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Behold the computer. The greatest, ultimate invention across multiple eras. The grand culmination of brilliant work by the greatest thinkers, scientists, engineers and inventors of the past century. How far have we come from the difference engine of Charles Babbage; to the first computer that occupied a whole room; to the multi-core, powerful compact computers on the shelves today. Very far indeed, right? Wrong! The high-speed, modern computer that sits in front of you is fundamentally no different than Babbage's difference engine of nearly 200 years ago. The first computer used binary and the most modern computer today uses binary. All we have done in classical computer development is make them more compact and increase the number of transistors on a processor chip. Processing is still done using bits. A bit is still represented by 1s and 0s as it was centuries ago. The classical computer, as the name implies, is classical. Step to a new breed of computing, one that differs radically from the very essence of computers and binary as we know it. Evolved breeds…behold the quantum computer. A dynamic new fascinating field that is being pioneered as you read these words. Forget bits, binary and logic gates. Welcome to the world of Qubits, Quantum Gates and Quantum circuits & algorithms. Welcome to Quantum Computing!

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energy is a quantity that is often understood as the ability a physical system has to do work on other physical systems. In physics. what is matter and what is energy? In physics matter is refer to the physical objects which has a mass and occupies a volume. which transitions some of the stranger features of quantum mechanics into practical applications. So what is this Quantum Mechanics? Quantum mechanics. So the next question may arise that. 2| Page . But besides this pronunciation. what is this Quantum Computer? A quantum computer is a device for computation that makes direct use of quantum mechanical phenomena (Quantum Technology). also known as quantum physics or quantum theory. sounds good. such as superposition and entanglement. which defines that any linear combination of solutions to a particular equation will also be a solution of it. is a branch of physics providing a mathematical description of the dual particle-like behavior and interaction of matter and energy Now this statement leads to another question that. • • • Why this computer is named so? What is this Quantum Computer? What is the difference between quantum computer and classical computer? So the first question is why this computer named so? This computer is named so because it uses a new kind technology named “Quantum Technology”. Now this important answer also leads to a question that what is superposition? In physics superposition is a property of quantum mechanics. to perform operations on data. Now let us move to our next question that is. what is this quantum technology? Quantum technology is a new field of physics and engineering.Besides the Pronunciation of “Quantum”… “Quantum Computer”. Those are. there is a lot of questions arise relating to this.

or simply 0 or 1. A qubit can exist not only in the states corresponding to the logical values 0 or 1 as in the case of a classical bit.Now move to our nest question. that is what should be the difference between classical computer and quantum computer? . From a physical point of view. spared in one of the two different states representing two logical values . But the basic unit of information in a quantum computer is quantum bit or qubit. Quantum mechanics laws are completely different from the laws of a classical physics (used in classical computers). but also in a superposition state(simultaneously zero and one). A bit is the basic unit of information in a digital computer.no or yes. a bit is a physical system which can be . Qubit has a quaternary nature. 3| Page . false or true.

Feynman was the first who producing an abstract model in 1982 that showed how a quantum system could be used to do computations. Colorado. Lov Grover from Bell Labs invented the quantum search algorithm which yields a quadratic “speed-up” compared to its classical counterpart. based on nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. and was scaled up to 7 qubits in the Los Alamos National Lab in 2000. Peter Shor and Andrew Steane proposed (independently) the first scheme for quantum error-correction. Published in 1994. Progress in quantum algorithms began in the 1990s. The latter supplied the basis for Shor's algorithm for factoring. A year later the first NMR model for quantum computation was proposed. In 1985 David Deutsch proposed the first universal quantum Turing machine and paved the way to the quantum circuit model. following Cirac and Zoller's proposal.A Brief History of Quantum Computing. this algorithm marked a ‘phase transition’ in the development of quantum computing and sparked a tremendous interest even outside the physics community In 1995. In 1996. In that same year the first realization of a quantum logic gate was done in Boulder. This technique was realized in 1998 with a 2-qubit register. The need for quantum computer 4| Page . He also explained how such a machine would be able to act as a simulator for quantum physics. with the discovery of the Deutsch-Josza oracle (1992) and of Simon's oracle (1994).

and man’s unquenchable thirst for computing power. while a classical bit follows the understood laws of classical physics. Binary is a base 2 mathematical language because it only consists of two digits. The more transistors. a pair of qubits can also exist in a superposition (?)of these four basis states or an intermediate (between 0 and 1). let’s say we have two bits. two qubits can also consist of one those four abovementioned combinations which are called computational basic states. What this means is that a pair of qubits can simultaneously consist of all four possible states or combinations (00. where a quantum computer is able to solve this task in 27 minutes The basis of quantum computer. As you discovered. Quantum computers will be able to perform millions of calculations at the same time. Now. 5| Page . like the PC or laptop that sits in front of you. The classical computer (non-quantum). In quantum computing. 10. uses the language of computers called binary.death. but what makes a qubit different from a classical bit. Qubits form the basis of quantum computing. In a classical computer. quantum mechanics apply to the atomic world and the next logical step will be to create quantum computers. here is the crux of quantum computing. These are 1’s and 0’s. The power of computers today depend upon the number of transistors on a chip. 01. an infinite amount of information) and this results in quantum computers being exponentially more powerful than classical computers (non-quantum). is either a 1 or 0. in classical computers. 11). These two bits could consist of one of the following combinations: 00 or 01 or 10 or 11. This means that by the year 2015 we will find that transistors on a chip will become so small that they will be measured on an atomic scale. Perfect. in theory.Three things in life are certain . Moore's Law states: “The number of transistors on a microprocessor continues to double every 18 months”. This unique property of a quibit (to be able to exist in a superposition of states) arises because of quantum computers following the laws of quantum mechanics. According to Chuang a supercomputer needs about a month to find a phone number from the database consisting of world's phone books. While a classical pair of bits can store these numbers only one at a time. qubits can contain an extremely vast amount of information (in fact. which will harness the power of atoms and molecules in computing. Thus. A bit. Let’s look at the following example to demonstrate the radical contrast between the two. generally the more powerful the computer. In quantum computing the fundamental unit of information is a qubit (quantum bit). taxes. This is the fundamental unit of information or building block called the bit(?). whereas today’s conventional computers only perform one.

There are four control 6| Page . it is impossible to determine the exact state of the computer. The following 3 bits is in a definite state of 101.Determining the state of quantum computer In a classical computer we can read out the state of all the bits in the computer at any time. Control devices trap these particles and then switch their state. we can only obtain partial information about the state of the computer. Rather. we cannot determine exactly which superposition state a qubit is in because of their ability to switch from one state to another. This makes it extremely difficult to build a quantum computer because we cannot determine the exact state at any time. Therefore control measures to control the state of qubits must be created. which are called control devices. electrons and ions. Due to the property of superposition of a qubit in a quantum computer. Qubit control devices Qubits are made up of quantum particles which are: photons. These particles need to be controlled in order to create a qubit which cages these particles. and can be read one-zero-one in a classical computer. atoms. This means.

quantum dots. the number of ions trapped will grow. SEMICONDUCTOR IMPURITIES It is difficult to make a pure computer chip. and superconducting circuits. researchers have managed to entangle as many as six ions in a single ion trap.devices that can be used to create qubits : ion traps. Superconducting circuits have to work at extremely low temperatures. Some atoms embedded in these chips are commonly found as impurities (or flaws). uses superconducting circuits. Quantum gates introduction 7| Page . As ion trap technology becomes more established. ION TRAPS Ion traps use magnetic fields to trap ions. Superconducting circuits can form qubits by the flow of current. The world’s first commercial quantum computer. SUPERCONDUCTING CIRCUITS Superconducting circuits are simply electrical circuits which are made of superconducting material. The current can be made to flow in both directions at once (simultaneously) in the quantum state of superposition. QUANTUM DOTS Quantum dots are bits of semiconductor material that contain one or a few electrons. At this moment in time. semiconductor impurities. the Orion. and they can be integrated into electronic devices. The most advanced prototypes today work only at extremely low temperatures. Qubits include ‘unwanted’ electrons of atoms intentionally into the semiconductor materials. Quantum dots are loaded with electrons. This means that electrons can flow with almost no resistance at extremely low temperatures. There is usually an unwanted atom of some kind in every few billion atoms. The advantage is that they use millions of electrons instead of controlling individual particles. The state of these electrons can then be controlled using lasers or electric fields.

quantum gates are used. Magic ! This is the weirdness of the quantum world. Classical logic gates take bits as input. and would you say it should output? Another basic computational state? No! Instead. This opens up a whole new dimension of possible solutions and outputs. Reversibility Another property of quantum gates it that they are reversible unlike many classical logic gates. the logic gate takes in 0101 as input. if we don’t have a way of manipulating the information in qubits. To manipulate information in a qubit. In the example below (refer to diagram CLG). This means that the outputs can be converted back into the original input. These capabilities can be used in various fields and can have astounding effects. but remember quantum gates take in qubits which can exist in a state of superposition. Quantum logic gates also emulate this. evaluate and process the input and produce new bits as output. In order for the gates to be reversible. Fortunately. this weirdness can be exploited to achieve greater processing power. In the example below (refer to diagram QLG). where things don’t behave how we expect them to. This means nothing though. Why is necessary? In order to preserve the quantum state. which ‘goes through’ the gate and an output of 10 is produced. it outputs a wave function representing a superposition state. Referring to the advancement of quantum computing in the “Technologies: The 8| Page . the number of outputs must be the same as the number of inputs. The power of quantum computing The power and capabilities of quantum computing threatens to rock the very foundations of the information age. and extraordinarily so. and that is the main advantage of quantum gates (and quantum computer in general). How quantum gates work A quantum gate works similar to a classical logic gate. the quantum gate takes in 010 (a basis computational state).We have seen the enormous superiority that qubits have over bits.

when solved. provides us with the description of matter at the quantum mechanics level (microscopic level). Quantum Algorithm 9| Page . This equation. In fact the successful application of quantum computers to science and chemistry can save the world! Encryption and security In the age where buying. the computer has to solve the Schrodinger Equation (SE). Let’s say we want to model the structure of a molecule of a certain type of medicine. Christopher Altman said: “An omni-linked world populated with intelligent artifacts will bring sweeping changes to virtually every facet of modern life – from science and education to industry and commerce – leaving no segment of society unaffected by its advance. the computer can then model the structure of the molecule. Why? Because in order to break the RSA encryption is reduced to factoring extremely large numbers (300 digit). exponential advances in the field of science and chemistry. which even the fastest computers and supercomputers today choke when attempting. The problem is that the equation doubles in difficulty for every electron in the molecule. Using this description. banking and almost anything can be done online.Future of the Global Information Society” report in 2002. fuels and every substance in our lives are created using science and chemistry. RSA is the most secure encryption that is used today. This will result in massive. In fact it would take hundreds of years to find the factors of a 300 digit integer using the world’s fastest supercomputer. on the other hand.” As you can ascertain from the quote. security and encryption is imperative. anything more and even the high-end supercomputers of today choke. materials. Quantum computers. all facets of life will change dramatically with the advance of quantum computing such as science. yet by using Shor’s Algorithm on a quantum computer the RSA would be cracked in a heartbeat and rendered obsolete. This means that even very basic quantum computers will be able to outperform supercomputers in simulating molecules. This is one example of the massive leap in power that quantum computing provides. Numerous advances have been made in chemistry over the past few decades which is due to computer being able to model the structure of complex molecules. cloths. With a quantum computer the difficulty increases by a very small margin with each electron. Science & Chemistry Food. This means that conventional computers can only model molecules with no more than 30 electrons. because thousands of more complex molecules and substances will be created every day. chemistry and even the security that protects our personal information. In order to model a molecule. are capable of solving the SE much faster and with less hardware. and will affect all facets of life. because even the most advanced supercomputers cannot crack the system. nature and virtually anything.

which is the world’s first commercial quantum computer. Without algorithms. another dimension to the possible solutions is 10 | P a g e . With current computers most NP type problems are virtually unsolvable.The power of quantum computing could only be harnessed if an algorithm could exploit the potential of it. there have been great advances in the writing of quantum algorithms which are now armed with astonishing sophistication. the Orion by DWave Systems. Since then. wrote an algorithm which would factor large numbers on a quantum computer. Similarly nobody wanted to build a quantum computer because there were no algorithms. a Bell Labs scientist. An algorithm is simply a program that is designed for the purpose of solving a certain problem. This is because when a new variable is added. we would have no computer (classical or quantum). How quantum computer can save the world? Unsolvable Problems (NP type) Nondeterministic polynomial (NP) problems are considered the most difficult problems on earth to solve. In 1994 everything changed when Peter Shor. as engineers and scientists stepped into the potent world of quantum computing. The latest being able to manipulate 16 qubits. because there would have been no motivation to build a computer if it could not solve any problems. This discovery would change the world forever.

Even more importantly. In summary. Conventional computers almost never achieve optimal results. and a paradox may it be. Every value in the problem must be calculated. Our dependency of oil will end or on the other hand quantum computing may enable us to synthetically reproduce commodities like gold. even millions of electrons will be able to be modeled by solving the Schrodinger Equation (SE) using quantum computing. because they are not fast or accurate enough. Quantum computers can. safer place. cleaner. life on earth would be thousands of years ahead and extremely more advanced. 11 | P a g e . when quantum computers will do just this. If all these NP type problems could be solved. quantum computing has the potential and is very likely to save the world from imploding. are once again vastly superior . It can bring to an end the countless wars being fought over oil and other sources of wealth. they must be cooled. It is made up of 16 qubits which is the most ever for a quantum computer.opened. The quantum computer is call the ‘Orion’. quantum computers will be able to simulate nature so accurately that virtual reality and the real world will become undistinguishable. Therefore. Quantum computers. This could mean that a cure for AIDS could be found in seconds! Medicine will leap ahead like never before. NP problems are everywhere from database searching to patternmatching to medicine. and hence millions of lives will be saved. and also making it a better. because they can evaluate all possible solutions simultaneously (because of superposition) and then find the optimal solution. than classical computers. Just think of the possibilities! Molecules containing hundreds or thousands. diamonds and oil. In order for qubits to maintain their quantum state. The solution is found a lot quicker and is more accurate. More astonishingly and maybe even frighteningly. solve unsolvable problems which will define the future of our world… Saving the world (and changing it) Imagine if every NP type problem on earth could be solved? Well. compared to and then an optimal solution can be found. ‘greener ’ fuels and alternate energy sources can be discovered and the current global warming problem we are facing could be rectified in an instant. The Orion quantum computer The first commercial quantum computer in the world has been made by D Wave Systems Inc. stop imagining because it’s just around the corner. The Orion was built using a superconducting metal called niobium. the Orion is supercooled to almost absolute zero. Eventually the very fundamental equations of nature will be solved.

a quantum computer can perform a complicated unitary transformation to a set of qubits in some initial state. with this 12 | P a g e . each a unitary transformation acting on a single qubit or pair of qubits. information is encoded in a series of bits. The qubits can then be measured. it solved a Sudoku puzzle in seconds! The Potential of Quantum Computer In a traditional computer. a quantum computer manipulates qubits by executing a series of quantum gates.The biggest advantage of the ‘Orion’ is the ability it has to solve NP problems in just a few cycles. The classical computer takes thousands of cycles and gives less accurate solutions. Similarly. In applying these gates in succession. and these bits are manipulated via Boolean logic gates arranged in succession to produce an end result. When the ‘Orion’ was demonstrated in Mountain View (Silicon valley) in 2007.

as dictated by the measurement axiom of quantum mechanics. observing the system would cause it to collapse into a single quantum state corresponding to a single answer. The premier application of a quantum computer capable of 13 | P a g e . but on 2500 machine states at once! Eventually. Peter Shor. This similarity in calculation between a classical and quantum computer affords that in theory. Hence with one fell swoop. a classical computer would be able to do anything a quantum computer can. it is incredibly inefficient. as serial computers do. Each state would be classically equivalent to a single list of 500 1's and 0's. provided such an application by devising the first quantum computer algorithm. represents a quantum superposition of as many as 2500 states. whose action might be to execute a controlled-NOT operation on the 100th and 101st qubits-. Take for example a system of only a few hundred qubits. for instance. So why bother with quantum computers? Although a classical computer can theoretically simulate a quantum computer. so much so that a classical computer is effectively incapable of performing many tasks that a quantum computer could perform with ease.measurement serving as the final computational result. however.would simultaneously operate on all 2500 states. the hunt was on to find something interesting for a quantum computer to do. and soon after realizing its potential. derived from the massive quantum parallelism achieved through superposition. Shor's algorithm harnesses the power of quantum superposition to rapidly factor very large numbers (on the order ~10200 digits and greater) in a matter of seconds. as first explained by John Bell. In other words. a quantum operation could compute not just on one machine state. one tick of the computer clock. is the equivalent of performing the same operation on a classical super computer with ~10150 separate processors (which is of course impossible)!! Early investigators in this field were naturally excited by the potential of such immense computing power. meaning it would take an exponentially longer time than even a primitive quantum computer. a classical computer can accurately simulate a quantum computer. which is also represented as a matrix). Richard Feynman was among the first to recognize the potential in quantum superposition for solving such problems much much faster. a system of 500 qubits. which is impossible to simulate classically. a research and computer scientist at AT&T's Bell Laboratories in New Jersey. Any quantum operation on that system --a particular pulse of radio waves. The simulation of a quantum computer on a classical one is a computationally hard problem because the correlations among quantum bits are qualitatively different from correlations among classical bits. The reason this is an exciting result is because this answer. For example. this exists in a Hilbert space of dimension ~1090 that in simulation would require a classical computer to work with exponentially large matrices (to perform calculations on each individual state. a single list of 500 1's and 0's.

and anyone interested in electronic and financial privacy. Furthermore.previously considered to be "uncrackable" -.implementing this algorithm lies in the field of encryption. Quantum Error Correction Quantum error correction is used in quantum computing to protect quantum information from errors due to decoherence and other quantum noise. Classical error correction employs redundancy. is only one application of a quantum computer. Shor has put together a toolbox of mathematical operations that can only be performed on a quantum computer. relies heavily on the difficulty of factoring very large composite numbers into their primes. Quantum error correction is essential if one is to achieve fault-tolerant quantum computation that can deal not only with noise on stored quantum information. Encryption. Feynman asserted that a quantum computer could function as a kind of simulator for quantum physics. and faulty measurements. potentially opening the doors to many discoveries in the field. the advent of the first fully functional quantum computer will undoubtedly bring many new and exciting applications. many of which he used in his factorization algorithm. known as RSA. A computer which can do this easily is naturally of great interest to numerous government agencies that use RSA -. but also with faulty quantum gates. In addition. 14 | P a g e . The simplest way is to store the information multiple times. Currently the power and capability of a quantum computer is primarily theoretical speculation. where one common (and best) encryption code. faulty quantum preparation. however. and—if these copies are later found to disagree—just take a majority vote.

This theorem seems to present an obstacle to formulating a theory of quantum error correction. but nothing at all about the value that is stored in the logical qubit—as otherwise the measurement would destroy any quantum superposition of this logical qubit with other qubits in the quantum computer. which one. but this outcome is less likely than the above outcome. A quantum error correcting code protects quantum information against errors of a limited form. We perform a multi-qubit measurement that does not disturb the quantum information in the encoded state but retrieves information about the error. The latter is counter-intuitive at first sight: Since noise is arbitrary. A syndrome measurement can determine whether a qubit has been corrupted. The reason is that the measurement of the syndrome has the projective effect of a quantum measurement. We also assume that noisy errors are independent and occur with some probability p. it can be expressed as a superposition of basis operations—the error basis (which is here given by the Pauli matrices and the identity). Quantum error correction also employs syndrome measurements. and the syndrome tells us which. and Y). We then reverse an error by applying a corrective operation based on the syndrome. how can the effect of noise be one of only few distinct possibilities? In most codes. so that we can let the same Pauli operator act again on the corrupted qubit to revert the effect of the error. Suppose we copy a bit three times. Copying quantum information is not possible due to the no-cloning theorem. It is possible that a double-bit error occurs and the transmitted message is equal to three zeros. It is most likely that the error is a single-bit error and the transmitted message is three ones. the effect is either a bit flip. and if so. The syndrome measurement "forces" the qubit to "decide" for a certain specific "Pauli error" to "have happened".g. 15 | P a g e . But it is possible to spread the information of one qubit onto a highly-entangled state of several (physical) qubits. Peter Shor first discovered this method of formulating a quantum error correcting code by storing the information of one qubit onto a highly-entangled state of nine qubits.e. The syndrome measurement tells us as much as possible about the error that has happened. in which of several possible ways it was affected. or both (corresponding to the Pauli matrices X. Classical error correcting codes use a syndrome measurement to diagnose which error corrupts an encoded state. So even if the error due to the noise was arbitrary. Suppose further that a noisy error corrupts the threebit state so that one bit is equal to zero but the other two are equal to one. the outcome of this operation (the syndrome) tells us not only which physical qubit was affected. but also. Z. What is more. or a sign (of the phase) flip.

Conclusion Will scalable quantum computers ever be built? Yes. Quantum computers will always be harder to build and maintain than classical computers. 1998)”. It just happens to give you the right answer for the universe you happen to be in at the time. quantum mechanics delves deep into areas that are nearly unthinkable. so they will not be used for the many tasks that classical computers do equally efficiently. you have to believe in a lot of other strange things(Manay. the quantum computer promises to deliver a new level of computational power." says Charles Bennett of IBM. one of the best known quantum computing scientists. "If you do. 16 | P a g e . The extent of these tasks is still being explored. With classical computers gradually approaching their limit.Strange things about quantum computer “On the theory side. For instance. Will quantum computers eventually replace desktop computers? No. Quantum computers will be useful for a number of specialized tasks. "It takes a great deal of courage to accept these things. With them comes a whole new theory of computation that incorporates the strange effects of quantum mechanics and considers every physical object to be some kind of quantum computer. it's possible that a quantum computer holds an infinite number of right answers for an infinite number of parallel universes.

References: Daniel.org/r10/bombay/news4/Quantum_Computers.htm Mean to Us? Computers. (1998).carolla.htm Quantum Computers & Moore's Law.lanl. G.com/quantum_computers.ieee. USA Today.html Error-Correcting Manay.gov/~gottesma/QECC. Quantum computers could be a billion times faster than Pentium III. Quantum Codeshttp://qso.html Quantum http://www. K.com Quantum Computers: What are They and What Do They http://www. 17 | P a g e .amd1.com/quantum/QuantumComputers. (1999).ewh. http://www. http://www.qubyte.

West. educational website: http://www.cs. California Institute of Technology.edu/~westside/quantum-intro.html#qc 18 | P a g e .caltech. J (2000). Quantum Computers.

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