or at the service limit state shall not exceed the values: | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --| || | || | || ||| 0 Specified in Table 1. User=. In monolithic frames.4.3 e = 5.2 base of Napierian logarithms c5. the short-term allowable of 0.9.

80 fPy Prior to seating .I.70 fpU 0.4.short-term fs may be allowed At anchorages and couplers immediately after anchor set (fpt + AfpES AfpJ + 0. .80 fpy 0. the area outside the longitudinal precompressed tensile zone shall be considered as the following locations in the final structural configurations: 0 The compression zone. ¡.90 fpy 0.70 fpu 0. COPYRIGHT 2002. For the purposes of this article.1.70fpu At end of the seating loss zone immediately after anchor set ( f t + A ..4 Stress Limits for Concrete 0. shall be 0.80 fpy 0.70 fpu 0.70 fpu 0.76 provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.9.~~ Section 5 Concrete Structures (SI) - STDOAASHTO SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 Ob37804 0048799 "48 SPECIFICATIONS COMMENTARY Table 5.FULLY PRESTRESSED COMPONENTS 1 5. including segmentally constructed bridges.1 FOR TEMPORARY STRESSES BEFORE LOSSES .80 fpy 0. Compression Stresses The compressive stress limit for pretensioned and posttensioned concrete components.9. f +Afd At service limit state after losses (fPJ 5.4. ( f 0. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office 5 . 5.90 fpy 0.80 fpy 0.70 fpu 0.90 fpy 0.80 fpy 5.3-1 Stress Limits for Prestressing Tendons Tendon Type Stress-Relieved Strand and Plain High-Strength Bars - Condition Low Relaxation Strand Deformed High-Strength Bars Immediately prior to transfer (fpt + AfPES) At service limit state after all losses ) .9.9.4.75 fpu 0.74 fpu 0.9.2 Tension Stresses The limits in Table 1 shall apply for tensile stresses.e. Document -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. User=. the top of slab to the neutral axis of the gross concrete section of 70 percent of the span from bearings of end spans or hinged spans.60 fCi (MPa).

-- | || | || ||| | || o O.(MPa) Stresses in Other Areas o For areas without bonded nonprestressed reinforcement Bonded reinforcement sufficient to carry the calculated tensile force in the concrete computed on the assumption of an uncracked section at a stress of 0.7 MPa minimum compression o o Transverse Stresses Through Joints o For any type of joint O.e.1. maximum tension (MPa) No tension 0.9.2Mf.5@íf'.Section 5 Concrete Structures (SI) - SPECIFICATIONS 0 COMMENTARY The compression zone. which is sufficient to . The compression zone.2-1 Components - Temporary Tensile Stress Limits in Prestressed Concrete Before Losses. 0 Table 5. ¡.41Mfc (MPa) | |||| || 0. carry the calculated tensile force at a stress of 0. (MPa) | ||||||| | | || --- . (MPa) 5 . ¡...5 f. User=. with internal tendons or external tendons Type A joints without the minimum bonded auxiliary reinforcementthrough the joints Type B joints with external tendons 0. the top of the slab to the neutral axis of the gross concrete section of the central 60 percent of interior spans. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. the bottom of the beam to the neutral axis of the gross concrete section of 25 percent of the span each direction from piers.2%.77 COPYRIGHT 2002.58Jf..e.2Mfc.4. Fully Prestressed Bridge Type Other Than Segmentally Constructed Bridges o Stress Limit In precompressed tensile zone without bonded reinforcement In areas other than the precompressedtensile zones and without bonded auxiliary reinforcement In areas with bonded reinforcement sufficient to resist 120% of the tension force in the cracked concrete computed on the basis of an uncracked section For handling stresses in prestressed piles NIA 0.5 fS" No tension o 0.38 (MPa) o o Segmentally Constructed Bridges Longitudinai Stresses Through Joints in the Precompressed Tensile Zone o Type A joints with minimum bonded auxiliary reinforcementthrough the joints. s 1.

11.2 to flanged. The f use o & to reduce the stress limit in box girders at the service limit state is not theoretically correct. I4 I Figure C5. such as the top flange.0 when the web and flange slenderness ratios. This behavior is similar to the behavior of the concrete in thin-walled columns.4.. shall be calculated according to Article 5.7.4.4.1-1 Suggested Choices for Wall Lengths To Be Considered - 5-78 -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- COPYRIGHT 2002.4.. the wall thickness associated with that length should be used.7. The free edge of the cantilever overhang is assumed t be supported by the Ö parapet in Figure C1.Section 5 Concrete Structures (SI) - SPECIFICATIONS 5. The beneficial effect of support by struts should be considered.9. the highest ratio should be used. calculated according to Article 5. . e. The limits in Table 1 shall apply.2.7. was originally developed to account for the reduction in the usable strain of concrete in thin-walled columns at the strength limit state. For variable thickness lengths.1 Compression Stresses Compression shall be investigated using the Service Limit State Load Combination Ispecified in Table 3.4.9.7. When either the web or flange slenderness ratio is greater than 15. are not greater than 15. a rational approach to account for the behavior of thin components. C5.4. &. For multilength components.2.2 FOR STRESSES AT SERVICE LIMIT STATE FULLY PRESTRESSED AFTER LOSSES COMPONENTS COMMENTARY - 5.9. For constant thickness lengths. the use of @ provides . the unconfined concrete of the compression sides of box girders are expected to creep to failure at a stress far lower than the nominal strength of the concrete.1 Unlike solid rectangular beams that were used in the development of concrete design codes. The application of Article 5. strutted. an average thickness could be used. However.7. and variable thickness elements requires some judgment.g.7.4. The reduction factor.9.@ shall be taken to be equal .1. due to the lack of information about the behavior of the concrete at the service limit state..2. . There are no effective length factors shown. Consideration of appropriate lengths of walltype element is illustrated in Figure CI.2. The reduction factor.. to 1. User=. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. &. 4. the reduction factor.4.

(MPa) in other than segmentally constructed bridges due to the sum of effective prestress and permanent loads In segmentally constructed bridges due to the sum of effective prestress and permanent loads In other than segmentally constructed bridges due to live load and one-half the sum of effective prestress and permanent loads Due to the sum of effective prestress.2.4. (MPa) 5. tension stresses in members with bonded or unbonded prestressing tendons should be investigated using Load Combination Service III specified in Table 3.79 | || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- . and transient loads and during shipping and handling C5.40 P.STD.4.Compressive Stress Limits in Prestressed Concrete at Service Limit State After Losses.9.1-1.45 P.2.2 o 0 o 0. Fully Prestressed Components II Location 0 Stress Limit 0.9.AASHT0 S R C H LRFD-SI-ENGL 1778 Section 5 Concrete Structures (SI) - Ob37804 0048802 3b2 W SPECIFICATIONS COMMENTARY Table 5. (MPa) 0.2 Tension Stresses For service load combinations that involve traffic loading. COPYRIGHT 2002. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.4.1-1 .9. P. or airborne sea salt and airborne chemicals in heavy industrial areas.4. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.60 cp.45 P. -- 5 . The limits in Table 1 shall apply. User=. permanent loads.2. (MPa) 0. water. Severe corrosive conditions include exposure to deicing salt.

9.4. User=.25Jfc(MPa) Stresses in Other Areas 0 For areas without bonded reinforcement Bonded reinforcement sufficient to carry the calculated tensile force in the concrete computed on the assumption of an uncracked section at a stress of 0.Iand 5.~ STD. No tension o I’ 0 . I . 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.2.50Jfc (MPa) o 0.4. 5 M f c(MPa) For the purposes of this article.1 for fully prestressed components.9. Assuming Uncracked Sections 0 Stress Limit For components with bonded prestressing tendons or reinforcement that are subjected to not worse than moderate corrosion conditions For components with bonded prestressing tendons or reinforcement that are subjected to severe corrosive conditions For components with unbonded prestressing tendons 0.Tensile Stress Limits in Prestressed Concrete at Service Limit State After Losses. the area outside the longitudinal precompressed tensile zone shall be taken as defined in Section 5.4..5 f.3 PARTIALLY PRESTRESSED COMPONENTS Compression stresses shall be limited as specified in Articles 5.25Jfc (MPa) No tension 0. 5-80 COPYRIGHT 2002. Fully Prestressed | ||||||| -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || Bridge Type Other Than Segmentally Constructed Bridges Location Tension in the Precompressed Tensile Zone Bridges.25Jfc (MPa) No tension o Segmentally Constructed Bridges Longitudinal Stresses Through Joints in the Precompressed Tensile Zone o Type A joints with minimum bonded auxiliary reinforcement through the joints sufficient to carry the calculated longitudinal tensile force at a stress of 0.2..4. external tendons 0.4..9.2-1 Components COMMENTARY .2 5. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. internal tendons Type A joint without the minimum bonded auxiliary reinforcement through joints Type B joints.1 .5f.9.9.AASHT0 SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL 1778 Section 5 Concrete Structures (Si) Ob37604 0048803 2 T 9 - SPECIFICATIONS Table 5.7 MPa minimum compression 0 o Transverse Stresses Through Joints o Tension in the transverse direction in precompressed tensile zone O. | | || --- .

may be taken as: 0 C5. and elastic shortening in partially prestressed members can be computed in exactly the same manner as they are in prestressed members. should be deducted from the total . such as friction. low-density concrete construction.4. A . and bridges where more exact evaluation of prestress losses are desired. as indicated by pressure readings.9. relative to the stress immediately before transfer. f relaxation. the part of the loss due to relaxation occurring before transfer.9. and elastic shortening are instantaneous. 5 .3. Data from control tests on the materials to be used. shall be interpreted as the change in stress after decompression.5.9. in which case fB. Accurate estimate of total prestress loss requires recognition that the time-dependent losses resulting from creep and relaxation are also interdependent. If needed. Such computation can be handled with the time-steps method. shrinkage.81 COPYRIGHT 2002. Tensile stress in reinforcement at the service limit state shall be as specified in Article 5.5. consideration should be given to a loss of tendon force. The use of partial prestressing necessitates some modification to existing approaches. t = = = total loss (MPa) loss due to friction (MPa) loss due to anchorage set (MPa) loss due to elastic shortening (MPa) loss due to shrinkage (MPa) loss due to creep of concrete (MPa) AfpEs = A . within the stressing equipment.1-1) | | || --- In pretensioned members . However. the prestress losses should be computed in consideration of the elapsed time between each stage. calculations for loss of prestress should be made in accordance with a method supported by proven research data. and relaxation are time-dependent.7.9. For multistage construction and/or prestressing.3 is used. User=. rigorous calculation of prestress losses should be made in accordance with a method supported by research data.1 TOTAL LOSS OF PRESTRESS In lieu of more detailed analysis. whereas losses due to creep. f AfpcR Afpw = = = loss due to relaxation of steel after transfer (MPa) In pretensioned members where the approximate lump sum estimate of losses specified in Article 5. The design of partially prestressed members should be based on a cracked section analysis with various service limit states being satisfied.9. Instantaneous prestress losses.5. I For segmental construction.~~ ~ STDmAASHTO Section 5 Concrete Structures (SI) - SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL II778 0637804 0048804 II35 SPECIFICATIONS Cracking in the precompressed tensile zone may be permitted. For posttensioned members.5 Loss of Prestress 5.5. Losses due to anchorage set.4. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. See references cited in Article C5. Estimation of losses for partially prestressed concrete is analogous to fully prestressed concrete as follows: 0 where: AfDT AfpF A . This article has been revised on the basis of new analytical investigations. stage prestressing with spans greater than 50 O00 mm. COMMENTARY 5. friction. ambient service conditions. -- | || | || ||| | || | |||| || 0 In posttensioned members | ||||||| (5. undue refinement is seldom warranted or even possible at the design stage because many of the component factors are either unknown or beyond the control of the Designer. prestress losses in members constructed and prestressed in a single stage. the methods of curing. and pertinent structural details for the construction should be considered. anchorage set.2.3.

This increase in stress is needed to maintain equilibrium and account for the loss of tensile capacity contribution by the concrete section. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. the loss of prestress due to shrinkage of the concrete should be the same for prestressed and partially prestressed concrete members. The loss varies depending on the ram and the anchor. the intrinsic relaxation loss would be the same. The loss across stressing hardware and anchorage devices has been measured from 2 percent to 6 percent (Roberts 1993) of the force indicated by the ram pressure times the calibrated ram area. the relaxation loss in partially prestressed concrete members is slightly higher than in fully prestressed concrete members. although values as l w as 1. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office -| || C5. influences stress redistribution along the section due to creep of concrete with time.6 mm are more appropriate for some o anchorage devices.9.9.5. 5 . Because a partially prestressed concrete member may be cracked under permanent load. and generally leads to smaller prestress losses.2. | ||||||| | | || --| |||| || | || ||| | || COPYRIGHT 2002. The magnitude of the minimum set depends on the prestressing system used.5.82 Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.2.Section 5 Concrete Structures (SI) - STDIAASHTO S R C H LRFD-SI-ENGL 1998 Ob39804 0048805 071 W SPECIFICATIONS COMMENTARY The average stress in the concrete in a partially prestressed member is generally smaller than that in a fully prestressed member.1 Anchorage Set The magnitude of the anchorage set shall be the greater of that required to control the stress in the prestressing steel at transfer or that recommended by the manufacturer of the anchorage. However. f 5. because prestress loss due to creep is smaller in a partially prestressed member. the loss of prestress due to creep is also smaller.2 INSTANTANEOUS LOSSES 5. This loss occurs prior to transfer and causes most of the difference between jacking stress and stress at transfer.5. . An initial design value o 3 percent is recommended. All other factors being equal. The magnitude of the set assumed for the design and used to calculate set loss shall be shown in the contract documents and verified during construction. User=. the loss of prestress in the steel may be balanced in great part by the increase in stress in the steel at cracking. The presence of a substantial amount of nonprestressed reinforcement. such as in partially prestressed concrete. such as those for bar tendons. A common value for anchor set is 10 mm. If the prestressing steel is tensioned to the same initial tensile stress as in the case of fully prestressed concrete. Thus.1 Anchorage set loss is caused by the movement of the tendon prior to seating of the wedges or the anchorage gripping device. and because the loss due to creep influences that due to relaxation.9.

5.2.9.2b-2) stress in the prestressing steel at jacking (MPa) end to any point under consideration (mm) wobble friction coefficient (per mm of tendon) coefficient of friction prestressing steel path from jacking end. to the point under investigation (RAD) = length of a Prestressing tmdon from the Jacking The 0.2.5. Due to friction.5.04 radians in Equation 2 represents an inadvertent angle change.~ STDOAASHTO SRCH LRFD-SI-ENGL Section 5 Concrete Structures (SI) 1998 - = Ob39804 COMMENTARY 0048806 TO8 SPECIFICATIONS For wedge-type strand anchors.(I - e-(fi+pa)) (5.2b-1) =f PI . = = sum of the absolute values of angular change of 5-83 Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105.5.9. This angle change may vary depending on job-specific tolerances on deviator pipe placement and need not be applied in cases where the deviation angle is strictly controlled or precisely known. is adequate but only approximate. User=.9.2.2b Where large discrepancies occur between measured and calculated tendon elongations.2b Posttensioned Construction Losses due to friction between the internal prestressing tendons and the duct wall may be taken as: A fPF Losses due to friction between the external tendon across a single deviator pipe may be taken as: AfPF where: fpj = X K = p a COPYRIGHT 2002. depending on the type of equipment used. the loss due to anchorage set may affect only part of the prestressed member.3 or other published guidelines (PCI 1975.2. = fPI .9. in-place friction tests are required.2a Pretensioned Construction For draped prestressing tendons.9. losses that may occur at the hold-down devices should be considered. 1979). The inadvertent angle change need not be considered for calculation of losses due to wedge seating movement. Zia et al. American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Office -| || | || ||| | || | |||| || | ||||||| | | || --- C5.5.2. Losses due to elastic shortening may also be calculated in accordance with Article 5. 5.2. .9.5.5. or from the nearest jacking end if tensioning is done equally at both ends. the set may vary between 3 and 10 mm. and equipment with power wedge seating should be used.2.2 Friction 5. a small anchorage seating value is desirable. and power seating is not necessary. oíten assumed in elongation computations. The 6 mm anchorage set value. as in the case of continuous ducts passing through separate longitudinal bell-shaped holes at deviators. 09/30/2002 00:33:58 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. For long