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BOOK'S

MECHANICS

ABBOTT

MECHANICS

" T h e author rightly considers t h a t the approach t o mechanics should be largely experimental, and t h e r e f o r e in the early chapters he describes experiments w i t h simple apparatus w h i c h can be easily constructed o r obtained by the student. This is a splendid book, and anyone w o r k i n g his way t h r o u g h it conscientiously should acquire a sound knowledge of those mechanical principles which are applied in many branches of industry and in the technical branches of the forces." Scottish Educational Journal " T h e book is well illustrated w i t h singularly clear line diagrams and full use is made of varied types w h i c h make the t e x t very readable." The Journal of Education " A n excellent book . . . it is w e l l adapted t o any student of elementary mechanics, and t o teaching y o u r s e l f . " The Faraday House Journal

76

net

THE TEACH YOURSELF BOOKS EDITED BY LEONARD CUTTS

MECHANICS

Uniform with this volume and in the same series

Teach Yourself ALGEBRA Teach Yourself ARITHMETIC Teach Yourself CALCULUS Teach Yourself GEOMETRY Teach Yourself MATHEMATICS Teach Yourself READY R E C K O N E R Teach Yourself: THE SLIDE RULE Teach Yourself STATISTICS Teach Yourself TRIGONOMETRY

TEACH

YOURSELF

MECHANICS

By P. A B B O T T , B.A.

iA

THE

ENGLISH

UNIVERSITIES

STREET

PRESS LTD

102 N E W G A T E

LONDON,

E.C.I

Suffolk . Limited.. by Richard Clay and Company.First printed This impression ig4i 1959 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED Printed in Great Britain for the English Universities Press. Bungay. Ltd.

The difficulty is increased in such a subject when access is not possible to laboratories and apparatus. The view of the author of this book. often prompted by the needs of mankind. as witness the discoveries of Archimedes.students who are anxious to acquire a knowledge of the subject but must rely. Like other volumes in the "Teach Yourself " series. on their own studies.INTRODUCTION THIS book has been written designedly for the private student and especially for those who need to acquire a knowledge of the mechanical principles which underlie much of the work in many branches of industry and in the technical branches of the fighting forces. It is difficult in these troubled times to obtain the tuition provided by Scientific and Technical Institutions for such subjects as Mechanics. To a considerable extent the subject has been built up through centuries of human progress by experiment. Nevertheless the author hopes and believes that enough can be learnt from the present volume to be of very real practical use as an introduction to the subject. in the main. founded on long experience. What is to take the place of this practical basis for the subject? In the early chapters of this book directions and descriptions are given of experiments with simple apparatus such as most students with a little ingenuity can construct or obtain. By this means the student is led to formulate some of the simple fundamental principles upon which the subject is built. When the apparatus required is more complicated and cannot be obtained by the student it seems to the author that in many cases there is little value in the V . Torricelli and Galileo. it seeks to give such help as is possible to those. is that the approach to mechanics should be largely experimental. Nor is there any completely satisfactory substitute. Experiment has preceded theory.

W. Academic exercises. The examples to be worked by the student are designed to enable him to test his knowledge of the theorems on which they are based and to consolidate his knowledge of them. In those cases in which practical drawing can be employed as an alternative to a trigonometrical solution.. the truth of the principles which they demonstrate being assumed. leaving the verification for later study. It has been considered more profitable for private students. this is indicated. The author desires to express his thanks to Mr. Mathematical proofs which involve a knowledge and experience of the subject which may be beyond the average student are omitted. also to . To assist the student cross references. elementary algebra including the solution of quadratic equations with a knowledge of ratio.vi INTRODUCTION description of experiments which have been performed by others. depending for their solution mainly on mathematical ingenuity have been excluded. Hills. Inevitable limitations of space have made it necessary to exclude many practical and technical applications of the principles evolved. when it seems desirable." published by the University of London Press. variation and a certain amount of fundamental geometry. for permission to use diagrams 22 and 138 from his book on " Mechanics and Applied Mathematics. who in many cases are familiar with practical applications. that as much space as possible should be given to explanations of the theoretical aspects of the subject. The minimum amount required for the greater part of this volume is ordinary arithmetic. B. In some sections of the book a knowledge of elementary trigonometry is essential. D. Another important factor in a book of this kind is that of the amount of mathematical knowledge which may be assumed as being possessed by the average reader. with the numerical results which must be accepted without personal verification.Sc. are given to the appropriate sections in the companion book on Trigonometry in this series. It seems simpler and just as convincing to state the principles which are demonstrated by such experiments.

Cussons for the use of blocks of some of the admirable apparatus which has been designed by them for use in teaching mechanics. . Kerridge. I." Vol. C. 207 from " National Certificate Mathematics. and to the University of London for their consent to the inclusion of a few of their Examination questions. E. The author is also indebted to Mr.Sc. B. for the use of the example on p.INTRODUCTION vii Messrs.

.

Resultant Force . . . 27. . 41. Bars Resting on Two Supports . Experimental Determination of the Centre of Gravity Centre of Gravity of a Rectangular Lamina . 13. . The Weight of the Lever Pressure on the Fulcrum. Centre of Gravity of a Uniform Rod . . 17. 9. . Centre of Gravity of a Number of Particles . The Meaning ol Mechanics 3. . 27 . . Centre of Gravity of Composite Bodies . . Equilibrium of Bodies . 2 9 29 35 36 39 CENTRE OF GRAVITY 24. . 26. 6. ix . . . . . . . 16. . . . . Turning Moments . 10. . . Transmission of Force . and Neutral Equilibrium . 25. . 22. 35. 14. . . II . . Machines . . . . 12. 30. 37. . . . . The Principles of the Lever . . Equilibrium . . . 20. 13 14 15 16 . Measurement of a Force . Unstable. . . . . PACE CHAPTER I INTRODUCTORY 1. . Centre of Parallel Forces . . Stable. . . 1 6 CHAPTER THE LEVER 8. . . . 29. 32. 38. 4. . Centre of Gravity of a Triangular Lamina . . . 28. . . Use of Moments in Determining Centre of Gravity . . . Weight and Force . . . Orders of Levers . Centre of Gravity of Regular Geometrical Figures . 33. . 6. . . Centre of Force .CONTENTS PARA. . . CHAPTER IV 44 45 45 46 46 47 48 50 53 59 61 62 RESULTANT OF NON-PARALLEL FORCES PARALLELOGRAM OF FORCE 40. 1 9 20 23 . . . . Geometric Representation of a Force Vector Quantity . Centre of Gravity of Regular Solids . . . A Simple Pulley CHAPTER III 18 . . . . Practical Examples of Levers . 66 67 . . .

. • . . . CHAPTER V 67 68 7i 75 77 COMPONENTS OF A FORCE. Resultant of Forces Acting at a Point Resultant of any Number of Concurrent Forces Equilibrium of Forces Acting at a Point CHAPTER VI 82 83 84 89 90 95 TRIANGLE OF FORCES. . . . . . . . . Parallellogram of Forces . . Non-parallel Forces acting on a Body . Speed and Velocity Measurement of Speed and Velocity Uniform Velocity Average Velocity Distance-time Graphs . . RESOLVED PARTS OF A FORCE 52. Friction as a Force 74. The Laws of Friction 81. VII "5 116 117 119 120 125 . 63. The Triangle of Forces 67. Point . Calculation of the Resultant of Two Forces Acting at a Point . Coefficient of Friction 76. 43. Lami's Theorem . . The Inclined Plane 69. 49. POLYGON OF FORCES. 71. The Angle of Friction 78. 84. LAMI'S THEOREM 64. . 88. 59. Resultant of a Number of Forces Acting at a. 60. Components of a Force . 86. . 56. 87. . 105 109 CHAPTER FRICTION 73. . . Limiting Friction 75. . 53. 45. Resolving a Force . 85. .CONTENTS 42. . Forces Acting on a Body on a Slope Resolved Paxts. The Inclined Plane and Friction CHAPTER BODIES IN VIII 130 MOTION-VELOCITY 83. Area under a Velocity-time Graph 131 132 133 133 137 141 . 89. . . . . Velocity-time Graphs . The Polygon of Forces 98 101 . 47. . Moments of Intersecting Forces .

. . . . . The Law of the Machine . Work 120. CHAPTER X MOTION 147 I48 149 153 154 156 N E W T O N ' S LAWS OF 103. . . . Motion of a Body Projected Upwards . . . Velocity Ratio Mechanical Advantage . . .160 160 . 140. 132. Energy and Gravity . . W O R K . POWER 116. 119. Conservation of Energy . . . Horse Power CHAPTER 130. Newton's First Law of Motion Newton's Second Law of Motion Momentum Units of Force Newton's Third Law of Motion CHAPTER XI . 94. . XII . . . 109. . . . . 178 179 181 182 .185 188 MACHINES . Systems of Pulleys . . 194 200 201 203 203 204 206 . . . Distance passed over by a Uniformly Accelerated Body Acceleration due to Gravity . Average Velocity and Distance . xi PAGE CHAPTER 90. Formula for Uniform Acceleration . . . . 98. . 145. . . . ENERGY. . 104. .172 IMPULSE A N D MOMENTUM . . . . .161 163 163 164 . . . . . Impulse 117. . . . . 105. The Screw The Screw-jack . 110. Impulse and Momentum . . . Acceleration of a Falling Body . . . 92. . 139. . . The Efficiency of a Machine . . 100. 191 .183 . . 136. 127. IX I46 ACCELERATION Changes in Velocity . . . . 113. 131. 124. . .192 192 193 . 133. . 159 . 93. Work and Energy Equations 123. Mass and Inertia . . . Inclined Plane . . 108. Machines and Work . 97. 141. . 106. . 142. . . . . . . Mass and Weight Measurement of Mass . . . Energy 121. . 143. . .CONTENTS PARA. . The Wheel and Axle Differential Wheel and Axle . .184 . . . . Power. . .

. Measurement of Air Pressure The Barometer . . 180. . . . . . ANSWERS TABLES . Formulae Connected with Projectiles CHAPTER 164. . . . . Composition of Velocities . 170. . . . . The H y d r o m e t e r . . 185. . . THE PRESSURE OF GASES . . . . XV . Pressure of a Liquid . Density . . . 151. 249 250 251 252 254 257 262 . 172. . . 165. . . . VELOCITY RELATIVE 160. The Principle of Archimedes . .215 217 221 158. . 184. . 177. . . 214 . . . The Path of a Projectile 169. . . 169. Components of the Initial Velocity 160. . . The Parallelogram of Velocities . The Hydraulic Press 173. . . Floating Bodies . Relative Density . . 155. . . . SPECIFIC GRAVITY . . . . Transmission of Pressure . . 182. Relative Velocity . . . .xii PARA. . . . . . . . CHAPTER 179. . . . . . CHAPTER X I V PROJECTILES . Component Velocities . . Pressure of the Atmosphere . . . . . 226 227 228 D E N S I T Y . . . Liquids and Force . . . . . . . . . CONTENTS PAGE CHAPTER XIII COMPOSITION OF VELOCITIES. 171. 153. . . 238 238 239 241 242 243 245 246 XVII . 175. . . 234 -235 CHAPTER L I Q U I D PRESSURE 168. Pressure at a Depth in a Liquid . . . XVI . . The Siphon Boyle's Law .

and this conveys some idea of the scope of the subject. 13 . These two aspects of " rest " and " motion " of bodies have led to the division of the subject into two parts : (1) Statics. Two children on a " see-saw " know the necessity of positioning themselves so that they may balance. in learning to stand and walk. which deals with bodies at rest. and that is the principal reason for studying mechanics. the motorcar. whether it is the bricklayer wheeling his barrow-load of bricks. through long ages. The principles of mechanics also enter vitally into the daily work of many. that we should examine and learn to understand them. we are employing " mechanisms " which are admirably adapted by nature for the purpose. It is important. the farmer pumping water from his well. or the machine-gun. A little child. therefore. is contriving by his experiments in balancing to solve problems which later will come up for our consideration in this book. have been adapted by Nature to our needs. The Meaning of Mechanics. Our body contains some of these contrivances. Mechanics may be defined as the subject in which we study the conditions under which objects around us move or are at rest. Many of the " contrivances " and the fundamental principles underlying them form part of the instinctive heritage of the human race.CHAPTER I INTRODUCTORY I. The scientific study of these principles through the ages has led to the complicated mechanisms of modern times. such as the steam-engine. which. or raise our feet from the ground in walking. THE word " Mechanics" is derived from a Greek word meaning " contrivances ". or the aeronautical engineer designing an aeroplane. 2. If we lift a weight.

you must exert. The words " body " and " object " are meant to include all things which have weight—a term which we will* examine more closely in the next paragraph.. and tends to make them fall to the earth. B represents the body. what we call " force ". We assume. or weight. suspend it by a string. 1. and the straight lines indicate . The weight of the body is therefore which acts vertically downwards on it. Now note that— (1) In order to keep the body at rest. and it will continually enter into the work of this volume. Take a small heavy body. 3.e. the weight of the body. This force is exerted in an upward direction. Hydrostatics. by means of the muscles of your fingers and arm. and hold the free end of this between the fingers. It is the attraction which the earth exerts on all bodies. that all such " bodies " are " rigid "—i. which is concerned with bodies in motion. the diagram in Fig. which frequently has a volume to itself. viz. (2) This is necessary to counterbalance a force which is'acting vertically downW wards on the body. We call it the weight of the body. There is a further branch of the subject.16 T E A C H Y O U R S E L F MECHANICS (2) Dynamics. Returning to the experiment with the body suspended by a string. a force. Weight"and Force. different parts of them always retain the same relative positions. 1 shows the method we employ to represent forces acting on a body. a force which we call FIG. is called the " force of gravity ". This downward force. for the present. It will be noticed that the word " body " has been employed above. in which are studied the application to liquids and gases of those principles which have been examined for solids.

4. Thus an alteration In the forces acting on the body results in the body either being at rest or in motion. while the force of the weight of the object is transmitted to the fingers. T— is equal to that of the weight. Transmission of force. the body moves upwards. (3) If T < W. (2) If T > W.INTRODUCTORY 15 the forces acting on it. been given. Force is that which tends to produce motion in a body. but it is desirable that it should be clear what the word implies. the body will move downwards. electrical force. the body is at rest. the force of the wind. marked W. exerted by the fingers through the string. It may be the result of muscular effort. Force may have many different origins. familiar to everybody as one of the phenomena of everyday life. Now. (2) The pull upwards. if you decrease it. and marked T. The string employed in the above experiment is said to transmit the muscular force exerted by the fingers. the force of expanding steam. it may be the force of gravity.. however. The general meaning of the term is. the body moves downwards. or to keep the body at rest. the arrow-heads showing the directions of them. and . so long as the pull which you exert—viz. We may summarize this briefly as follows : (1) If T = W. If you increase your pull. The string is stretched by the action of these two forces and is said to be in tension under them. The simple experiment above and the conclusions drawn from it suggest the following definition. to the body B. This tension is the same throughout the string. and so on. the body will move upwards. to change that motion. It will be noticed that the term " force " has been used above before any definition of it has. since it will constantly recur in subsequent chapters. Tension. These are : (1) The weight downwards. the body will remain at rest.

If you take a coiled spring and attach a weight of one lb. it will extend in . One of these is shown in Fig. 6. especially when dealing with forces which are not those of gravity and which do not act vertically downwards. Thus in the experiment of a load suspended by a string we could detect that a load of 2 lbs. If a body is at rest under the action of forces it is said to be in equilibrium. The conditions under which a body can be in equilibrium under the action of more than two forces will be examined later. It follows that if two forces act on a body and there is equilibrium. the forces must be equal and opposite. this will not break. In measuring the magnitude of a force it is convenient to express it in terms of the weight of a certain number of lbs. 2. Equilibrium. wt. but we could not tell how much greater. We have seen that the weight of a body is the force with which the earth attracts it. wt.. but the simplest and the one most commonly used is the spring balance. For example. It would clearly be incorrect to say that a force is 10 lbs. of another 50 lbs. 5. The Measurement of a Force. 7. was considerably greater than that of 1 lb. or 50 lbs.16 TEACH YOURSELF MECHANICS so long as it is not greater than what is called the force of cohesion which keeps together the particles of the string. It is therefore necessary to have more exact methods of measuring the magnitudes of forces. if T = W there is no motion and the body is in equilibrium. as we have seen in the experiment above. weight. It is not possible by the use of muscular force to distinguish accurately between forces of different magnitudes. There are many methods of doing this... we may say that the magnitude of a certain force is 10 lbs. Thus. A spring balance. The magnitude of a force is therefore expressed in terms of lbs.

In this way it is possible to construct a scale by the side of the spring on which will be shown the magnitude of the force which produces a certain extension.INTRODUCTORY 17 length by a certain amount. FIG. the extension in its length will be twice the extension for 1 lb. . The spring balance can be used to measure force acting in any direction. then the tension in each string. can be measured on the corresponding spring balance. Now. 2. and T a in the figure. 3. it can be demonstrated by experiment that the extension in the length of the spring is proportional to the magnitude of the force. shown as 7*. is supported by two spring balances. FIG. be attached to the spring. 3. If therefore a weight of 2 lbs. as shown in Fig. Thus suppose a load of W lbs.

4. 4 by B. and today. Machines. P. suppose I wish to raise a heavy stone indicated in Fig. acts upwards. I insert an iron bar under one edge at C and pivot it on a suitable object.CHAPTER II THE 8. this force is transmitted to C. in various forms and combinations. For example. such as a stone. By the application of a comparatively small force. and raises the stone. The rod is a simple example of a lever. LEVER A MACHINE is a contrivance by means of which a force applied at one part of the machine is transmitted to another in order to secure an advantage for some particular purpose. is the most widely used of all machines. A FIG. . which is probably one of the earliest machines to be used by man. The bar is thus a contrivance by means of which it is possible to transmit an applied force to secure the advantage of a larger force acting at another point. at A. at F.

It will be necessary to have some means of pivoting the rod. then passing a knitting-needle. The student can easily discover the mechanical principles of a lever by a few simple experiments. and if equal weights. while that near A tends to turn the rod in an anti-clockwise direction. balance one another and so the equilibrium is not disturbed. We will begin by pivoting the stick in the middle. The turning effects of these two weights. W pivoting. through a hole. If this is done accurately the bar will rest in a horizontal position. 5) represent such a bar and C the centre hole about which it is pivoted. 5. or something similar. are suspended at equal distances from the centre. A yard-stick is very suitable. the rod will be in equilibrium. In this form the lever is a simple balance. in order to facilitate the experiments.THE LEVER 19 We must now proceed to examine the principles underlying it. 9. The principles of the lever. so that it may turn about the point of the W ^ FIG. The needle is then supported in some way. We will therefore begin by experimenting with a long rod or bar which is graduated in inches or centimetres. A long bar is the essential thing for a lever. W. each of which is a force acting vertically downwards. This could be done by boring holes. . It should be noted that the weight near B tends to turn the rod about C in a clockwise direction. for it is only when these are understood that progress may be made in developing the uses of the machine. Let AB (Fig. with smooth interior surfaces.

(2) The distance of the weight from the pivot. Turning moments. called the fulcrum. It will be found that to balance the 4 lbs. First let us consider experiments in which we vary the magnitudes of the weights and their distances from B 8 lbs FIG. We must now therefore investigate ow this turning effect is affected by : (1) The magnitude of the weight hung on. 5 in. from C. acting 10 in. from C. viz. acting 10 in. from C on one arm balances 8 „ 5 „ C „ the other arm. acting 5 in. (3) T h e position of the fulcrum. placed on the other arm. . from C. the fulcrum.20 TEACH YOURSELF MECHANICS 10. at E. Thus 4 lbs. from C balances the turning effect in an anti-clockwise direction of 8 lbs. In other words— The turning effect in a clockwise direction of 4 lbs. which we will still keep at the centre of the lever. It will be noticed that the products of weight and distance in the two cases. E The effect of hanging a weight at any point on one arm of the lever is to cause the lever to turn about the oint of support. 6) 10 in. we must place the 8 lbs. 4 x 10 and 8 x 5 . Let a weight of 4 lbs. 1 4 lbs the fulcrum. are equal. be suspended at D (Fig. Let this be balanced by 8 lbs. 6 .

The turning moment (anti-clockwise) of 12 lbs. 7. Similar experiments in which the weights and distances are varied lead to the conclusion that this is true generally. will balance this. long. at 2 in. from A. The turning moments of the two weights are equal and opposite. 2 in. be 4 in. D F B 12 l b s FIG. The turning moment (clockwise) of 1-5 lbs. be 20 in. the end of the lever. Let the fulcrum.THE LEVER 21 This product of force (or weight) and distance is called tne turning moment of the force. they are equal. is hung at D. In these experiments the fulcrum or pivot is at the centre of the lever. I 5 lbs Let the lever. it will be found that 1*5 lbs. AB (Fig. Similar experiments with varying weights and dis- . A weight of 12 lbs. from F. at B = 1-5 x 16 = 24. from F is balanced by 1-5 „ 16 „ „ F. is needed. at D = 12 x 2 = 24. F . Thus 12 lbs. 7). If we experiment to find what weight placed at B. This time instead of suspending the bar it is balanced about a knife-edge at F (the fulcrum). We must now try similar experiments when the fulcrum is in any position. We further notice in this case that when the turning moments balance about the fulcrum.

8). viz.—When turning moments are thus calculated with regard to the fulcrum at F. we have considered the case in which one weight only was placed on each arm. it balances about F and remains horizontal. W3. While W t exerts an anti-clockwise effect. and E.. Note.e. W2 Fig. Wv W2. and the conclusions drawn from them.e. In the previous experiments. Now Ws and W3 exert a clockwise turning movement about F. 8. If there is equilibrium these must balance—i. d3 be their distances from the fulcrum. Let these weights be so arranged that the bar is in horizontal equilibrium—i. The converse is also true. we say that " we take moments (or turning moments) about F ". Let three weights. Let dv d2.— When the turning moments of two forces about the fulcrum of a lever are equal and opposite. To complete the investigation experiments should be made C F D B W. be suspended from the bar at C. as before. W3 to discover what happens if more than one weight is acting. We can proceed as follows : Let a bar. rest on a fulcrum at F (Fig. the . D. AB.22 TEACH YOURSELF MECHANICS tances and different positions of the fulcrum lead to the same conclusion. the lever is In equilibrium..

act vertically downwards. the clockwise turning moments equal the anti-clockwise. 9 . But if the lever used is not light. Let Wx and W2 be unequal weights hung on the bar so that the bar rests in horizontal equilibrium. The weight of the lever. Let d1 and d2 be the respective distances from F. w. at its centre (Fig. Early mathematicians as- . so that its weight does not materially affect the conclusions. (W1 x d j = (Wt x d j + (W9 x d3). Relation between weights and distances. F.THE LEVER 23 clockwise turning moment must equal the anti-clockwise moment. of course. It must first be noted that the weight will. Since there is equilibrium. Wx X ix = W2 x d2. Let i4B be a bar with the fulcrum. F ¥ v D IB w2 FIG. 11. This can be written in the form : W 2 ~ d{ 12. assuming the bar to be " light". We have hitherto disregarded the weight of the lever. This should be verified experimentally by actual weights and measured distances. discrepancies will have appeared in the results of the experiments. 9).

Then. . The following experiment will serve to demonstrate this. 0 (see Fig. the moment of W = moment of the weight of the lever. If it be thus suspended by means of a spring balance it will be found that the balance registers the whole weight of the lever which must therefore act at the point of suspension. x can be calculated. of such a magnitude that the rod rests in horizontal equilibrium. 10. 0 c 1 1 1 111111 1 r W > f w FIG. Then by the conclusions of § 10. 10). as well as to illustrate our previous conclusions. Then w x x == W x OA. which. Suspend also a weight. from 0.24 TEACH YOURSELF MECHANICS sumed it as axiomatic that the whole of the weight could be considered as acting at the centre of the lever. the anti-clockwise moment of W acting at A must be counterbalanced by the weight of the lever. Suspend the lever from a point. . Let this weight be w. and so we find the distance from 0 at which the weight must act. as the moment must be clockwise.*. must act somewhere along OB. W. W x OA x = . Let the point at which it acts be x ins. This is confirmed y the fact that it can be supported in horizontal equilibrium at its centre. rovided that the lever is uniform. at A. from our previous conclusions. w Now OA can be measured and W and w are known.

AB.THE LEVER 25 From the experiment you will find that x = OC. long. but its position can be found by using the above method. C. (a) Where on CB should a load of 15 lbs. from C. were placed at A what would then be the value of P ? (c) If a weight of 5 lbs. its weight—acts. were hung at B. be placed to balance this? (b) What load should be placed 10 in.. (a) What is the value of P ? (b) If the 7-5 lbs. 11 shows a light rod. what weight must be placed 12 in. Loads are hung as indicated. AB. pivoted at its centre. Plbs Exercise I 1.e. is called the Centre of Gravity of the rod. If the lever is not uniform the centre of gravity will not be at the centre of the lever. The point at which the force of gravity on the lever— i. is hung 12 in. from A to preserve equilibrium ? . A light rod.5 lbs FIG. from C to preserve equilibrium ? 2. Thus the weight of the lever can be considered as acting at the centre of the lever. 11. C. 30 in. is pivoted at its centre. where C is the centre of the lever. B 7 . Fig. of length 36 in. and a load of 8 lbs. The term " Centre of Gravity " is introduced now as it arises naturally out of the experiments performed. but the full consideration of it is postponed until Chapter III.

24 in. Loads of 4-5 lbs. long. A uniform rod 36 in. is supported on a fulcrum 5 in. from one end. rests on a fulcrum 6 in.. A uniform iron bar. from one end. from the fulcrum. long. from the fulcrum. 4 ft. from . A load of 18 oz. placed at the end of the shorter arm causes the rod to rest in horizontal equilibrium. It is in equilibrium when loads of 6 lbs. and 2-5 lbs. at the end of the short arm? 9. At this end a load of 12 lbs. will balance this weight ? 7. and 36 lbs. (a) What is the weight of the bar ? (b) What load at the end of the long arm will balance a load of 24 lbs. long balances about a fulcrum 15 in. 25 in. long. A load of If oz. A light rod 4 ft. and 5 in. is placed on the shorter arm and 7 in. are hung at the ends of the bar. from this end. each are hung at every 10 in. and of unknown weight. has a fulcrum at its centre. be placed for the same purpose? 5. and the bar pivoted on it. from the fulcrum on the other arm will balance it? (b) Where must a load of 5 oz. What is the weight of the rod ? 6. To effect this a fulcrum is placed 4 in. 48 in. placed at the end of a uniform iron bar. from one end. are attached on one arm at distances 8 in. from one end. long and of weight 5 lbs. On the other arm loads of 3 lbs. A uniform bar 36 in. be placed on the other arm to preserve equilibrium ? 4. respectively from the fulcrum. is supported on a fulcrum 8 in. so that the weight can just be moved ? 8. rests on a fulcrum 8 in. A uniform rod. A light rod. (a) What weight placed 30 in. What load placed on the other arm.28 T E A C H YOURSELF MECHANICS 3. What effort must be exerted at the other end of the bar. is attached. AB. 40 in. Where must a single load of 4 lbs. long and weighing 18 lbs. long and weighing 4 oz. It is desired to raise a weight of 300 lbs. from one end.

If the rod is . as you probably expected. Pressure on the fulcrum. to Wx + W2.e. then the spring balance will register the pressure which was formerly borne by the fulcrum. What load at the end of the short arm will preserve horizontal equilibrium ? 10. A heavy uniform bar is 30 in. long and weighs 2 lbs.. placed so that there is equilibrium about a fulcrum. 12) be loaded with two weights.THE LEVER 27 the fulcrum. conse- quently there is a pressure on the fulcrum. W 1 and W z . is placed at one end. and at the other a weight of 5 lbs. If there is still equilibrium. that it is equal to the sum of the weights—i. Let a bar (Fig. In the previous experiments weights have been hung on a rod which was supported at the fulcrum. you will find. To ascertain the amount of this pressure the following experiment may be performed. A weight of 3 lbs. Resultant force. F. Replace the fulcrum by a hook attached to a spring balance and let this be raised slightly so that it takes the weight of the whole system. At what point on the bar must it be supported so that it balances and does not turn ? 13. Taking the reading of the spring balance.

14. The converse of the above is also true—viz. F. equal to their sum. T h e r e f o r e . . Then R = W. and has the same effect on the body. It should be noted that the forces represented by W 1 and W2. Centre of force. since there is equilibrium. would be the same. 13). is called the resultant of the forces. If other weights be placed on the lever. the effect on the fulcrum. or the spring balance which replaces it. the point at which the resultant acts. (4) Since Wt X AF = W z x BF AF _ BF ~ Wz W t' . R. . if two parallel forces represented by W1 and W2 act on a bar at A and B (see Fig. These are equal. (1) It is parallel to the forces it can replace and its direction is t h e same. the moments of the forces about F.28 TEACH YOURSELF MECHANICS not a light one the weight of the lever will also be borne by the fulcrum. the point at which the resultant of the two parallel forces acts divides the distance between them in the inverse ratio of their magnitudes. The single force which thus replaces t w o separate forces acting on a body. (3) T h e turning moments of the forces repre- sented by W1 and W2 are W1 x AF and W2 x BF. are parallel forces. The following points should be noted about the resultant of parallel forces. are equal. (2) It is equal to the sum of these forces. being due to gravity. + W2. Let R be the pressure recorded.. the spring balance would register the same amount as before. the pressure on the fulcrum is increased by these. equilibrium being preserved. Wj and W2. it is possible to find a point. It is clear that if the two weights or forces. were replaced at F by a single weight or force.

between them so that AF_Wt FB ~ Wx' and Wx X AF — W2X FB. Let loads Wt and W2 be suspended from two points. it is possible to find a point so that the moments about it of the two forces are equal and opposite and there is therefore equilibrium. acting at the centre of it. The following is a description of an experiment by means of which these thrusts may be found practically. or beams which rest on two supports. Such a point is called the centre of force. resting on two supports at C and D. But these are the moments of Wt and W2 about F. conversely. bars. as was shown in § 13.THE LEVER 29 F. These may be attached to compression balances. Bars resting on two supports. or beam. In Fig. The practical applications are very important. . of the thrusts on the supports. AB represents a heavy uniform bar. 2 15. R FIG. In problems arising from this arrangement it is important to be able to calculate the thrust of the supports on the bar or beam. or. 14. and at this point the resultant acts. Let w be the weight of the bar. 13. The principles that have been established in the preceding pages may be extended to the case of loaded rods. F B W. or the bar may be suspended from spring balances fixed at these points.

B U J V W. due to . . in any given instance. long. GB — 8 in. R A Pz A I6in. This was to be expected. from the readings of the two balances that this pressure is not divided evenly between the two supports. and supported at A and B. Let AB (Fig.I FIG.30 TEACH YOURSELF MECHANICS If the recorded pressures registered at C and D are examined it will be found that— ' total pressures at C and D — -f W2 + w. gravity. these may be calculated. in which the centre of gravity is not at the centre of the bar and no additional loads are placed on it. however. --8in:-> B V a ibs FIG. The centre of gravity is not at the centre of the rod but known to be at G. w 22 " 14. It will be seen.. where AG = 16 in. We will first consider the simple case of a heavy bar. 15. weight 6 lbs.. 15) be a heavy bar 24 in. since these two supports must take the whole of the downward forces. (a) Experimental method. Our problem is to discover how.

Since there is equilibrium. upward—P x -). = 2. These turning moments must be equal. Thus we find from the experiment that the pressures on the supports are inversely proportional to the distances from G. The bar is then subject to the turning moments about B of: (1) the weight at G—anti-clockwise. (b) Use of principles of moments. confirming the conclusion already reached that P i + P 2 = 6We note that P 2 : P1 = 2 : 1 = 16 : 8 = AG : GB.P 2 (equal and opposite to thrust on the supports). (2) at A—clockwise. These are: downward—the weight of the bar. P i + P t = 6. The bar would turn about the other support at 8. and we could regard the bar as a lever. 6 lbs.THE LEVER 33 33 Let Pv P 2 be the pressures at A and B. This can be confirmed by similar experiments. Reading the balances at A and B we find : P 2 = 4. these must be equal. equal and opposite thrusts must be exerted on the bar. Consider the forces acting on the bar AB. just on the point of turning about B. as is stated above. The thrust P 2 at B has no effect on rotation about B. Suppose the support at A were removed. since there is equilibrium at these points. . P . Since Pt and P 2 represent the pressures of the bar on A and B.

. of the rod. 16. 16 represents the rod AB. As the rod is uniform. the centre of gravity is at the centre.. which is 1 ft. 5 lbs. v G A "2 A k 5 lbs D «. 10 lbs.If!.. downward at G.». This is illustrated in the following example : P. G.«. from B. and The methods adopted in this case are also applicable when loads are attached to the bar. wt.32 TEACH YOURSELF MECHANICS X 24=6x8. „ D.If f B C lOlbs FIG. Forces acting on the bar.. 16. if we imagine the bar on the point of turning about A the turning moments are : (1) P 2 X 24—anti-clockwise (2) 6 X 16—clockwise P 2 X 24 = 6 x 16 P2 = 4 lbs.. . which is 1 ft. (1) Weight.. (2) Load. Find the pressures on the supports at A and C. of length 6 ft. Px = 2 lbs. and weight s lbs. Let P x = upward thrust at A. C. is suspended at D. is supported at one end A and.. A load of 10 lbs. (3) P j upward at A. (4) Pt „ C. also at C. Fig. Similarly. These are equal and opposite to the pressures of the bar on the supports at A and C. wt. A uniform heavy bar AB. W o r k e d example. from C.

equating moments about A Clockwise. is supported at each end. c—tar. X 5 = (5 X 2) + (10 X 1). and = 4 lbs. are carried at distances of 1 ft. is supported at one end and also 6 in. weighing 10 lbs. suppose that the support at A were to be removed so that the bar begins to rotate about C. long. 8 ft. and 60 lbs.THE LEVER 33 Now. P2 and x 5 = (5 x 3) + (10 X 4). long and weighing 10 lbs. long and weighing 20 lbs. A uniform beam 6 ft. long and weighing 7 lbs. Exercise 2. 4. A weight of 8 stone is hung on a uniform wooden pole 5 ft. these must be equal. It is then carried by two men. It is so arranged that the position of the weight on the pole is 2 ft.. wt. A uniform plank. They are : P t x 5—clockwise. wt. downward 5 lbs. 5 P 2 = 55 P 2 = 1 1 lbs. wt. from the stronger man. C and D. wt. . respectively from one end.. We find the turning moments of the forces which tend to make the bar rotate about C. A uniform bar. = 15 lbs. one at each end of the pole..cH. + 10 lbs. 4 ft. Find the load on each support. and 4 ft. from the other end. is supported between two steel pegs. 1. Similarly. Anti-Clockwise. As there is equilibrium about C. AB. We h a v e : Upward P1 + P 2 = 4 + 11 = 15 lbs. We may check by noting that since there is equilibrium the forces acting vertically upwards must be equal to those acting vertically downwards. 5P1 = 20. What weight will be borne by each of the men ? 3. 2. Find the load carried on the supports. ( 5 x 2 ) + (10 X 1)—anti-clockwise. Loads of 50 lbs.

A. in the examples which we have examined. a lever. weighing \ \ tons. Orders of levers. D. from the other end. A uniform bar 2 ft. 5. and a 4-lbs. at one end of the plank. from one end. in addition to a bar or rod. and is supported at its two ends. A load of | ton rests on the end B. one quarter B 201 bs FIG. weight is hung from the bar. B.. What force acts on the support A ? 8. apart. 17. one. from one end.. long weighs 2 lb. and the other. long. The relative positions which these may occupy on the lever may vary. AB. (3) An applied force. is attached to one end and 100 lbs. 17. from the end B. and 16 ft. The plank carries a load of 20 lbs. weight 9 in. is supported at one end. suspended 1 ft. is placed symmetrically on two supports 12 ft. involves: (1) A load. A 7-lbs. A plank 16 ft. long and weighing 30 lbs. A heavy uniform beam. rests on supports at each end. the length of the beam from the other end. A load of 80 lbs. t h e position of the fulcrum has been . As we have seen. What is the pressure on the supports ? 6. 6 in. Hitherto. A man weighing 12 stones stands on the plank 4 ft. and at a point C. from the end. 1 ft. 7. A uniform wooden plank weighing 20 lbs. C. Find the thrusts on the pegs. What is the pressure on each of the ends ? 17.34 T E A C H YOURSELF MECHANICS arranged as shown in Fig. to the other. Find the pressures on the two supports. (2) A fulcrum.

18. The relative positions in these orders are shown in Fig. have been called the three orders of levers. In particular the principle of moments is very important. The principles established for levers of the first order apply to the other orders and may be verified experiFulcrum 1st Order Applied Force Load^ Fulcrum 2nd Order Load Fulcrum 3rd Order Load FIG. Three arrangements are possible. 18. Applied Force Applied Force mentally by the student.THE LEVER 35 between the load and the applied force. 18. The principle was : When the lever is in equilibrium the turning moments of the forces which tend to produce motion in a clockwise direction about the fulcrum are equal to those of the forces tending to produce motion in an anti-clockwise direction. The principle of moments in the three orders. A s t h e positions of these are altered we have different types of levers. and it is worth while considering its application in the three orders. and these. . since the time of Archimedes.

20. Practical examples of levers. though they both act in the same direction. First order. a pair of scissors . The following are a few examples of the practical applications of levers in daily life. Consequently in the first and second orders there is an advantage. In the third order the applied force is greater than the load. 19(a). in general. one will naturally be clockwise and the other anti-clockwise. (2) In the second and third orders. Here it is an advantage that the applied force should move through a short distance. in the first two orders the applied force has to move through a greater distance than the load. since the load and applied force act on opposite sides of the fulcrum. a poker (pivoted on a bar). if one is to be clockwise and the other anti-clockwise they must act in opposite directions. crowbar (with fulcrum arranged as in Fig. 18 it will be seen that in levers of the second and third orders the moment of the load about the fulcrum is clockwise. 19. but in the third order the converse holds. while the moment of the applied force is anti-clockwise. since the load moved is greater than the force applied. while in the third order the applied force moves through a shorter distance. On examining Fig.36 TEACH YOURSELF MECHANICS In applying this principle to the three orders it may be noted that: (1) In the first order. Many of the movements in the human body are made by muscular action which is applied as in the third order of levers. A balance. greater than that of the " l o a d " arm. It will be noticed that in the first and second orders the length of the " applied force " arm is. On the other hand. Relative advantages of the three orders. .

Second order. t . 206). a safety valve lever (Fig. 19b). 1 9 ( 6 ) . 20(a). Third order FIG. a wheelbarrow. pumo handle (Fig. FIG. steel-yard. 20 (£>). FIG.THE LEVER 37 or pliers (double lever hinged). A crowbar (with fulcrum on ground as in Fig. pair of nutcrackers (double-hinged). oar of a boat. 20(a)).

2 1 ( 6 ) . When a note is struck on a piano. for the purpose of transmitting the action to the wires. The pulley is another very useful machine. 22. Combinations of levers are frequent in complicated mechanisms. 21 (a). The striking mechanism of a typewriter S^5 <£/* FIG. 22).38 T E A C H YOURSELF Third order. 21 (J)). 23) . FIG. In its simplest form it consists of a wheel with outer run grooved to permit of a rope travelling round it (Fig. 21. Combinations of levers. The forearm of the human body (Fig. In an aneroid barometer a combination of levers is also employed. MECHANICS P Load Fulcrum I p Load F FIG. a pair of sugar-tongs (double lever) (Fig. 21(a)). a combination of levers of all three orders is employed. A simple pulley. is an example of a combination of levers of the first and second orders (see Fig. 22.

there is no friction—then the tension in the rope is the same throughout and P == W. P FIG. W. Thus in Fig. acting downwards on the rope which is attached to W and passes round the pulley. In this form the pulley is employed merely to change the direction of an applied force. A movable pulley. P . If the pulley is assumed to be " smooth "—i.'. . 23 it will be seen that a weight. FIG..*.THE LEVER 39 The axle of the wheel is attached to a fixed beam or other support. W = 2P. to the axle of which the weight. Let the applied force be P. 2 4 . Then the tension in the rope is P throughout.e. It should be noted that since there is a pull. In the arrangement shown in Fig. A rope is fixed to a beam and passes round a travelling pulley. the pulley is sustained by two cords in each of which the tension is P. to be lifted is attached. in the rope on each side of the pulley. . W. the total force acting on the pulley is 2P. can be pulled upwards by a force. the weight supported is 2P. P . 24 the pulley is a movable one. 2 3 . .

then W + w = 2P. at C. Worked examples. long and weighing 3 lbs. An iron bar AB. we have P acting at B and W at C. Let R = pressure on the rod at the fulcrum. acts upward. may be regarded as a moving lever. C. from. the diameter of the pulley.. is fixed to perserve equilibrium. turns about a fulcrum at A (Fig. If moments be taken about A. The above relation between P and W may be obtained by applying the principle of moments. If this be considerable and equal to w. B a cord is attached to the rod and is passed vertically upwards over a smooth pulley fixed to a beam. 23. but AB = 2 AC. one diameter is instantly replaced by another diameter. At a point. . W lbs. 4 ft. 25). Find W and the pressure on the rod at the fulcrum. Example I. AB. At B a weight of 9 lbs. since as the pulley rotates.11 ft. To this cord a load of W lbs. wt. The tension in the cord passing over the pulley is the same throughout. is hung. P X AB = W X AC.42 42 T E A C H Y O U R S E L F MECHANICS This takes no account of the weight of the pulley.

To find R take moments about C. 2 6 .THE LEVER 41 To find W take moments about A. is lying with a face on horizontal ground. (R x 3) + (3 x 1) = 3R + 3 = R = FIG. Fig. 6 ft. is inserted 6 in. Find also the pressure of the bar on the ground. Example 2. 3 3W W X = = = (3 X 2) + (9 x 4). By doing this the unknown pressure R is eliminated. W Clockwise. Anti-clockwise. long and weighing 12 lbs.. wt. A uniformly loaded. A uniform crowbar. Then Anti-clockwise. under it in a direction perpendicular to one edge and at the mid point of the edge. 6 -f 36 = 42 14 lbs. 26 represents a vertical section through the symmetrical centre of the box. . Downward force 2 + 3 + 9 = 14. As a check: Upward force W = 14. rectangular box weighing 360 lbs. Find what force must be applied at the other end of the bar so that the box may be just tilted.

a pressure which will be half the weight of the box—i. 4 in. long with the end of the handle 2 ft.42 TEACH YOURSELF MECHANICS The bar.— the other half being borne by the other edge at D. Find the ratios of the . long and 2 lbs. Anti-clockwise. 180 lbs. R = 171 lbs. P X 6 = (180 X |) + (12 x 3) P = 21 lbs. 5 ft. the point of contact. will just balance this weight? 2.. A uniform bar. Let R be pressure of ground on the bar. What applied force. when just on the point of tilting will sustain at C. from the rowlock. from this end a load exerts a force equal to the weight of one ton. 180 + 12 = 192. what force must be applied at the other end so as just to raise the load? What will be the thrust of the ground on the bar at its end ? 3. Take moments about H for the equilibrium of the bar. 4 ft. 1. wt. A crowbar. 3 ft. A man pulls an oaT 7 f t . from this will produce equilibrium? What will be the pressure on the fulcrum ? 4. FH. is placed. At a distance of 8 in. long and weighing 2 lb. A weight of 30 lbs. is attached at a point on the bar 6 in. Then R x 6 = (180 x 5£) + (12 X 3) = 1026. Disregarding the weight of the crowbar. At the other end a load of 6 lbs. Let P be upward force applied at H. has one end pivoted on the ground. 6 in. Take moments about F for the equilibrium of the bar. from F. Exercise 3..e. is pivoted at one end. A heavy uniform bar. Check: Up Down 171 + 21 = 192. long. What upward force applied at a point 9 in. wt. from this end. = 126 Clockwise. from the other end. is pivoted at one end. in weight.

from the pivot. A force of 20 lbs. long and weighing 80 lbs. What force is applied to the plunging rod ? 10. What force applied at the other end of the bar will just support this load ? . A crowbar. Find the pressure of the steam per sq. is placed 1 ft. 32 ft. In a pair of nut-crackers a nut is placed § in. A pump handle is 3 ft. from the hinge. 5. and the area of the surface of the valve is 3 sq. long and has a load of 60 lb. weight 320 lbs. is applied at the end of the handle. 9. 6 in.. long from the pivot to the end. In a safety-valve (see Fig. wt. long and weighs 10 lbs. How far can a man weighing 160 lbs. is pushed under the block to a distance of 1 ft. What is the pressure applied to the nut ? 7. of length 6 ft. The pivot is 3-5 in. The lever is 8 in. What force applied at the other end of the crowbar will just tilt the block? 6. in.THE LEVER 43 pull at the end of the handle by the oarsman. 20(6)) the distance between the fulcrum and the centre of the piston is 3 in. It is pivoted at one end and a load of 40 lbs. at the end of it.. A uniform iron bar is 8 ft. A rectangular block of stone. and to be equivalent to 7 lbs. in. wt. horizontally from the top of a cliff. lies horizontally on the ground.. and weight 15 lbs. when the valve is just beginning to move upwards. A uniform heavy plank. projects 8 ft. the resistance of the boat to the oar at the rowlock. from the point where it is attached to the plunging rod. from the hinge and the pressure applied at the handles is estimated to act at a distance of 6 in. move along the plank before it tips up ? 8. and the resistance of the water acting at the end of the oar.

and Pa. any solid body can be considered as composed of a large number of particles upon each of which the force of gravity acts. the centre of them is called the centre of gravity of the system. This principle may be extended to any number of forces. P 3 are parallel forces. Now. the resultant of these can be found. This force is called the resultant of the forces. Now. Then R = R. It acts at a point between R t and P 3 which divides the distance between them in the ratio of P 3 + P 2 : P i .CHAPTER III C E N T R E OF 24. Suppose that Pv P 2 . Then R1=P1 + P2. Let be the resultant of P1 and P 2 . It was also seen that the two forces could be replaced by a single force. All these forces are parallel. GRAVITY In the previous chapter it was shown that if two parallel forces represented by weights acted on a bar so that their opposing moments about an axis on the bar were equal. acts. -f. . the bar was in equilibrium. This is the point where R. Let R be the resultant. and their 4-1 . R1 acts at a point which divides the distance between P1 and P 2 in the ratio P 2 : Pt.P 3 = P1 + P 2 + P 3 . acting at the axis. Centre of parallel forces. R1 and P 3 being parallel forces. When the forces acting are due to gravity. the resultant of Pv P3. and the point at which it acts is called the centre of force. equal to their sum and parallel to them. and is the centre of force of the system. This may be extended to any number of forces.

t h u s : The centre of gravity of a body is the point through which the resultant of the earth's pull upon the body passes and at which the weight of the body can be considered as acting.'. We have assumed that a uniform rod can be balanced about its centre point. of Wt + W2 at Gj and W3 at C lies at G on the straight line joining GjC. W i + W 3 = W 2 . as we have seen. Centre of gravity of a uniform rod. acts at the centre of these forces. Let C be a third particle of weight W3. and their resultant Wt + Wt+ Ws can be considered as acting at it. The point G is therefore the centre of gravity of the three particles. and let A and B be two small equal portions of the rod situated at equal distances from the fulcrum F . Let CD (Fig. Then the C. at the centre of the rod. This implies that the effect of the force of gravity upon the parts of the rod on the two sides of the fulcrum is the same.C E N T R E OF GRAVITY 45 resultant. which is therefore the centre of gravity of the body. Let A and B (Fig. To find the centre of gravity of a number of particles.G. 27) be two particles of weights and W2. 2 7 . By the principle of § 24 the C. 26. we can regard W x + as acting at GX. and experience shows that it can be supported in equilibrium by resting it on a fulcrum at this point. 25. 28) represent a uniform rod. of these is at Gx on the straight line joining them where a g 1 _ w 3 BGX Wi .G. expressed by the weight of the body. Where CG GXG FIG. .

In this way only can the principle of balance of turning moments be satisfied. Pierce it near a rim (A in Fig. Such a point will be the centre of gravity of the figures. for example. This enables us to obtain experimentally the centre of gravity in certain cases. Figures which are geometrically symmetrical. acting at F. such as is suggested y Fig. F X FIG. equilateral triangle. 29. From this needle suspend a fine thread with a small weight attached E . 27. the weight of the rod acting at F.. / . have what may be called a symmetrical centre. The same reasoning applies to all such pieces throughout the equal arms.e. H e n c e F is the centre of gravity of the rod. the intersection of the diagonals of a rectangle. if uniform.46 TEACH YOURSELF MECHANICS Moments of these pieces about the fulcrum must be equal. circle. as. they could be represented by a single force equal to their sum. 28. A similar result holds for a narrow rectangular strip. since the forces of gravity will balance about it. of any shape. 29) with a fine needle. The easiest object to experiment with is a flat uniform iece of cardboard. and stick this on a vertical board or paper. equal to their sum— i. all the weights of all such parts in these two arms can be replaced by a single weight. 2 8 . such as a rectangle. determi nation of the centre of If a body be suspended from a point near one of its boundaries it will remain at rest when the point of support of the string lies vertically above the centre of gravity. Experimental gravity. Centre of gravity of regular geometrical figures.

If the cardboard or other lamina has a perceptible thickness and is uniform. cannot be employed with solid bodies. 2 9 . this method of finding the C. Then the centre of gravity must lie on AG. but it should be remembered that when any body is suspended at a point and remains permanently at rest.G. since it is a symmetrical geometrical figure. t h e centre of gravity lies at G. the C. t h e intersection of the two straight lines. The C. all parallel to a pair of opposite sides. lies vertically below this point. 29. and draw the straight line AG. 30). repeat the experiment.G. For obvious reasons. But we employ this shaped lamina to demonstrate a very useful method of finding the C. of . 3 0 . The C. C p A R B S 5 FIG. The rectangle can be considered as being composed of a large number of narrow rectangles such as AB (Fig. underneath the point G. of a rectangle will be the intersection of the diagonals (§ 27).G. Centre of gravity of a rectangular lamina.G.G. and obtain the straight line BG. Mark two points on the straight line formed where the line touches the board. Q FIG. The centre of gravity must also lie on BG. Take a second point B.CENTRE OF G R A V I T Y 47 and let it hang vertically. the centre of gravity will lie half-way between the two surfaces.

G. the C. may be regarded as having its C. lies at G. Similarly. parallel to the other pair of sides.G. Centre of gravity of a triangular lamina. the mid points of the opposite sides. and P and Q. at the centre of the strip. the centre of BC. Similarly we may find the C.G. It follows that the third median. . This strip.s of all such strips must therefore lie along the straight line PQ. 30. The triangle ABC (Fig. 31) is regarded as composed of a large number of very narrow strips such as DE. the C. which joins the middle points of all the strips. CQ. being very narrow.G.'.48 TEACH YOURSELF MECHANICS AB is at the centre of the strip as shown in § 25. the intersection of the medians. which joins the mid points. 3 1 . . of all such strips will lie along RS. The centres of all such strips parallel to it will therefore lie on the straight line joining A to R. Similarly the centres of all such strips parallel to AC lie on the median BP. The C.G. the intersection of PQ and RS.s of all strips parallel to AB. This straight line AR is a fnedian of the triangle. The C. a parallelogram. This point G is also the intersection of the diagonals. of the triangle lies at G. The method is similar to that employed for a rectangle.G.s of a square. A FIG.G. and a rhombus. must pass through G and contains the C. the rectangle can be considered as made up of strips such as CD.

acting at B and 2W C are equivalent to -g. 32) be W. FIG.G. 31. the C. W As we have seen (§ 25). placed at the angular points of the triangle. of a triangular lamina is the same as that of three particles each of which has a weight which is one-third of that of the triangle.G. BG = 2 PG AG = 2RG CG = 2 QG.C E N T R E OF GRAVITY 49 In Geometry it is proved that G is one of the points of trisection of each median. Centre of gravity of equal particles at the angles of a triangle. of the system must be same as that of o acting at D and W acting at A .'.be placed at the angular points. Let the weight of A ABC (Fig. W Let particles each of weight -g. particles of -g. 3 2 .acting at D. 2W . where D is the mid point of BC. It is useful to note that the C.

and consequently the weight.at D and y at A is 2W .g . 32.. the two C.r + 3 a where AD is a median and A G .G. is also the C.50 TEACH YOURSELF MECHANICS 2W W But C. Centre of gravity of composite bodies. W . t G. In Fig. the mass. of a lamina is proportional to its surface area.'s coincide. G D . r ' Thus G must be the C. If the centre of gravity of each of these is known.G.G.* = 2:1. when taking moments the areas may be used as representing the actual weights.G.G. It is often required to find the centre of gravity of a lamina composed of two or more regular figures. 3 3 . 33 Gl the intersection of diagonals is the C. of . . of the A ABC. of the square. D A But it FIG. the centre of gravity of the whole figure can be found by methods shown in the following examples : Example I. of the three particles. To find the centre of gravity of a uniform lamina consisting of a square and an equilateral triangle constructed on one side. In problems connected with lamina of uniform structure and thickness.

„ a2V3 4 „ 4 : vT Example 2. the centre of gravity of a quadrilateral lamina. C. where GjG : G2G = : W t.C E N T R E OF G R A V I T Y 51 Also EG1 is an axis of geometrical symmetry for the whole figure.G. the mid point of AC. Consider As ABC. BE. = %ED. (1) In the quadrilateral ABCD (Fig. we h a v e : (1) a 2 acting at G.G. aV3 . Let weights be W 1 and W 2 . of the A and of the composite figure will lie on this line. ADC.g3 1 « = 3 1 ^a (Trigonometry. C.'.G. Take E. where FG2 is £ of the median EF.G. The following method is useful for finding the C. of ADC is at Gv where £ G . Join G ^ j . . 80)._ = V3 a X F G X and A AEB = .e.G. But C.G. p. To find.G. If a = length of side of square. V3 (2) a * " acting at G2. 34) draw the diagonal AC. x aV3 aW3 = —j— Taking the weight of each figure as concentrated at its C. C. of the whole quadrilateral is at G. a 2 = area of square also V EF = a x .. by drawing. C. of ABC „ G2 „ EG 2 = | E B . of A is at G2. where GJG2 is divided at G in the ratio a 2 i. .6 ~ . of the whole is at G. Then C. First method. Join DE..G.

D. Second method. B. 35. their point of intersection.. let weight of A ABD = Wv A BCD = W2. .s these As. This method is similar to that in § 31 for a triangle. DBC. W C.*. Now proceed as before to join the C. 3 4 . of quadrilateral lies on G3Gt. but it also lies on GlG2. it lies at G.'. viz.G.G. of AABD is same as at points A.G. C. FIG. In Fig. Ga and G4 (dotted lines used throughout).52 TEACH YOURSELF MECHANICS (2) Draw the diagonal BD (dotted line) and so divide the quadrilateral into As ABD. . O .

at C are equivalent to W 4. 33.G.G. C. K. One of the most valuable and effective methods of finding the centre of gravity is by an application of the principle of moments. D. w3 . if E is mid point of BD C.G. . .y at points B. of + ^ Let AC be divided at K in ratio Wt: As.e. w%. of ABCD is same as . Use of moments in finding centre of gravity.3 1 at A. t h e sum of these parts is their resultant. C o n s e q u e n t l y the moment about any axis of the resultant acting at the centre of gravity of the whole is equal to the sum of the moments of the parts acting at their centres of gravity. d2. d3 . C. of quadrilateral is the same as that of A B K D . D C.W Since we have — ^ — . . be a series of weights whose distances from a given axis are dx. . where EG — i EK. of quadrilateral is the same as : . TX + T a t Z ? W2—i.. Then ^ at A and ^ acting at K. wts. This can be expressed generally as follows : Let Wj. .C E N T R E OF G R A V I T Y 53 W C. of quadrilateral is at G on EK. If a body or system of bodies is made up of a number of parts whose weights and centres of gravity are known.acting at points B.G. and it acts at the centre of gravity of the whole.

.• w2d2 + w3d3 + . from axis = . from A. from that axis.G.G. .. But moment of resultant = moments of the parts. and if y is the distance of the C. . . from A. How far is the centre of gravity of the whole system from A ? The arrangement of the forces is shown in Fig. at B. . from A. 5 lbs. of the whole from the axis about which moments are taken. Then moment of the resultant about the axis is (wt + w2 + w3 + . Let x be distance of C. r-r sum of weights of parts A B FIG. Similarly if any other axis were taken. 34. at 4 ft. sum of moments of parts dist.54 T E A C H YOURSELF MECHANICS The sum of their moments a b o u t this axis is w1dl + w2d2 + w3d3 + . of C. .) x X. t. . A uniform rod AB is 6 ft. Weights are -placed on it as follows : 2 lbs.e. Example I. w 2 + Wa + • • •) X x = wxdx + w2d2 + w3d3 -(-. . The sum of moments of the three weights and the weight of the rod acting at the centre of the rod must equal the moment of the resultant acting at the unknown centre of gravity of the whole.G. 3 6 . Worked Examples. Let x = distance of the C.G. y can be similarly determined. and 6 lbs. . Take moments about an axis at A.. . X = -i-1+ W2 + w3 + . •. long and weighs 3 lbs. at 2 ft. 36.

G. of remainder lies on AB. Find the centre of gravity of a thin uniform lamina as shown in Fig. Example 2. of ABCD = (8 x 2)w = 16ie> lbs. C. in. Let CB be a diameter of circle cut out. metrical axis of the figure.. 28w x x = (16ze> X 1) + (12w X 6) = 88a> . Taking moments about AD. 37. Equating moments about A : 16 X * = (2 x 2) + (5 x 4) + (6 x 6) + (3 X 3) = 69 * = tt = 4 A ft.G.G.G. 37. Let G be position of the required centre of gravity. Let distance of C. Let w lbs. = weight of plate per sq. where 0 is the centre of AD. Find the centre of gravity of a thin uniform circular metal plate of radius 12 in.G. of EFKN is at G2. from 0 be x. of the lamina be w lbs. Let AB (Fig. This acts at an unknown C. W t .from A. which touches the circumference of the plate. in.. Let the weight of a sq. 88w 22. W t . and GXG2 is the symFIG.C E N T R E OF GRAVITY 55 Resultant = sum of weights = 2 + 5 + 6 + 3 = 16. C. Total weight = 16ie> + 12® = 28w. where 0G a = 6 in. By symmetry C. 38) be a diameter of circle. . Example 3. of ABCD is a t G 1 ( where is the intersection of the diagonals and OGi = 1 in. of EFKN — (8xl£)ze> A <2> B A = 12w lbs. when there has been cut out a circular piece of metal of radius 4 in.

D of a uniform. „ remainder = rc(144 — 16)w lbs.. Now the moments of the weight of the whole circle about any axis must equal the sum of the moments of the circle cut and the remainder. are placed at the comers A.. AG= -128 = " Example 4.56 TEACH YOURSELF MECHANICS Weight of whole circle = ( T x 122 x w) lbs. Fig.e. 12&AG = 144 x 12 . square lamina of weight 4 lbs. moment of remainder at G = moment of whole circle at 0 — moment of circle cut out. B. 4 lbs. Weights of 2 lbs. .. 39 represents the square and the arrangement of the weights. T „ cut-out circle = (n x 4 2 x w) lbs. 6 lbs. The side of the square is 12 in.16 x 20 = 1408. The C.G.. of the lamina itself is at 0. 1287rt*> X AG = 1447«e> X 12 — 167tw x 20. Find the distance of the centre of gravity of the whole from AB and AD. 1408 . Taking moments about A. I.C. = 12&«e» lbs. the intersection of the diagonals. 4 lbs. moment of whole circle at 0 = moment of remainder at G + moment of circle cut out acting at the centre.

If the rod in the last question were uniform and weighed 2 lbs. . Let x = distance of C.CENTRE OF GRAVITY 57 (1) Take moments about AB. long. are hung at intervals of 1 ft. are placed at distances of | ft..G. and 4 lbs. Check: distance of C.. from A. 5 ft. found as before.G. * = 20 (2) Taking moments about AD.. from CB and CD could be similarly calculated. of whole from AD. is : 20 X y = (4 x 6) + (6 x 12) + (4 x 12) = 144 y = H inThe centre of gravity is in. Find the centre of gravity of the whole.. Exercise 4. What weight must be placed 4 ft. on the axis itself. 20 lbs. 20 X x = (6 X 12) + (4 X 12) + ( 4 x 6 ) = 144 144 . Let y = distance of C. from A ? 5.. Weights of 1 lb. weights of 2 lbs. and 5 ft. 6 lbs. On a light rod AB. from A if the centre of gravity is to be 2-45 ft. moment of the resultant—i. ABC is an isosceles triangle without weight. 1. between A and B.e. The turning moments about the axis AB of weights at A and B. and 8 lbs. 2 lbs. = sum of moments of parts of the system. of the whole from AB. Where will the centre of gravity be ? 2. long. weights of 2 lbs. 6 ft. and 5 lbs. are hung at distances of 2 ft..G. AC — AB = 6 ft. Now. long. and 2J ft.. acting at unknown C. 4 lbs. 1 ft. will be zero. 5 ft.. respectively. 6 lbs. and BC = 4 ft. Then the equation of moments. from A. from AB and AD.. On a light rod AB.. On a light rod AB... Weight of the whole system = 2 + 4 + 6 + 4 + 4 = 20 lbs..G. 4. where would the centre of gravity of the whole be ? 3. weights of 3 lbs.

and 4 lbs. I o I ft -A —-3ftFIG. 5ft. respectively. It is made of thin uniform metal. respectively. each a square inch. Find the centre of gravity of a uniform lamina of the shape and dimensions shown in Fig. How far is the centre of gravity of these from BC ? 6. respectively. and an isosceles triangle BCE constructed on a side BC of the square and having an altitude FE. are hung at A. The diagonals AC and BD are 6 in. 42 consists of two isosceles triangles ABC. 10. 41. Find the centre of gravity of the cross from AB. Weights of 2 lbs. The lamina shown in Fig. are placed at A.58 TEACH YOURSELF MECHANICS 2 lbs. 4 0 . and C... 4 in. A B R FIG. Find the distance of the centre of gravity of the whole from B. ABC is a triangle whose weight is 2 lbs. and 8 in. B. and C. giving its distance from OA and OB... . What is the position of the centre of gravity of the whole ? 7. ADC. 40 represents a cross containing six squares. long. 9. 4 1 . 8. and OD is 2 in. Fig. Find the centre of gravity of a uniform piece of cardboard consisting of a square ABCD of side 6 in. B. 4 lbs.

B. 5 lbs. and its centre of gravity is at the centre of it—that is.C E N T R E OF GRAVITY 59 11. Fig. 44 shows a rectangular right prism in which is indicated a very thin lamina. and weighing 2 lbs.. 43. Centre of gravity of regular solids. 4 lbs. spheres. The diameter of each circle is 1 in. similar to that employed for a lamina. Find the position of the centre of gravity from AB and AD. 4 4 . If the prism is conceived as being made up of a large numbex of such . at the intersection of the diagonals.. cut at right angles to the axis of the prism. The centres of gravity of a few regular solids are given below.. are placed at the corners A.. 3 lbs. but a proof. This is a symmetrical body. is given. Rectangular prism. arranged as shown in Fig. in most cases without proof. of a square of side 10 in. etc. 35. The centres of gravity of those solids which are symmetrical bodies. D. This lamina is a rectangle in shape. 4 3 . are at the geometrically symmetrical centres. Symmetrical solids. A FIG. such as cylinders. 12. respectively. as these require more advanced mathematics to be satisfactory. and therefore parallel to the two bases. FIG. It will therefore lie on the axis of the prism. Find the centre of gravity of six thin uniform metal discs. which is the straight line joining the intersections of the diameters of the bases.C. because of the general usefulness of the method. Weights of 2 lbs. since the mass of a symmetrical solid will balance about that point.

The cylinder is a special case of the prism. from centre of base.of the centre of gravity the composite body from the centre of the base of the cylinder. G2 is the C. the altitude of the pyramid or cone. It lies on the radius drawn perpendicular to the base from the centre and is three-eighths of the length of the radius from the base. Right pyramids and cone. and radius of base 4 in. From the symmetry of the solid the centre of gravity will therefore be at the middle point of the axis.62 TEACH YOURSELF MECHANICS laminae. c. in.G. The centre of gravity of a hemisphere requires more advanced mathematics for its determination than is assumed in this book. where r is the radius. C. Find the distance. of hemisphere = = v:r2h (h = the height) jt x 4 2 x 10 = 160* c. The centre of gravity is therefore at the centre of the axis. If h be the length of this axis. in. 45 Gv the mid point of OA. 4 5 . If r be the radius. A cylinder of height 10 in.G. is §r. The centre of gravity of a sphere is obviously at the centre. of that body. of cylinder = = Vol. In all of these the centre of gravity lies at a point one-fourth the way up the axis from the centre of the base.G. is surmounted by a hemisphere of the same radius as that of the base of the cylinder. that is. Vol. \28ti 608rt . a section. Hemisphere. the axis of the cylinder is the C.G. In Fig. FIG. at right angles to the axis. the C. is 4 from the centre of the base. always being a circle. and made of the same material. of the hemisphere and AG2 = §r. 36. frcr3 1287t In x 64 = c. the centre of gravity of them all will lie on the axis. Worked example. Sphere.

CENTRE OF GRAVITY 61 Also 0Gl = | = 5 in. 46(a)). In each case the body is acted upon by : (1) Its weight acting vertically downwards at the centre of gravity. 37. of whole from 0.g 800 3 _ = 3872 y o x 608 = 6. 46(a). the centre of gravity and the point of support are in the same straight line. 6087T « . Let y = distance of C. (2) An equal and opposite force acting vertically .x y) 3872 608 . /128K 23\ X y = (16Cht X 5) + ^ . 46(6)).37 in. Taking moments about 0 . 1472 y x = OAA + . the weights are proportional to their volumes. 0Gi = 10 + ( | X 4) = ^ in. 4 6 ( 6 ) . We have seen (§ 28) that a body which is suspended from a point on or near a boundary will be in equilibrium when the point of suspension and the centre of gravity are in the same vertical line (Fig.g .G. approximately. Since the bodies are of the same material. Equilibrium of bodies. FIG. w FIG. Similarly if a body is resting on a surface (Fig.

(2) When the point of support is below the centre of gravity. Such a body is said to be in neutral equilibrium. which tends to swing the body back to its original position. being no longer in a vertical line with the force T at the point of suspension. or a wheel at its axis. FIG. In such a case the body is said to be in stable equilibrium. unstable. of a circular lamina at its centre.as will be seen from Fig.102 T E A C H YOURSELF MECHANICS upward at the point of suspension or point of support. Then the weight acting at the centre of gravity G. W x AB. 47(a). Any displacement of the body in its own vertical plane will result in it remaining at rest in its new position. Three cases must be considered : (1) When the point of suspension is above the C. the weight acting at G exerts a turning moment which tends to turn the body away from its original position. for example. 47(6). If the body is resting on a horizontal surface. FIG. Stable. 47 (b)). In this case. exerts a turning moment.G. Suppose that a body which is suspended in equilibrium receives a slight displacement (Fig. as. such . A. Fig. (3) When the point of suspension is at the centre of gravity. The body is then said to be in unstable equilibrium. and neutral equilibrium.. 47(6). 38. 47(a).

V] . In the case of a body with more than one support. the forces acting are the weight of the ball downwards and the thrust (R) of the table upwards. For example. is stable. the contour of his base is not only the actual area of the surface covered by his feet. on receiving a slight displacement. a train. So long as the man's centre of gravity is vertically over this area he maintains his balance easily. resting on a horizontal support and with a comparatively low centre of gravity. as in a bus. 48). or a ship. In the case of a man standing up. 39. G. a table with four legs is stable because of the large area included between the legs and the straight lines joining them. A body is said to be in stable equilibrium when. described as the contour of its base. This is important in many of the actions of life which depend on accurate balancing.? this book resting on its side. 48. If there is a displacement. Definitions of equilibrium and examples. but also that area between them and straight lines drawn from toe to toe and heel to heel. R A necessary condition of stability is that the centre of gravity is vertically above what may be FIG. the ball will tend to come to rest with its centre of gravity. (1) Stable equilibrium. a man instinctively places his teet farther apart. this includes not only the area of the ground covered by each support but also the area between them. That is why in cases where there is lateral swaying. Any body with a relatively l^rge base.C E N T R E OF GRAVITY 63 as a billiard ball on a table (Fig. The following are a few examples: a right prism or a cylinder resting on a base. a cone resting on its base. vertically over a new point of support. ///////77. and so increases his base contour. it tends to return to its original position.

it tends to come to rest in its new position. A cone of height 4 in. A body is in neutral equilibrium when. a lead pencil balanced on its base. The axes of the bodies are in the same straight line. 2. it tends to go farther away from its position of rest. on receiving a slight displacement. If the two bodies are made of the same material. walking on a narrow ledge. a circular piece. and radius of base 2 in. and each of the equal sides 10 in. From a uniform circular disc of diameter 12 in. etc.102 T E A C H YOURSELF MECHANICS The student may easily work out for himself problems of balancing connected with riding a bicycle. Find the centre of gravity of the triangular wire. is fastened to the flat surface of a hemisphere whose base has the same area as the base of the cone. is usually unstable. A body is said to be in unstable equilibrium when. 3 in. Examples are a ball. a hemisphere lying on its curved surface. a cylinder lying on its curved surface. on receiving a slight displacement. 4. and mass 4 lbs. a cone lying on its oblique surface.G.. and whose height is 6 in. Exercise 5. find the centre of gravity of the composite body. in diameter. How far is the centre of gravity of the composite figure from the base of the cylinder? Both bodies are of the same material. Examples are : a cone resting on its vertex from which a small piece has been cut off. is removed. 1. the shortest distance between the circum- . 3. (3) Neutral equilibrium. A cone of altitude 6 in. etc. A body with a small base and a high C. is placed on top of a cylinder whose base is the same area as the base of the cone. a narrow book standing upright on a table. etc. (2) Unstable equilibrium. A uniform piece of wire is' bent to the shape of an isosceles triangle with a base of 16 in.

Hint. Determine the position of the centre of gravity of the remaining figure. unstable. 7. From one of the corners of an equilateral triangle of 4 in. State in the following cases whether the equilibrium is stable. Find the distance of the centre of gravity of the remainder from the uncut sides. (2) A book lying on its side on a table. Find the position of the centre of gravity of the remainder. (3) A spherical marble lying in a basin with a spherical-shaped bottom. (4) A ladder 30 ft. with its foot on the ground and 4 in.CENTRE OF GRAVITY 65 ferences of the circles being 1 in. or neutral:— (1) A door which swings about hinges with a vertical axis. : . 6. a square of 4 in. by 8 in. side is removed. long resting against a vertical wall. c-— M E C H . From a rectangular lamina 10 in. with its centre of gravity just vertically over the edge of the table. side an equilateral triangle of 2 in. 5. from the wall.—Remember that the masses of the circular discs are proportional to the squares of their diameters. side is cut out of one corner.

(3) The magnitude. Q (2) The sense in which it acts along the line of action. The sense in which it acts along PQ is from P to Q. measured on a suitable scale. and also by the order of the letters when describing it as the force PQ.CHAPTER IV RESULTANT OF NON-PARALLEL FORCES T H E P A R A L L E L O G R A M OF FORCE 40. Thus in Fig. 66 . PQ represents a force of 6 units acting at a point 0 . in relation to some fixed direction. For this purpose the straight line must show : (1) The direction of its line of action. Geometric representation of a force. When investigating theorems and problems connected with forces we find it convenient to represent a force completely by a straight line. this is indicated by the arrow-head. 49. making an angle of 25° with the direction of X'OX. If it acted from Q to P we should describe it as the force QP. and the arrow-head would be reversed. shown by the length of the line.

We now proceed to consider forces which are not parallel but concurrent. we must ascertain if such forces can have a resultant and how it may be obtained. Suppose that two men were pulling down a tree by means of ropes attached to it at the same height. such as National Certificate Mathematics. Non-parallel forces acting on a body. which possesses both direction and magnitude is called a vector quantity. or if they pulled in the same direction on the one rope.P A R A L L E L FORCES 67 41. and accelerations. A practical example of the problem involved may help in understanding our object.R E S U L T A N T OF N O N . whose magnitude is equal to the algebraic sum of the magnitudes of the separate forces. 42. Other examples of vector quantities with which we shall be concerned in later chapters are displacements. velocities. This can be found in books on Practical Mathematics. Vector q uantlty. which is published by the English Universities Press. as PQ above. If they were to pull on ropes which were parallel. the total force exerted would be the sum of the separate . A quantity such as a force. and the straight line by which it is represented. Vectors are employed in the graphical solution of many problems. and the student would do well to acquire some elementary knowledge of them. The forces with which we were concerned in the previous chapters have been parallel and acting in the same direction. is called a vector. We have seen how a number of such forces acting on a body can be replaced by a single force called the resultant.

But in that case the direction of the fall of the tree might bring it on top of them. Experiment. If. they know from experience that the tree would fall somewhere between the lines of action of the forces exerted by them. A sufficient weight is attached to the third string to keep the others in equilibrium. Resultant of t w o forces acting at a point. then forces equal to these act . If the suspended weights are W1 and Wt. as suggested in Fig. they were to pull in different directions. This must be equal and opposite to the resultant which can replace the two forces. Clearly this could have been accomplished by a single force which would have the same effect as the two forces. not the magnitude of it. though not equal to their sum. and acting somewhere between. This force would be the resultant of the two forces. Three cords are knotted together at a point. Two of them are passed over smooth pulleys and attached to different weights. at this stage. 50. The method by which the resultant can be obtained is best demonstrated. acting in different directions on a body. We have seen that if a string passes over a smooth pulley the direction only of the tension in the string is altered. however. 51. The principle to be adopted will be the same as that which was used for obtaining the resultant of parallel forces.102 T E A C H YOURSELF MECHANICS pulls. The actual apparatus employed is shown in Fig. Thus we want to discover how to obtain both the magnitude and direction of the resultant of two such forces. by experiments. We will find what force will produce equilibrium when two forces are acting at a point.

Since W is equal and opposite to the combined effects of and W 2 . and its line of action Is that of tne third string.P A R A L L E L FORCES 69 along the strings. Since there is equilibrium. or on paper placed on it. shown in Fig. 1. Draw AC parallel to OB and BC parallel to OA. on the scale in which OA represents W g and OB represents W j . the tension in these strings must be balanced by the weight. If FO is produced it will be found to pass through C. Choosing a suitable scale : Along OD mark off OB to represent the force acting along OD—i.e.'. 52. . straight lines corresponding to the strings OF. But W is the force which is in equilibrium with and W2. called W. It will be found to be equal to OG. OD. OE..e. OC must represent W in m a g n i t u d e . 2. it must be equal and opposite to their resultant. W2Along OE mark off OA to represent the force acting along OE—i. acting along OF. so that OC is a diagonal of the parallelogram. WiAlong OF mark off OG to represent the third force W. We now draw on the surface of the board.R E S U L T A N T OF N O N . 5 2 . N o w measure OC. c o c F FIG. Wt . hung on the third string.. Then OACB is a parallelogram.

the force represented by OC. must be the the diagonal of the parallelogram OA CB represents in magnitude and direction the resultant of the forces represented by OA and OB. resultant of W j and W 2 . This experiment should be repeated with different values for W. but the poipt of intersection of their lines of action does not necessarily lie in the body itself. 44. What is implied is that the lines of action of the forces meet at a point—that is. they are concurrent. act at a point 0. acting downwards. This is a necessary hypothesis of the theorem. . the diagonal of the parallelogram which passes through the point will represent their resultant in magnitude and direction. acting in the opposite direction. This is the theorem known as the Parallelogram of Forces. and consequently different values of W. and by means of which forces act on the tree. In a strict sense a force cannot act " at a point " if a " point " is used with a geometrical meaning. maintains equilibrium. and include between them the angle AOB. we consider the case of two ropes attached to a tree (§ 42). If. but the lines of action of the forces exerted by means of them must meet if the parallelogram of forces is to apply to them. the diagonal of this parallelogram which passes through 0 represents in magnitude and direction the resultant of the forces. making allowances for slight errors. for example. It may be defined thus : Parallelogram of Forces. you will come to the same conclusion—viz.102 T E A C H YOURSELF MECHANICS just as the force W represented by OG.—If two forces acting at a point are represented. then if the parallelogram OACB be completed. at times we speak of forces acting " on a body " . that— If two forces. represented by OA and OB. in magnitude and direction by two adjacent sides of a parallelogram. and W 2 . The definition of parallelogram of forces refers to two forces acting at a point. In every case. Forces acting at a point. The forces act on a body. the ropes themselves will not meet..

A and B represent the points on the body of the tree at which the forces P and Q are applied. . and sometimes an essential method. Q may be considered P as acting at any point on OB. meet at a point 0. These. magnitude and direction of the resultant by means of the parallelogram of force may be solved either by drawing or by calculation: (1) The drawing method needs no explanationThis method must be used by students who have an insufficient knowledge of trigonometry. Consequently the force P may be considered as acting anywhere along OA. 53. The student who is weak in the subject can consult the companion book to this volume. in the work which follows. and with great care a fair degree of accuracy may be reached. and the lines AP and BQ show the directions of the forces. The problem of calculating the FIG. when produced. Two cases may occur. 45. (2) The method of calculation. the point at which the sides of the parallelogram. which shows a section of the tree. Teach Yourself Trigonometry. A force may be considered as acting at any point on its line of action. references will be given to the appropriate pages in that book. would represent the point 0 .P A R A L L E L FORCES 71 In Fig. We will proceed to develop the method of calculation. To calculate the resultant of two forces. so that their resultant may be found. It is a useful. 53. For this a working knowledge of trigonometry is essential. and when necessary. Nevertheless if we desire to construct a parallelogram for the forces P and Q. which represent the forces meet. Similarly.RESULTANT OF N O N . Hence the two forces may be considered as acting at 0 . which may or may not lie within the tree.

8 4 . § 61. FIG. R = V P 2 + Q%. OA. W h e n the angle between the forces is a right angle—that is. 55. W h e n the angle between the forces is not a right angle. (2) To find a: CB P tan a = Qg = -q. the parallelogram is a rectangle. In Fig.) (1) To find R: OBC being a right-angled triangle OC = VOB2 + BC2.e. The rectangle OACB is completed. Let a be the angle between the force Q and the resultant. OA. . We require to find R and a.102 T E A C H YOURSELF MECHANICS A.. Then the diagonal through 0—i. In Fig. OC—represents the resultant. From A OBC P = R sin a. Then R represents the resultant of P and Q. OB represent forces P and Q. 54. Q = R cos a B. and 6 is the angle between them. OB represent in magnitude and direction the forces P and Q. To find forces P and Q when R and a are known. R. Then 90° — a is the angle between R and P. whence a is determined. The parallelogram OACB is constructed. (For methods employed see Trigonometry. of the two forces.

'. BC(— cos 0) = OB2 + BC2 + 2OB . BC cos 0. and 0 are known. Q. Substituting OC2 = OB2 + BC2 . the angle between Q and R: From Fig.P A R A L L E L FORCES 73 Produce OB to meet perpendicular from C at D. Since OA and BC are parallel.a. (2) To find a. (2) . (1) From this R can be found when P. on substitution R2 = pa + Q* + 2PQcos0 . CD CD Now tan a = m = Q B + Substituting values found above P sin 0 t a n " = Q + Pcos0 • • • From this formula a may be calculated. (1) To find R: The sides OB and BC of AOBC are known.20B . § 91).. LCBD = 6.RESULTANT OF N O N . 55 we see BD = BC cos 0 = P cos 0.20B . By a slight modification of the figure and proof. . The connection between the sides of the triangle and the angle OBC is given by the formula OC2 = OB2 + BC2 . since tliey represent the magnitudes of the forces P and Q. Similarly CD = P sin 0. cos OBC = — cos 9 (Trigonometry. But LOBC = 180° . Also BC = OA. the same result may be obtained when LAOB is greater than a right angle. Also LAOC = 0 .. BC cos OBC (Trigonometry. . BC represents P. .6. § 70).

cos g on substitution for OE. As OEA. (3) (4) To find R when P and Q are equal: The parallelogram which was described in Fig.: R2 = pi + Q2 + 2 PQ cos 0. Q. OE Q2 = c o s E 0 B 0 = cos2" OE = OB cos But OC = 2 X OE. . (a) Z. . or R = 2Q cos | (4) . viz. OEB are right-angled. 55 now becomes a rhombus : therefore.102 T E A C H YOURSELF MECHANICS (3) To find 0 when P.0 is bisected and R makes an angle | with both P and Q. 0 OC = 2OB . A P c (b) The diagonals bisect each other at right angles. From this R2 _ pa _ Q2 cos0 = ^ * . and R are known: These may be found by transforming formula (1) above.

An alternative method will be given later.P A R A L L E L 46. tan a = (3) To find 0: P sin 0 -. This process is repeated until the resultant of all the forces has been found. that they are collected for future reference. We proceed as follows : The resultant of two forces is found. wt. but by careful drawing a practical solution can be obtained. (1) To find R: R*=P* (2) To find a: + Q* + 2P. When more than two forces act at a point the resultant of them all can be found by repeated application of the parallelogram law for two forces. wt. Example I. Find their resultant and the angles between it and the two forces. cos 9.—Forces of 7 lbs. and 5 lbs. Let it be R2. act on a body. 57 represents the given forces Required to find R and a. 48. In practice this method is often long and tedious. Similarly the resultant of Rz and a fourth force is found. FORCES 75 The above formulae are used so frequently in solving the problems. and the angle between them is 55°. Summary of formulae. Next the resultant of and a third force is found.—~ Q + P cos 0 _ pa _ 02 2PQ cos 0 = (4) To find R when P and Q are equal: 47. Let it be Rt.Q. Resultant of a number of forces acting at a point. . Worked Examples. Fig.R E S U L T A N T OF N O N .

and substituting the given values of P. 7 cos 55° = 74 + 70 x 0-5736 = 114-15. 5 .a = 55° . Also LAOC = Z.102 T E A C H YOURSELF (1) To find R: MECHANICS Using formula (1) i?2 = P 2 + Q* + 2PQ cos 0. tan a = log 4-0960 — log 9-8680 = 0-6123 . Q and 0. (2) To find a: Using formula (2) tan a = Psin 0 Q + P cos 0' W e h a v e on substitution: 5 sin 55° tan a = 7 + 5 cos 55° 5 X 0-8192 : 7 + 5 X 0-5736 4-0960 9-8680* log. R = V114-15 = 10-7 lbs. a = 22° 32'.0-9943 = 1-6180 = log tan 22° 32'.22° 32' = 32° 28'. .AOB . R2 = 5 2 + 7 2 + 2 . approx.

.e. But area of AOAB = \{AB x OD). Moments of intersecting forces. P and Q. 49.—Two forces.. Let O be any point.10* . formula (3) R2 — P2 — Q2 cos 6 = J 2PQ Substituting given values 222 .P A R A L L E L FORCES 77 This could be checked by calculating LAOC separately. wt. i. the turning moment of P about 0 is equal to the magnitude of the force multiplied by its distance from 0. OB. wt. Using. 5 8 .14 = — =0-6714 uo 1 280 ' *0 = 47° 50'. have a resultant of 22 lbs. and 14 lbs. We shall show that this is FIG. Let AB.R E S U L T A N T OF N O N . Draw OD perpendicular to AB. 58. using formula (2). First we will consider a graphic method of representing moments. respectively. Area of A OAB = | X (moment of P about O). of 10 lbs. moment of P = AB x OD. We have seen (§ 33) that the moments of a number of parallel forces about a point in their plane is equal to the moment of their resultant about the point. Example 2. wt.. Graphical representation of moments. What is the angle between P and Q ? If 6 be the angle between P and Q.14* c o s 9 = 2. O. represent a force P in magnitude and direction. Since AB represents the force P. Join OA. also true for intersecting forces.10. Fig.

represents R. 59) represent in direction two forces P and Q intersecting at 0. . its diagonal. Let OA and OB (Fig. Moment of P is represented by 2 x area of AO AX.. Let X be any point in their plane. „ Q „ „ 2 x area of AOBX.e. the resultant of P and Q.102 102 T E A C H YOURSELF MECHANICS This method will be employed in the following demonstration. A OCX = AOAX + A OBX and 2 X A OCX = 2 x A OAX + 2 x A OBX. i. „ R „ „ 2 x area of A OCX. Taking moments about X. Draw BC parallel to OA to meet XAC in C. But A OCX = AOAX + A OAC and A OAC = A OBC = AOBX (As on same base and between same parallels). Let the scale with which the magnitudes of the forces P and Q are drawn be such that OA represents P and OB represents Q. Draw XAC parallel to OB and meeting the line of force P in A. moment of R about X = moment of P about X . Then OACB is a parallelogram and OC. 50. The algebraic sum of the moments of two intersecting forces about a point in their plane is equal to the moment of their resultant about the same point. + moment of Q about X .

Exercise 6. X must divide BC in the ratio 4 : 6. moment of force along BA = moment of force along CA. it will be found by the same reasoning that Y divides AC in the ratio 8 : 6 . P and Q are two forces and R is their resultant. 60. Similarly if a point Y be taken where the line of action of the resultant cuts AC. Consequently the sum of the moments of P and Q about the same point also vanishes. act along the sides of an equilateral triangle of 10 in. . and 8 lbs. the sum of the moments of the forces along BA and CA must vanish. the straight line joining the points X and Y will be the line of action of the resultant. Also as X lies on BC.. side. 6BX = 4 CX. 6 lbs. note).—If the point X be taken on the line of action of R the moment of R vanishes. 60. Let the line of action of resultant cut BC in X. wt. Find the line of action of their resultant. Since X lies on the line of action of the resultant moments of the forces about X must vanish (§ 50. wt. But DX = BX sin 60 and EX = CX sin 60. 51. The angle between the forces is 6 and angle between R and Q is a.P A R A L L E L FORCES 79 Note. Forces of 4 lbs. 1.*. BX CX~ 6' . Fig. the moment of the force along BC also vanishes. Draw XD and XE perpendicular to AB and AC. .RESULTANT OF N O N .'. Worked Example. in directions shown in Fig. 6 x DX = 4 x EX. 6 X BX sin 60 = 4 x CX sin 60. wt..

Id) Find R and a when P = 4. wt. R = 28. (4) 50°. Find the other force.. 3. R = 80. (5) 60°. It is thus held in equilibrium. Find : (1) The pressure exerted at B. 2. Q = 60. and it makes an angle of 45° with the resultant.6 = 90°. Plot your results on squared paper. 62 is shown the diagram of a weight of 10 lbs. 61 is shown a weight of 5 lbs. 0 = 42°. sustained by a rope passing over a smooth pulley : the two parts of the rope include an angle of 0. [Hint. 0 = 60. 5. Q = 8. (c) Find R when P = 5. (6) 90°. One of the forces is 14 lbs. have a resultant . (2) 30°. when P = 20. the force acting along OA being 3 lbs. (b) Find R and a when P = 16-5. Q = 16. (e) Find 0 when P = 36. In Fig. 8 = 90°. (2) The angle which OB makes with the vertical.] 4. Two forces of 8 lbs. knotted at 0 and stretched horizontally. wt. FIG. In Fig. Fig. suspended by a string from B which is drawn aside by a force acting along another string OA. when P = 10. wt. wt. § 103) or find the result by drawing.—Adapt formula (1) (see Trigonometry. Find the magnitude and direction of the resultant pressure on the pulley for the following values of 0: (1) 0°. 62. The resultant of two forces is 16 lbs. and 7 lbs. (/) Find 0 and a. Q = 22. wt.102 T E A C H YOURSELF MECHANICS (a) Find R. Q = 6. 61. (3) 45°. Q = 24.

act at a point. Find the angle between them. wt. have a resultant of 12-5 lbs. 9. from B to C. Two forces of 10 lbs. What is the angle between the two forces ? 6. wt. Forces act along the sides of an equilateral triangle ABC as follows: 9 lbs. 63) supports at its centre a small smooth pulley. wt. 3 lbs. from B to A. 6 3 . wt. FIG. What is the amount of the load. wt. The angle between the two parts of the wire is 140° and the force exerted in each part of the wire is 150 lbs. wt. wt. Find the resultant of the three forces. wt.RESULTANT OF NON-PARALLEL FORCES 81 of 13 lbs. W ? 8. 6 lbs. from C to A. wt. 6 4 . 7. // / / / / / / / / / / / V / / / / / / / / / // / / Q FIG. and a force of 5 lbs. In what ratio are the sides BC and CA cut by the resultant ? . Two forces of 14 lbs. from which hangs a weight of W lbs. A wire suspended from two points A and B (see Fig. and the angle between each pair is 60°. wt. and 10 lbs.

CHAPTER V C O M P O N E N T S OF A FORCE. Resolving a force. RESOLVED PARTS O F A F O R C E 52. since but one diagonal of the parallelogram can pass through the intersection of two adjacent sides. The problem now to be considered is how these components are to be found when the resultant is known. When. there is only one solution. consequently it may be the resultant of an infinite number of pairs of forces. either by drawing or by using the appropriate formula of the preceding chapter. however. there is only one solution. acting along and repre82 . The two forces are called the components of the resultant force. When applying the theorem of the " Parallelogram of Forces " to find the resultant of two known forces. differing in magnitude and direction. The case when the two unknown components are at right angles is much the most important from a practical point of view. 65 the force R. The components thus obtained are called the resolved parts in the given direction a n d the process of obtaining them is called " resolving the force ". 53. But in the converse problem a given straight line may be a diagonal of an infinite number of parallelograms. In these circumstances the components may be found readily. Thus in Fig. Components of a force. the direction of one of the com- ponents is known. the magnitude and direction of which can be found by the application of the theorem " The Parallelogram of Forces '. We have seen that two forces whose lines of action intersect can be replaced by a resultant.

Resolved part of R along OB = R cos 0. 66 represents a barge . Also since BC — OA. OB Then = cos 0. The following example will serve as a practical illustration of this principle. OB = OC cos 0. can be resolved into two forces. Since a force has no effect in a direction at right angles to its own direction R cos 0 is the total effect of R in the direction OB. To find the resolved parts of a force.e.i n . and R sin 0 is the total effect of R In the direction OA.. 65) with OA representing representing G. Illustrative example. P and Q. 54. To determine the values of the resolved parts. one of which makes an angle 6 with R. P = R sin 0. 55. But OB represents Q in magnitude and direction. Bo. and „ „ R „ 0 A = R sin 0. and i. and the other which makes an angle of 90° — 0 with R. j BC = s . OA = OC sin 0.COMPONENTS OF A FORCE 83 sented by OC. complete the rectangle ABCD (Fig. P and Q are the resolved parts of R in the direction 0 and 90°—0 p with R. and OC „ R „ „ Q = R cos 0. 66. Fig.

0 should be as small as possible. however. The useful part of the pull is in the direction indicated by OB. in general. If it be too long. This force acting vertically has no resolved part in a horizontal direction. this must be due to the resolved part of the force of gravity along the sloping surface. Thus the effective pull of the horse is P cos 0. Let 9 be the angle between OA and OB. Forces acting on a body lying on a slope. other considerations affect the efficiency of the pull. A smooth ball placed on a smooth horizontal board will rest on it in neutral equilibrium. the cosine decreases. Therefore as the pull is more effective when cos 0 is large. . and P sin 0 represents the lateral pull towards the bank which is neutralised by the set of the rudder. that P is resolved into P cos 6 acting along OB. 56. from the necessities of the case. along OC. The pull of the horse. Gravity is the only force acting which would produce motion. and consequently a certain amount of the effort is lost. because then 0 is small. consequently P cos 0 is always less than P. P sin 0 acting along OC. There is therefore no motion while the board is horizontal. Since it moves when the board is sloped. cannot be a direct one. as an angle increases. moving along the tow-path of a canal. that the rope should be long. however slightly. Further. . Now we know from Trigonometry that cos 0 is always less than unity. drags the barge through the water. the ball will begin to move.102 T E A C H YOURSELF MECHANICS LO. Resolving the pull (P) of the horse in the direction shown by OB and also at right angles to it. to which is attached at 0 a rope by means of which a horse at A. we see. as shown in § 54. It is therefore advantageous.This is the resolved part of the pull in t h e direction in which the barge is being towed. The useful part of the pull of the horse thus depends on cos 0. But if the board be tilted.

which causes the ball to move down the plane. In Fig. FIG. acting along the board. . i. It is the resolved part acting down the surface of the board. viz. 67(6) let 0 be the angle of slope of the board. Application of moments to resolved parts. Tins reaction is therefore less when the board is tilted than when it is horizontal. It was shown in § 50 that the sum of the moments of two intersecting forces about any point in their plane is equal to the moment of their resultant about the same point. W sin 0.e. and it decreases as 0 is increased. 57. acting at right angles to the board. thus producing equilibrium. 67(a) the diagram shows the forces acting when the ball is at rest on the horizontal surface. At the same time W sin 0 increases as 0 increases. . the force of gravity and (2) the reaction of the board equal and opposite to the forces of gravity. 67(6).*.. (2) Wsin 0. Fio. The force W can be resolved into (1) W cos 0. 67(a). acting at right angles to the surface of the board.COMPONENTS O F A FORCE 85 In Fig. since cos 0 decreases. If there is to be equilibrium in the new position a force equal and opposite to this must act on the body in a direction up the plane. The reaction of the board will be equal and opposite to the component W cos 0. These are : (1) The weight. Then the angle between the vertical and the straight line perpendicular to the board is also 0.

in the wire. is eliminated. that of the reaction. which is unknown. ' A uniform learn OB... 150 lbs. and attached to the beam at a point D. 12 ft. it becomes the. (3) Reaction at 0. T sin 30° and T cos 30°. . from 0. T sin 30°. Worked Example. An example follows: 58. We are therefore left with : (1) Vertical component of T. acting at D. resultant of the two components. T. acting at C. C. 68). (2) Weight of beam. the latter will pass through 0. If T be resolved into its vertical and horizontal components. viz. what is the tension in it ? The forces acting on the beam are : (1) The tension. and therefore has no moment about it.102 TEACH YOURSELF MECHANICS When a force is resolved into two parts. It is kefit in equilibrium in a horizontal position by a wire rope fixed at a point A vertically above 0. If the wire makes an angle of 30° with the horizontal. This principle is useful in solving problems. is hinged at 0 (Fig. 16 ft. wt. therefore the moment of the force about any point is equal to the sum of the moments of its resolved parts. long and weighing 150 lbs. (2) Weight of beam at mid point. If we take moments about 0.

and OY. wt. 70) and the other at 20°. what is the total effective pull in the direction in which the ship is moving ? 5. wt. A force of 16 lbs. of 8 lbs.. acting at 40° with the horizontal. acting at 30° with the horizontal. 69). 2. The rope by which he pulls is inclined . FIG. The rope from one of them is inclined at 15° to the path of the ship (Fig.COMPONENTS OF A FORCE 87 These have opposite turning moments about 0. wt. Find its resolved parts along OX. If each tug exerts a force equal to the weight of 10 tons.. pulls a barge along a canal. wt. and the angle AOX is 25°. which is perpendicular to OX. and as there is equilibrium they must be equal. 4. Resolve a force R. T sin 30° x 12 = 150 X 8 150 X 8 T = 12 sin 30° 200 lbs. 6 9 . 70. 1. Find the resolved parts along OX and OY (Fig. FIG. Two tugs are towing a ship. 6. (2) A force of 250 grams wt. 3. Find the vertical and horizontal resolved parts of the following forces: (1) A force of 20 lbs.6 9) when the force along OA is 12 lbs. A horse. Exercise 7.. which is inclined at an angle of 30° with OX. acts along the straight line OA (Fig. wt. moving along the tow-path. into two components at right angles and such that one of them makes an angle of 55° with the direction of R.

73). acting along a rope parallel to the sloping surface. 9. A weight of 100 lbs. 71).. It is kept in equi- . what vertical force is exerted on the peg to pull it out of the ground ? 10. If the pull along the wire is equal to the weight of 40 lbs. with which the wire makes an angle of 50° (Fig. what is the pull on the barge in the direction it is moving ? 7. acting horizontally maintains in equilibrium a cylindrical roller weighing 2 cwt. 71. If it is just kept in position by a force of T lbs. Find the value of 0. 74. what is the value of T ? 8.. wt. 72). rests on a smooth surface which is inclined at an angle of 15° to the horizontal (Fig. wt. A stay wire is fastened to a peg embedded in the ground. If the horse exerts a force equal to the weight of 400 lbs. Icwt 4 0 lbs FIG. in equilibrium ? Q 50°" ^77777X777777^7777" I O O lbs FIG. 73. on a smooth inclined surface which makes an angle 0 with the horizontal (Fig.102 102 T E A C H YOURSELF MECHANICS at 20° to the direction in which the barge is moving. rests on a smooth surface inclined to the horizontal at 15°. FIG. If 0 were 45°. A weight of 40 lbs. what horizontal force would be necessary to maintain the 2 cwt. A force equal to 1 cwt.

wt. / \ OX.. OB (Fig. Find their resultant. P sin 75°. 8 sin 75°. 75) be V A the lines of action of the j p forces P and Q. 10 sin 30° + 8 sin 75° = 12-73 lbs. As we have seen (§ 54). What is the value of Q ? 59. act along straight lines the angle between which is 45°. (by calculation not shown).COMPONENTS OF A FORCE 89 librium by a force Q which makes an angle of 20° with the inclined surface (Fig. O X Note. 75. lines at right angles are specified. Q cos 30°. these forces represent the total effect of the forces P and Q in these two directions. and 10 lbs. The following example will illustrate the method. /45i such that LXOB = 30°. OY. at right angles. 8 cos 75°. i. . P cos 75°..e. Total. Q sin 30°.—Two forces P and Q of 8 lbs. wt. the angle between them being 45°. (2) Resolved parts along OY. Example. Resolved parts. Let OA. — Unless straight FIG. Find the resolved parts of P and Q along OX and OY: (1) Resolved parts along OX. OX and OY can be chosen in the way which is most suitable. 10 cos 30°. 74).e. Resultant of forces acting at a point. / X Then LAOY = 15° and LAOX — 75°. Z Take two straight lines. 10 sin 30°. wt. When a number of forces act at a point their resultant can be obtained by resolving the forces along two directions at right angles and then adding these components. i. Total = 10 cos 30° + 8 cos 75° = 10-73 lbs.

wt. wt. represents the resultant. Resultant of any number of concurrent forces. it is necessary to consider difficulties which arise when the angles made by the lines of action of the force with either of the axes of reference. as described in § 59. Before proceeding to the general case. if OE be measured along OX. OC. along OY is the same as the resultant of P and Q (see Fig. To simplify the problem we will first consider the case . are greater than right angles. This method may not appear to offer much advantage when only two forces are concerned. nearly (by calculation). the diagonal of this rectangle.79 Then and tan a = = 1-1868. 60. wt. But it is very valuable when the number of forces is large. OX and OF. a = 49° 53'. Let R be the resultant.102 T E A C H YOURSELF MECHANICS The resultant of 10-73 lbs. Then R = V (10-73)a + (12-73)4 = 16-7 lbs. equal to 10-73. Y If a be the angle made by R with OX 10. and 00 „ „ OY „ 12-73. along O X and 12*73 lbs. and the rectangle ODCE completed. 76).

as contrasted with distances measured from 0 to X. Two points must now be noted : (1) The cosines of angles between 90° and 180° are negative. which are considered positive. Drawing BL perpendicular to OY.. Q sin BOX. * :. the resolved part of Q. OK = Q cos BOX. OL represents the resolved part of Q along OY. In order to obtain the resolved part of Q along OX. as in Trigonometry.COMPONENTS O F A FORCE 93 93 shown in Fig. This is in agreement with the statement above that Q cos BOX is negative.e. since this is founded on the same convention. which must represent the resolved part of Q along OX. and its line of action makes an angle XOB with OX. 77. distances measured in this direction from 0 to X' are considered as negative. A force Q acts at 0. Q cos BOX is negative. cuts off OK. It should be remembered that. . OK. Let OB represent the magnitude of the force. is negative. when XO is produced in the opposite direction from 0. this line must be produced in the opposite direction. as indicated by the arrow-head on the arc in the diagram. i. (2) In accordance with the convention of positive and negative directions. which with OY at right angles to it are the axes of reference. The angle XOB is greater than a right angle. angles are measured in an anti-clockwise direction.

represented by OK. in which OA. acts in the opposite direction from forces which act from 0 towards X. Y n A + I ±_ IS ^ x x ffl o Y FIG. II. . nitudes of these forces. 78. Let us now consider two forces P and Q acting as shown in Fig. These principles may be extended to any number 'of forces which intersect at 0 .Q cos BOX = OM — OK. I. OK „ „ „ Q the algebraic sum of these resolved parts is P cos AOX . 79. OB represent the mag- Y * kB A^ P — A — - M FIG. * 61. 78. Drawing AM and BK perpendicular to XOX' OM represents resolved part of P along OX. so that the axes are drawn as shown in Fig. III. 79. To include all cases the line OY must also be produced in the opposite direction.102 TEACH YOURSELF MECHANICS The interpretation of the negative sign in Q cos BOX is that this force. We thus get four spaces.

Y FIG. „ „ OX' and OY' are negative. Sum of resolved parts = OL — OF. (2) Along OY „ „ = — OG — OK. „ OY is negative. measurements along OY' will be negative. Let OE. OH represent the magnitudes of S and T. (2) For the force T in Quad.COMPONENTS O F A F O R C E 95 IV. Considering the sum of resolved parts along each axis i (1) Along OX. consider the cases of two forces. 80. OG „ „ OY' is negative. which are called quadrants. IV : OL resolved part along OX is positive. The sum along OX will be positive if OL > OF. S and T. and the line of action of any force acting at 0 must fall into one of these. falling in the I l l r d and IVth quadrants as shown in Fig. Ill: OF resolved part along OX' is negative. In general: Resolved parts along OX and OY are positive. OK „ „ OY' is negative. All this should offer no difficulty to the student whose knowledge of Trigonometry is good. As an example. 80. A full treatment . Using the convention above. Draw perpendiculars to the axes as shown: (1) For the force S in Quad.

the angles made by the lines of action of the forces with XO^C and YOY' being as shown. wt (approx. . Chapter V. Positive. 62. W o r k e d example. Value.).so\ \60 y SAI2 10/ A ^ D Y FIG. Quad. I .102 T E A C H YOURSELF MECHANICS from the Trigonometrical point of view will be found in Trigonometry. wt. 81 : Viz.. 3-214 5-000 8-214 + 11-24 lbs. acting along OA 5 „ „ OB 10 „ „ OC 12 „ „ OD Y ioA . Find the resultant of forces as shown in Fig. and some such tabulation as the following is suggested : Components along XOX'. Careful arrangement of the resolved parts is important. 81.. 9 063 • 5 cos 50° 10 cos 60° 10-39 19-45 — Negative. II „ III IV Total Sum = 10 cos 25° 12 cos 30° Value. 10 lbs.

Then. 10 sin 60° 12 sin 30° 8-660 6-000 14-660 + 8056 — Sum = — 6-604 lbs. 160). Quad. OA represents the resultant R of the whole system. Completing the rectangle.6-604)2 = VT70 = 13 lbs. a = 30° 31'. The negative sign. the resultant must be zero and the forces are in equilibrium. would show that the angle is in the 4 th quadrant (Trigonometry. The forces now reduce to two. taking numerical values only 6-604 A „ . tan a = JP24 = 0-589 approx. If the resultant of forces acting at a point is zero. C o n s e q u e n t l y if the sum of the resolved parts in t w o directions is zero. the forces are in equilibrium. Let a be the angle made by the Resultant with OX. I II „ III . 63.COMPONENTS OF A FORCE 95 Components along Positive. if retained.). (approx. Negatives. p. as shown in Fig. wt. 82. nearly. To find R: R = V(H-24)* + ( . Equilibrium of forces acting at a point. . Value. The negative sign shows that the total resolved part acts along OY'. wt. 4-226 3-830 YOY'.. IV Total 10 sin 25° 6 sin 50° Value.

Drawing axes of reference as shown in Fig. acting along OA. 85). 5. act at 0.96 TEACH YOURSELF MECHANICS Exercise 8. 4.. wt. Find the resultant of forces of 8 lbs. 6. 1. wt. Q „ 10 „ „ 60° „ OX.. and forces of 5. 84. making angles with XOX' and OY as shown in Fig. and the angle between each successive pair is 60° (see Fig. 4 lbs. wt. A BCD is a square. the intersection of the diagonals and in the directions of the corners of the squares. and 6 lbs. 83. and 3 lbs. and OC. and 7 lbs. respectively. Forces of 4. P is 8 lbs. 3. 10.. 86. find the resultant of forces P and Q as shown in Fig. Using the method of resolved parts. 8. Find also the angle which the resultant makes with XOX'. and makes 45° with OX. wt. Find the resultant and the angle which it makes with OX. find the resultant of the forces and its line of action. OB. wt. . 2. wt. act at a point 0.

4. Find the resultant of these forces and the angle made by the line of action with OX. 4. act at a point 0 and make angles with the straight line XOX' as shown in Fig. wt. and 6 lbs. 8. along OC. V Y 7. D—MECH. are attached to a small body. 6. wt. along OX. each string making an angle of 60° with the next string. wt. 3. respectively. 10 lbs. find the magnitude and direction of the resultant force on the body. along OA. 8 lbs. Six strings. 2. Three forces of 10. 5. wt.C O M P O N E N T S OF A FORCE 97 5. and 6 lbs. and 6 units. Find the resultant and the angle which it makes with the 10 lbs. OC are drawn so that LXOA = 40°. along OB. From a point 0 straight lines OX. 8. wt. 87. and 5 lbs. LXOC = 135°. Forces act along these lines as follows: 12 lbs. Three forces of 10. wt. If the tensions in the strings are 1. LXOB = 120°. act at a point and the angle between each pair is 120°. Find the resultant and its line of action. OB. OA. . wt.

L A M I ' S T H E O R E M 64. The Triangle of Forces. Join them by strings to a small ring so that they are all in tension. represented by the tensions in the strings. In § 43 an experiment was described which had for its purpose the investigation of the theorem of the Parallelogram of Force. in a somewhat different form. may be used to illustrate another Fasten three spring-balances to hooks on a horizontal (or vertical) board. acting on the small ring and in equilibrium. There will thus be three forces. That experiment. POLYGON OF FORCES. Arrange them so that they register different tensions and rest in equilibrium (Fig.CHAPTER VI TRIANGLE OF FORCES. 88). The tensions in the strings are registered on the spring-balances. Place a piece of paper under the strings and draw 98 .

: AB ~~ BC ~~ CA• . Force Diagram. in which the three straight lines which are concurrent at 0 represent the directions of the three forces P . with allowances for slight errors... B FIG. These two diagrams are called the Space diagram and the Force diagram. . A diagram will thus be obtained similar to Fig. 89(a). CA . Now (1) Measure the lengths of the sides of the triangle ABC. 89(a). be concurrent at a point corresponding to the small ring.e. Q.. • i. R. It will be found that in every case the ratios obtained are equal—i.. and R. . (2) Find the ratios of the lengths of the sides t o the forces to which they are parallel. The three lines will... respectively. ... the ratios P Q ^ R It will be found that. 89(6). 89(6). . Repeat the experiment with different positions of the spring-balances and different tensions indicated by them. . Space Diagram.TRIANGLE O F FORCES ioi ioi three lines on it corresponding to the strings. FIG. having : AB parallel to the direction of the force P . .. BC . these ratios are equal. whose magnitudes are registered on the springbalances. Now draw a triangle ABC as in Fig. of course.e.

follow the same way round in order: all will be clockwise or all will be anti-clockwise. then the lengths of the sides of the triangle so formed are proportional to the magnitudes of the forces which they represent. 90(a). The forces P. as indicated by the arrow-heads on the sides of the triangle. and R are in equilibrium. 89(6) the directions in which the forces act. Q. R as Equilibriant. are in equilibrium. 66. These results can be expressed as follows : The lengths of the sides of the triangle ABC are proportional to the magnitudes of the forces which they represent. the direction of one of these forces be . It should be noted that in Fig. If three coplanar forces. therefore 3 FIG. in the same scale. 90(b). FIG. R as Resultant. then the length of BC.102 T E A C H YOURSELF MECHANICS This may also be expressed thus : P_AB R ~ BC' P _AB Q ~~ CA' 65. the theorem being known as the Triangle of Forces: The Triangle of Forces. and straight lines be drawn parallel to the directions of the forces. the above results may be expressed in general form as follows. acting at a point. however. This can also be expressed in the following form: If the length of AB be taken to represent P. If. will represent R and the length of CA will represent Q.

TRIANGLE OF FORCES ioi reversed. In Fig. But in the triangle of forces experiment it was found that if a triangle was formed whose sides were parallel to the directions only. T h u s in F i g . 90(a) the force R maintains equilibrium in conjunction with P and Q and is called the equilibriant. 90(6). is t h e resultant of P a n d Q. as in 90(6). It was then found that the third side of a triangle. with direction reversed. rest on a smooth inclined plane LMN. (1) Applied force parallel to the plane. In § 56 we considered the forces acting on a body resting in equilibrium on a smooth surface inclined to the horizontal. but the method of approach is a converse one. weight W. The triangle of force provides a convenient way of representing the forces which act on the body. . any one of the forces represents either the resultant or equilibriant of the other two. 67. in the first instance the diagonal of the parallelogram. It corresponds to the diagonal of the parallelogram in the theorem of the parallelogram of forces. It will be seen that the triangle of force corresponds to the triangle OBC (Fig. t h e n t h e lengths of these sides were proportional to the magnitudes of the forces. The inclined plane. 55). according to the direction in which it acts. represented the resultant of these two forces. In Fig. Generally. 91 let a body 0. which is part of the parallelogram of force. the force R. then this force can be regarded as the resultant. The following two cases will serve to illustrate the method. when three forces acting at a point can be represented in magnitude and direction by the sides of a triangle taken in order. This is usually called an Inclined plane. In the case of the parallelogram of forces two straight lines were drawn which represented two forces in magnitude and direction.

*.102 T E A C H YOURSELF MECHANICS Let 0 denote Z. But AB was drawn to represent the magnitude of W. perpendicular to the plane. To draw the triangle of force. AB represents the force of W lbs. Draw AC perpendicular to LM. and R. By the theorem of the triangle of forces. (c) i?.the reaction of the plane. . Produce the line of action of W so that. and therefore parallel to the direction of the force P. (б) P acting parallel to the plane. Then the triangle ABC has its sides parallel to the forces acting on 0 and the ABAC — 6. P. Let 0 be held on the plane in equilibrium by a force P acting up the plane . 9 1 . on a suitable scale. wt. Then the forces acting on 0 are : (а) W acting vertically downwards.LMN. With the same scale : AC represents R and BC „ P. FIG. the angle of the slope of the plane. the sides are proportional to the magnitudes of the force W. From B draw BC perpendicular to AC. . .

in length are fastened to two points A and B. suspended by two fine light wires. R. 9 2 .*. 5 ft. . 92). In this case P acts horizontally and is . (2) Applied force acting horizontally. The triangle of force. and 6 ft. Then W . FIG. P BC p = W tan 0.T R I A N G L E OF FORCES ioi P BC P = W sin 0. Tri w' = AB — sm 0.\R = W sec 0. R — W cos 0. except that BC is drawn perpendicular to AB. = zl=tan0. at right angles to the direction of W. AC . Then. W o r k e d Example. is drawn as before. ABC (Fig. R W = AB = S6C 68. also W~AB These are the resolved parts of W down the plane and perpendicular to it as shown in § 56. A weight of 20 lbs. as in the last case : AB represents W AC „ R BC „ P. AC — cos 0.

. A D B > '20!bs y 2 0 lbs FIG. CD. The wires are knotted at C. . MN will represent the tension P. From M draw a straight line parallel to CA (force P). The weight is also fastened on at C. NL „ „ „ Q. Force Diagram.102 102 T E A C H YOURSELF MECHANICS which are 8 ft. . 93(a) represents the diagram of the arrangement of the forces according to the data. on the same scale that LM represents 20 lbs. Then A L M N is the triangle of force and the sides are proportional to the three forces. M FIG. wt.*. 93(6). Space Diagram. Draw LM to represent the 20 lbs. We must solve the A LMN. Fig. knowing that LM represents 20 lbs. (1) Practical solution. the perpendicular from C on AB. 93(a). Find the tension in the wires AC and CB. Q and the weight of 20 lbs. 93(a)). is the continuation of the line of action of the weight of 20 lbs. Construct the triangle of force for the forces P. „ L „ „ „ BC (force Q). P and Q are the tensions in CA and CB. on a suitable scale. (2) Trigonometrical solution. Let N be the point of intersection of these straight lines. apart on a horizontal beam (Fig.

C. LN _ sin 51° 23' 20 — sin 87° 7 ' ' whence LN = 15-6 (approx.sin 87° 7 ' ' whence MN = 13-3 (approx. with the usual notation. wt. Applying the cosine rule (Trigonometry. wt. ' p = 90 . knowing all the sides. MN _ sin 41° 30' 20 . R. in equilibrium. B. Q. Also LLNM = 180° . . Q = 15-6 lbs. § 102): ^ = 2.8.). 94(a) represents the directions of three forces. 69. 94(6) represents the A of force corresponding to these forces. b.6 ' A = 38° 37'.(a + p) = 87° 7'. If. To find the sides of A L M N we use the sine rule (Trigonometry. a.). P = 13-3 lbs. P. Fig. § 90). opposite respectively to the angles A. a = 90° — A = 51° 23'. To find a and p we must first solve A ABC. From the properties of parallel lines the angles a and P as shown in the triangle of force are equal to a and p as shown in the space diagram. g2 52 62 cos B = —g—g—5— cos 82 + 62 - 52 whence and Similarly and B = 48° 30'. c represent the sides of A^ABC.B = 41° 30'. Lami's Theorem.TRIANGLE OF FORCES ioi Then we can calculate the lengths of LN and MN. Trigonometrical solutions of problems involving the triangle of forces are frequently made easier by using the theorem below: Fig.

if each be multiplied by k the results are equal. Force Diagram. Substituting these for a. a _ b _ c sin A ~ sin B ~~ sin C' Let each of these ratios = k. Space Diagram. supplementary „ LB' „ „ „ LC' „ Comparing AA LB LC . a) a b c Using the sine rule (Trig. we have P = Q = R k sin A k sin B k sin C° As these are all equal. w c FIG. 94(6). § 90) for the A ABC. FIG. c in (1) above. Q. R. P = Q = R sin A sin B sin C* with the space diagram: and LA' are. a Ie — ^ — ° —k sin A ~ sin B ~ sin C ~~ ' a — k sin A b = k sin B c = k sin C.. b. the lengths of these sides are proportional to the forces P. 94(a).102 TEACH YOURSELF MECHANICS then by the theorem of the Triangle of Force.

. C' „ „ „ P and Q. The angle between the strings is 120° (see Fig. knotted at 0 and attached at A and B to a horizontal beam. Q represent the tensions in OA and OB. LN parallel to AO. If three forces acting at a point are in equilibrium. published in 1687.T R I A N G L E OF FORCES ioi and the sine of an angle is equal to the sine of its supplement. Let P. that between OA and the vertical string holding the weight is 135° and that between OB and the vertical string is 105°. W o r k e d Example. is supported by two strings OA. Construct the triangle of force by drawing LM parallel to vertical string and representing 10 lbs. Force Diagram. each is proportional to the sine of the angle included between the other two. who enunciated it in his Traite de Mechanique. P _ Q = R sin A' sin B' sin C" where A' is the angle between Q and R. 95(a)). B' „ „ „ P and R. Space Diagram. A weight of 10 lbs. This is the theorem known as : Lami's Theorem. MN parallel to OB. Find the tensions in the strings OA and OB. OB. 70. i This theorem is named after Bernard Lami.

(2) Solution using Lami's Theorem. wt. one of which makes an angle of 60° with the vertical. A metal cylinder of weight 3 lbs. and are 8. lies on a smooth . 3. P. wt. long. wt. using logs P = 11-15 lbs. wt. and R are three forces in equilibrium. A solution can be obtained by drawing the triangle of force to a suitable scale and making LM 10 units in length to represent the weight. Q. What must be the direction of the second cord so that the tension may be the least possible ? Find the tension in the two cords in this case. wt. A 28-lb. What are the other forces ? 2. Find R and the length of the side parallel to P.102 T E A C H YOURSELF MECHANICS (1) Drawing solution. Similarly Q = 8-166 lbs. 4.. The lengths of LN and MN in the scale chosen give the values of P and Q. By this theorem: P _ Q _ 10 sin 105° sin 135° sin 120°" _ 10 X sin 105° whence P = s i n 12Q° " " s t J ( s i n c e s i n 6 = s i n ( 1 8 0 ° - 0 ) ) 9-659 = 0-8660" Whence. the side parallel to the direction of Q is 3-75 ins. 1. In the triangle of force which represents them. and the side parallel to the direction of R is 4-5 ins. The sides of a triangle are parallel to the lines of action of three forces in equilibrium. is supported by two cords. wt. 10. The force to which the longest side is parallel is 20 lbs. and 12 cms. Exercise 9. Q is 15 lbs. P is 10 lbs.

OA is 10 ft. Check by calculating the values of the forces. and from B is suspended a load of 10 tons. 71.TRIANGLE OF FORCES ioi ioi plane inclined at 35° to the horizontal. and R. Find the tensions in OB and AB. AC make angles of 50° and 60° on either side of the vertical through A. by a horizontal string. R. Q. 6. OB makes an angle of 30° with the vertical. are fastened to a horizontal beam at B and C. MIOTONS They are knotted at A to a third string. wt. and from it find the tension in the string and the reaction of the plane. and AB is a tie rod. Construct the corresponding triangle of force. 9 6 . in length and OB is 12 ft. Also calculate the values of these two forces. Find the tensions in AB and AC. and from it determine the tension in the string and the reaction of the plane. AB and FIG. Q. AB and AC. whose magnitudes are . OB (Fig. is kept at rest on an inclined plane of angle 30°. A body weighing 5 lbs. act at a point and are in equilibrium. Construct a triangle of force corresponding to these forces. The Polygon of Forces. which hangs vertically and sustains a >v / > / / ' S / / / / / weight of 10 lbs. Three forces P. 7. P is 20 lbs. The angle between P and Q is 105° and that between P and R is 120°. 8. This principle can be extended to any number of forces. acting along a string which is parallel to the plane. Find the forces Q and R. 5. and T. Two strings. Let forces P. either by drawing or by the use of Lami's Theorem. wt. 96) represents the jib of a crane. and is kept in equilibrium by a force of P lbs. We have seen that if three forces acting at a point are in equilibrium they can be represented by the sides of a triangle in accordance with the Triangle of Forces. S.

. Then ABC is a A of force a n d AC represents the resultant of P and Q in magnitude and direction. AF represents the resultant of P + Q + R + S + T in magnitude and direction. draw AB to represent P in magnitude and parallel to its direction. be in equilibrium. (5) From E draw EF to represent T in magnitude and direction. Then AD represents the resultant of P + Q + R In magnitude and direction. 97(a). . (2) From B draw BC to represent Q in magnitude and parallel to its direction.102 TEACH YOURSELF MECHANICS known and which act at a point 0 (Fig. AD is the resultant of AC and CD. FIG. 97(a)). 97(6)).'. Force Diagram. (1) Taking any point A (Fig. their directions being indicated in the figure by the straight lines as marked. 97(6). D F FIG. (4) From D draw DE to represent S in magnitude and direction. Then AF represents the resultant of AE and EF. (3) From C draw CD to represent R in magnitude and parallel to its direction. as in the other cases : AE represents the resultant o f P + Q + R + S in magnitude and direction. Then ACD is a A of force for R and AC which is the resultant of P and Q. Then.

If this condition be fulfilled. 97(a) we draw OX parallel to AF and of the same length it will represent the resultant of the forces concurrent at 0. the sequence of forces is P. taken in order. as in the case of the triangle of force. This is the theorem known as the Polygon of Forces. and the system will be in equilibrium. Starting from A.. if from 0 in Fig. :. so that the same polygon of force may have different shapes.e. T.e. For example. the forces can be drawn in any order. If a number offorces acting at a point are in equilibrium. all the arrowheads pointing clockwise or anti-clockwise. R. as in all cases : The force which closes the polygon is the Resultant or Equilibriant according to the sense in which it acts. four forces acting at a point and in equilibrium can be represented by the sides of a quadrilateral. AF represents in magnitude and is parallel to the direction of the resultant of the system of forces acting at 0. Q. Since AF represents the resultant of the five forces. Thus in the example above the polygon might be drawn as in Fig. It should be noted that the words " taken in order " in the F i q yg definition above mean. 98. In working problems the unknown force should be . all of which follow the same order round. that the direction of the forces going round the polygon is the same. they can be represented in magnitude and direction by the sides of a polygon. and it may be defined as follows : Polygon of Force. S. Then. FA—if applied at 0 would represent the equilibriant of the five forces. then the force which it represents in magnitude.TRIANGLE OF FORCES ioi I.. with the direction reversed—i.

All must be drawn to the scale adopted for Q. DE „ R. From a suitable point A draw AB.. acting as shown in Fig. wt. Taking the resolved parts we get a total of 5-098 lbs. wt. 1-098 „ „ OY. 4P 4 Y' FIG. (See Fig. Worked Example.. The result may be checked using the method of § 62. The angle made with OX is given by the angle FAX in the Force diagram. wt. 99. Join EA. wt. 99(5).. Find by means of a Polygon of Force the resultant of four forces of 4lbs. CD „ S. FIG. along OX. Then it closes the polygon and its direction and magnitude are determined. Its length is 5-13. Resultant is 5-13 lbs. wt. Y Force Diagram.. wt. 3 lbs. 3 lbs. Then in succession draw : BC parallel to P. It is about 12°.102 TEACH YOURSELF MECHANICS drawn last. 100. 72. Then EA represents the Resultant.".) . Space Diagram. . parallel to Q and equal to 3 units of length. To draw the Polygon of Force. and 4 lbs.

a = 12° 8'.. Forces of 8 lbs. wt. 4. wt. wt. and FIG. The angle between P and Q is 45° and that between Q and R is 60°. wt. and OC = 5 lbs. 1.. 101. 10 lbs. 101. Three forces. wt. . 2. wt. P = 30 lbs.. 102. Q = 40 lbs. 5 lbs.. 3. Find the magnitude of the resultant graphically and by calculation. tan a = ^ Exercise 10.. wt. act at a point. wt. Forces represented by OA = 8 lbs.. Find graphically. Four forces act at a point 0 as shown in Fig.. = tan 12° 8'. and 8 lbs.. all acting at. wt. R = 50 lbs.. Find the resultant and the angle which it makes with OX. OB = 10 lbs. their resultant and the angle which it makes with OX.TRIANGLE O F FORCES ioi ioi Resultant and = V5-098 2 + l-098 a = 5-13 approx. a point 0. are separated by angles as shown in Fig.

B. The forces are A. Is the body in Y Fig. wt. act along OA and OB. wt. measured in the same direction. What is the force along OC ? 7. 103. and the angle between them is 120°. which makes angles of 120° with both OA and OB. of 10 lbs. 103. and C. force. Three forces pass through a point in a body and act outwards. 6. at 210° to A. of 5 lbs.. The direction of the resultant is perpendicular to OB. wt. wt. and what single force will produce equilibrium ? The problem may be solved graphically. equilibrium ? If not what is the resultant of the forces. Find the resultant and the angle which it makes with the direction of the 5 lbs. acting at 60° to A. . A third force acts along OC. 102. Show that if three equal forces acting at a point are in equilibrium the angle between the lines of action of each pair is 120°. FIG. of 15 lbs. and 4 lbs.102 TEACH YOURSELF MECHANICS wt. wt. 6. Forces of 2 lbs. act at a point and in directions as shown in Fig.

walking and running would be very difficult. the only forces acting on it to keep it in equilibrium are : (1) Its weight acting vertically downwards. or cords passing over pulleys. even essential. which we know from experience is brought into play. there is resistance to motion over them. and consequently have no effect in a horizontal direction. which is called the force of friction. we have assumed that the surfaces were smooth. If a body is resting on a horizontal plane. Friction as a force. Without it.CHAPTER VII FRICTION 73. Neither of these forces can have any resolved part at right angles to itself. Without friction the wheels of a locomotive or of a motor would spin round rapidly. By this assumption the problems were not complicated by the forces brought into play when surfaces are not smooth. equal and opposite to the weight. such as ice. and that. It is common experience that all surfaces are rough to a greater or less degree. must be due to the force. When considering problems connected with forces which act on bodies moving or lying on surfaces. The resistance to horizontal motion. as we know if we try to move on a surface which is smooth and offers very little resistance. without any progress 115 . (2) The reaction of the surface. But for the parts of moving machinery we employ metals with surfaces as smooth as possible to minimise friction. or it may be the reverse. This force may be very useful. in consequence.

acts vertically downwards.102 TEACH YOURSELF MECHANICS being made. are: (2) The reaction of the table. For the measurement of this force we must rely on experiments. As it lies on the table.. R. 104). 74. as stated above. Limiting friction. is placed on a wooden table (Fig. whose weight is known. and to know how to measure it. Consequently a force must have been brought into action—the force of friction—which acts horizontally. practically unaltered. equal and opposite to W. If the weight be small. together with the weight of the scale-pan. It is necessary. . the forces acting on it. It thus sets up a tension in the string which is transmitted. A. the block will not move. so as to reduce frictional resistance to a minimum. A block of wood of known weight. which. Experiment. A light cord is attached to the block. but the hull of a fast liner or the skin of an aeroplane are made as smooth as possible. to investigate the action of the resistance due to friction. and carried over a small smooth pulley. A small weight is placed in the scale-pan. W lbs. then. to a scale-pan B. and acts horizontally on the block. This introduces a new force.

There is therefore a limitf N Ing value of the force of friction beyond which it F T cannot increase. force of friction opposite in direction to T. so as to equal T. the pull of the scale-pan. F. 75. As there is equilibrium F — T. Thus the force of friction will increase up to a certain amount. Let N be the normal reaction of the board on the block. As we continue to increase the weights in the pan. and no more. (2) Horizontally: T. 105): (1) Vertically: W. Thus we conclude that the force of friction begins to act only when there is a pull in the cord (T). Then it will be found that more weights must be . the body (T) is greater than it. Let F be the limiting value of friction in the above experiment. and the > body will not move until the force applied to move WWMW/s/. the reaction upwards. since there is no motion. 105. Coefficient of friction.FRICTION 117 and. is equal and opposite to T. We now add more weights gradually to the scale-pan : T is thus increased. but with a slight increase in T the block moves. the weight downwards. and so long as there is no motion the force of friction is also increased. N. a time will come when the block will just begin to move. Then the forces acting on the block in the experiment are (see Fig. At that moment the two forces are equal. and ceases when the pull ceases. Continuing the experiment place additional weights on the top of the block. W M FIG.

j j is constant. is called the coefficient of friction. to 0-5 if dry.102 TEACH YOURSELF MECHANICS laced on the pan until the point is reached when the lock is again about to move : i. As further weights are added. a s F increases. both increase. F The value of ^ for a given pair of surfaces is usually denoted by the Greek letter [x (pronounced " mew "). with slight errors. f L is constant. This constant value of the ratio applies only to the materials used in the experiment. Values of (A.N. The following are values of n for a few substances.e. Wood on metal 0-10 if polished. Wood on wood 0-35 if polished. Metal on metal (if greased) 0-1. as W increases. Wood on stone 0-6. If two metal surfaces were used it would be different.. F also increases. the ratio of F to the normal reaction N remains constant. Metal on metal 0-15 to 0-18. . F .". . We can therefore write : F or F = v. the ratio: Vv Also W — N throughout the experiments. but in every case it will be found that. Leather on wood 0-62. In another form this means: The limiting value of the force of friction for any two substances is equal to the total normal reaction multiplied by (JL. The constant y. to 0-6.

I t does not depend on the areas of the surfaces In contact. The results of the last paragraph showed the relation between: (1) the limiting friction. 106: FIG. AB represents N. BC F = (iN. The resultant of these two forces F and N can be found by means of the parallelogram of forces. F tan X = ^ Then _|j. the parallelogram will be a rectangle. according to the degree of polish of the surfaces. The angle of friction. the resultant. Let the angle between N and R be denoted by X (pronounced " lambda ").FRICTION 119 As indicated above. 106. In Fig. Thus. the angle of friction is the angle whose tangent is equal to the coefficient of friction or : tan. F . 76. A smooth surface is one whose coefficient of friction is zero or is so small as to be negligible. (2) the normal reaction. and F viz.N ~ N = The angle X is called the angle of friction..1 fx* . As the two forces are at right angles. the constant (i may vary for two substances. BD „ R.

Friction acts in an opposite direction to that in which a body tends to move. L e t F b e t h e force of f r i c t i o n a c t i n g h o r i z o n t a l l y w h e n t h e b o d y is o n t h e p o i n t of m o v i n g . If a body rests on a surface the resultant reaction of the surface on the body is inclined to the vertical at an angle X. L e t R b e t h e r e s u l t a n t of N a n d F. inclined t o h o r i z o n t a l a t angle 8. The coefficient of friction is independent of the areas in contact. The limiting friction depends on the nature of the surfaces in contact but is constant for t w o given materials. such that tan X = f*. but cannot exceed that which is just sufficient to prevent the body from moving. IV. The force of friction varies. II. according to the magnitude of the 'applied force. in general. 107) b e a c t e d u p o n b y a force P. while there is equilibrium. Action on a body about to move on a horizontal surface by a force inclined to the surface. L e t a w o o d e n block. Then F = nJV.. w h i c h t e n d s t o p r e v e n t m o t i o n . t h e f r i c t i o n . T h i s is called " k i n e t i c f r i c t i o n " . F r o m t h e conclusions r e a c h e d a b o v e w e m a y f o r m u l a t e t h e l a w s of f r i c t i o n as follows : I. It is equal to the ratio total horizontal reaction total normal reaction and is denoted by (j. Kinetic friction. W h e n m o t i o n t a k e s place. 79. r e s t i n g on a h o r i z o n t a l s u r f a c e (Fig. III. L e t N be t h e n o r m a l r e a c t i o n . The laws of friction. V. . Then N = W. a n d it d e p e n d s on the velocity a t which the body moves. w e i g h t W. is less t h a n t h e limiting friction.102 102 T E A C H Y O U R S E L F MECHANICS 77. 78.

making 90° — 0 with the vertical and meeting BC in C. The triangle of force for these forces is shown in Fig 108(6) and is drawn as follows : (1) Draw AB to represent the magnitude and direction of W. the forces acting on the block are as shown in Fig. A graphical solution can thus be obtained. Replacing N and F by their resultant.FRICTION 121 Then R is inclined at angle X to the vertical (§ 76). Then on the scale that AB represents W : AC will represent the magnitude of P. 108(a). AN FIG. 107..e. 108(6). making an angle X° with the vertical. . which is known. > w FIG. (3) Draw AC parallel to P. FIG. and BC „ „ „ R. (2) Draw BC parallel to R—i. so that tan X = fx. 108(a).

and the coefficient of friction between the surfaces is 0-22. Using the sine rule : P W sin X "sin ACB' P W sin X' sin (90° — 6 + X)' Whence P can be determined. as shown in § 75.BAC + Z A B C ) = 180° . (3) The least value of the force inclined to the horizontal which will just move the block. Then the Triangle of Force is > rW a s s ^ o w n ™ 109. when AC is perpendicular to BC. but sin a = sin (180° — a). 80.(90° — G + X). Now /. FIG. rests on a horizontal board. p Then ™ = sin X. (2) The force acting at 30° with the horizontal which will just move the block. A metal block weighing 20 lbs. (1) The horizontal force which will just move the block. The least value of P is Wsin X. Least value of P. P will have its least value when AC is least—i. Since 0 and X are known.102 T E A C H YOURSELF MECHANICS Trigonometrical solution.e. is given by: F = iiN and N = W. § 70. Since P is represented by AC in the Triangle of Force. we can thus find ACB. W P = W sin X. (Trigonometry. Worked example.ACB = 180° .(Z. when the angle which it makes with the horizontal is X. the triangle ABC must be solved. To determine P.. Find: (1) The horizontal force which willjustmovethe block. 109.) sin ACB = sin (90° — 0 + X). .

LACB = 180° . 123 (2) When F makes 30° with the horizontal the forces acting are as shown in Fig. P _ 20 sin 12° 24' sin 72° 24" p _ 20 X sin 12° 24' sin 72° 24' ' . X = 12° 24'. Then AC represents P and can be found from a drawing to scale. wt.e. LB = (3) From A draw AC parallel to P—i..(60° + 12° 24') = 180° .FRICTION F — (JLPF = 0-22 x 2 0 = 4-4 lbs. (Supplementary angles.72° 24'. making 30° with the horizontal and meeting BC in C.e. The A ABC must be solved as shown in § 79.) Using the sine rule. To draw the Triangle of Force (Fig. Trigonometrical solution. To find X: tan X = (x = 0-22. sin A CB = sin 72° 24'. 110(&)) 1 (1) Draw AB vertical to represent 20. 110(a) (see § 79). (2) From B draw BC parallel to R—i..

Exercise II. If the coefficient of friction between the table and the block is 0-35. log P = log 20 + log sin 12° 24' .What is the least horizontal force which will just move the block ? 3. A block of wood weighing 6 lbs. What horizontal force will be required to start the body moving ? 4. nearly. find the weight of the block. is just sufficient to cause it to slide. Another 6 lbs. Find (a) the coefficient of friction for the two surfaces. or 20 1-3010 sin 12° 24' 1-3319 0-6329 sin 72° 24' 1-9792 (3) Least value of P. rests on a horizontal table. A block of wood resting on a horizontal table is just moved by a horizontal force of 15 lbs. rests on a horizontal table and the coefficient of friction between the two surfaces is 0-32. As shown in § 78. A block of wood weighing 15 lbs.102 T E A C H Y O U R S E L F MECHANICS No. is placed on the block. . approx. wt. wt. A block of wood weighing 5 lbs. wt. Then P = 20 sin X = 20 X sin 12° 24' = 20 x 0-2147. rests on a horizontal surface and the angle of friction between the two surfaces is 14°. the least value 4-505 0-6537 of P will occur when in the triangle of force AC is perpendicular to BC. What is the least force which will just cause the block to slide along the surface ? 5. log. P = 4-505 P = 4-5 lbs. wt. . A horizontal force of 2-5 lbs. P = 4-29 lbs. (b) the angle of friction. rests on a horizontal table and can just be moved along by a force equal to 4-2 lbs. / . 1.log sin 72° 24' = log 0-6537. 2. A body weighing 12 lbs.

Find the force. rests on a horizontal table. (3) such that the pull is a minimum. Show that the coefficient of friction between the foot of the ladder and the ground (supposed horizontal) must be at least 9.FRICTION 12 5 6. A block of wood weighing 20 lbs. (2) at 45°. the coefficient of friction being 0-2. A block of wood weighing 5 lbs. Find the magnitude of the pull if its line of action is (1) horizontal. We must now see how these forces are affected when friction is taken into account. A uniform ladder rests at an angle of 45° against a smooth vertical wall. such as was used in the experiment described in §74. is pulled very slowly along a horizontal plane. Take a board and place on it a wooden block. When the forces acting on a body lying on an inclined plane were considered (§ 67) it was assumed that the plane was smooth. a pull is exerted on the block which is just sufficient to make it move. 7. Experiment. which will just move the weight. acting at 45° with the horizontal. rests on a rough horizontal board and the coefficient of friction between the surfaces is 0 4 . 8. Tilt the board slowly through a small angle 6. The inclined plane and friction. 81. The weight (W) of the block can now be resolved into components: W sin 6 acting along and down the plane. A block weighing 40 lbs. . By means of a string inclined at 30° to the board. Calculate the amount of the pull. and the coefficient of friction between the surfaces is 0-5. W cos 6 acting perpendicular to the plane. The inclined plane provides an easy way of observing the laws of friction.

decreases. F will also increase until it reaches its limiting value.102 TEACH YOURSELF MECHANICS If the angle of tilting (0) is small the block will not slide down the plane but will remain at rest. .*.*. W sin 0. . . . this force of friction has a limiting value. denoted by F. is easily found by direct observation of the angle of the plane. Now sin 0 increases as 0 increases. and therefore n. In this way the angle of friction. At the point of slipping F = W sin 0 . must be counteracted by a force acting along and up the plane. . As the angle of the plane is increased W sin 0 increases. the normal reaction of the plane. This must be the force of friction. F. N. As the board is tilted a little more. . IF sin 0 becomes greater than F and the block begins to move down the plane. beyond which it cannot increase. a n d cos 0 decreases as 0 increases.t a n F ft — tan 0. and consequently the counterbalancing force of friction. F ft = tan X = F = (i-N. (2) From equations (1) and (2) : F _ W sin 0 N~ W cos e . since it is e q u a l to W cos 0. (1) Throughout the tilting of the plane. . when the block is on the point of slipping N = W cos 0 . But as in the case of a body resting on a horizontal surface. Beyond that. I n t h e limit 0 becomes the angle of friction for the two materials and may be replaced by X. must increase. . . W sin 0 will increase. The component of the weight down the plane. In the limiting case.

(2) If a force acting on a body on an inclined plane is inclined to the plane. A body weighing 10 lbs. the force of friction acts up the plane and vice versa. and as the force of friction applies to the total normal reaction of the plane.friction 127 Note. and H = tan X = tan 20°. X = 20°. The latter produces a reaction of the plane. t h e forces opposing motion a r e : (1) Resolved part of weight. the angle of the plane is equal to the angle of friction.e. i. Worked Example. it applies to the resolved part of the force which is perpendicular to the plane. the student should note the following two points : (1) T h e force of friction always opposes motion. . then it has resolved parts along and perpendicular to the plane. is on the point of slipping down a plane which is inclined at 20° to the horizontal. When the body is on the point of moving up the plane. Whatforce parallel to the plane will just move it up the plane ? As the body is just on the point of slipping down the plane. Consequently if a body is on the point of slipping down the plane.—When solving problems connected with the inclined plane and involving the force of friction.. W sin 0 = 10 sin 20°.

At what angle must the plane be inclined to the horizontal so that the block begins to move down the plane ? 3. when it is inclined at 22° to the horizontal. F = W sin 0 + iiW cos 0 = 10 sin 20° + ix X 10 cos 20°. rests on a rough slope. A body rests on a rough horizontal board. (1) What is the coefficient of friction between the body and the plane ? (2) If the body weighs 5 lbs. but |x = tan 20°. which is yN.. The least force directed up the plane which will move the mass is 56 lbs. (2) the least force directed down the plane which will move the mass. This is gradually tilted until. wt. A mass of 50 lbs. T h e force necessary just to move the body up the plane must be equal to the sum of those acting down the plane. the body begins to move down the plane. 4. rests on a plane inclined at . A block of wood rests on an inclined plane and the coefficient of friction between it and the plane is known to be 0-31.102 teach yourself mechanics (2) Limiting value of friction. y. inclined at 20° to the horizontal. where N — W cos 0 = 10 cos 20°. A body weighing 5 lbs. what is the magnitude of the force of friction when the body begins to slip ? 2. Find: (1) the angle of friction. wt. X sin 9(1° x cos 20° 1. Exercise 12.N = (i X 10 cos 20°. F = 10 sin 20° + 10 tan 20° X cos 20° = 10 sin 20° + 10 cos 20 = 10 sin 20° + 10 sin 20° = 20 sin 20° = 20 X 0-3420 = 6-84 lbs.

A load of 50 lbs.FRICTION 129 40° to the horizontal. so that it will just begin to move up the plane ? E—MECF . What horizontal force must be applied to the load in question 6. the slope of which is 30° and is on the point of slipping down the plane. resting on a rough inclined plane begins to slip when the plane is tilted to an angle of 30° with the horizontal. is lying on an inclined plane. It is kept from slipping down the plane by a force equal to the weight of 1-5 lbs. In the last question what force would be necessary to make the body begin moving up the plane ? 8. What force applied parallel to the plane will cause the block to begin moving up the plane? 6. What force up the plane will be necessary to keep the load from slipping down the plane if the angle of slope is increased to 45° ? 7. A body weighing 40 lbs. What is the coefficient of friction ? 5.

as will be learnt later. In the preceding chapters we have confined our attention to the consideration of bodies at rest under the action of force. In everyday language these two terms are usually accepted as meaning the same thing. however. It is thus a vector quantity (see § 41). When a body is in motion the rate at which it Is moving on its path is called its speed or velocity. the term velocity implies direction as well as rate. Thus. to the consideration of bodies in motion and of the laws relating to motion.N. Speed is certainly frequently -used in a sense which has no reference whatever to direction." '3° . This takes place under the action of force and. Thus. Speed and velocity.E. whereas the term velocity is more appropriately used in such a statement as " the wind was blowing with a velocity of 50 miles per hour in a direction N. an aeroplane may be described as capable of a speed of " 400 miles per hour ". Displacement therefore involves magnitude and direction. and by some writers on mechanics they are treated as alternatives. We now proceed to the study of the " Dynamics " section of the subject—that is. in the direction of the line of action of the force. Motion of a body means that its position is changed.CHAPTER VIII BODIES IN MOTION . 83. it is displaced. is usually made between them. VELOCITY 82. bodies falling under the action of the force of gravity tend to fall vertically downwards. A distinction. While speed is defined as the rate only at which a bodv is moving.

84./sec I ft. Thus we may speak of a speed of 400 miles per hour.BODIES I N M O T I O N 131 This is a clear and logical distinction and its adoption means that speed is a scalar quantity. whereas velocity is a vector quantity.h. or in small units such as feet and seconds.p. The connection in this case./sec./sec. We frequently require to change rates expressed in certain units to those expressed in other units—for examples.h. involving magnitude only. Units in the measurement of speed and velocity. A nautical mile = 6080 ft. which the student should remember. I m. as miles and hours.. this rate must involve (1) the distance it moves and (2) the time taken. F o r nautical purposes t h e u n i t e m p l o y e d is t h e knot. involving direction as well as magnitude.p.p. which includes both distance and time. If speed is the rate at which a body is moving.h. 22 or conversely.p. Speed may be expressed either in large units such .h. for 1 knot = 1 nautical mile per hour. = j j ft. Other units of distance may be similarly employed. is: 60 m. or of a speed of 20 feet per second. written as 20 ft. = 88 ft. = i f m. Therefore the units employed in measuring speed or velocity must be in terms of the units of distance and the units of time. miles per hour to feet per second. usually written as 400 m./sec. .

Uniform velocity. Velocity or speed may be uniform or variable. A French mathematician declared that " no conception is more simple than uniform velocity. The rate of velocity which is uniform is obtained by dividing any distance travelled by the time taken. In using the above formula. however. time taken Thus if a body moves 28 ft.102 T E A C H YOURSELF MECHANICS 85. however small or however large. Uniform velocity or speed.e. the conception of uniform velocity is a very useful and important one. . Uniform velocity is. A body moves with uniform velocity when throughout the motion equal distances are passed over in equal times..=8ft-/secThis may be generalised. v = s = vt. a theoretical conception. the distance passed over is equal to the number of units of distance multiplied by the number of units of time taken for the distance. care must be taken to employ correct units. consequently we cannot attain to absolute accuracy in experimental results. distance moved . However. Let s = distance travelled t — time taken v = velocity. nothing is more impossible to carry out practically ". in 3-5 sees y=3-¥^. Not only does the existence of such forces as gravity and friction make it very difficult to prevent variations. but it is practically impossible to measure either time or distance with absolute accuracy. velocit Then whence I. and is constantly employed. Thus velocity = — ' .

t half a mile v = 2 min.m. If.50 a. = 4 hrs. and s and t the total distance and time. . (880 x 3) ft. but in the case of variable f velocity v represents the average velocity for the specified distance. 20 mins. Distance-time graphs. the formula v = 7 still holds. The motion of a body. 12 sees. 20 mins. What is the average velocity for the journey 210 miles ? Time taken is 1 hr. 86. Average velocity.BODIES I N MOTION 133 Example.h. + 3 hrs.p. Example. arrives at Manchester at 3. nearly. then. 10 mins. can be represented graphically. v represents the average velocity. What is its velocity ? s Using v = . Using v = V where v = average velocity. 132 sees. therefore. A train running uniformly passes over half a mile in 2 mins. whether uniform or variable.10 p. When the velocity or speed is not uniform we can obtain the average velocity by dividing the total distance passed over by the total time taken./sec. as before. ~ 4J = 48-4 m. 12 sees.—A train which leaves Euston at 10. The following examples illustrate the method. 10 mins. _ 210 miles _210 ~ 4 hrs. 87. 20 ft.and substituting given values.m. This may be illustrated by a railway example.

time in seconds along OX. 113 shows the above quantities plotted. 1 20 2 40 3 60 4 80 5 100 Any of these distances divided by the corresponding interval of time gives v = 20 ft. Distances in ft. A motor-car passes over distances in times as shown in the following table. 113. . from starting point . FIG. Time in sees. /sec. uniformly. Fig. distances in feet „ OY. Exhibit them as a graph.102 T E A C H YOURSELF MECHANICS (1) Uniform motion.

we should draw a tangent to the curve at the corresponding point. Remembering the conclusions above. it is reasonable to conclude that if we wish to know the velocity at any particular instant. it will be evident that the velocity is increasing..BODIES I N MOTION 135 Joining the plotted points. When the points are examined they are seen to lie on a smooth curve which is part of a parabola. 113(a). (2) Velocity varying uniformly. If any point P be taken and PQ be drawn perpenPO dicular to OX. the values in the table are plotted as shown in Fig. ^ . But and . the ratio ^ is constant. It will be noted that when velocity is uniform the distance-time graph will always be a straight line. = tan POQ — the gradient of OP distance P0 veloclt y=-t™r = 0§- Thus the gradient of the straight line OP measures the velocity. The . The curve becomes steeper as the time increases. The velocity thus changes from point to point. This is the d istance-ti me graph for the motion described in the table. . If the increases in distance over corresponding times are calculated. we see that they lie on a straight line. 0 0 i 1 i 4 I 9 1 1J H 1| 49 2 64 Distance in feet 16 25 36 Representing time along OX „ distances i o n g OY. The following table shows the distances passed over by a falling body. Time in sees.

completing the triangle PQR. PR ~ Thus the velocity at the end of the first second is 32 ft. Thus to find the velocity a second after the motion has begun—i. at the point P on the curve—a tangent to the curve should be drawn at P. When a velocity is varying uniformly the graph will be a r e g u l a r c u r v e a n d t h e velocity at any point will be- .. and the gradient represents the velocity at the point.). . Then.102 T E A C H YOURSELF MECHANICS gradient of the tangent will give the velocity at the point.j — = — = 032 ft../sec.e. Time (in sec. FIG. is the gradient of the curve at the point. Substituting values 16 32 Q R _ 48 0 . 113(a). the ratio of O 7? distance to time. per sec. viz.

). 5 This means that no matter what the interval of time. Let us consider the velocity-time graph for a body moving with a uniform velocity of 6 ft.BODIES I N M O T I O N 137 given by the gradient of the tangent to the curve at the point. (1) The case of uniform velocity. 6 5 .. or 5 sees.S * 3 1 1 2 3 4 Time (in sec.. . 6 ft. 114./sec. Graphs which show how velocity is changing with respect to time in the motion of a body are called velocity-time graphs. whether it be 1 sec./sees. Velocity-time graphs. FIG. the velocity will be the same—i.e. 88.

which is parallel to OX and 6 units distant from it. Let the velocity of a body increase uniformly by 2 ft. each second. We may conclude: If a body is moving with uniform velocity. (a) Velocity increasing uniformly.. 115.e. The graph must therefore be one straight line AP. its velocitytime graph will be a straight line parallel to OX. the distance corresponding to 6 on the velocity axis. per sec. (2) Velocity increasing or decreasing uniformly.102 TEACH YOURSELF MECHANICS The distance of any point on the graph from OX will always be the same—i. . FIG.

Fig. These points.BODIES I N M O T I O N 139 The following table shows the velocity after each second. The graph is one of constant gradient and therefore a straight line. 115 shows the velocity-time graph of the body. 116. P. lie on a straight line. If any point. (b) Velocity decreasing uniformly. The graph is constructed by obtaining points which show the velocity at the end of each second. This straight line is the velocity time-graph. Time Velocity . and represents the increase in velocity per second. 0 0 1 2 2 4 3 6 4 8 Fig. This gradient is the tangent of the angle POD. FIG. be taken on the graph and a perPD pendicular PD be drawn to OX. then the ratio ^ is constant wherever P is taken. 116 is the velocity-time graph of a body having an initial . as might be expected.

which mark the velocity after each second.) The graph is therefore a straight line of negative gradient. The decrease being uniform.102 102 T E A C H YOURSELF MECHANICS velocity of 7 ft. § 69. The train starts from rest at 0. FIG./sec. (Trigonometry. the points. Fig. which decreases each second by 1 ft../sec.). 5 6 tan ACX is negative. 117. 30 26 £20 0 d P5 > 10 5 0 1 2 3 4 Time (in min. is given by tan ACX. as in the previous case. But LACX is an obtuse angle. 117 represents a rough approximation of the velocity-time graph of an electric train. The gradient of the line. and its velocity . will be found to lie on the straight line AC. (3) Velocity-time graph of a train (velocity not uniform).

6 89. it reaches 30 miles an hour at A. AP. 118.p.BODIES IN M O T I O N 143 increases rapidly and uniformly until in 2 mins. with a uniform velocity of 6 ft. parallel to OX. 114 reproduced on this page for convenience. Afterwards its velocity decreases rapidly until the train comes to rest at C after 1J mins. Example I. is the graph. 6 oJ C to a > 1 A 2 1 o iiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiirwrniiiiiiii^i 1 2 3 4 Time (in sec. /sec. It then travels uniformly at 30 m.h. for 2J mins. From any point P draw PQ perpendicular to OX. which is Fig. shown at B. Fig. FIG. Area under a velocity-time graph.). is the velocity-time graph for a body moving for 5 sees. 118. .

and this was an important point in the argument. therefore.h. :. OFGH represents 10 miles per hour for ^ hr. while that employed in the time scale on OX is the minute. or. 118 the units of time were the same on the two axes. But OA X OQ = the area of the rectangle OAPQ. We may either find the area of the trapezium OABC by using the ordinary formula.e. X 5 sees. OFGH represents a velocity of 10 m. It is important. travelled throughout the time. But in Fig. 117. per sec. one important difference in this case. to begin by ascertaining what is represented by each unit of area in the figure.. 119 the unit of time employed in the velocity scale marked on OY is the hour.'. In Fig. = J mile. acting for one minute. We must therefore express the minutes in hours. There is. OA X OQ = number of units of velocity x number of units of time. per sec.. We will take the rectangle OFGH as a unit and see what that represents. . = 6 ft. velocity. Assuming. however. Example 2. = 30 ft. We now find the area of the whole expressed in terms of rectangle OFGH as a unit. i. the truth of the conclusion reached in the last paragraph. Area of OAPQ = OA x OQ.p. Now OA = number of ft.102 TEACH YOURSELF MECHANICS The area of the rectangle OAPQ is called the area under the graph. without further experiment. we will apply it to find the distance passed over by the train whose velocity-time graph was shown in Fig.. and OQ = number of seconds taken to move from A to P. Number of units of distance passed over in the time by the body = number of units of area in OAPQ. by drawing AD and .

The methods for finding the areas in such cases can be studied in books on " Practical " mathematics. Total distance = \ + 1J + f = 2 | miles. angle OFGH as a unit. the graph OABC is a simplified approximation to the real graph. In reality the curve vvould be an irregular one. As was stated in § 88. . FIG. 1 1 9 . Area under: AO = 3 units = 3 X $ in. . = l | miles. BEC and the rectangle ABED. AB = 7£ units = 7| x | „ BC = (£ x 4£) units = 2£ x | „ of the triangles Regarding rect- = \ mile.". such as National Certificate Mathematics.BODIES I N MOTION 143 BE. we can find separately the areas AOD. = | mUe.

What is the train's velocity in m. and what will that be in m. and its velocity is increased in each second by 3 ft.. 120 is the distance-time graph of a body in ./sec.). ? 3. how many feet will it go in 10 sees./sec. If a train is travelling at 24 m.h.p. and its velocity is increased by 2 ft./sec. 120. at the end of a minute ? 6. If a train travels 400 yds. in 12 sees. and is brought to rest by its brakes in 10 sees..h. ? 8. What will be its velocity in m. ? Time (in sec. A train is travelling at 10 m.. Another train is moving at 15 m. (b) miles per hour ? 2.h. What is this in miles per hour ? 5. Its velocity is increased each second by 0-5 ft.p. A train is moving at the rate of 14 ft. on an average. The speed of sound is 1100 ft. which are 88 yds.h.h.h.p.. A man travelling in a train notices that he passes the telegraph poles by the side of the line./sec. Fig. 4.h.p. per second (approx.p. FIG.p. to what rate is this equivalent in : (a) feet per second.). apart. every 5 sees. In how many seconds will the two trains have the same velocity.102 T E A C H YOURSELF MECHANICS Exercise 13 1. At what rate per second is its velocity decreased ? 7.p. A train is moving at 15 m.

C to D.). 121. 9. were as shown in the following table : Time in minutes Distance in miles 5 10 10 15 15 19 20 22 25 24 30 25 1 2 • 3 4 5 6 Time (in sec. 10.BODIES IN MOTION 145 motion. 121 is shown the velocity-time graph of a body moving with velocities as shown at the ends of successive seconds. Find from the graph the total distance travelled by the body. FIG.B to C. Find from it the average velocity from 0 to A. AtoB. In Fig. . Plot the distance-time graph and find the average velocity over each of the six mtervals. The distances travelled by a moving body at intervals of 5 mins.

per sec. The first " per second " refers to the rate of the velocity and was used in this way in the previous chapter. The rate at which the velocity is increased is called the acceleration of the body. per second. The term " acceleration " is used to mean that there may be an increase or a decrease. Thus an acceleration of — 5 ft. The use of " per second " twice is sometimes puzzling to beginners. the motion is said to be retarded. per sec. where the index shows that the " per sec.CHAPTER IX ACCELERATION 90. per second in every second. per sec. if there is a decrease the sign is negative. in every second. per second per second is usually abbreviated into 3 ft. Thus if the velocity of a body is being uniformly increased by 3 ft.2. An acceleration of 3 ft. We shall make little use of the term " retardation ". If there is an increase the sign of the quantity is positive. the acceleration is said to be 3 ft. if the velocity is decreased. Changes In velocity.2 means that the velocity is decreasing by 5 ft. If the velocity of a body is increased. per second. the motion is said to be accelerated." is repeated. The second'' per second'' gives the unit of time in which the additional amount of velocity is added on. It is very important that we should examine the rate at which the motion is being changed. In the previous chapter cases were considered in which the velocity of a body was increased or decreased. but a little consideration will show the need for the use of them. 146 .

The same formula will be true whatever the units . Velocity after 2 sees. per sec. per sec. Then velocity after 1 sec. per sec. ! . Thus we may speak of an acceleration of 2 miles per hour per hour or 2 miles per hour.ACCELERATION 147 Other units may be used. = (10 + 3/) ft. Let u be the initial velocity of a body in ft. per sec. per sec. per sec. + ( 2 x 3 ) ft. Let / b e the acceleration in ft. = 19 ft. From inspection of these results a general formula may be readily constructed./sec. per sec.*. per sec. When the velocity of a body is increased by the same amounts in equal intervals of time. = 10 ft. Velocity after t sees. = 10 ft.) ft. 2 . = 13 ft. + ( 1 x 3 ) ft. Formula for a body whose motion accelerated. Velocity after 3 sees. per sec. 91. per sec. And generally Velocity after t sees.2. = (u + 3/) ft. = { « + ( < x /)} ft. = 10 ft./sec. per sec. Let v be the velocity after t sees. the acceleration is uniform. per sec. + (3 X 3) ft. = 10 ft. per sec. = 16 ft. per sec. = (w + f ) ft. The cases we shall consider will be generally those of uniform acceleration. + ( ( x 3 ) ft. Let it have a uniform acceleration of 3 ft. per sec. „ 3 sees. . per sec. 92. is uniformly Let the velocity of a body be 10 ft. Uniform acceleration. Then Velocity after 1 sec. per sec. „ „ 2 sees./sec. per sec. Then v = (u +ft. = (11 + 2/) ft.

= OP + QM. or v = u + f t . Also QN = MN + QM. Therefore we may state the formula generally as : v = u + ft. Let w = initial velocity. from which Also f = V — u 93. with uniform acceleration. provided they are the same throughout. . 122 represents the general velocity time diagram of a body. v = final velocity. t — time. In the figure OP represents w QN „ v ON „ t Draw PM parallel to OX. Fig. Average velocity and distance. increase in velocity. / = acceleration. Then QM represents / X t.102 TEACH YOURSELF MECHANICS employed.

u + v . v. Also. Now. . 94. s represent the same quantities as in the previous paragraph. Draw /IS perpendicular to ON. Also S = (velocity at the middle of the interval) x t. Distance passed over in the above case is represented by the area of the trapezium OPQN.. we know from Geometry that AS = HOP + QN) = *(« + »)• Average of initial and final velocities = velocity at the middle of the interval. S = (average of Initial and final velocities) x t. —2— = average velocity . .. As shown above. Using the formula for the area of a trapezium : Area of OPQN = $(0P + NQ) x ON = I(« + » ) X ( .. Let u. If s = distance passed over r u ~v S = —+ ~ x t. (1) • • and v = u + ft In (2) for v substitute u + ft from (3). t. s = ut + . Then s = *±!£±M 2 x • • (2) (3) t. Distance passed over by a uniformly accelerated body. as shown in the previous chapter : Distance passed over by the moving body is represented by the area under the graph.acceleration 149 Let A be the mid point of PQ..

Example I. Find the acceleration in ft. (7) v* = 2fs. (6) s = iff*.102 t e a c h yourself mechanics Again from (2) Also Multiplying Whence v — u — ft. = 20 x jgft. Us velocity is 30 m.p. 96. Here M = 20 m. is uniformly accelerated so that after 8 sees. Worked examples.p. When a body is uniformly retarded.2fs. / is replaced by — / .2 and the distance the train goes in the interval. (3) s =ut + ift2. Retardation./sec.h.h./sec. Collecting the formulae (1) v = u+ft. S== v2 — u2 2 ~2TThis gives a formula for the distance in terms of the initial and final velocities.h.u2 = 2fs. then u = 0 and we g e t : (5) v = ft. and the formulae above which contain / become : v = u — ft. s = utift2V2 = u2 . A train moving at 20 m. 95. 15 . If a body starts from rest.p. v2 — u2 = 2fs. (4) v2 .

/sec.acceleration 151 and v = 30 m.h. Using v2 — u2 = 2/s v2 =u2 + 2/s = 22 ! + (2 X 3 X 1320) = 8404_ v = V8404 = 91-7 ft. 2 .h./sec./sec. = 1 yd./sec. f" =-7-ft. and is uniformly accelerated at the rate of 1 yd. 22 = 30 x jgft.h./sec. per sec. Then 44 = ~ + 8/.—A body has an initial velocity of 15 m./sec. This could be done as a check. Find in feet per second the velocity it acquires. It should be noted that s can also be found from the formula 2/s = v2 — M2. = 44 ft. To find final velocity. = 15 X Acceleration ft.p. and s = 1320.p. 6 To find distance.p. Using v = u + ft. = 22 ft./sec. 15 m. Using s=ut + \ft2 8 X 88 2 X 88 _ 10 X 88 'I < ) Q * 3 s = 293J ft. Example 2.2.2 for J mile. To find acceleration. 2 . = 3 ft. ./sec.

remembering the final velocity is zero.p. we use v = ft.p. Exercise 14 1.h. 22 60 m. and how far will it have gone ? 2. To find the retardation : Use 2. A train is moving at 30 m.—The brakes on a train reduce its speed from 60 to 20 m./sec.p.p. whence 704 / = j^g ft. / s e c . The decrease in velocity takes place in 660 ft. To find the distance travelled. = ^ f t .h. Assuming that they exert a constant retarding force.h. How long would a body moving under the conditions of the previous question take to travel a quarter of a mile? 3./sec. = 60 X j g = 88 ft. find how much farther the train will run before coming to rest and how long it will take. To find the distance before stopping. 20 m. 2 . 2 x 660 X / = 882 .) 1X 704X /45\ 2 s = Substituting 2 l35 V8"/' whence s = 82 5 ft.102 teach yourself mechanics Example 3. If brakes are put . while it runs 220 yds.h.( y ) * ./sec.. What will be its velocity after 8 sees. A body starts from rest and moves with an acceleration of 5 ft. use : s= ift\ (See § 94.fs =v2 — w2. 2 . _ 8 8 ^ 704 ~~ 3 135" Whence t = 5f sees.

A train moves from rest with a uniform acceleration of 1-5 ft.p.p. What distance was covered in the time ? 11.2 until it came to rest. A car travelling at 40 m. 2 . 2 for 24 sees.h.p./ sec.h. What was the acceleration of the car. The velocity of a motor-car is increased from 10 m.h. 2 . in travelling 220 ft. and how far will it travel in doing so ? 4. 2 .h. The velocity of a train was increased from rest by 2 ft./sec. is brought to rest by its brakes in 22 sees.h.h.p. and how long did it take to travel the distance ? 7./sec. The most common example which we experience of accelerated velocity is that of gravity. to 10 m. How long will it take to travel 750 ft. ? 9. 97. How far will it travel in the 10th sec.acceleration 153 on and the train is retarded at the rate of 2 ft./sec. A slip carriage is detached from a train moving at 60 m. how long is this after it leaves the train ? 13. A train starting from a station reaches a velocity of 30 m. After what time and distance will its velocity be 30 m.h. what must be the retardation? 10. 2 . has its velocity reduced in 2-5 sees. and how far does it travel in the time? 6.. while it runs 220 yds.p. How far did it travel in all? 8. The brakes on a train reduce its speed from 60 to 20 m. ? 14.p. Acceleration due to gravity. If it comes to rest in 1100 yds. A body has an initial velocity of 15.p.p. Assuming that they exert a constant retarding force.p. to 30 m.p. find how much farther the train will run before coming to rest and how long it will take./sec. when will it come to rest. It was then retarded at 1-5 ft. 5. ? 12.h. What is its retardation in ft. A body starting from rest has a constant acceleration of 4 ft. and an acceleration of 12 ft./sec.. in 40 sees. A train is moving at 36 m. ft. If it is to pull up in 160 yds. 2 ./sec. Find the acceleration and the distance travelled by the train in 40 sees.h. It had been ./sec. A train travelling at 48 m.h.

Since the time of Galileo various forms of apparatus have been devised to show that bodies fall with uniform acceleration and to discover what is the amount of the acceleration. however. The student who has access to a physical laboratory will be able to study these experiments. however. the farther it fell. In the next century Sir Isaac Newton showed that the resistance of the air accounted for the differences in the times that certain bodies took in falling by performing his famous experiment of dropping a feather and a guinea in a cylindrical glass vessel from which nearly all the air had been exhausted. performed the experiment of dropping bodies of different weights from the top of the leaning tower of Pisa. was mainly concerned with the question : Why does the body fall ? To this problem the answer has not yet been found. what is the nature of the motion itself ? Is it uniformly accelerated ? What is the acceleration ? These are the kind of questions that Galileo set himself to answer. He left for future generations the problem of the cause of the motion. The acceleration of a falling body. Galileo. the greater was its velocity on reaching the ground. He showed that both feather and coin fell in the same time. Galileo. Speculation about it.102 teach yourself mechanics observed in the earliest days of the human race that if a body fell from a height to the ground. and showed that they reached the ground in approximately the same time. 98. But his experiments and deductions did not convince the doubters and he was expelled from the University of Pisa. seems to have been the first to consider the question: How does it fall ? That is. Before the time of Galileo it had been generally accepted that a heavy body fell to the ground with greater velocity than a light body. but in this book we must be content with stating what are . The great mathematician. whereas a piece of stone falls rapidly. This was superficially deduced from the fact that such an object as a feather would flutter slowly to the ground.

is 32-19078 ft. .2. where it is approximately equal to 32-25. the figure again approximate. it starts with zero velocity. The corresponding value to this in the metric system is 980 cm. and consequently the formulae are modified as follows: (5) v = gt. the air resistance eliminated. These are useful forms to remember.. 99. The formulae proved in § 94 were general and hold for any uniform acceleration. per sec. correct to five places of decimals : generally. (3) s = ut + \gth (4) v2 . per sec. If a body is dropped from a height. (2) s = x t. i./sec. for reasons which will not be considered now. If g be taken as equal to 32.e. At Greenwich the value of g in vacuo. (6) s = \gt\ (7) v2 = 2gh. It has its greatest value at the poles. when employing them.u2 = 2gh. 2 . With this substitution the formulae are as follows:— (1) v = u + gt. 8 . They are therefore true for falling bodies.2. but it is usual. but it varies slightly at different places on the earth's surface. s = I6C2. to replace / by g. then (5) and (6) become: v = 32t. Formulae for motion under gravity./sec. The letter g is always used to denote this acceleration. where it is 32-09. and its least value at the equator.acceleration 155 the facts which they demonstrate. The value of g is given above as approximately 32 ft. 2 . in this book we shall follow the custom of assuming the value of 32 ft./sec. we learn that— By means of them The acceleration of a falling body is uniform and is approximately 32 ft.

when for an instant the velocity is zero. When a body is projected upwards.. then. (3) The velocity on reaching the ground. the acceleration is negative. 320 ft. g 101. Worked example. above the ground. then time to reach this is given by g If h be the greatest height. but in the opposite direction. i. Find: (1) The greatest height and the time taken to reach it. At the maximum height the motion of the body is reversed and the body begins to fall under the action of gravity. with acceleration g. It will rise until it reaches its maximum height. A bullet is shot vertically upwards with a velocity of 160 ft.e. (Air resistance is to be ignored throughout. assuming no interception by the balloon.102 teach yourself mechanics 100.) . Consequently if there were no air resistance. g The total distance will be v* 2h or —. The circumstances of the downward path are those of the upward reversed. using formula 7 above.. i. the motion is retarded. it would reach the ground again in the time it took to rise and with the velocity with which it was projected.e. Motion of a bod/ projected vertically upwards. Isec. (2) Time to reach the ground. from a stationary balloon. The total time from ground to ground will be ni 2V 21 or —. If v is the velocity of projection.

of balloon above ground) = 400 ft. (approx./sec. 0 0 O i 1 li 2 2i .7 + 5 = 11-7 sees.acceleration (1) Time and greatest height. (above the balloon). (approx. viz./sec. (dist.).) Distance . In the following table fill in the velocities and distance passed over by a body falling from rest. This is the time from the highest point. Note. Using we have v2 = 2gh v2 = 2 X 64 x_720 v = 32 X V45 = 214 ft. Time (sees. (3) Velocity on reaching the ground. = 720 ft. 157 Using the formula g 160 c ' = 3 2 =5secs" d t = v- Height. (2) From the greatest height the bullet has to fall. Total time = 6 . above the balloon) + (dist.) Velocity (ft. to rise to that.). (Or the formula v = gt could be used. Using s = 16^ we have s = 16 x 5 2 = 400 ft. Using s = 720 = 1622 t2 = 4 5 _ t = V45 = 6-7 sees. 1. + 320 ft. Take g = 32.) Exercise 15.—In the following questions air resistance is neglected. but it took 5 sees.

A stone is dropped from a stationary balloon.102 teach yourself mechanics From these results draw : (1) A time-distance graph . and through what distance does it fall in the time ? 4.. How long does it take a falling body to acquire a velocity of 100 ft. After what times is it 84 ft. A balloon ascends from rest with uniform acceleration. after being released. 12. (2) A velocity-time graph. Find the greatest height attained by a projectile which is thrown vertically upwards with a velocity of 25 metres per sec. above the ground ? 9. A stone is thrown vertically upwards and returns to the ground after 5 sees. A balloon is rising vertically with a velocity of 40 ft./sec. 6.. ! ). How high is the balloon ? 10. What is the velocity of a body after it has fallen 100 ft. 5. ../sec. Find the acceleration of the balloon and the height from which the stone fell./sec. A body is projected vertically upwards with a velocity of 80 ft. A stone is dropped from it and reaches the ground in 3 sees./sec. A stone is dropped from the top of a building and reaches the ground after 2J sees./sec. and how long does it take ? 7. Use the method of the area under the graph to find the distance passed over in 2 sees. Find the greatest height it will reach and the time taken. and a stone is dropped from it after 6 sees. ? How long will this be after the moment of projection ? 11. A body is projected vertically upwards with a velocity of 160 ft. Find its initial velocity and the greatest height reached. A stone is projected vertically upwards with a velocity of 80 ft./sec. How far does it fall in the 4th second ? 8. How high is the building ? 3. What is its velocity when it has risen 64 ft. 2. The stone reaches the ground 4 sees. and also the time which elapses before it returns to its point of departure (g = 980 cm.

two terms which are frequently confused. 103. and they have frequently been employed in subsequent chapters. At the outset it is essential that the student should be quite clear in his mind as to the distinction between mass and weight. unless prevented by some other force. 59 . In the previous chapter the formulae relating to accelerated motion were investigated. the mass of the body would remain unaltered but there would be no weight. It is the attractive force called gravitation. Weight is a force. by which. Mass is the quantity of matter in a body. The mass of a body remains constant as the body is moved from place to place. We must now examine the connection between mass and motion and consider the laws which lie at the foundation of changes in velocity. There was a brief reference to these in Chapter I. bodies will move vertically downwards towards the earth with uniform acceleration. Mass and acceleration. It is constant whatever the velocity with which the body moves.CHAPTER X N E W T O N ' S LAWS OF MOTION 102. Mass and weight. The following definitions will serve to remind the student of the fundamental differences between mass and weight. but without any reference to the mass of the moving body. If we were to conceive the attraction of the earth to be eliminated. The weight of a body varies at different parts of the earth's surface (see § 98).

Mass and Inertia. .102 teach yourself mechanics 104. and for purposes of comparison a standard unit of mass is preserved in London. Standard unit of mass. Masses can be compared as to the amount of matter in them by the action of force upon them. and when the attraction on a mass is equal to the attraction on the standard unit of mass. 123). It is a mass of one pound of platinum. We need to measure mass. i. Let two masses of. The attraction of the earth. 105. say. and the weight of a body is the measure of its mass. Measurement of mass. The bodies will rest in equilibrium in any position.. Weight. the force of gravity. is employed to measure mass. Equal masses are such that if acted. upon by equal forces equal accelerations are produced. each be suspended by a fine string which passes over a smooth pulley (Fig. 2 lbs. then.e. This attraction measures the weight of the mass. Comparison of mass. is the best available force for the purpose of comparison. Weight is therefore proportional to mass. its weight is one pound.

not weight.newton's laws of motion 161 To set them In motion force is necessary. Newton's First Law of Motion. The two weights will move. or not sufficient to account for the effort required. We have also seen in Chapter VII that if a body has been set in motion by a force. Newton's Laws of Motion. Now. The above principle of inertia is inherent in the first of Newton's Laws of Motion. The weight of the ball is borne by the ice. and that force no longer acts. 106. force would be necessary to move it round. since whether it be the arrangement of weights described above or a large fly-wheel. Let a tangential force be applied at the top of pulley in a direction shown by the arrow. Similarly if a large steel fly-wheel mounted on a smooth axle were at rest. and force must be applied to stop it. we come to the conclusion that there is inherent in mass a property. From the consideration of phenomena such as have been described above. if a heavy ship is moving with high velocity and the engines are stopped. For example. greater force would be necessary to produce motion. it tends to continue in motion for a long time. Again. if a heavy. which apparently offers resistance to attempts to impart motion or to change of motion. Every body continues in its state of rest or of uniform motion in a straight line except when it is compelled by external force to change that state. . it is a considerable time before it comes to rest owing to water and air resistance. If greater weights were employed. the action of friction is almost negligible. This property of mass is called inertia. By using a perfectly smooth pulley and a smooth axle. and has no horizontal component which affects the motion. F—MECH. the motion tends to continue. it will be noticed that the force employed is not required to overcome the force of gravity. the weight on one side is balanced by that on the other. smooth steel ball be propelled across smooth ice.

though experiments may be devised which provide corroboration of their truth. moon. and a comparatively small force is required to effect this. Assuming the truth of the above law. if steam were now shut off. predictions of the movements arid positions of the sun. They are the fundamental laws upon which the whole science of dynamics is built up. They predict eclipses. is never questioned.h. dependent on the fundamental Laws of Motion.102 teach yourself mechanics This law does two things : (1) I t is a n expression of t h e property of inertia in matter. provided it is travelling on perfectly horizontal rails. Friction and air resistances are the only external forces which would thus act on the train. The accuracy of these and hundreds of other phenomena. and the investigation of the remaining two will follow. Consequently it is necessary for the steam to provide only sufficient force to overcome these resistances. they are not capable of mathematical proof. planets and other heavenly bodies. 107. the daily times of sunset and sunrise. unless compelled to change that speed by external force. The law explains a principle of great importance to traffic engineers.p. They were first formally expressed by Sir Isaac Newton in the seventeenth century. (2) I n effect it defines a force as that which changes the state of rest or the motion of a body. and they are never found to be incorrect.h. Suppose a locomotive increases its speed until it reaches the highest speed at which it is desired to run a train—say. in the Nautical Almanac. Newton's Laws and dynamics.. The laws are axiomatic—that is.p. For the assumption that the laws are true enables mathematical investigators to publish in advance. The above law is the first of three. Perhaps the most striking verification of them is found in astronomical predictions. . 40 m. forecast the times of tides. the train would continue to move uniformly at 40 m.

Let and m represents the mass of a body v „ its velocity. (2) The velocity of the body. b u t also t o t h e mass which is moved. . Let the unit of momentum be taken as a unit of mass moving with unit of velocity. It is as follows : Newton's Second Law of Motion. Therefore by " motion " we must understand what is called " momentum ". Consequently when it is stated in the Second Law that " the rate of change of motion is proportional to the impressed force ". must depend on two things : (1) The mass of the body. because of their different masses. Therefore the effect of a force in changing the motion of a body. F o r the same force acting on a locomotive and on a wheelbarrow would produce very different velocities.newton's laws of motion 163 108. The rate of change of motion is proportional to applied force and takes place in the direction in which the force acts. since for a given force the change of velocity must depend on the " mass " moving or to be moved. 109. T h e n momentum is represented by mv. the force which would bring a rowing-boat to rest would have very little effect upon a liner. or bringing it to rest. The first law defines force. we must have regard not only to the change in velocity. Momentum. Clearly. then. the second deals with its measurement. the term " change of motion " must mean more than change of velocity. which is the product of the mass of a body and its velocity. Again. Newton's Second Law of Motion. Whatever the nature of the force it must be measured by the results observed in the body moved.

to describe them here would not convey much to the student. and / . and a mass of 2 lbs. Two alternative forms may be adopted: .kmf where k is a constant. acceleration. t h e r a t e of change of momentum implies the rate of change of velocity— i. Equation connecting force and acceleration.. We can now proceed to obtain the very important formula which connects force and the acceleration produced in a body on which it acts. m. 110. as has been shown abqve. It also follows that bodies in which the same force produces the same acceleration must have equal masses. „ P = the force acting on it. such as Fletcher's Trolley.e. would have 10 X 2 = 20 units of momentum. 111. P =-. Then. moving with a velocity of 2 ft. If the mass of a body bs constant.102 teach yourself mechanics Thus a mass of 10 lbs. Conversely a force is proportional to the acceleration it produces in a given mass. Equal masses. P is proportional to mf./sec. would have 2 x 10 = 20 units of momentum. Let m — the mass of a body. The Second Law of Motion can therefore be written in the following form: The rate of change of momentum is proportional to the applied force. Consequently we may deduce that the acceleration produced in the body is proportional to the applied force. These important principles can be confirmed by experiments with suitable apparatus. „ / = the acceleration produced. The value of k will depend on the units which are adopted for the quantities P. and takes place in the direction Ih which the applied force acts./sec. These can be observed in a laboratory. moving with a velocity of 10 ft.

the unit of mass is a mass of I lb. produces an acceleration represented by g. it must be emphasised that— the unit of force is the weight of I lb.*. The equation becomes : P_ m / In this form. Substituting in equation (A): P = mf. Let the unit of mass be 1 lb. Now. wt. . k-1. produces an acceleration of I ft. its acceleration is g. falls and is acted upon by gravity. Now. In the equation : P = kmf. and m = 1. „ „ acceleration be 1 ft.2. P = 1. if a body of weight 1 lb. when m = 1 and / = 1. a . The unit of force now is that force which. . then f = g — 32 (approx. „ „ force be the weight of 1 lb. Then. (A) If P = 1.'. produces an acceleration of g (32) ft. if the unit of force be chosen so that k = I. weight acting on a mass of 1 lb..'. (2) Absolute unit of force./sec./sec. acting on a mass of I lb.). But a force of 1 lb. acting on a mass of I lb. /sec. Substituting 1 = k x 1 X g. Let the unit of mass be 1 lb. . 4 ..newton's laws of motion 165 (1) Gravitational unit of force. A force of I lb.

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When the equation is in the form P = mf the unit of force must be ^ or ^ of a lb.—i.e., the weight of about half an ounce. This unit of force is called the poundal. If the formula is in the form P = mf

P is in poundals, m in lbs. mass.

The previous paragraph is of very great importance, and the student should study it several times and master it before proceeding further. (3) The two forms compared. The first method—the gravitational unit of force—is used by engineers. For example, the pull of a locomotive is measured in pounds, or in tons for large forces; pressures are measured in lbs. per sq. in.; many similar instances could be given. The disadvantage of working with such a unit is that it is not a fixed quantity; its value depends on g and, as we have seen, this differs very slightly in various parts of the earth's surface. On the other hand, the poundal has a fixed value, since it is that force which produces in a unit of mass an acceleration of 1 ft./sec. 2 . It is independent of g.

Consequently t h e poundal is called the absolute unit of force.

For the purpose of solving problems, the student will probably find that the first method is the better, and this is best remembered in the form m

g"

In centimetre gram second (C.G.S.) units the absolute unit of force is that which produces an acceleration of I cm. per sec. in a mass of I gram. This unit is called a dyne.

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112. Worked examples. Owing to the importance of the foregoing, a larger number of examples than usual are worked out for the consideration of the student. Example I. A force of 6 lbs. wt. acts on a mass of 15 lbs. What acceleration is produced in the mass ? Using the gravitational unit of force and the formulae m g we have P = 6, m = 15, g = 32. Substituting these values, 1 - L 15 32' Whence / = ^ ^ = 12-8 ft./secA

Example 2. What is the force which, acting on a body whose weight is 10 lbs., produces an acceleration of 8 ft.l sec.2? —= m g' and substituting the given values we g e t : L - 1 10 32' P=8-g^

0

TT •

p

Usmg 5

f

= 2-5lbs.wt.

Example 3. A force of 6 lbs. wt. acts on a mass of 10 lbs. for 4 sees. What velocity does it acquire, and how far does it travel in the 4 sees. ? We must first find the acceleration which the body receives. Using on substitution l 10 ~ 10/ = / = l 32' 192 19-2 ft./sec. a . m g'

and

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Therefore the body starts from rest with an acceleration of 19-2 ft./sec. 2 . (1) To find the velocity acquired in 4 sees. Using v = ft on substitution v = 19-2 x 4 = 76-8 ft./sec. (2) To find the distance travelled. Using s = J/22 s = | X 19-2 x 4 s = 153-6 ft. Example 4. A train whose weight is 420 tons reaches a speed of 30 m.p.h. in 30 sees, after starting from rest. What force does the engine exert on the train ? We must first find the acceleration of the train. It is such that the velocity after 30 sees, is 30 m.p.h. Now Using 30 m.p.h. = 30 X j g = 44 ft./sec. f = j

22

to find the acceleration / , we have / = gft./sec.2. Having found the acceleration produced, to find the force producing it we use L = F m g' Substituting the values for m, / , g, P44

30

420 32' [Note.—On the left-hand side, both P and m can be expressed in tons; the ratio is the same as if they were expressed in lbs.] From this equation 77 p _ 420 X 44 30 x 32 4" P = I9£ tons wt.

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Example 5. A motor-car weighing 16 cwt. is moving at 30 m.p.h. It is brought to rest by the brakes in 66 ft. What was the force applied by the brakes ? 30 m.p.h. = 30 X jg = 44 ft./sec. To find the acceleration knowing the distance, we use the formula v2 = 2/s

or 22

/ = 2s'

f" 442 2x66

=

Substituting

yft/sec-a-

**To find the force of the brakes we use m Substituting
**

3 P _ 44 1 6 ~ 32" P = 44 x 16 3 x 32

g'

7i| cwt. wt.

Example 6. A lift is ascending with an acceleration of 2 ft./sec.2. A man holds a spring-balance from which a parcel weighing 3 lbs. is hung. What is the reading of the spring-balance ? Fig. 124 shows the forces acting on the parcel. These are : (1) Weight, 3 lbs. downwards. (2) Upward pull of spring balance. Let this be T. T is registered on the spring-balance. The Resultant force acting on parcel is T — 3 upwards. The mass acted on is 3 lbs. The acceleration is 2 ft./sec. 2 .

A

3 lbs v

FIG. 124.

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**g' and substituting known values :
**

m

Using

—=

r - 3

,

—3— — T - 3 T = 3 + ft — 3 lbs. 3 ozs. Note.—If the lift were going down with an acceleration, the resultant force acting on the parcel would be 3 — T. Example 7. A truck weighing 2 tons is to be hauled up an incline of 1 in 12. What constant force, applied parallel to the plane, is required to move it with a constant acceleration of 4 in./sec.2?

2 tons

FIG. 125.

Let T in tons wt. be the force acting parallel to and up the plane. Resolved part of weight acting down the plane = 2 sin 6 (§56) = 2 x tz- = i ton wt. Resultant force acting up the plane = ( J — J) tons wt. This acts on a mass of 2 tons. Using

T

2 ~ 32 T - t = A-

±

—

m 1 8

g'

12

—

'

_

l

= -t-g ton wt.

If a car weighing 3000 lbs.newton's laws of m o t i o n 173 Exercise 16 1. on a train whose weight. in lbs. with a 7-lb. The velocity of a motor-car weighing a ton increases from rest to 24 m. has its velocity reduced to 10 m. Find the acceleration of the train in ft. A force of 10 lbs./sec. which is applied to the car if its mass is 1 ton ? 11. (b) with a uniform speed of 6 ft./sec. wt. 10. is brought to rest in 30 yds. acquires thereby a velocity of 1000 yds. weight acting on a body produces an acceleration of 5 ft. (a) with downward acceleration 4 ft. in 12 sees. falls for 3 sees. 8.h.p. in 8 sees. Determine the value of the force. What is the acceleration which is produced ? 2. is 200 tons. (c) with an upward acceleration of 2 ft. with the engine. what is the average force acting ? 7. What force acting on a mass of 16 lbs. A man in a lift holds a spring-balance.h.. and penetrates a sand-heap to a depth of 1 ft. A train weighing 210 tons and running at 25 m./sec.h. assuming this to be constant throughout the time ? 5. 2 .. and the acceleration of the weight is 2 ft. The resistances to motion amount to 2 tons weight. will produce an acceleration of 6 ft. per min. What is the tension in the string ? 13.h. In launching a ship of 5000 tons it is necessary to . weight hanging from it.h./sec. 2 .p. What was the force acting on it in cwt. What was the force. The lift descends./sec. A shell weighing 16 lbs.p./sec. An engine exerts a pull of 7\ tons wt. is acted on by a force of 4 lbs. 2 . What should be the readings of the spring balance in each case ? 12. weight. 2 ? 3. 2 . is brought to rest in 20 yds. which retarded it? 9.p. A weight of 6 lbs.p. is lowered by a string. What is the average force in tons wt. A mass of 10 lbs. What is the weight of the body? 4. 6. Find the average resistance of the sand. and travelling at 25 m./sec. A motor-car travelling at 30 m. A body of mass 10 lbs. acted on by a constant force for 1 min.. 2 . 2 .

/sec. To explain . 2 . which is equal and opposite to the pressure of the nail on the board. To every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. If we want to do this the board must be so supported as to offer resistance to the passage of the nail. At first sight it may appear to the student that the existence of two equal and opposite forces would produce equilibrium. A trolley weighing 200 lbs. it does not seem so obvious when applied to bodies in motion. What is his pressure on the floor of the lift ? 15. 114. It is. what will be the average force of retardation which will bring her to rest within the distance? 14. is pulled up a smooth incline of 1 in 10 with an acceleration of 2 ft. Dynamical aspect of the Third Law./sec. there must be counter-pressure. When a board is hanging in air suspended by a couple of cords.. and that there would be no motion. however. If there is pressure. Since there is no other force acting on the body—its weight has no horizontal component—if there is equilibrium these forces must be equal and opposite./sec. A man of weight 12 stone is in a lift which is moving upwards with an acceleration of 5 ft. Newton's Third Law of Motion. What is the force acting parallel to the incline ? 113. when a body rests in equilibrium on a horizontal table it has been reasoned that the table must exert an upward pressure on the body equal and opposite to the weight of the body acting downward. as in the case of the table mentioned in §113. The student has become acquainted with this law in a statical form. Although the student. If she leaves the slip with a velocity of 8 ft. we know it would be impossible to drive a nail into it. universally applicable. For example. from examples such as this. is prepared to accept the law in its statical form. 2 . after leaving the slip. It must be possible for a' resistance to be offered by the board.102 teach yourself mechanics stop her in 500 ft.

Now P acts in a forward direction. The force exerted by the horse acts along the trace.newton's laws of m o t i o n 175 the apparent anomaly we cannot do better than use the illustration which Newton himself employed—that of a horse drawing a cart. T h e resultant force on the horse is P — T. . In Fig. since they have no horizontal components. one on the cart. one on the horse. let us consider t h e horse. the force T acting on the cart gives rise to an equal and opposite force T. 126. We will assume for simplicity that the motion of the horse and cart is horizontal. Let P be the horizontal component of this. in accordance with the Third Law. t9 FIG. Then by the Third Law. (a) If P = T or P <T there is no motion—the horse does not move the cart. which acts on the horse. to deal only with horizontal forces. Of these we need not consider vertical forces. then. As the horse presses the ground with his feet there is. (2) There are other forces acting on t h e horse and cart separately. an equal and opposite reaction of the ground upon the horse. 126 is a representation of this. First. Let T be the tension along the trace. The question then is " How can the horse and cart move at all? " The answer is twofold: (1) The two forces act on different bodies. All of these must be carefully examined and stated. We have.

h.102 teach yourself mechanics (2) For the mass m. and then the acceleration is 3 ft. 20/ g . With the above formula m —T / m ~ g' T —m Equating the two values of T: mf . If the pull is increased to 50 lbs. 20 x ¥ 32-**' Example 2.p. wt. g 20/ —. wt.= g m(g-/)= m ——. what is the acceleration ? (1) When the velocity is uniform the resultant force must be zero (First Law of Motion). The pull is increased to 40 lbs. Resultant pull of engine forward = 40-25 = 15 lbs. An engine is pulling a truck along horizontal rails at a uniform velocity of 30 m. (3) When forward pull of engine = 50 lbs.. wt. wt. wt. and the pull exerted on the truck is 25 lbs. wt. wt. . Forward pull of the engine is equal to the backward pull of the truck (Third Law of Motion). Resultant pull of engine forward = 50-25 = 25 lbs. (2) When forward pull of engine increases to 40 lbs. Isec. Backward pull of truck = 25 lbs. the resultant force acting on it is m — T.1. g 20/.f ~ whence m — 5 lbs.

Masses of 4 lbs. hanging freely. ? 5. . 2. which pass over smooth pulleys. A body of mass 200 gms. hanging freely. and 1 oz. descend in 3 sees. resting on a smooth horizontal table is connected by a fine string. to masses of 150 gms. The parts of the thread on the table are aligned and parallel to the table.*. hanging freely. one at each end of the table. are connected by a fine string passing over a smooth pulley. 1.newton's laws of m o t i o n 177 (4) But acceleration is proportional to applied force {Second Law of Motion). Masses of 1 lb. to a mass of 2 lbs. Exercise 17. With what acceleration does the greater mass descend ? 3. at rest on a smooth horizontal table is attached by two threads. Find the tension in the string and the acceleration of the system. It is connected by a fine string. How far will the mass of 2 lbs. g = yg and / = 5 ft. If / = second acceleration Ratio of accelerations = £ o 25 and ratio of applied forces = jg. are connected by a string passing over a smooth pulley. with a mass of 2 lbs. after it is released from rest ? 6. connected by a light string hang on opposite sides of a smooth pulley./sec. . 4. Find the tension in the string and the force required to support the pulley. passing over a smooth pulley on the edge of the table. Find the tension in the string and the acceleration with which the system moves. What is the velocity of the system 3 sees. passing over a smooth pulley on the edge of the table. Masses of 4 lbs. 2 . and 130 gms. and 6 lbs. A mass of 5 lbs. lies on a smooth horizontal table. respectively. A mass of 8 lbs. and 6 lbs.

20 = if X (2-5)a. from rest with uniform acceleration. is placed. Let F represent these. in 2-5 sees./sec. Worked examples. We first find the acceleration. (a) Calculate the horizontal force required to move it through 20 ft. Example I. on a smooth horizontal table. we will consider the cart. / = ¥ ft. 115. (a) If T = F there is no motion. mass. (b) A light string passing over a smooth pulley at the edge of the table is attached to the 20 lb. . (a) For the first part we use the methods employed in examples on the Second Law of Motion (§ H2). so we use Substituting whence s = Iff. the resultant force acting on the cart is T — F. Secondly. The distance and time are known. 2 . (2) The other forces which are acting within the system. Then. (c) If T > F the cart will move forward. To recapitulate: In all cases in which equal backward and forward forces are acting it is necessary to state clearly (1) The parts of the system on which they act. A body of mass 20 lb. As the cart moves there are frictional forces to overcome.102 teach yourself mechanics (b) If P > T there is motion in a forward direction and the acceleration can be found by the usual formulae. Determine what mass must be suspended from this string to produce the motion mentioned in the first part. (b) If T < F there is no motion.

/sec.. a . Then by the Third Law of Motion an equal and opposite force must act on the mass m suspended from the string. body. Let T be the tension in the string attached to the 20lb. Using the formula 1=1 m g and substituting L . 127.f 20 g 20/ g- .newton's laws of motion 179 Then using the formula of § 110. ^ ft. wt. viz. 1=1 m g 44 P 20 = and substituting whence P = 4 lbs. (b) The system for the second part is as shown in Fig. (1) Considering the 20-lb. Note that m does not move downwards with an acceleration g but the whole system has the same acceleration as in the first part. weight.. viz.

is Pg t Pt . We have seen that by the Second Law of Motion we are able to measure the effect of a force by the acceleration it produces at a given instant in a known mass. From the Second Law P f m'I J (§110 > m' This is an expression for the acceleration (f) produced in a mass of m lbs. v —u = ^g Pt= . W O R K A N D E N E R G Y . Acceleration produced in t sees. . Impulse. 178 . by a force of P lbs.CHAPTER XI IMPULSE A N D M O M E N T U M . POWER 116.2 X t = — x g. . m m ° Let u be the velocity at the beginning of t sees. Then v — u = acceleration in t sees. wt. . (from above) (B) ?n0 g The product P x t is called the Impulse of the force. We must now extend this to the examination of the effect of a force acting on a known mass for a specified time. It represents the force P acting through t sees. „ v „ „ „ end of t sees.

. P = mf. 118. In the equation 1=1 m g P is in lbs. Then 5x2 P X 2 =' 32 P = ^ lbs. rests on a smooth horizontal table. Impulse and momentum. . and equation B becomes Pt = m(v — u). The Impulse of a force in a given time is equal to the momentum it generates in the same time.e. .*. /sec. wt. ? Since the body has no initial velocity the formula reduces to pt =m(v . Example I. i. A mass of 5 lbs. w t . Impulse is equal to Vl^L g The equation Pt = ~ is very important and will be constantly employed. Units. to move with a velocity of 2 ft. in gravitational units. Worked examples. From formula (B) Pt = g~ _ mv mu ~ g g — change of momentum.u) g Pt — mr Let P be the unknown force. What steady horizontal force will cause it in 2 sees.impulse a n d momentum 179 . If absolute units are employed. 117.

per ton. • „ i Then using Pt = —. Find the force which. will produce a change in velocity of 20 ft.2) x 30 (since u = o) Exercise 18. . A force of 6 lbs. (b) If the mass has been moving for 10 sees./sec. (a) Find its momentum. A motor lorry weighing tons is moving with a velocity of 30 m. Resultant force acting on truck = 4 8 — 20 = 28 lbs. What force in lbs. Mass moved = 2 | tons = 5600 lbs. wt. acting on a mass of 40 lbs. wt. (§93) /24 = 72 ft. wt. wt. is moving with a velocity of 25 ft.p X t \ . is brought to rest in 2 sees. 5. Let v be the velocity.. To find the distance covered use = whence U . by a resisting force. s = ( y -f.. Total Resistances = 2 | x 8 = 20 lbs. moving with a velocity of 16 ft.102 teach yourself mechanics Example 2. upon a mass of .*.. T./sec. 1./ sec. . The resistances amount to 8 lbs. ? 2. wt.. Find the velocity of the truck at the end of 30 sees. A mass of 75 lbs. what force has acted upon it ? 3. . and the distance moved. for 12 sees. What is the magnitude of the force ? 4.h.p./sec. A man pushes a truck weighing tons along horizontal rails with a steady force of 48 lbs. acts for 8 sees. . A mass of 56 lbs. m v 28 X 30 = whence v = ~ ft. is required to bring it to rest in 12 sees.

work is done against gravity.work 181 24 lbs. When a man lifts a weight to a height from the ground. and for this a suitable unit must be selected./sec. If. The references to work against the force of gravity are given because this form of work is familiar to all of . work. This suggests that a unit of work should be a unit of force acting through a unit of distance. the work done is 10 x 5 = 50 units of work or 50 ft. and the amount of the work done will depend on the height through which the body is raised. or throw a ball into the air. at rest. is raised to a height of 5 ft. Work. a weight of 10 lbs. This is called the footpound. is 50 ft. it is necessary to consider how it should be measured. Consequently the measurement of work must involve the units of force and distance. as we have said above. Find the change of momentum and the final velocity of the mass. when we climb stairs. by the action of a constant force this is reduced to 30 ft. 6. the force is said to do work. is done against the force of gravity. W o r k . When a body is lifted from the ground. in this sense. What was the magnitude of the force ? 119. We are therefore concerned with force and the distance through which it acts. The velocity of a mass of 12 lbs. for example. the muscular force which he exerts does work against the force of gravity. Hence the definition : A unit of work in the gravitational system is the work done when a force of one pound weight overcomes resistance through a distance of one foot. When a body is moved against resistance by the action of a force./sec. In 4 sees. from the ground. Whenever we walk we lift our body slightly from the ground.-lbs. First. is one of the most frequent occurrences of our existence.

Energy which a body possesses by reason of its position. If a motor-car is travelling along a horizontal road it does very little work against gravity. the work done is against the forces of friction and air resistance. wt.. If the road slopes downward. In doing so it has gained kinetic energy. moves a body through s ft. it does P ft. the water of streams in high land may be confined by means of a dam in a reservoir. A mountain torrent rushing down the gorge may be harnessed and its energy transferred into electrical energy capable of doing work in a variety of ways. By the opening of a sluice it pours down to a lower level.-lbs. or the wind pressing on the sails of the ship or the windmill. and not confined to the position of a body at a height. Ps ft. against resistance. may be displayed or stored. wt. For example.e. because it moves the piston and ultimately does work in moving the train. For example. it does P x s units of work. But work is done in overcoming any force. a spring which has been . The steam pressure in the boiler possesses energy. (2) If a force of P lbs. It is the energy of the rushing stream. Petrol is a source of energy by virtue of which the motor-car moves at high speed along the road. moves a body through 1 ft. This is the energy of a body in motion. (2) Potential energy..-lbs. in this sense. There are many forms in which energy. The term " position " in the definition above must be interpreted widely. From the point of view of dynamics Energy is the capacity to do work. These and all other forms of energy can ultimately be divided into two kinds: (1) Kinetic energy. i. It follows from the definition of a unit of work that we may state in general terms : (1) If a force of P lbs. and which is capable of being transformed into kinetic energy is called Potential Energy. the force of gravity does useful work and helps th^ motorist in overcoming resistances. and so is capable of doing work. Energy.102 teach yourself mechanics us. 120. the ambling horse.

energy

183

wound up possesses potential energy. In the process ol winding up, the positions of parts of the spring have been altered. As they resume their normal position the energy of the spring is released and changed into kinetic energy. Petrol vapour mixed with air possesses potential energy owing to the molecules of petrol and oxygen coming into close contact. When a spark explodes the mixture the potential energy is changed into the kinetic energy which moves the car. 121. Work and energy equations. We now proceed to find the very important dynamical equations which connect work and kinetic energy. We have seen that a force of P lbs. wt. acting on a mass of m lbs. produces an acceleration / , as indicated in the equation m From this P = g g

**If P acts through a distance s then Ps = - X fs.
**

2 A1 , — u* Also fs = v —g—• Substituting for fs inmthe above equation we get: ( v 2 ~ u2) Ps _

or

H _ . mv2 . mu2 Ps=i. — - i ~ f

. - - ( C )

**If the body starts from rest, then u = 0 and the equation becomes:
**

* i But Ps is the work done by the force P acting through the distance s.

i .

&

represents the work done on m lbs..

102

teach

yourself

mechanics

Conversely, if a body of weight m lbs. and having velocity v came to rest, the work done would be: i . ™ * ft.-lbs. g As kinetic energy (K.E.) is defined as the capacity to do work, the expression | . ~ ~ is called the Kinetic Energy of the body of mass m when moving with velocity v. In equation (C) above, the right-hand side of the equation expresses the difference between the K.E. of the body as the velocity changes from u to v. .'. Since Ps denotes the work done The work done is equal to the change in kinetic energy. 122. Units used for kinetic energy. fflV^ In the equation Ps = \ —

since P is measured in gravitational units. K.E. = my2 is in gravitation units (ft.-lbs.). If P were measured in poundals Then K.E. = |mv 2 poundals in absolute units. 123. Energy and gravity. Let a mass of m lbs. be raised vertically h ft. above the ground. Then work done against gravity = mh ft.-lbs. If the body now falls back to the ground let v be its velocity on reaching the ground. Then v2 = 2gh. g = | — X 2gh (on substituting for ua) § -- mh ft.-lbs. K.E. on reaching the ground = work done in raising it. Since in falling a distance h, the body acquires a K.E. of mh ft.-lbs. But K.E.

IMPULSE

AND

MOMENTUM

185

Its potential energy at a distance h from the ground is mh ft.-lbs. The potential energy of a body at a distance h above the ground is equal to (1) The work done in raising it to that height. (2) The K.E. acquired in falling from that height.

124. Conservation of energy.

A question which naturally occurs to a student is, What becomes of energy? A stream rushes down a valley possessing a great amount of kinetic energy. It reaches the valley, enters a placid lake, and seemingly the energy has disappeared. Experiments by scientists and engineers, as well as experience, lead to the conclusion that energy is not destroyed. That which apparently disappears is transformed into another form of energy. In this connection it should be remembered that heat is a form of energy, and there is a tendency among all other forms of energy to become transformed into heat. The theory that energy can be transformed but is indestructible and not lost to a system is called the Principle of the Conservation of Energy.

125. Summary.

The results and formulae obtained in this chapter are of such fundamental importance that they are summarised below in a form which renders them easy for reference when problems are being worked. (l) Equation of force and acceleration:

This is the expression in symbols of Newton's Second Law, upon which the whole of Dynamics is founded. (2) Equation of impulse and momentum : « ^ A . . . (B) g This is derived from (A) by multiplying both sides by t and substituting for ft on the right-hand side. It has been called the time effect of a force.

P x t =

TEACH

YOURSELF

MECHANICS

**(3) Equation of work and energy: Pxs =
**

m(y2 2~ u2)

. . . ( C )

This is derived from (A) by multiplying both sides by s and substituting for fs on the right-hand side. It has been called the distance effect of a force. 126. Worked examples. Example I. A bullet weighing J oz. has a velocity of 1500 ft.jsec. What is its kinetic energy? How far will it penetrate a fixed block, if the latter offers a constant resistance of 240 lbs. to the motion of the bullet?

fYlV^

Using K.E. of bullet

K.E. = J

8

.

= i XA 3 y = 550 ft.-lbs. nearly. Let s be the distance of penetration. Then using Ps = ¥ . — = K.E. of bullet I g 240 x s = 550, s = 2-29 ft. approx.

X ( 00)8

and

Example 2. A car weighing 1 ton and travelling at 50 m.pJi. was brought to rest in 231 ft. by applying brakes. What was the frictional force in lbs. wt. exerted on the tyres by the road, assuming that it is uniform ? The frictional force causes the body to lose the K.E., and it does work through 231 ft. The formula connecting these is where Since

2 g • P = the force.

50 m.p.h. =

F X

ft./sec.

whence

2240 X 220 X 220 ~ *• 32 X 3 X 3 P = 814-8 Ibs.-wt.

IMPULSE

AND

MOMENTUM

187

Example 3. A waggon weighing 12 tons runs freely down an incline o/400 yds., the slope of which is 1 in 100. Find the kinetic energy in ft.-tons of the waggon at the bottom of the incline, neglecting friction. Find also the velocity at the end of the run. Length of incline = 1200 ft. As the slope is 1 in 100, the track falls 12 ft., taking 1 in 100 as along the track and not horizontally (see Trigonometry, § 62). Work done = weight X distance fallen (§ 123) = 12 x 12 = 144 ft.-tons. But the work done = kinetic energy acquired. , f>* —144 X 2 X 32 12 v = 27-7 ft./sec. (approx.).

whence

Exercise 19. 1. Find the kinetic energy in the following cases : (1) A mass of 24 lbs. moving with a velocity of 60 ft./sec. (2) A mass of 2 tons moving with a velocity of 15 m.p.h. 2. A motor-cyclist with his machine weighs 300 lbs., and he is travelling at 30 m.p.h. What is his kinetic energy ? 3. What work must be done on a car weighing 400 lbs. to produce in it a velocity of 20 ft./sec. ? 4. A lorry weighing 2 tons is moving with a velocity of 15 m.p.h. What force in lbs. wt. is required to bring it to rest in 20 yds. ? 5. A bullet weighing 4 oz. has a velocity of 1200 ft./ sec. In what distance will it come to rest against a resistance of 240 lbs. wt. ? 6. A boy of weight 120 lbs. starts on a horizontal slide with a velocity of 12 ft./sec. and comes to rest after 20 yds. What is the average resisting force ? 7. A motor-car weighing 3000 lbs. and travelling on a level road at 30 m.p.h. is brought to rest in 20 yds. What is the average force applied ?

and travelling with a speed of 1200 ft. How much kinetic energy is acquired by a mass of 2 lbs. and in the course of the next 300 yds. ? What fraction of the energy has it lost after passing through a block of wood 15 ins. thick.-lbs. 12. Power = —.102 TEACH YOURSELF MECHANICS 8. before coming to rest. ? 11. i. motors. shuts its engines off.. What is the kinetic energy of a bullet weighing £ oz. etc. wt. high and penetrates 18 ins..p. per sec. Find the average resistance of the ground.h./sec.p. the average resisting force. 10. Work is expressed by Force x distance. It travels 100 ft./sec. ? 9. is too small for practical purpose. A stone weighing 100 lbs. A ship whose mass is 10. Consequently t h e unit usually employed is the Horse Power.000 tons.? How much kinetic energy is acquired in falling through the next 50 ft. engines. with machines. Power. by P X s. falling from rest through 50 ft. The unit of 1 ft. But ! = Rate at at which the force P is doing work is expressed by P X v ft. which offers an average resistance of 400 lbs. What was the average resistance of the water to the passage of the ship ? 127. Find in tons wt.h. moving with a velocity of 4 ft. Then steam is shut off. A train weighing 400 tons is running on the level at 30 m. per sec. If P X s units of work are done in t sees. falls from the top of a building 42 ft. into the ground before coming to rest. for example. where . The rate at which the work is being done is expressed b y t h e amount of work done in I second.-lb. Power is the rate of doing work. the speed is reduced to 15 m.e.

per ton? Work is done (1) in raising the train against gravity.h.000 = ~55r =8°. (1) In 1 sec.P. 44.p.POWER or I Horse Power (H. = = 80. per minute.P. The following is a working rule for obtaining i t : Rule. though he deliberately fixed it at a high amount. This acts through 22 ft. . Now 15 m.h.000 ft. in 1 sec. What Horse Power is needed to draw a train of mass 200 tons up an incline of 1 in 224 at a speed of 15 m. = 22 ft.-lbs.\ Total H.. 550 (2) Work done against resistance = 200 x 10 = 2000 ft.. when the frictional resistance to motion is 10 lbs.000 fln and H. To obtain the Horse Power divide the number of ft.p.000 ft.P.) = 33. or the number done per second by 550.-lbs. (2) in overcoming frictional resistance. This unit was devised by the great engineer James Watt.-lbs. per second. and it was his estimate of the rate at which a good horse could work for a few hours./sec. Worked example. Work done = 2000 X 22 = 44.000. 550 ft. of work per minute by 33.-lbs. 128. and H.000.-lbs. Work done in raising the train through this height is 200 X 2240 X Hi = 44. . The " Horse-Power " is almost universally adopted as a rate for measuring work.P. „ _ 44. = 80 + 80 = 160. wt. the train is raised -Hi ft.

? Resistances may be ignored. What H..P. per ton. was raised from a depth of 600 ft. what was the resistance to the car's motion. Neglecting any frictional resistances. each. of the engine ? 4. What H.P.p.. 7. required to work a pump which raises 2000 lbs. A ship requires a H.h. is he exerting ? .P. What H.P. If frictional resistance is equivalent to 36 lbs. what is the average H.h. What is the resistance to the ship in tons wt.P. wt. 9.p.P.h. ? 12.. in 4 sees. to an average height of 22 ft.P. in 8 sees. A load of 22 cwt. what is the H.P. of 33. what is the H. wt.p. to the nearest hundred. developed by the engine ? 3. ? 6.. did he develop ? 10.P. A train and locomotive weighing 270 tons are moving at 50 m. developed ? 5. 2.p. accelerates on the level uniformly to 20 m./ sec. A cyclist is riding at 15 m.p. If the resistances overcome are 50 lbs.P.P. A pump raises 120 tons of water an hour from one reservoir to another through a height of 55 ft. ? 8. What was the total H.600 to drive it at 25 knots. per hour).P. Find the H. A car was travelling on the level at 30 m. A car weighing 1200 lbs. the water flowing away with a velocity of 10 ft. of an engine which pulls a train weighing 150 tons up an incline of 1 in 100 at 30 m.h. of water per minute through a height of 30 ft. The resistances to a liner at high speed amount to 220 tons approximately. A man weighing 11 stone in running upstairs mounts a height of 25 ft.h. employed ? 11. is necessary to drive the ship at 25 knots (1 knot = 6080 ft. in lbs. in 4 min.102 TEACH YOURSELF MECHANICS Exercise 20. wt. A gang of men in an hour raised 2000 bricks weighing 7 lbs. against resistances amounting to 3 lbs. If the engine developed 9 H. from a pit. What was the H. What is the H. 1.

was dealt with at some length. „ s ft.CHAPTER XII MACHINES 129. Other commonly used machines will be considered in this chapter. 130. Then the principle of work to which we have referred states that F X S = W x s (ignoring resistances). one of the best known and most useful.-lbs. is the work done by the load. The general principle underlying any machine is that the work which is applied to the machine from an external source is modified by the machine so that it is employed in a more advantageous way. Generally speaking the machine is used to move what is frequently called a " load ". sometimes the " power ". because the fundamental principles involved are very important. be the distance its point of action is moved. In Chapter II a " machine " was defined in the mechanical sense. wt. sometimes t h e " applied force ". be the effort applied to a machine. wt. Let W lbs. The lever. special attention being given to their utility and efficiency. is the work done by the effort. be the distance the load is moved by the. T h e n (F x S) ft. machine. Machines and work. Then (W X s) ft. sometimes t h e " effort " . wt. and serve as an introduction to the more general treatment of the subject which followed. „ s ft. be the load moved. and the external force applied to the machine is called.-lbs. The relation of the load to the applied work is a very important consideration which concerns every machine. 191 . It may be expressed as follows : Let F lbs.

or. Velocity ratio. for example. i. as. no work is done which is not useful. The less that is lost in this way. ' — _ useful work done by load total work applied It will be apparent from what has been said above. B FIG. that this ratio will always be less than unity. If the work done by the machine were exactly equal to that put into it. then we should have a perfectly efficient machine. An important factor in determining the efficiency of a machine is the " velocity ratio ". the ratio of the useful work done by the machine to the work put into the machine is a measure of its efficiency. to put it more exactly. together with the work done against resistances and in moving parts of the machine. The meaning of this can readily be understood by referring to a lever.. that done against friction and in lifting some of the moving parts of the machine.102 TEACH YOURSELF MECHANICS The principle may be expressed thus : The work which is put into a machine is equal to the work done by the machine.e. the more efficient is the machine. 131. the more efficient is the machine. 128(a) AO represents a lever turning about a . and the nearer it approaches to unity. But a certain amount of the work done is not useful. 128(o). 132. Briefly this means that more work cannot be got out of a machine than is put into it. This may be expressed in the following form: . In Fig. The efficiency of a machine.

|W Fig.MACHINES 193 fulcrum at 0. . the applied force. the point of action of F. or . we know that in general the load W is greater than F. _ distance moved by effort ' ~ distance moved by load ' S 133. wt. . W lbs. This is the term which is applied by engineers to express the utility of a machine. is the applied effort acting at A. moves upward. . is the load. when A. . the weight W is also moved upwards. Mechanical advantage. attached at B. F lbs. and similar cases in Chapter II. . 128(a). Now. It may be expressed thus: . 128(6). g—MECH. Let OB'A' be a new position (Fig. Then it is evident that the vertical distance S moved by F is greater than the vertical distance s moved by the load. . . 128(6)). Briefly it is the ratio of the load which is moved to the applied force. The ratio of these two distances is called the velocity ratio. . load moved Mechanical advantage = f o r c e „edW From the example shown in Fig.

136.velocity ratio _ mechanical advantage velocity ratio The application of the above definitions in the case of the lever is not a difficult matter. Pulleys. the mechanical advantage and velocity ratio are equal. a brief reference was made to the pulley. (2) Mechanical advantage is usually greater than unity. In Chapter II. where no resistances are taken into account. § 22. Systems of pulleys. We shall therefore proceed to the consideration of other machines. This point will be dealt with later.194 TEACH YOURSELF MECHANICS (1) Velocity ratio is usually greater than unity. but only one of these is in general use. since in many cases. 135. Hence: 134. Pulleys are often classified into three systems or orders. Using the letters employed in the preceding paragraphs Fffi ' — WOI"k done by load ^ — work done by effort <§131> _ ~ _ ~ = or FfF ' — W s F x S lPF^S F ' s mechanical advantage -7. Efficiency in terms of mechanical advantage and velocity ratio. The first system . In a variety of combinations it is an invaluable machine with a wide range of usefulness. but solely from the point of view of its usefulness in changing the direction of a force acting along a cord or rope. (3) Efficiency ratio is less than unity.

the principles involved will be briefly examined.. but as it offers a good example of the way in which combinations may be made of pulleys. which is sufficient to produce equilibrium. Pulley B is fixed to and supported by a beam. and round it passes a cord. Then the weight W is supported by the two parts of the cord. i.. Let this tension be T. 2T = W T_W and 1 ~ 2' But the weight. P. in each of which the tension T acts. load moved Mechanical advantage = f o r c e applied W -W-r 5 . which is fixed to the beam and then passes round both pulleys. as shown. In Fig. This result ignores the resistances due to friction and . load.e. and how they may be employed to obtain a mechanical advantage. P = ™ 2• . and to the free end of the rope. Pulley A is movable. Each must therefore take half the FIG. 129.2 . after it passes round pulley B. The tension in the rope is the same throughout. applied at the end of the rope to produce equilibrium must be equal to the tension in the rope. P. 129 is shown a simple example of the combination of two pulleys A and B. W.MACHINES 195 is only occasionally used. is attached a weight. To A is attached a load.

130 shows a succession of three movable pulleys with one fixed. v I t • — distance moved by effort _ 2 ' ~ distance moved by load — T = 2.102 102 T E A C H YOURSELF MECHANICS the weight of moving pulley. 130. By the addition of more moving pulleys. It is evident also that for every foot W moves upward. The velocity ratio will not be affected by frictional and other resistances. this simple example of the First Order can be extended to more complicated examples. Fig. ///////Z/ FIG. P will move two feet downward. . but it makes clear the principle involved.

This result. In practice. . it will be seen that the cords passing round the movable pulleys sustain in succession the weights WWW 2' 4' 8' WWW 2 s ' or 2 * 23' Thus the applied force passing over the fixed pulley to maintain equilibrium is o lbs. the equally high velocity ratio makes it difficult to provide the necessary room for P to descend. it will be seen that for every foot that W is raised.MACHINES 197 Let the load be W lbs. ignores friction and the force needed to raise the three movable pulleys. P will descend 8 ft. the same as the mechanical advantage. This ratio is unaffected by the frictional resistances and the weights of the movable pulleys. 129 be applied step by step to the succession of pulleys described in Fig. Velocity ratio in the First order. 130. Thus the velocity ratio is 8 : 1 . load moved Mechanical advantage = . »«• v • 1 j . although the mechanical advantage of this system is high. however. If the reasoning stated in connection with the velocity ratio of the simple combination shown in Fig. Then. wt. applying the arguments of the previous example. p-j 0 force applied 8 If there were a fourth movable pulley the applied force W W would be jg or Generally if there were n movable W pulleys the applied force would be ^ and the mechanical advantage would be 2".

and then. A typical arrangement is shown in Fig. as can be followed in the diagram. (a) FIG. the same as the number of pulleys. It consists of t n ree fixed blocks (the top three) fastened to a beam. W 6 T w .. (o) T h e tension in the rope must therefore be the same throughout. with a set of three movable. 131 (a). it passes over or under all the pulleys. This is the system which is in general use. The load is held up by six ropes. it is fastened to a hook at the bottom of the block of three movable pulleys. each taking the same portion of the load. viz. The rope is continuous. 131.102 TEACH YOURSELF MECHANICS 137. to which the load (WT) is attached. and must be equal to the applied force (P). The second system of pulleys.

MACHINES 199 Thus the mechanical advantage is 6 : 1. In practice. system of This system is shown in Fig. With the three pulleys as shown in Fig. systems. and becomes very high. to which the weight (W) is fixed. . The working of the ropes and '' the mechanical advantage are the same as in the form of Fig. 4P. 132. fixed and movable. 2P. however. 131(6). The third pulleys. 131(a). The mechanical advantage is 7 :1. It consists of one pulley fixed to a beam and a number of movable pulleys arranged as shown. 132. The weight of the movable block of pulleys and the frictional resistances are again ignored. 138. 132. The cord passing over each pulley is attached to a bar. the tensions in the ropes are P. W = P + 2P + 4P = IP. is made in the form of " pulley blocks". In practice the system usually takes the form shown in Fig. The velocity ratio is also 6 : 1 . in which each set of pulleys. The share of the load taken by each string is shown in the figure. the system is cumbersome and not easy to work. this being W=7P calculated as in the other F I G . As the number of pulleys is increased the mechanical advantage increases rapidly. 131(c). with three movable pulleys. The " block " is shown in detail in Fig.

. Let a be the radius of the large wheel. wound round it. cylindrical in shape. Consequently the applied force P acts through a distance equal to the circumference of the large wheel. It consists of— (1) A large wheel (^4) grooved to take a rope. while the load W is drawn up a distance equal to the circumference of the axle. This is fixed on the wheel. To the free end is attached the load to be lifted. and the applied force (P) acts at the free end. This useful machine is shown in Fig. with its diameter smaller than that of the large wheel. A rope is fixed to it and wound round in the opposite direction to that of the large wheel. The wheel and axle. . .102 TEACH YOURSELF MECHANICS 139.. in one complete revolution : Distance moved by P = 2na. b „ . Then.. (2) The axle (B). 133(a). . A In each complete rotation of the large wheel there is one complete rotation of the axle. velocity ratio 9~x=tl. „ small wheel. 2txa a / . W = 2tzb. .

MACHINES 201 To find the mechanical advantage we turn to Fig. 133(6). the centre of the two circles P X a = W x b. Mechanical advantage = W _ a P~V This machine is used for such purposes as drawing water from a well. The axle in this machine is in two parts. Taking moments about C. A representation of a model of it is shown in Fig. 134. wound round it. with a high mechanical advantage. . which are coaxial cylinders with diameters of different lengths. which is an end view of the system : DE may be regarded as a lever. This is a variation of the wheel and axle. and then wound round the larger one in . A rope is fixed on the smaller one.'. 140. The differential wheel and axle.

Fig. „ large wheel. view of the wheel and the two axles.102 TEACH YOURSELF MECHANICS the opposite direction. „ small axle. The loop is thus shortened by the difference between the circumferences of the two axles. The large wheel is rotated by means of a separate rope or a handle. C being the centre of the three circles. The load is attached to this. 2R 2R a-b' 2R ' a-b' .b). In one complete rotation the rope in the loop is shortened by 2tt(a . the load is raised by half this difference. Let a = radius of large axle. When the large wheel is rotated. As we have seen in previous cases. the rope winds up on the larger axle and unwinds on the smaller. 135.A. Taking moments about C W P x R = \(a . In the loop left between the two a movable pulley is suspended. velocity ratio = 2tzR K(a — b) 2R a — b' Mechanical advantage. on which the applied force acts. 135 shows an end FIG. around which the rope passes.b). The applied force in one rotation acts through 2nR. We proceed by the methoa used for the simple wheel and axles. W(a-b) W P M. Load is raised by jt (a — b).

Cut out in paper a right-angled triangle ABC (Fig. load. it is raised vertically through the FIG. The wedge is a double inclined plane. This has been previously examined (see § 81). = In actual practice friction offers a considerable resistance. It is because of the mechanical advantage involved that we take a zig-zag path when climbing a hill.A. In the inclined plane ABC (Fig. „ BC = h.MACHINES 203 This can be made very high by making the difference between a and b very small. BC. The principle of the inclined plane is that upon which a screw is constructed. 136) Let AC . since it is possible by means of them for a load to be raised by a smaller applied force.I. 137(a)). An inclined plane and its special form the wedge may be regarded as machines. I. When a load is moved along t the length of the plane. The screw.. Wrap this round a suitable cylinder such as a pencil . Then P X AC = Wx W_AC_l P ~ BC M. and W . 141. This represents the side view of an inclined plane. This will be made evident by the following simple experiment. K 142. The velocity ratio = jL Let P be applied force. 136. The inclined plane. height h.

Fig. long and the pitch of the screw be £ in. The distance between two points. parallel to the axis of the cylinder. Thus if the bar handle be 12 ins. is equal to the work done by the applied force acting through the vertical distance EF or through the corresponding distance BH on the inclined plane. 138.. In the screw-jack the principle of the screw is utilised. as in the case of the screwjack. 143. . Fig. 138). to lift heavy weights. then— Distance through which applied force acts = 2n x 12 ins. such as E' and F'. 137(6). FIG. or in raising a weight. One complete revolution of the handle raises the load through a vertical distance equal to the pitch of the screw. where the spiral cuts a straight line DE'. This is represented in Fig. the work done in overcoming resistance. as indicated above. The screw-jack. 137(a).102 TEACH YOURSELF MECHANICS or a small cylindrical bottle. When a complete turn of the screw is made. The effort is usually applied at the end of a long handle-bar (see Fig. is called the " pitch " of the screw. 137(6)). It will be seen that the edge AB will form a spiral curve round the cylinder in the same way that the thread of a screw winds round the screw shaft.

(2) The distance through which the applied force moves. since the frictional resistances are not constant. . The mechanical advantage is also high. the useful work is equal to the total work applied. Consequently the efficiency ratio is less than unity.. But there is a loss of useful work. If the efficiency were perfect.MACHINES 205 Distance the load is raised = i in. I. and so of efficiency. J velocity ratio Now that the working of a few machines has been examined.*. 100 per cent. By increasing the length of the handle-bar and keeping the pitch small very large weights can be raised by comparatively small applied forces. the mechanical advantage does vary for different loads. . we must return to further consideration of the question of efficiency. ^ ~~ total work applied If the machine were perfect. mechanical advantage Efficiency = 5—rr^——. Velocity ratio = 2?t x 12 | = 150 approx. owing to resistances. In most machines the velocity ratio is readily determined by finding: (1) How far the load has been raised. The efficiency of a machine was defined in § 131 in the form : _ useful work done by load Fffi . then the ratio of mechanical advantage to velocity ratio would be unity.. The efficiency of a machine. while the velocity ratio is independent of the load. But. In § 134 it was stated that the efficiency of a machine is expressed as follows : — . but vary with the load. 144.e.

this can be obtained only by experiment. when the machine is perfect the ratio mechanical advantage velocity ratio ' which also expresses the efficiency. as stated above. because when these are known the law can be written down. Consequently for the perfect machine Mechanical advantage = velocity ratio. for reasons given in the preceding paragraph. We shall confine ourselves to those cases in which the graph is a straight line. then the law of the machine is E = 0-56 W + 1-4. of the useful work has been lost owing to resistances. i. of the first degree. From the graph the law can be determined by methods given below. It is important that we should know the efficiency of a machine. In this equation the quantities to be determined are the constants a and b. It should be remembered that. If. This involves obtaining a series of corresponding values of " L o a d " and " Effort " and plotting them on squared paper. and the law is a linear law. The general form of it will be : E = aW + b. where E represents the applied force and W „ „ load. efficiency. for example. Such a law is called the " law of the machine " and takes into account frictional and other resistances. The law of the machine. we find that a = 0-56 and b — 1-4.e. . In a great many cases. and hence we must know the law which connects the load and effort. the efficiency ratio were -f$ this would be expressed as a 70 per cent. for example.102 TEACH YOURSELF MECHANICS This ratio is usually expressed as a percentage.. If. {45. is also equal to unity. The meaning of this is that 30 per cent.

146.MACHINES 207 This can then be used to find P when W is known or vice versa. A straight line should be drawn to take in as many of the points as possible. and find the probable effort when the load is 25 lbs. I t is taken from Vol. on the horizontal axis to represent 10 lbs. and it is advisable to choose them fairly wide apart. was found to be as follows. it should be so drawn. for the load W. If any one or two points are definitely not in accordance with the majority. . Those students who have no experience of graphical methods should first study Chapter VII in the book mentioned. The constant " b" is the value of P when W = 0. w E . and 0-25 in. failing that. which are suitable for reading off the values. they should be neglected. it is the value of the resistance which has to be overcome to start the machine when there is no load at all. or. slight deviations from a straight line are to be expected. An example of the application of the graphical method of obtaining a solution is given below. They will not necessarily be either of the points actually plotted. 139). . We now take two points A and B on this line. Since the data are derived from experimental results. necessary to raise a load of W lb. In a series of experiments carried out with a Weston Differential Pulley. I of National Certificate Mathematics (published by the English Universities Press). for the effort E. Then plot the points as shown (Fig. 10 3-3 20 4-8 30 6-4 40 7-9 50 9-5 Show these values on a graph and determine the law which they seem to follow. the effort E lb. and noting the maximum number to be plotted in each case. Worked example. to represent 1 lb. that the points are fairly evenly distributed on either side of it. Examining the data. we can take 0-5 in.

102

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The quantities E and W are evidently connected by a linear law which will be of the form E = mW + b. For the point A, W =35 lbs. and E = 7-2 lbs. For the point B, W = 12 lbs. and E = 3-6 lbs.

20 30 Load (W) in lb. FIG. 139.

Hence, substituting in E = mW + b, because these values satisfy the required law, we have : (1) 7-2 = 35m + b. (2) 3-6 = 12m + b. Subtracting, 3-6 = 23m that is m = = =0-157 23 ~ 1 1 5 = 0-16 approx.

MACHINES

209

Substituting in (2), 3-6 - 12m + b 12 ir X 18 , ,, 6 = 3-6 — 1-88 = 1-72. Hence the law is E = 0-16W + 1-72. To find E when the load is 25 lbs., substitute in this law thus determined. Then E = 0-157 x 25 + 1-72 = 5-6 lbs. approx. This result agrees veiy closely with the graph itself.

147. Algebraical method.

The algebraical working employed in the graphical solution, described above, is the usual method of finding the law when two pairs of values of the load and effort are given. If the law of the machine is known to be of the form E = aW + b, and two corresponding values of E and W are known, then on substituting these values in E — aW + b two equations involving a and b as unknowns are obtained and these can be solved simultaneously.

148. Worked examples.

Example I. The quantities E and W are connected by the equation E = aW + b. It is known that when W — 5 E = 1-5 and when W = 10, E = 3-6. Find the law of the machine. Substituting the corresponding values of E and W in E = aW + b we get 1 - 5 = 5a + b . . . . (1) and 3-6 = 10a + 6 . . . . (2) Subtracting 2-1 = 5a. a = 0-42.

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Substituting this value for (a) in equation (2), we g e t : 3-6 = 10 X 0-42 + b, whence b = 3-6 — 4-2. b = - 0-6. Substituting these values for a and b in E = aW + b, we get: £ = 0-42 W - 0-6. This is the law of the machine. Example 2. The velocity ratio of a screw-jack is 60. Its efficiency is 30 per cent. What effort is needed to lift a load of 1 ton with this jack ? Let E be the effort required in lb. wt. From § 144: ~ , „ . mechanical advantage X . . . Percentage efficiency = velocity ratio— M A 30=^x100, whence Also M.A. = 18. load M.A. applied force'

18 =TT-18E = 2240 E = I24flbs. wt.

and

149. Summary.

A summary of important formulae is printed below for convenient reference when working problems in the exercise which follows:

(1) Velocity Ratio distance moved by applied force — distance moved by load (2) Mechanical Advantage load — applied force* (3) Per cent. Efficiency _ mechanical advantage jqq ~' Velocity ratio

MACHINES

211

Exercise 21.

1. In a machine a weight of 80 lbs. was moved by an applied force of 25 lbs. moving through 10 ft. The load moved through 3 ft. Find (a) the velocity ratio; (b) the mechanical advantage; (c) the percentage efficiency. 2. In a certain machine a load of 160 lbs. wt. is lifted by 28 lbs. wt., and the velocity ratio is 8. Find the percentage efficiency. 3. In a machine the load is 400 lbs. and there is an efficiency of 64 per cent. If the velocity ratio is 5, find the applied force. 4. In a differential wheel and axle the radius of the large wheel was 10 ins., and the radii of the two cylindrical parts of the axle were 2 ins. and ins. respectively. The efficiency of the machine is 60 per cent. If the load to be lifted is 200 lbs. wt., what applied force is necessary? 5. It is required to lift a load of 500 lbs.-by a screwjack in which the efficiency at that load is known to be 25 per cent. If the velocity ratio is 150, find the applied force and the mechanical advantage. 6. A load of 1 ton was drawn through a quarter of a mile up an inclined plane of slope 1 in 30. The force applied was 500 lbs. wt. parallel to the plane. Find the efficiency of the plane, regarded as a machine. 7. A screw has three threads to the inch, and the . effort is applied at the end of an arm 1 ft. long. What force must be applied to lift a load of 2 cwt. if the efficiency at that load is 25 per cent. ? 8. In a screw-jack the effort, E, required to lift a load W is applied at the end of a handle which describes a circle of 7 ins. radius. The pitch of the screw is | in. What is the velocity ratio? (it = What is the efficiency if an effort of 5 lbs. wt. will lift a load of 1 cwt. ? 9. In an experiment on an inclined plane it was found that a force of 6 | lbs. wt., applied up the plane and parallel to it, was required to haul a 10-lbs. mass slowly up the plane. If the inclination of the plane is 30° and its length 6 ft., find (a) the work against gravity; (b) the

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work done against friction, when the mass is pulled the whole length of the plane; (c) the efficiency of this plane considered as a simple machine ? 10. In certain experiments carried out with a machine the effort E and the load W were found to have the values as set out below. The law connecting E and W is of the form E = aW + b, where a and b are constants. Plot the values below and find the law.

w E . . 30 213 40 2-6 60 3-8 70 4-3 80 51

11. In an experiment on a crane the load lifted (W lbs.) and the corresponding effort (E lbs.) required were found as under.

W E 14 51 42 13-3 84 26-0 112 35-3

Assuming that E and W are connected by a law of the form E = aW + b, where a and b are constants, find the values of a and b. 12. The following table gives the result of an experiment. Plot the load-effort diagram and determine the equation (of the form E = aW = b) which most nearly accords with the results.

W (in lbs.) E (in lbs.) 7 3 14 6-5 21 9-5 28 12-5 35 | 42 16 18-75 49 22 56 25

**13. In experiments with a screw-jack the following results were obtained:
**

Load Effort . 100 12-6 120 13-8 140 15-7 160 17-6 180 19-6 200 21-5

and when W = 10. E = 7-5.. The effort (E) and the load ( W ) of a certain machine are connected by a law of the form E = aW + b. and from your diagram find the values of a and b in the law which connects the load and effort. . Find a and b and write down the law. It is known that when W — 6.MACHINES 213 Plot these. E = 5-9. E = aW + b. viz. 14.

have moved toAv where 0A1 = aft. 214 ft. through the distance OP2. Let this distance be represented by OBu where OB1 = b ft. RELATIVE VELOCITY 150.CHAPTER XIII C O M P O S I T I O N OF VELOCITIES . These two displacements OA 1 and OBx in the directions OA and OB respectively are equivalent to a single displacement 0P1 in the direction OP. and therefore at right angles to the direction in which the ship is moving. Suppose a man to be moving across the deck of a moving ship at right angles to the axis of the ship. Let the man start from 0 (Fig. 140) and at the end of 2 sees. he has a velocity along OP which will be equal to second. A simple example may make this clear. the ship will have moved a distance relative to the sea in the direction OB. per . so it may have imparted to it more than one velocity. The man's position relative to the sea will be P 2 and he will thus have moved through PXPZ. the man will have moved. Suppose the man to have moved to A% in the direction OA and to B2 in the direction OB. During the 2 sees. Thus in 4 sees. Composition of velocities Just as a body may be acted upon by more than one force. Relative to the sea the man will have moved through OPv Similarly in the next 2 sees. assuming both his velocity and that of the ship to be uniform.Therefore. relative to the sea.

so if a body receives two velocities. This is known as the Parallelogram of Velocities. in what direction he must point the boat if he is to arrive at a point on the other bank directly opposite to A. The parallelogram of velocities. two simultaneous velocities. a velocity which is imparted by the force of the wind.COMPOSITION OF V E L O C I T I E S 217 Using the same term which is adopted when a body is acted upon by two forces. 151. he actually moves with a resultant velocity. and is defined as follows : . 141. The velocity of an aeroplane is a striking example of the composition of velocities. i As a consequence of having these FIG. in addition. The student will be prepared to learn that. There is another instance in which the actual direction of the resultant velocity is apparent to an observer. the direction of which will be along a straight line such as AB. It would be a matter of calculation. The current imparts C 3 en to his boat an additional velocity down-stream and at right angles to the velocity which he gives to B the boat as a result of his rowing. 141. which will be discussed in this chapter. Suppose a man starts to row a boat across a stream with a strong current and points his boat directly at the opposite bank (see c P Fig. these have a resultant velocity which can be determined by a corresponding parallelogram law. as shown in Fig. This must be ascertained in magnitude and direction before it is possible to learn the exact direction and velocity with which the aeroplane is moving. It possesses the velocity due to the engines in the direction set by the aviator and. 141). just as when two forces act on a body their resultant can be found by means of the law of the " parallelogram of force ". we can say that the velocity of the man along OP is the resultant of the velocities along OA and OB.

Draw the diagonal OC.102 TEACH YOURSELF MECHANICS Parallelogram of velocities. is not easy or satisfactory. 152. Let 6 be the angle between them. FIG. their resultant velocity is represented in magnitude and direction by the diagonal of the parallelogram which passes through their point of intersection. „ V be their resultant. Let v1 and v2 represent the velocities. Calculation of a resultant velocity. and it is not proposed at this itage to burden the student with a mathematical proof. Experimental demonstration of the parallelogram of velocities. and its truth will be assumed. Let OA. The parallelogram law applies to all vector quantities. Complete the parallelogram OACB. 142) represent two velocities imparted to a body. . 142. (1) To find the value of OC. Then. however. The resultant of two velocities is found in the same way as the resultant of two forces. OB (Fig. on substitution V2 = vf + v22 + 2 v 1 v 2 c o s 0. Using the rule proved in § 45 OC2 = OA2 + OB2 + 2OA . When a body has two simultaneous velocities and these are represented in magnitude and direction by two adjacent sides of a parallelogram. and no mathematical proof was given. OB cos AOB. Then OC represents the resultant of the velocities represented by OA and OB. The " Parallelogram of Force " was established as a result of experiments.

that he should travel at 180 m. Worked example.—It is a good plan to check the working by finding also the angle between and the resultant. the angle between the resultant and vt. The wind is blowing from the south at 40 m. As will be seen from Fig.h.p.COMPOSITION OF VELOCITIES 217 (2) To find a. then : t)2 sin 0 tan p "L + "2 COS 0' When the directions of the velocities are at right angles. 154. after making allowances for the strength and direction of the wind. If V be the velocity of which it is desired to find components making angles of 0 and 90° — 0 with it. If this be p. 143. The most useful case is that in which we require to obtain two components at right angles.—As was the case when dealing with problems . A velocity can be resolved into two component velocities by the method employed to obtain components of a force. The method again is the same as for forces. it is necessary. of N. Also Resultant velocity = v V v2 = V cos 1 v1 = V sin £ 153. V sin 0. the components will be : V cos 0. at an angle 30° E. as in § 45 : v-i sin 0 tan a = J v2 + fx cos 6 Note. In order that the pilot of an aeroplane may reach his destination at a specified time. and will be evident from an examination of Fig. Component velocities. In what direction and with what velocity must he set his course ? Note.h.p. 143.

p. We also know one of the components—viz. the north or east. the magnitude of the velocity with which the aviator starts and the direction in which he points the machine. . at 30° E. 144. This can be done by means of a carefully drawn figure or We can obtain the solution by trigonometry. We need therefore to find : (1) The magnitude of OC. as follows : It is necessary to solve AOBC or AOAB. 144). Join AB. This represents the Resultant Velocity. The cosine rule may be used.e. from the south. 124).. Draw OA on a suitable scale to represent velocity of wind (Fig. This is the case of " two sides and included angle " ('Trigonometry. Complete the parallelogram OABC. 40 m. p. the formula B-C b-c t A tan IT-. or (2) by trigonometry. Then OC represents the other component—i.h. In this problem it will be seen that we know the magnitude and direction of the Resultant velocity—viz..h. c COt 2 b+ is better.p.102 TEACH YOURSELF MECHANICS on forces. the velocity of the wind.. 180 m. Draw OB making 30° with OA and to represent 180 m. problems may usually be solved either (1) by accurate drawing. on the scale chosen.p. (2) The angle it makes with FIG.h. of N. or if we wish to employ logs. Construction.

log. 2A = 284° 20'. no.log 220 = 0-3756 = log tan 67° 10'.p. approx. at 147 m. Substituting in the above formula A . of N . 20 1-3010 sin 7° 50' 1-1345 146-8 2166F . / . C tan s = •—r—T cot a. To find AB: Using the sine rule : AB _ 40 sin 30 sin 7° 50" .B _ 180 . Subtracting 2B = 15° 40'.B a-b . B = 7° 50'. A + B = 150°.*. LAOC = 30° + 7° 50' = 37° 50'. 140° 2-1461 cot 15 0-5719 2-7180 220 2-3424 log tan 67° 10' 0-3756 B and Also Adding = 67° 10' A — B — 134° 20'.40 30° tan 2 180 + 40 2 cot 15° Taking logs 220c 1 ' log tan A ~ B = log 140 + log cot 15° .„ 40 sin 30° AB = • sin 7° 50' 20 sin 7° 50' [sin 30° = £]. of N. no. Let LABO = B. Using logs as shown in working AB = 146-8 or 147 approx. then b = 40.A0B = C.COMPOSITION OF VELOCITIES 217 The solution by this means is given as an example. . Direction of course-is 37° 50' E. Let Z. 2 a+ b 2 let /LOAB=A. then a = 180. log. A = 142° 10'.h. Using the form A . The pilot must set his course at 37° 50' E.

h.h. Its normal velocity is 150 m.h. flying at his normal velocity? 8.p. Angle between them 2.p. 40°. 1. and a man walks across the deck at 3 m. in a direction at right angles to the axis of the ship.h. at 15 knots. is resolved into two components at right angles to one another. Find graphically the direction in which he must point the nose of the machine.p. The time fixed for an aeroplane to fly to a certain town is 3 hours. when there is no wind. of W. If a velocity of 60 m.h. wishes to travel due north when a wind is blowing at 20 m.E. and a wind is blowing from the south-west at 30 m.p.h. Find the resultants of the following pairs of velocities and the angle each of them makes with the direction of the larger velocity in each case : (a) 12 ft. A current deflects it so that it actually travels in a direction 20° N.h.. Find the time required for a man swimming with a speed of 2 m.p.h. (b) 10 m. 7. 5. Angle between them 60°.102 TEACH YOURSELF MECHANICS Exercise 22.h.p. at 30 m.p.h. A ship is heading west at 12 knots. find them when they are in the ratio of 3 : 4. The town is 240 miles due east of the starting point./sec.p./sec. A river 2 miles wide flows with a speed of 1 m. and 12 m.p. Find the direction in which the pilot must head his aeroplane and the necessary velocity.h.h. How long must the pilot allow for the journey. 6. . The pilot of an aeroplane which flies at 100 m.p. What is the direction and magnitude of the man's resultant velocity relative to the sea ? 3. and his actual speed relative to the ground. to cross the river at right angles to the bank. towards the east. An aeroplane has to fly 300 miles due north. What are the magnitude and direction of the current ? 4. and the wind is blowing from the S. A ship is steaming at 15 m.p. and 8 ft.p.

sometimes. for example. respectively. It will be helpful in understanding what is termed relative velocity if the student will recall some of the sensations which he has probably experienced when.p.h. Relative velocity.p. They would have separated at the rate of 45 m.p. the other train may seem to stand still while yours is moving backwards. The velocity with which the other train seems to be moving will clearly depend on the difference between the velocities of the two trains.h.h. 45 miles apart. Each train is moving relatively to the other at 45 m.h. your train.h. even if the running is very smooth.h. the relative velocity would still be 5 m.h. this would be 5 m.e. This would be the relative velocity of your train with respect to the other.COMPOSITION OF V E L O C I T I E S 217 155. The other train appears to be moving very slowly.p..e.p. in the direction in which you are both going. .. To a man in the other train. the relative velocities would be the same. If.h. yours at 20 m. It should be noted that if the velocities of both trains were to be Increased by the same amount. and 35 m.p. At the end of an hour. the other at 25 m.p.h..h. will appear to be moving backwards at 5 m. on the contrary.h. its relative velocity. another train has been moving on the next set of rails. the other moving south at 25 m.p. (2) Suppose the trains were moving in opposite directions. This is therefore the Relative velocity. and it were possible for you to measure the velocity with which the other train seems to move—i. If the velocities were as stated above.p.p.h.p. The two trains would be (20 + 25)—i. each were to be increased by 10 m.. while the other would have gone 25 miles south. if the trains continued to move uniformly.p. yours moving north at 20 m. to 30 m. travelling in a train. your train would have travelled 20 miles north. (1) Suppose that the trains were moving in the same direction. The motion which the other train seems to possess is called the Relative velocity of the other train with respect to yours.

h..p. 145) and travelling as follows.p. But the velocity of the south-bound train would be equal to 20 + 25. say Q. Relative velocities of bodies starting from the same point and diverging. / . How does P appear to Q to be moving ? Or what is the relative velocity of P with respect to Q ? Let us adopt the device which was employed in case of trains moving along parallel lines.p.102 TEACH YOURSELF MECHANICS Now let us approach the question in another way. The method may be stated thus : " Apply to each a velocity equal and opposite to the velocity of one of them. south. P along OP at 15 m.h. Suppose that two cyclists P and Q start from a point 0 (Fig.h.e. Suppose t h a t each train were to receive an additional velocity equal and opposite to that of the north-bound train—viz.p.p. or 45 m. The Relative velocity of the south-bound train with reference to the one going north is 45 m.h. Then. In a similar way the relative velocity of the north- B" FIG. 156. Then Q wiU be brought to . 20 m. bound train with reference to the train going south could be found. 145. Q „ OQ at 10 m.p.h. to the north-bound train the south-bound train would appear to be moving south at 45 m.h. it would be at rest. Then the train going north would have no velocity— i.

along OP—i. 10 miles due north. B. As an exercise the student should draw the construction for obtaining the relative velocity of Q with respect to P. As a consequence Q will be at rest.. The resultant of the two velocities now imparted to A .p.p. The resultant velocity of P will be the relative velocity of P with respect to Q. To the velocity of each add a velocity equal and opposite to that of B—i. 157. The velocity of P will be the resultant of 15 m. 146.' Then the diagonal OC represents in magnitude and direction the resultant of the two velocities represented by OA and OB'. Definition. Relative velocity of bodies not diverging from the same point.h.COMPOSITION OF V E L O C I T I E S 217 rest. is moving west at 10 knots. Complete the parallelogram OACB. This may be measured or calculated as shown in § 150. OA and 10 „ „ OB'. A ship A (see Fig. along OQ.—The relative velocity of P with respect to Q is the velocity.e. The following example will illustrate this case and indicate the method of solution. What is the relative velocity of A with respect to B ? The positions of the ships are indicated in Fig. Then B is relatively at rest. In accordance with this we apply to each a velocity equal and opposite to Q's velocity—which is 10 m. with which P appears to Q to be moving. „ OA „ P's „ Then OB' equal and opposite to OB represents the velocity added to each. Or OC represents in magnitude and direction the relative velocity of P with respect to Q.e. we add a velocity of 10 knots east. This will be done by applying to each a velocity equal and opposite to the velocity of P.h. A ship. 146) is moving due north at 15 knots. both in magnitude and direction. Let OB represent Q's velocity..

. .'. EA represents in magnitude and direction the relative velocity of A with respect to 8. Complete the rectangle ACED. By calculation AE = = = Also tan CAE = determined by drawing or by • VIS 2 + 102 V325 18 nearly.102 102 T E A C H YOURSELF MECHANICS is the resultant of the velocities represented by DA and CA. LCAE = 56° 19'. 15 Jq = 1-5. Then the diagonal EA represents the resultant of the two velocities. These can now be calculation.

*. Find also from a diagram.p. and a train B due west at 40 m. of E.h. meet at cross-roads and proceed up two different roads. A steamer A is 10 miles due south of a steamer B.p. A is moving in a northerly direction at 12 m.h.h. 6. . What is the velocity of A relative to B 7 3. H—MECH. A and B.h.COMPOSITION OF V E L O C I T I E S 217 . since it represents the path of A relative to B.p. Find the velocity of A with respect to B. in a north-easterly direction. A train A travels due north at 30 m.'.h.h. What is the relative velocity of B with respect to A ? 2.. at 12 m. A ship is sailing due west with a velocity of 12 knots. at 9 m. by drawing B F perpendicular to EA. Two men.p.p.h.h. What is the velocity of A relative to B? 4.p. at 3 m. What is the true velocity of the train ? 5. The relative velocity of A with respect to B is 18 knots in a direction 56° 19' N.p.h.p. Find the velocity of B in magnitude and direction.p. drawn to scale. Find graphically the magnitude and direction of the velocity of the second ship relative to the first. A going due north and B going due east. A ship A is moving E. while another is steaming south-east at the rate of 18 knots. respectively. how near A will approach to B. A second ship B is moving S. and B is moving to the west at 9 m.p. A train appears to be travelling due north with a velocity of 60 m. 7.h.p. the length of BF represents the shortest distance between A and B as they move on their respective paths. A body is moving north with a velocity of 20 m. A motor is travelling due east at 30 m.h. 30° N. It should be noted that if EA be produced. 30° W.h. and 4 m. Exercise 23 1.p. and its velocity relative to another body B appears to be 30 m.

corresponding points. it will have fallen a distance igt'1 vertically downwards. Everybody is familiar with the fact that when a cricket ball.w///////// Let V denote the velocity imFIG. or a rocket.CHAPTER XIV PROJECTILES 158. Under the action of gravity. From the moment that the body begins to move upwards it is acted upon by the force of gravity and its velocity decreases. This curve is a parabola. the path which it describes is a curve. If a series of values of t were taken. and the path described is called the trajectory. 226 . represented by AB. such as B. all of which lie on the curve. /X/mj//. A/ In each case there is an impelling X force whose direction is inclined to / Tgl'* the vertical. -X ^ we know that a body projected vertically upwards moves in a Xs straight line to a highest point and X? then descends vertically to its q X starting point. parted to a projectile by an impelling force. 147). it will have moved a distance Vt in the direction in which it was projected (represented by OA in-Fig. would be obtained. Consider its position after t sees. If it were otherwise yj. Under the action of the impelling force. 147. The path of a projectile. during the interval. or a jet of water from a hosepipe is impelled into the air.

distance covered = V cos a x t. The horizontal component.. Components of the initial velocity. Vertical component = Vsin a. Vsin a. Resolve V into vertical and horizontal components Horizontal component = Vcos a (Fig. Let V be the velocity of projection. A Vcos < 1 After any time t. 149).e. being at right angles to it. Therefore It remains constant throughout the flight. the vertical component is equal to zero. The vertical distance described after time t is V sin a x t-lgt* (1) When gt = Vsin a. . 148). it becomes V sin a — gt. i. The vertical component. (2) After the highest point the body moves along the . This is unaffected by the force of gravity. After time t.•. V cos a.PROJECTILES 227 159. the body projected is at the highest point of the curve (A in Fig. At that point the only velocity which the body has is the horizontal component. V cos a. Let a be the angle of projection made with the horizontal. This is subject to a retardation due to the force of gravity.

The curve is thus a symmetrical one. _ V sin a * S . 149). when a = 45°. — V sin a vertical. V cos a (Fig. the highest point. V 2' 4g . Consequently the velocity with which it strikes the ground is the same in magnitude as the initial velocity— viz. V At the greatest height .of the projectile . (1) Greatest height. since they are affected by air resistance. V2 sin8 a As a special case. the vertical component vanishes: V sin a . V cos a horizontal. 160. (a) To find the time. (3) The body reaches the ground again at B with a velocity which is the resultant of its horizontal and vertical velocities. and the vertical line AN through the highest point is the axis of symmetry. . 149).102 TEACH YOURSELF MECHANICS downward part. viz. The angle which V makes with the horizontal is a. The above results are not exact in practice. I V* Since sin 45° = h = -r-... Formulae connected with projectiles. V. measured this time in the opposite direction (Fig. is given by : v* = 2gh .gt = 0 [see § 159). • (b) To find the greatest height. h=Tg. h. . its vertical component subject to the acceleration due to gravity and with horizontal velocity. (§99) 2 Z.. When a body is projected vertically upwards. At the moment of the greatest height.

. But. for the complete range 2V sin a . g But time for the whole flight must be twice this. Let R represent the range. for the whole range 2V sin a t ~~ g (3) To find the range. 108. The distance OB (Fig. t = -— (see above). . R = V cos a x t. where R is the range. (Trigonometry. „ 2V sin a R = Tr cos a X V 2Vi sin a cos a g V2 sin -2a p . The same values of R will be obtained whether the angle of projection is a or 90° — a. time to reach the greatest height is given by V sin a t ss ————— . p. . As shown above. Since the horizontal component is unchanged . in time t. Since sin a = cos (90° — a) and cos a = sin (90° — a). From the above _ 2V2 sin a cos a R= . g „ since sin 2a = 2 sin a cos a.) Maximum range for a given velocity of projection. 149) is called the range.PROJECTILES 229 (2) Time to describe the range.

\ji Then R = —. For the larger angle. the body should be projected at 45° to the horizontal.. the horizontal component. since sin a increases when a increases. since cos a decreases as a increases. R is greatest when sin 2a is greatest. whether it be package of food for the succour of marooned men. V cos a will be the greater. therefore. Although the range will be the same for both angles. sin 2a is greatest when 2a = 90° and a = 45°.e.102 TEACH YOURSELF MECHANICS For example. But the maximum value of the sine of an angle is unity. This is apparent from Fig. For the smaller value of a. the time taken and the greatest height will be different. A familiar phenomenon of modern times is that of body being dropped from an aeroplane. g When. as in throwing a cricket ball. the vertical component will be greater than V cos a. a a a a . the maximum range is desired. Maximum range. in projecting a body. when the angle is 90°. the range will be the same whether the angle of projection is 30° or 90° — 30°—i. 150. Using the formula V2 sin 2a If V be constant. Motion of a body projected horizontally from height. or bomb intended for a more sinister purpose. 161. V sin a. 60°.

but in practice. Both will also be affected by wind and air currents.'. Thus it will have reached the point C. as shown in Fig. Time taken to reach the ground will be the same as if it fell from a height h. Height after time " t " h = Vt sin a - igt . above the ground. a distance of h ft. (2) travelled a horizontal distance represented by AC. Its final position will be given by D. The time of fall is given by the formula h = . 2. At the moment of projection the body projected will have the same velocity as the aeroplane—i. This assumes that there is no air resistance affecting the motion of either body. it is far from negligible at high velocities. it being assumed the plane is flying horizontally.PROJECTILES 231 Suppose that. the position of the bomb. in the same time t it will have travelled a distance equal to V x t and represented by AC. while the velocity of the bomb will have a horizontal component V.e. Horizontal Vertical V cos a. 1. with an acceleration g. The bomb will also have a downward vertical velocity due to gravity. 151. Therefore in their further motions the aeroplane will continue to move in a horizontal direction with velocity V.. Components of velocity of projection. Let V = velocity of the plane. V in a horizontal direction. where AC = V x t. vertically above D. V sin a. a body is dropped from an aeroplane at A. although this is not very considerable at low velocities. and the path described is a parabola. Since the aeroplane also moves with a horizontal velocity V. Summary of Formulae. In time t given by this equation the bomb will have : (1) fallen a distance represented by A B or CD.

S. aims at bombing a target directly in front of him.h. Worked example.000 ft.102 TEACH YOURSELF MECHANICS sin g 3. Horizontal range R = 5. reckoned horizontally. 2.. At what distance away.. must he release the bomb. if air resistance and air currents be ignored ? 180 m. at an elevation of 30° with the horizontal./sec. Substituting 16./sec./sec.h. h = sm2 a * The pilot of an aeroplane flying at a height of 16. 99 264 x lO-s/lO 1. is found by using the formula s = \gt2. Find the range of a gun when the muzzle velocity is 1200 ft. t 2 = 1. measured horizontally from the target. miles 5280 VlO 3-1623 = 1-581 miles. = 180 X == = 264 ft. Maximum range R F ' 8 s i n 2 a = — V ^ when 6. Find its range and the greatest height which it reached. 2 2 He must release the bomb at a distance of 1-58 miles (approx. Time for bomb to fall from 16. Time of flight t= 27 . . Distance travelled horizontally in this time is (264 X 10\/fi)) ft. Greatest height 163.p. 4. .p.000 ft. Exercise 24. A body was projected with a velocity of 80 ft. with a velocity of 180 m.000 = 16i*. £ a = 45°. and the elevation 24° 30'.).000_ and t = IOa/10 sees.

and at an angle of 30° with the horizontal.) 11. A stone is thrown in a horizontal direction with a velocity of 50 ft./sec. A projectile has a muzzle velocity of 1650 ft. Find the error at this range.p.000 ft. An aeroplane travelling at a height of 1600 yds. Determine the time which elapses before it reaches the ground and the distance measured horizontally of the point of impact from the point of projection ? 10. Find (a) the time taken for the bomb to reach the ground. 6.PROJECTILES 233 3./sec. 7. above the ground at a uniform speed of 100 m. Find when and where it reaches the ground. drops a bomb. and how high will it rise in the air? 8. from the edge of a vertical cliff 80 ft. away from a house and throws a ball so that it goes horizontally into a window 25 ft. With what velocity must the ball be thrown. (Neglect air resistance. A boy stands 15 ft. A projectile has a muzzle velocity of 1520 ft. ? Find (1) the greatest height which it reaches and (2) the horizontal range ? 9. What is its greatest range on a horizontal surface ? 5./sec. (c) the magnitude and direction of the velocity of the bomb on striking the ground. above him and falls into the room. Find the range in yards on a horizontal plane if the angle of projection is 15°. at an angle of 45° with the horizontal. high.h. (b) the horizontal distance between the vertical lines through the point at which the bomb was released and the point at which it struck the ground./sec. A shot is fired with a muzzle velocity of 1200 ft. due to an error of 15' in the angle of elevation of the gun. A cricket ball is thrown at an angle of 45° with the ground and pitches 100 yds. How high is it after 5 sees. A target is 28. whose height above the ground (supposed horizontal) may be disregarded. With what velocity and at what angle of elevation must he throw the ball ? . What are the possible angles of projection ? 4./sec. A stone is thrown up with a velocity of 100 ft. from a gun and the muzzle velocity is 1200 ft./sec. from the thrower.

But we frequently require to know the relation between the weights and volumes of various substances so that we may compare the weights of equal volumes of them.S.P. or a cubic foot. per cubic inch. But the volumes of a pound of lead and of a pound of sugar are very different. we have a measure of the density of the substance.). This " q u a n t i t y " is measured by the effect of the force of gravity on it—i.e. or 0-036 lb.. If therefore we know the weight of a cubic inch or cubic centimetre. without reference to its volume. Thus we arrive at the definition : The density of a substance is the mass of a unit volume of it. by its weight. In some substances the matter is said to be more dense than in others. In this system the density of water is 62-3 lbs. and is measured by its weight. or a cubic centimetre. Density. on the other hand.CHAPTER XV DENSITY. and it will clearly be an advantage if the specified volumes were standard units of volume such as a cubic inch. in which the cubic inch or cubic foot is the unit of volume and the pound is the unit of weight. We shall have a measure of this density if we know the weights of specified volumes. per cubic foot. In § 103 it was stated that " mass is the quantity of matter " in a body. the weights of a cubic inch of lead and of a cubic inch of sugar are also very different. In stating this density we may use one of two systems : (1) The foot-pound system (F. Thus the mass is measured by its weight alone. SPECIFIC GRAVITY 164. 234 .

Thus _ . 62-3 lbs. for example. it is a simple matter to calculate the weight of any volume of iron.4 —r-— ' density of water weight of substance — weight of equal volume of water' . From this definition it will be observed that relative density is independent of the units employed. The weight of the iron = (7-2 x 24-5 X 62-3) lbs.DENSITY . 165. If. The gram.e.. Thus. ft. It is natural that water should always be used for this comparison. ft. the weight of 24-5 cu. as long as equal volumes of each substance are used and we know the weight of a unit volume of water. . is selected as being the weight of a cubic centimetre of water at 4° C. I t can be defined as follows: The relative density or specific gravity of a substance is the ratio of the weight of any volume of it to the weight of an equal volume of water. the unit of weight in this system. . Relative density or specific gravity. ft. In this system the density of water is 1 gram per cubic centimetre. per cu. density of the substance Re ative density = -j. we know the ratio of these to the weight of some suitable substance such as water. in which the unit of volume is the cubic centimetre and the gram is the unit of weight. of water—i. „ lead = 710 lbs.S. ft.G. we know that the weight of a unit volume of iron is 7-2 times the weight of a unit volume water. SPECIFIC GRAVITY 235 (2) The centimetre gram system (C. of iron would be 7-2 X 24-5 times the weight of a cu.). and the ratio is called the relative density or specific gravity of t h e substance. per cu. It is obviously an advantage if besides knowing the weights of unit volumes of various substances. Similarly: Density of cast iron = 449 lbs. whether of weight or volume.

The weight is found in the usual way by means of a balance. in. of copper wire of cross section 0-085 sq. 1. is a number.G. Note. . ins. of the copper = (0-085 x 18. of copper is 8-82.530 cu. full of liquid. = 12-45 lbs. . . in. 167. is weighed. = p j 2 8 c u " . of water weighs 62-3 lbs. « i . The rest is simple arithmetic.000 ins. Find the weight of 500 yds.102 TEACH YOURSELF MECHANICS 166. . The only difficulty in the case of a solid is that of finding its exact volume.000) cu. Worked examples. per cu. Density is 1344-6 lbs. But 1 cu. Example I. Determination of relative density. Examples will be given below. (2) Liquids. (1) Solids. ft. -----18. especially when the shape of it is irregular. Weight of 16 cu. 500 yds.•. The bottle. 1344-6 Relative density = ^ = 21-57. and thus the weight of the known volume of the liquid is found. in. „ 1728 „ . called a specific gravity bottle. Find the density and relative density of platinum when 16 cu. Vol. . A special bottle. A method of doing this will be given in a later chapter (§ 178). whose weight and interior volume are known. when the S. Example 2. ins. ft. provides an easy way of finding the specific gravity of a liquid. Special precautions are taken to ensure that the volume of the liquid placed in the bottle is known exactly. the weight of the bottle itself is subtracted. 1728 X 1248 = 1344-6 lbs. weigh 12-45 lbs.—It must be remembered that density is always expressed in weight per unit volume. whereas relative density being a ratio.530 = 1.

of copper = 62-3 X 8-82 lbs.DENSITY . in. If the relative density of the glass is 2-5. 3. find the difference in volume between one-half ton of each. 5. 4. to the square foot. ft. what is the thickness of the glass ? 6. ft. SPECIFIC GRAVITY 237 Weight of 1 cu. find the relative density of mercury. If the relative densities of lead and iron are 11-2 and 7-8. ft. of mercury and weighs 752-2 gms. of water = 62-3 lbs. A sheet of plate-glass weighs 24 ozs. A bottle contains 52 c. respectively. 1. Weight of cu. What is the relative density of the lead? 2. (nearly). of copper = 62-3 X 8-82 x 1 ^ = 486 lbs. Find the volume of 2 tons of it. Find the weight of 45-6 cu. in. . and its weight is 4-193 lbs. The specific gravity of an oil is 0-84. The volume of a piece of lead is 10-4 cu. Exercise 25. ft. taking 1 cu. Weight of 1 cu. of iron of relative density 7-3. of water to weigh 62-3 lbs. If the bottle weighs 45 gms..c.

leaving the consideration of gases to a subsequent chapter. however. Pressure of a liquid. the force of gravity acts on that liquid. PRESSURE In preceding chapters we have examined. Since a force cannot act " at a point " of a liquid. and it is not possible for a force to act " at a p o i n t " on its surface. which include liquids and gases. It does. but most liquids will allow a small change in volume under pressure. for example. the action of forces on solid bodies. and the " weight " of the liquid has to be borne by the base and sides of the vessel. These have been assumed to be rigid and to preserve their size and shape when acted upon by force. the area of the base of a vessel is 15 238 .e. For example. A liquid. To measure this. the area of the surface in contact with the liquid is divided by the total pressure on that surface. unlike a solid. These have certain properties in common. We must now consider briefly how forces act in relation to bodies which are not rigid—i. fluids. A perfect liquid is incompressible. If. offers very little resistance to a force which tends to change its shape.CHAPTER XVI LIQUID 168. but in this chapter we shall confine ourselves in the main to liquids. from various aspects. Liquids and force. We say that these are subjected to pressure. resist any change in its volume by force. 169. It yields to a thrust.. as with a solid. Thus is obtained the pressure per unit area. different terms must be used when considering forces in relation to liquids and gases. if a vessel contains liquid.

per sq. then the pressure on the base is described as being or 13J lbs. and total pressure = W lbs. Generally if area of surface = A sq. This column is maintained in equilibrium by— (1) Lateral pressures. wt. and this in turn exerts a pressure on the whole of the free surface of the liquid. Again. When a vessel with vertical sides contains a liquid. 170.LIQUID PRESSURE 239 sq. In. in. since this must be supported by the base. To apply a force to it we may use a piston which fits the vessel. In Fig. Consider the example of a liquid in a syringe or in a cylindrical jar (Fig. P Fi a. W then pressure on the surface = lbs. A force can be applied to this piston. the base is subject to a pressure due to the weight of the liquid above it. and the total pressure on it is 200 lbs. Pressure at a depth in a liquid. wt. 153 let PQ represent a column of the liquid standing on unit area of the base. The force applied to the piston. gives the pressure per square unit which is applied to the surface of the liquid. per sq. wt. divided by the area of its surface m contact with the liquid. 153. wt. FIG. 152. when a force is applied to a liquid it must be done by means of a pressure on the surface of the liquid. in. from the surrounding liquid. .. 152). inch.

This statement is true even when the sides of the vessel axe not vertical. If vessels of different shapes Dut having the same area of base. (3) The upward pressure of the liquid on the base of the column. being the sum of the weights of all such columns. must be equal to the weight of the liquid. The two latter must be equal and opposite. as shown in Fig. contain liquid to the same depth in each. Pressure at any depth. This weight depends on the height of the column. as shown in Fig. But this is proportional to the height of the column. Let any similar column of liquid be considered. (2) The weight of the column. and upon the weight of a unit volume of the liquid. the pressure on the base of each vessel is the same. 154. (3) The upward thrust of the base.102 T E A C H YOURSELF MECHANICS which are perpendicular to its surface. (2) The weight of the liquid in the column. That is also maintained in equilibrium by : (1) The lateral perpendicular pressures. which in turn varies with the density of the liquid. Consequently the pressure on the base. 155. This upward pressure must again be equal and opposite to the weight of the water in the column. Therefore we arrive at the following conclusion : The pressure at any point in a liquid is proportional to the depth below the surface of the liquid and to the density of the liquid. and therefore being horizontal have no vertical component. .

with equal area to A. 156. An important property of a fluid is that it transmits pressure equally in all directions. wt. filled with water and with openings A. wt. . Transmission of pressure.LIQUID PRESSURE 241 In (A) the pressure perpendicular to the surface of the side of the vessel has a vertical component which. per sq. C. in which pistons are fixed. lbs. At D with twice the area of A 2W lbs. All being in equilibrium. It consists of a vessel 2W FIG. W lbs. In (C) this pressure has a vertical component which acts downwards and increases the pressure on the base. must be applied. The area of C is half that of A. By means of these. additional pressures can be applied. is applied to the piston at A. D. must be r—NECH. B. additional pressures must be applied to the pistons at B. C. in. At B. The openings at A and B are equal in area. acting upwards. 156. supports the pressure of the extra amount of water. must be applied. with half the area of A. the opening of D is twice that of A. This can be demonstrated by means of the apparatus of which a crosssection is shown in Fig. an additional pressure of W lbs. 171. wt. w At C. and D.. It is now found that to preserve equilibrium.

and another piston called the ram fits tightly into B) on top of this is placed the body which is to be subjected to pressure. Water is run into the machine as shown. The principle on which it is worked is shown in a simplified form in Fig. 172. It can be concluded from such experiments that— If a fluid is at rest. 157. any change of pressure is transmitted equally throughout the fluid in all directions. from its inventor. of small and large cross-section areas respectively are connected by a tube C. The principle of transmissibility of pressure is applied practically in the Hydraulic Press. This is sometimes called the Bramah Press. . The hydraulic press. in. Then when a pressure P is applied to A. as explained in the preceding paragraph. in. FIG. a Yorkshireman named Joseph Bramah. is transmitted by the water equally to the whole of the area of the ram in B. Let a pressure P be applied to the piston at A. 157. and that of B be 40 sq. let the area of A be 1 sq. unit at A is applied equally to each square unit at the other pistons. For example. A and B. This pressure. Thus the pressure per sq. A piston called a plunger works down A. Two cylinders. a pressure 40P is applied to B.102 TEACH YOURSELF MECHANICS applied.

This " block " of water is in equilibrium. Let us consider why this should be so. Note its weight. preferably of regular shape. Then pressure on the ram Mechanical advantage _ A a' Frictional resistances have been neglected. Experiment. Lower it carefully into a vessel containing water (see Fig. The Hydraulic Jack is worked on the same principle. „ a = area of surface of plunger. 158) until it is completely covered. applying principles used previously. On reading the balance again it will be found that it registers less weight than before. (2) The resultant upward thrust of the surrounding water. By increasing the area of the surface of the ram and decreasing that of the plunger. Imagine the brick removed from the water and the space it occupied filled again with water.LIQUID PRESSURE 243 There is thus a mechanical advantage of 40 (see § 133). . This can be expressed generally as follows : Let P = pressure applied to the plunger. 173. and the forces acting on it are : (1) The weight of the water acting vertically downwards. This famous principle can best be illustrated by describing a simple experiment. and suspend it from a spring balance. such as a brick. great pressures can be obtained. The Principle of Archimedes. The brick has apparently lost weight. Take a moderately heavy object. „ A = area of surface of ram.

vertical. these must be equal and opposite.102 T E A C H YOURSELF MECHANICS Since there is equilibrium. 174. the apparent loss of weight of the body is equal to the weight of the liquid displaced. as described in the above experiment. the resultant downward thrust is W — w. If w is the weight of the water displaced. The apparent weight of the brick will be equal to its real weight less the weight of the liquid displaced. a n d whose volume is known. (2) The upward thrust of the water. is weighed in t h e liquid. This is the pull registered on the spring-balance. in the third century. The story of how it occurred to him as he lay in his bath is well known. . Thus we are able to formulate the theorem known a s t h e Principle of Archimedes. Specific gravity of a liquid by using the Principle of Archimedes. The principle is so named because it was first discovered by the Greek mathematician. When a body is immersed in a liquid the upward pressure of the liquid on the body is equal to the weight of the liquid displaced. If a solid. Archimedes. Or t h e pull registered is the weight of the brick less the weight of the water displaced. But this volume is equal to the known volume of the solid. say W. not soluble in the liquid. equal to the weight of the water displaced. When the brick is in the water there are also two vertical forces acting on i t : (1) Its weight. The experiment may be repeated with other liquids of different densities. The upward vertical thrust of the surrounding water must be equal to the weight of the water which was displaced by the block. downwards. It will probably occur to the student that this principle offers a method of finding the weight of a definite volume of the liquid. and the same result will be observed.

and this is the same as the volume of the solid. If its specific gravity is known. (2) H W < w the body will rise. Considering the relative values of W and w. Consequently w decreases. W < w. when the upward thrust of the liquid displaced is greater than the weight of the body. and an experiment as above. Let w be the weight of the liquid displaced and therefore the upward thrust of the liquid.e. For. both the forces being vertical in direction. (3) If W = w the body will rest in neutral equilibrium. 159. When the body reaches the surface and emerges from the liquid. As the body continues to rise. I.LIQUID PRESSURE 245 Knowing the weight and volume of the displaced liquid its specific gravity is readily determined. three cases may occur : (1) If W > w ths body will sink. Considering the second case. This principle. a time will come when w = W. that is. we can find the volume of the water displaced. can be used to find the volume of a solid. 2 the solid be weighed (1) in air and (2) in the liquid. viz. less of the body is immersed and less of the liquid is displaced. regular or irregular. . whatever its shape. For this we need to know the specific gravity of the liquid.. Then the forces acting on the body are as shown in Fig. 175. B u t W remains constant. the weight of the body is equal to the weight of the liquid displaced. Floating bodies. the difference in weight is the weight of the liquid displaced. the body must rise. Let a body of weight W be placed in a liquid.

If a liquid of greater density is employed. Thus iron. The general principle for a solid body is that it will float in a liquid of greater density than that of itself. 177. the upward thrust increases. it displaces more of the liquid. is greater than the weight of the solid. it varies between 1-025 and 1-028. while other bodies which would not float in the lighter liquid will now do so. displaces sufficient water for the upward thrust to be greater than the weight of the iron hull. This is important in estimating the weight of the cargo which the ship can carry without sinking below the Plimsoll safety line. Consequently: A body will float in a liquid when its weight is equal to the weight of the liquid which it displaces. That is the reason why a ship. whose density is 13-6. though built of iron. w is increased and the body will float higher in the new liquid. being hollow. Consequently when a ship moves from fresh river-water to salt water. the weight of the water displaced is greater. The Hydrometer. Consequently the upward thrust. whose density is about 7-2. will float in mercury. If a body immersed in a liquid is hollow instead of being solid. . The fact that a body floating in a liquid will rise or fall as the density of the liquid is increased or decreased suggests a convenient method of quickly determining the density of a liquid. it can be estimated what weight of cargo can be placed in the hold of the ship so that it does not sink so low as to be in danger of capsizing in high seas. as it is called.102 TEACH YOURSELF MECHANICS Then there will be equilibrium and the body will float. 176. When the weight and displacement of the ship are known. equal to the weight of displaced water. It should be noted that the density of salt water is greater than that of fresh water. and the ship rises in the water.

Then wt.c. This instrument is used in industry for the rapid determination of the densities of milk. Below this is a smaller bulb containing mercury to keep the instrument vertical. Volume of wood above the liquid = 60 c. When the cylinder is placed in a liquid of unknown density. Weight of the wood = (160 x 0-7) grams. but the general principle of their construction is the same. of the liquid are displaced. the heights reached on the cylinder can be marked. Find the specific 11 gravity of the liquid.c. by 4 cm.LIQUID PRESSURE 247 If a narrow hollow cylinder. and it is calculated that 60 c. by 5 cm. beer. floats in a liquid.c. The cylinder with the graduated scale is long and slender. This is the principle of the instrument known as the Hydrometer. Volume of the wood = 160 c. Worked Example. A rectangular block of wood 8 cm. and below it is a bulb filled with air to give buoyancy. and of relative density 0-7. 160. 160 X 0-7 .c. p = —100. etc. be placed in liquids of known densities. 100 X P = 160 X 0-7. the mark reached on the scale by the level of the liquid will indicate its density. Let p = specific gravity of the liquid. of liquid displaced = 100 p grams. 100 c. The actual shape of the ordinary hydrometer is shown in Fig.c.= N2- . These are variations of the instrument for special purposes. „ in „ „ = 100 c. of the wood are F above the surface of the liquid. The density is shown by the point reached on the graduated scale by the level of the liquid. weighted at the bottom to keep it vertical. 178. spirits. Thus a graduated scale can be constructed. But weight of liquid displaced == weight of the floating body.

2. What would the thrust be if sea-water of density 1-024 were used? 5. and 10 ins. In a hydraulic press if the pistons are 2 ft. X 6 cms. rc = 3-14. cm. A cube of iron of relative density 7-2 is suspended by a wire in oil of density 0-8. and that of the mercury 13-6. at a point 50 metres below the surface of sea-water of specific gravity 1-024. which is 4 cms. 8. and the smaller one is worked by a lever whose velocity ratio is 8. respectively. Find the pressure in grams per sq. in diameter. calculate the effort required to support a load of 10 cwt. If the diameters of the pistons in a hydraulic press are 0-5 in. high whose base has a diameter of 10 cms. Find the tension in the wire. The edge of the cube is 6 ins. and 2 ins. is suspended in water. 3. Find the force exerted by the liquid on the base of the flask. Find the cross-sectional area at the water line. out of the water. A piece of iron in the shape of a rectangular prism. 4. what is the theoretical advantage of the machine ? 9. 6. X 5 cms. find the volume of the mercury displaced. What is its weight in air ? 7. is placed in a vessel containing mercury. a ship rises 4 ins. find the upward thrust on it.. 1. After discharging 100 tons of cargo. If the specific gravity of brass is 8-4.102 TEACH YOURSELF MECHANICS Exercise 26.. A piece of brass weighing 210 gms. is completely filled with a liquid of specific gravity 1-6. . A conical flask 15 cms. If the specific gravity of the iron is 7-2. in water. A solid of relative density 2-4 weighs 14-2 gms.

we do not know exactly how high the atmosphere extends. Now. It is a curious circumstance that many people find it difficult to realise that gases have weight and can exert pressure. Some put it higher. wt. so also is the back of it. It has been estimated at about 50 miles. is due to the principle stated in § 167 that a fluid. the atmosphere. it is subjected to a pressure of over 200 lbs. the whole of our body within and without being adapted to it. The atmosphere. It is curious because we live in a mixture of gases..CHAPTER THE XVII GASES PRESSURE O F 179. conforms to the law of fluids that pressure is proportional to depth below the surface. which includes liquids and gases. therefore. for example. there is a pressure due to the weight of a high column of gas. This external change of pressure. like all gases.. wt. and the pressure of the atmosphere is all-pervading. if the palm of your hand has an area of about 15 sq. This pressure naturally diminishes if we ascend. transmits pressure equally in all directions. Consequently all parts of the body are subjected to the same pressure. and there are indications from observations on the passage of meteorites. and is different at different heights. The fact that this is unnoticed and that it involves no muscular effort. If the palm of the hand is subjected to a pressure of 200 lbs. there is always a counterbalancing pressure. of the existence of a highly rarified atmosphere at a height of 200 miles. if made rapidly. It is not easy t o realise that every square inch of the body is under a pressure of 14 lbs. has 249 . At the earth's surface. and that. The pressure of the atmosphere.. ins.

(2) to balance this there must be an upward force. until the height of the column of mercury above the level of the mercury in the bowl is about 30 ins. This upward force must clearly be due to the atmospheric pressure on the surface of the mercury in the bowl. is filled with mercury. Aviators. The finger is then withdrawn.102 TEACH YOURSELF MECHANICS harmful effects upon the human body. . Measurement of air pressure. high and a square inch in section is 14-7 lbs. and sealed at one end. a pupil of Galileo. Let us consider why the column of mercury remains at this height. this end is placed beneath the surface of mercury in a bowl (Fig. A finger being placed over the open end. The weight of a column of mercury 30 ins. This atmospheric pressure must be sufficient to support the column of mercury. 180. The mercury at once falls.). The relative density of mercury is 13-6.'. (approx. It will be sufficient for our purpose if we examine that devised by Torricelli. and even mountain climbers. Torricelli's experiment. have to take special precautions to avoid harmful effects to the body resulting from quick changes in pressure. long. Many experiments may be employed for demonstrating the weight of the air and its pressure. . as in the experiment described in § 171. A stout glass tube. 161). or 76 cms. acting at the open end of the tube. as the internal pressures do not so quickly adapt themselves to external changes. The forces acting on it are: (1) the force of gravity. more than 30 Ins. This pressure is transmitted equally in all directions. The space which is thus left at the top of the column contains no air and is almost a perfect vacuum. FIG. and is therefore transmitted to the open end of the tube. 161.

To measure these changes in pressure the barometer (" pressure measurer ") is employed. cm. In considering the pressure at varying depths in a liquid. To obtain the total pressure at any depth we must add the atmospheric pressure. as in Torricelli's experiment. but varies within certain limits. /. of mercury to the square inch. essentially. 181. with the free end standing in a small reservoir of mercury. The barometer. of a fine column of mercury. It will be observed that the height of the column of the liquid is independent of the area of the crosssection of the tube. to the sq. In consequence the column of mercury described in Torricelli's experiment will rise and fall. In the metric system this is approximately equal to 1020 gms. which acts on the surface of the liquid and is transmitted by the liquid. Total pressure in a liquid. since the relative density of mercury is 13-6. A scale is fixed by the side of the top of the mercury on which may be read changes in the height of the column. in. The pressure of the atmosphere is 14-7 lbs. as in Torricelli's experiment. If water had been used instead of mercury. the column of water equivalent to the column of mercury would be 30 X 13-6 = 408 ins. w6 have hitherto taken into account only the pressure due to the liquid itself. . or 34 ft. approx.THE PRESSURE OF G A S E S 253 Consequently the upward pressure at the free end of the tube is sufficient to support 14-7 lbs. 182. the pressure increases in fine weather and decreases in wet and stormy weather. Generally speaking. it varies with the height above sea-level. as in the previous chapter. wt. It also varies with the weather. per sq. This instrument consists. As stated previously. The pressure of the atmosphere is not a fixed quantity.

the liquid will move . In this instrument no liquid is employed (aneroid = without liquid). The aneroid barometer. no very great accuracy is necessary. There is also a vernier attachment which makes it possible to read changes in the height of the mercury to the nearest 0-01 of an inch. but it is essential in a large number of scientific experiments in which the atmospheric pressure is an important factor. The long column of mercury essential to the barometer is inconvenient for many purposes. The barometer is not only used to forecast changes in the weather. 184. Ultimately they are registered by a pointer on a circular dial scale. and the other is put in position over the receptacle. and conversely. which are very small. 183. usually corrugated to provide a larger surface. When the two ends are opened. A bent tube ABC (Fig. The siphon. as in the modern Fortin barometer. 162) is filled with liquid and the ends are closed by the fingers. to enable corrections to be made consequential on the fall of the mercury in the bowl. the pressure on the external surface of the box is greater than on the internal. from which the air has been partly exhausted. Owing to the partial exhaustion of air. the aneroid barometer is used. Thesfe changes. It consists of an enclosed cylinder. therefore. When. when the column of mercury rises. One end A is placed beneath the surface of the liquid which is to be transferred. and we know of no heavier suitable liquid of which a shorter column would be sufficient. The pressure of the atmosphere is utilised in the siphon. are conveyed by rods and magnified by a system of small levers.102 T E A C H YOURSELF MECHANICS Adjustments have been devised. Changes in the atmospheric pressure produce slight expansions or contractions in the surface of the box. an apparatus employed for the transfer of a liquid from one receptacle to another at a lower level. and having its sides made of thin metal.

To understand the reason for this. Let P be the atmospheric pressure on the surface of the higher vessel. Pressure on left side of B = P — wt. The other pressures are those due to the weight of the water in the two arms of the tube. And the atmospheric pressure at A continues to force water up the tube to B and thence to C. An equal pressure P also acts at C. These are of different vertical heights. of column BE of water.THE PRESSURE OF GASES 253 up the tube from A to B and then down to the receiving vessel. the highest point of the tube. 162. being : (1) BD for the short arm (D being the top of the surface in the vessel). (2) BE for the long arm. But BE is greater than BD. B FIG. of column BD of water. the other end of the tube. Consequently the water at B moves towards C. This is transmitted to the opening of the tube at A. And pressure on right side of B = P — wt. consider the pressures on a section of the water at B. . Pressure on left side is greater than the pressure on the right.

163. but gases change their volumes with changes in pressure and temperature. mm 163. examined by Robert Boyle. In this book. liquids are very slightly compressible. A small amount of dried air is passed through mercury into a glass tube CD. This tube is connected by means of a stout rubber tube with another vessel AB containing mercury.102 TEACH YOURSELF MECHANICS 185. the volumes of gases decrease when the pressure on them is increased. changes due to different pressures only will be examined. and conversely. who published the results of his experiments in 1661. The height of the mercury in A B is also registered on a . This can be demonstrated by means of the apparatus shown in Fig. closed at one end and clamped to a vertical scale on which the volume of the air may be read. As has been stated in § 168. One of the discoveries he announced is the principle known as Boyle's Law. As might be expected. Boyle's Law. The behaviour of gases under pressure was systematically A t llnC Bill D iiiiiiiiiiiri FIG.

THE

PRESSURE

OF

GASES

255

vertical scale. The vessel is open, and the surface of the mercury is consequently .subject to atmospheric pressure. The vessel AB can be moved up and down vertically. Thus, the surface of the mercury being at different heights, different pressures due to the mercury are transmitted through the rubber tube to the mercury in the vessel CD, and so to the air above the mercury. As AB is raised, the pressure on the air in CD is increased and the volume of air decreased. When AB is lowered, the pressure on the air in CD decreases and the volume of the air increases. A number of experiments are made at different,pressures, and the corresponding volumes of the air are measured. Let p be one of the pressures recorded. Let v be the corresponding volume of air. In each experiment the product p X v is calculated. As a result of the experiments together with similar experiments on other gases it is found that the product of p and v is constant. Thus p X v — constant. If A be the constant. Then pv = k k and p =

This is Boyle's Law.

It can be expressed as follows: Boyle's Law. The volume of a mass of gas is inversely proportional to the pressure on it. It is important to remember that the temperature must be kept constant throughout the experiments, and the law would more accurately be expressed thus : If the temperature remains constant the volume of a mass of gas is inversely proportional to the pressure on it. The actual compression of the gas js accompanied by a slight rise in temperature, and for accuracy the reading should not be taken until the temperature has fallen to its previous level.

102

TEACH

YOURSELF

MECHANICS

Exercise 27.

1. When the height of the mercury in the barometer is 29-5 ins., what is the pressure of the atmosphere per sq. in. ? (Take the specific gravity of mercury as 13-6 and the weight of a cu. ft. of water as 62-3 lbs.) 2. If the height of mercury in a barometer is 30 ins., what would be the height if glycerine were employed instead of mercury ? (Specific gravity of glycerine = 1-3.) 3. Find the total pressure at a point 16 ft. below the surface of a fresh-water lake, when the atmospheric pressure is 14-7 lbs. per sq. in. 4. What is the pressure in lbs. per sq. in. at a point 30 ft. below the surface of the sea, when the height of mercury in a barometer at the surface is 28-5 ins.? (Specific gravity of mercury is 13-6; specific gravity of sea-water is 1-03; 1 cu. ft. of water weighs 62-5 lbs.) 5. The volume of a mass of gas is 50 cu. ins. when the height of the barometer is 29-4 ins. What will it be when the height is 30 ins. ? 6. A mass of gas has a volume of 500 c.c. when the pressure is equivalent to 76 cms. of mercury. What will be the volumes when the pressures are : (1) 125 cms. of mercury, (2) 50 cms. of mercury ? 7. A glass cylinder contains 1000 c.c. of air at a pressure of 2 atmospheres, and air is slowly released until the pressure is atmospheres. What fraction of the air is released, and what volume does the released air occupy ? 8. The volume of a barrel is 4 cu. ft. Air is pumped in so that the pressure is raised from 14-7 lbs. per sq. in. to 350 lbs. per sq. in. What is the volume of the air pumped in ?

ANSWERS

p. 25. Exercise I. 1. la) 6-4 ins. from C; 9-6 lbs. wt. 2. (a) lbs.; (b) 10A lbs.; (c) 15 lbs. 3. 12J ins. from the centre. 4. (a) 4-2 ozs.; (6) 25-2 ins. from fulcrum. B. 3£ ozs. 6. 2-27 lbs. 7. 19^-lbs. 8. (a) 3 lbs.; (6) 3-6 lbs. 9. 47J lbs. 10. 12 ins. from the weight of 5 lbs. p. 33. Exercise 2. 1. 5f lbs.; 4f lbs. 2. The stronger man 70-7 lbs.; the weaker 48-3 lbs. 3. 71§ lbs.; 58J lbs. 4. 150 lbs. on C; 180 lbs. on D. 5. 86| lbs.; 113J lbs. 6. 7} lbs.; 5* lbs. 7. $ ton. 8. 141 lbs.; 57 lbs. p. 42. Exercise 3. 1. 4? lbs. wt. 2. £ ton wt.; f ton wt. 3. 9i lbs. wt.; 1 | lbs. wt. 4. 5 : 7 : 2. 5 39$ lbs. wt. 6. 56 lbs. wt. 7. 4 ft. from edge of cliff. 8. 53J lbs. per sq. in. 9. 240 lbs. wt. 10. 10 lbs. wt. p. 57. Exercise 4. 1. 3 | ft. from A. 2. 3-7 ft. from A. 3. 3 ft. from A. 4. 8 lbs. 6. i V2 ft. 6. | of the median from mid point of BC. 7. 4 ^ ins. from O along OE, where O is the mid point of AD. 8. 2$ ins. from the mid point of AB. 9. l i ft. from OA ; 1 ft. from OB. 10. 4f ins. 11. i + j V 3 ins. from AB, or e.g. of equilateral triangle PQR. 12. 6J ins. from AB; 5 ins. from AD. p. 64. Exercise 5. 1. 4J ins. 2. 2 j ins. from the lowest point of the hemisphere. 3. l j ins. above the centre of the base. 4. -fa in. from the centre. 5. 4J ins.; 3£ ins. 6. 0-77 in. up the median from the uncut side. 257

102 T E A C H

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MECHANICS

7. (1) Neutral. (2) Stable for movement towards inside of table; unstable for movements away from table. (3) Stable. (4) Unstable, unless displacement very small. p. 79. Exercise 6. 1. (a) 26 lb) 27-5; 36" 52'. (c) 12-2. (d) 8-71; 23° 25'. (e) 69° 35'. (/) 9 = 78° 28'; a = 44° 25'. 2. (1) 5-83 lbs. wt. (2) 30° 59'. 3. 11-63 lbs. wt. 4. (1) 20 lbs. wt. (2) 19-32 lbs. wt. (3) 18-48 lbs. wt. (4) 18-12 lbs. wt. (5) 17-32 lbs. wt. (6) 14-14 lbs. wt. 5. 60° 6. 120°. 7. 102-6 lbs. wt. 8. 18-03 lbs. wt. 9. BC in ratio 2 : 1 ; AC in ratio 3 : 1. p. 87. Exercise 7. 1. 13-9 lbs. wt.; 8 lbs. wt. 2. 10-88 lbs. wt.; 5-07 lbs. wt. 3. 4-59 lbs. wt.; 6-55 lbs. wt. 4. 19-1 tons wt. 6. (1) 15-3 lbs. wt.; 12-9 lbs. wt. (2) 216-5 grams wt.; 125 grams wt. 6. 376 ibs. wt. 7. 10-35 lbs. wt. 8. 9 = 26° 34'; 2 cwt. 9. 30-64 lbs. 10. 27-54 lbs. wt. p. 96. Exercise 8. 1. 17-84 lbs. wt. 2. 10-23 lbs. wt.; 81° 24'. 3. 10-15 lbs. wt.; 69° 49'. 4. 5-39 lbs. wt.; 23° 12' with OX in 4th quadrant. 5. 5-35 lbs. wt.; 85° approx. with OX in 1st quadrant. 6 units along the 5th string. 7. 21 nearly; 57° nearly. «. 2V3 lbs. w t . ; 30°. p. 1. 2. :3. 4. •6. 7. 8. 108. Exercise 9. 16$ lbs. w t . ; 13J lbs. wt. it •= 18 lbs. wt.; side opposite to P = 2-5 ins. The second side is at right angles to the first; 14 V 3 lbs. wt.; 14 lbs. wt. P -= 2-46 lbs. wt. (approx.). 5. P = 2-89 lbs. wt. (approx.). Q «= 1-72 lbs. wt. (approx.). R = 5-77 lbs. wt. (approx.). Q = 24-5 lbs. wt.; R = 27-3 lbs. wt. 9-2 lbs. wt.; 815 lbs. wt. 12 tons wt. nearly; 6 01 tons wt.

j>. 113. Exercise 10. 1. R = 12 lbs. wt. nearly; 8 — 76° nearly (calculated ans. 11-98 ; 75° 54',). -2. R = 3-33 ,lbs. wt.; a = 70° 42'.

ANSWERS

259

3. 89 lbs. wt. 4. 10-2 lbs.; 38° 30'. 5. Resultant 3-2 lbs. wt. at 111° approx. to A ; equilibriant equal to this in magnitude but opposite in direction.. 6. 6 lbs. p. 124. 1. 0-42; 22" 47'. 3. 3-84 lbs. wt. 5. 42-8 lbs. 7. (1) 8 lbs. wt. 9. 9-4 lbs. approx. Exercise I I . 2. 5-88 lbs. wt. 4. 1-25 lbs. wt. 6. 1-88 lbs. wt. (2) 9-43 lbs. wt. (3) 7-84 lbs. wt.

p. 128. Exercise 12. I. (1) 0-404; (2) 1-87 lbs. wt. 2. 17° 13'. 3. (1) 39° 37'; (2) 21-8 lbs. wt. 4. 0-447. 5. 40 lbs. wt. 6. 14-94 lbs. wt. 7. 55-8 lbs. wt. 8. 187 lbs. wt. nearly. p. 144. Exercise 13. 1. (a) 100 ft./sec. (b) 68^ r m.p.h. 2. 352 ft. 3. 36 m.p.h. 4. 750 m.p.h. 5. 30 m.p.h. 6. 2-2 ft./sec. 7. 7J; 25 m.p.h. 8. 7-5; 5; 0; — 12-5 (all in ft./sec.). 9. 120 m.p.h.; 60 m.p.h.; 48 m.p.h.; 36 m.p.h.; 24 m.p.h.; 12 m.p.h. 10. HS-ft. 125 f t p. 152. Exercise 14. 1. 40 ft./sec.; 160 ft. 2. 23 sees, nearly. 3. 22 sees.; 484 ft. 4. 1-1 ft./sec. 2 ; 880 ft. 2 5. 3J ft./sec. ; 774f ft. 6. 3-91 ft./sec. 2 ; 7J sees. 7. 1344 ft. 8. 38 ft. [Hint use formula ^ •] 10. 91f ft. 12. 75 sees. 14. 82£ f t . ; 5-6 sees, approx. 9. 2-9 ft./sec. 2 . 11. 29J sees.; 645J ft. 13. 10 sees.

p. 157. Exercise 15. 2. 8 1 f t . 3. 3 J sees.; 156J ft. 4. 400 ft.; 5 sees. 5. 80 ft./sec.; 100 ft. 6. 80 ft./sec.; 2-5 sees. 7. 112 ft. 8. 1J sees, ascending; 3J sees, descending. 9. 24 ft. 10. 48 ft./sec.; 1 sec. or 4 sees. II. 6^T ft./sec. 2 ; 109f ft. 12. 31-89 metres; 5-1 sees. p. 171. 1. 12-8 ft./sec. 2 . 3. 64 lbs. wt. 2 5. 0-88 ft./sec. . Exercise 16. 2. 3 lbs. wt. 4. 2J cwt. wt. 6. 1050 lbs. (approx.).

/sec. 12. wt. 4. 6. wt. (a) 30 ft. 8.-lbs. 4-8 lbs. (2) 33. 11. (a) 43f sec. 100 ft.. 10. 14.. p. wt. 6.. 7. • 2. 6. wt. 1. £f. 5.880 ft. wt. wt. wt. 3-96 lbs. 4. H * tons wt. 64 ft. wt. 4.-lbs. 6-4 ft. 4. 12 tons wt. 5. wt. wt. 13. (c) 96%. 1. 11-2. A- p. 4J lbs. 6. 2. 8.V tons. 2 . 1512J ft. E = 0-4W + 3-5. 11. Exercise 20./sec. 187. 11. 5.800. 190.'. 4-8 lbs. 268-8. 9.-lbs. 5641} lbs. 1. E = 0-45W. (b) 3 i .-lbs. 10. 6. (a) 3 i . 7. 3. (b) 4§ lbs. wt.. 2800 ft. lbs. 10. Exercise 17. lbs. 100 ft. y lbs.-lbs. A37. or between 7-4 and 7-5. 14. 703£ ft. 5f lbs. 10 tons wt. p. 125 lbs. 3. 1-91.-lbs. 25 tons wt.-lbs. wt. 18J lbs. E = 0-3W + 1-1. 12. Exercise 21. wt. 1941 lbs. wt. Exercise 19. f t .-lbs. 8. 8J lbs. (c) 77%. 8-3. (6) 7 lbs. 9£ ft.-lbs. 37J. wt. wt. wt.. wt. l | lbs. 385 lbs. 1800. E = 0-09W + 3-5. 12. 180. or between 6-1 and 6-2. wt. 9. 9075 ft. E = 0-06W + 0-2. 8. wt. 122-5 cm.. (nearly). 2500 ft. wt. 15./sec. wt. 2. Exercise 18. 7A112J lbs. 2 3 . 10. 2304 lbs./sec. 3.. (c) lbs. 2. (6) 9 ft. 9. 71f 3. 15 nearly. (a) CJ lbs. (1) 1350 ft. wt. 4. . 11. 211.-lbs. 12. 131 lbs./sec. 48 sec. 177. 25-4%.. 10. lbs. J. 2 8 ^ ft. 9. 195-4.-lbs. 32J lbs. 3. 88. 1. p. 1. 7. §8 lbs. wt. 1 . 5.. wt. 284 ft. 2. 13.102 TEACH YOURSELF MECHANICS 7. p. 5.. 9-6 lbs.

3° 16' S. 25 ft. 2. 4./sec.c. ft. 3200. 48 m. 63-53 c. 15 m. 5 m.. nearly. 5. 63° 26' N. 36 m. 5. 1. 14. wt. in. 49-84 lbs. Exercise 23.h. 5-6 knots (approx. 0-7 cu. 21-2 m. p. 2-24 sees.h. 4-42 sees. in. 1.. per sq. in./sec. 573 ft.. of N.).c. 225.).p. of W.. 2. and 11J° practically By Trigonometry 97-98 m.p.h. . ft.. 103-4 m. 256. 11° 18' with axis of ship. p. . 6. of E.p. 6.h.p. 25 gms. of E.c. 25-6 gms. 2..p. (approx. 8.p. 11° 51'S. of N. 6. 36° 52' S. 1 hr. 75° 10'. 0-116 in. (a) 17-44 ft. 2541 f t . 73° 18'. Exercise 22. . nearly. 220. approx. per sq. 6. 53° 8' E . (nearly). 47° 1 2 ' N . 5625 f t .p. 2.c. 232. 5. and 11° 32'.. 3. 85-6 cu. ft. 312J ft. approx./sec.000 ft. of E . 6.. 46 mins. 3. 36° 5 2 ' W . 1 hr. 313-8 ins. approx. 75 ft. 11. 38. 21-62 lbs.. 9. 41-8 ft. 1. 24-34 gms... Exercise 27. 2. approx.180 yds. 7. 248. 8..ANSWERS 261 p. of E. 67° 35' N.. 19° 14' or 70° 46'. 15-3 m. 7. of E. 14-46 lbs. 10.. 5. wt.p. 28 knots. . lbs. per sq. 137-5 ft. 500 c. (approx. (nearly). 13-6. 4.. Exercise 25. 20-3 m. 3. 1. 11-19. 67 m. Exercise 24. 3.. 91 cu. 6 miles.h. 1./sq. 8. 5.970 ft. approx. cm. 2600 ft. 49 cu./sec. (nearly)...p. 23° 26' (6) 20-7 m. wt. 4. p.. 21° 54'. 7. 1884 gms. 6.h.). 760 c.p. 4.p.200 ft.750 sq. 9.h. 9-3 mins. 72. 98 ft. 17-32 sees. 2.h. 8. p. 5. in. 7.. 1.p. (1) 304 c.. 34. i . 27-42 lbs. 98 m. 173 f t . 4. p. 237. 217 yds. 3.h. 4.p. 10. 27° S.h.h. . of W 7. Exercise 26. wt.h. wt. 5120 gms. wt. ft. 12 lbs. 50 m. approx.h. 3.

6064 6170 6274 6375 6474 6571 6665 6758 6848 6937 7024 7110 7193 7275 7356 4 5 0212 0607 0969 1303 1614 1903 2175 2430 2672 2900 3118 3324 3522 3711 3892 4065 4232 4393 4548 4698 4843 4983 5119 5250 5378 5502 5623 5740 5855 5966 6075 6180 6284 6385 6484 6580 6675 6767 6857 6946 7033 7118 7202 7284 7364 S 6 0253 0645 1004 1335 1644 1931 2201 2455 2695 2923 3139 3345 3541 3729 3909 4082 4249 4409 4564 4713 4857 4997 5132 5263 5391 5514 5635 5752 5866 5977 6085 6191 6294 6395 6493 6590 6684 6776 6866 6955 7042 7126 7210 7292 7372 7 0294 0682 1038 1367 1673 1959 2227 2480 2718 2945 3160 3365 3560 3747 3927 4099 4265 4425 4579 4728 4871 5011 5145 5376 5403 5527 5647 5763 5877 5988 6096 6201 6304 6405 6503 6599 6693 6785 6875 6964 7050 7135 7218 7300 7380 7 8 0334 0719 1072 1399 1703 1987 2253 2504 2742 2967 3181 3385 3579 3766 3945 4116 4281 4440 4594 4742 4886 5024 5159 5289 5416 5539 5658 5775 5888 5999 6107 6212 6314 6415 6513 6609 6702 6794 6884 6972 7059 7143 7226 7308 7388 S 9 0374 0755 1106 1430 1732 2014 2279 2529 2765 2989 3201 3404 3598 3784 3962 4133 4298 4456 4609 4757 4900 5038 5172 5302 5428 5551 5670 5786 5899 6010 6117 6222 6325 6425 6522 6618 6712 6803 6893 6981 7067 7152 7235 7316 7396 1 2 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 4 5 21 19 17 16 15 < 25 23 21 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 7 29 26 24 23 21 20 18 17 16 16 8 33 30 28 26 24 22 21 20 19 18 9 37 34 31 29 27 25 24 22 21 20 8 12 17 8 11 15 10 14 10 13 9 12 8 11 14 8 11 13 10 12 9 12 9 11 8 11 13 15 17 19 8 10 12 14 16 18 8 10 12 14 15 17 7 9 11 13 15 17 7 9 11 12 14 16 7 7 6 6 6 6 5 5 '5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 9 10 12 14 15 8 10 11 13 15 8 9 11 13 14 8 9 11 12 14 7 9 10 12 13 7 9 10 11 13 7 8 10 11 12 7 8 9 11 12 6 8 9 10 12 6 8 9 10 11 6 7 6 7 6 7 6 7 5 7 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 * 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 9 10 11 8 10 11 8 9 10 8 9 10 8 9 10 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 9 10 8 9 8 9 8 9 8 9 8 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 6 6 8 9 8 8 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 9 < » 262 . 6739 6830 6920 7007 7093 7177 7259 7340 2 3 0128 0531 0899 1239 1553 1847 2122 2380 2625 2856 3075 3284 3483 3674 3856 4031 4200 4362 4518 4669 4814 4955 5092 5224 5353 5478 5599 5717 5832 5944 6053 6160 6263 6365 6464 6561 6656 6749 6839 6928 7016 7101 7185 7267 7348 1 4 0170 0569 0934 1271 1584 1875 2148 2405 2648 2878 3096 3304 3502 3692 3874 4048 4216 4378 4533 4683 4829 4969 5105 5237 5366 5490 5611 5729 5843 5955.LOGARITHMS of numbers 100 to 549 Proportional Parts 0 10 II 12 I] 14 IS 16 17 18 If 20 21 22 21 24 25 2< 27 28 29 30 II 32 33 34 35 3< 37 38 37 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 0000 04] 4 0792 1139 1461 1761 2041 2304 2553 2788 3010 3222 3424 3617 3802 3979 4150 4314 4472 4624 4771 4914 5051 5185 5315 5441 5563 5632 5798 5911 6021 6128 <232 6335 6435 6532 6628 6721 6812 6902 6990 7076 7160 7243 7324 0 1 0043 0453 0828 1173 1492 1790 2068 2330 2577 2810 3032 3243 3444 3636 3820 3997 4166 4330 4487 4639 4786 4928 S065 5193 5328 5453 5575 5694 5809 5922 6031 6138 6243 634S 6444 6542 6637 6730 6821 6911 6998 7084 7168 7251 7332 1 2 0086 0492 0864 1206 1523 1818 2095 2355 2601 2833 3054 3263 3464 3655 3833 4014 4183 4346 4502 4654 4800 4942 5079 5213 5340 5465 5587 5705 5821 5933 6042 6149 6253 6355 6454 6551 6646.

LOGARITHMS of numbers 550 to 999 Proportional Parts 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 S » 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 4 5 6 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 7 5 5 8 6 6 9 7 7 55 7404 7412 7419 7427 7435 74(3 7451 7459 7466 7474 1 2 56 7482 7490 7497 7505 7513 7520 7528 7536 7543 7551 1 2 57 7559 7566 7574 7582 7589 7597 7604 7612 7619 7627 1 2 58 7634 7642 7649 7657 7664 7672 7679 7686 7694 7701 1 1 59 7709 7716 7723 7731 7738 7745 7752 7760 7767 7774 1 1 60 61 61 63 64 7782 7853 7924 7993 8062 7789 7860 7931 8000 8069 7796 7868 7938 8007 8075 7803 7875 7945 8014 8082 7810 7882 7952 8021 8089 7818 7889 7959 8028 8096 7825 7896 7966 8035 8102 7832 7903 7973 8041 8109 7839 7910 7980 8048 8116 7846 7917 7987 8055 8122 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 5 6 7 5 6 7 5 6 7 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 5 6 6 6 6 6 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 65 6129 8136 8142 8149 8156 8162 8169 8176 8182 8189 1 1 66 8195 8202 8209 8215 8222 8228 8235 8241 8248 8254 1 1 67 8261 8267 8274 8280 8287 8293 8299 8306 8312 8319 1 1 68 8325 8331 8338 8344 8351 8357 8363 8370 8376 8382 1 1 69 8388 8395 8401 8407 8414 8420 8426 8432 8439 8445 1 1 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 7? 80 81 82 83 84 8451 8513 8573 8633 8692 8751 8808 8865 8921 8976 9031 9085 9138 9191 9243 8457 8519 8579 8639 8698 8756 8814 8871 8927 8982 9036 9090 9143 9196 9248 8463 8525 8585 8645 8704 8762 8820 8876 8932 8987 9042 9096 9149 9201 9253 8470 8531 8591 8651 8710 8768 8825 8882 8938 8993 9047 9101 9154 9206 9258 8476 8537 8597 8657 8716 8774 8831 8887 8943 8998 8482 8S43 8603 8663 8722 8779 8837 8893 8949 9004 8488 8549 8609 8669 8727 8785 8842 8899 8954 9009 8494 8555 8615 8675 8733 8791 8843 8904 8960 9015 8500 8561 8621 8681 8739 8797 8854 8910 8965 9020 9074 9128 9180 9232 9284 8506 8567 8627 8686 874S 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 5 5 6 5 5 6 4 5 6 4 5 6 4 S 6 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 7 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 8802 1 1 2 8859 1 1 2 8915 1 1 2 8971 1 1 2 9025 1 1 2 9079 9133 9186 9238 9289 2 3 3 2 3 3 2 3 3 2 3 3 2 3 3 2 3 3 2 3 3 2 3 3 2 3 3 2 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 9053 9058 9063 9069 9106 9112 9117 9122 9159 9165 9170 917S 9212 9217 9222 9227 9263 9269 9274 9279 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 85 9294 9299 9304 9309 9315 9320 9325 9330 9335 9340 1 1 86 9345 9350 9355 9360 9365 9370 9375 9380 9385 9390 1 1 87 9395 9400 9405 9410 9415 9420 9425 9430 9435 9440 0 1 88 9445 9450 9455 9460 9465 9469 9474 9479 9484 9489 0 1 89 9494 9499 9504 9509 9513 9S18 9523 9528 9533 9538 0 1 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 9542 9590 9638 9685 9731 9777 9823 9869 9912 9956 9547 9595 9643 9689 9736 9782 9827 9872 9917 9961 9552 9600 9647 9694 9557 9605 9652 9699 9741 9745 9786 9832 9877 9921 9965 9562 9609 9657 9703 9750 9566 9614 9661 9708 9754 1 1 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 9571 9576 9581 9586 0 9619 9624 9628 96)3 0 9666 9671 9675 9680 0 9713 9717 9722 9727 0 9759 9764 9768 9773 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 9791 9795 9800 9805 9809 9814 9818 0 9836 9841 9845 9850 9854 9859 9863 0 9881 9886 9890 9894 9899 9903 9908 0 9926 9930 9934 9939 9943 9948 9952 0 9969 9974 9978 9983 9987 9991 9996 0 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 4 4 4 4 4 9 0 1 2 5 6 7 » 1 2 1 5 6 263 .

0] •04 OS •06 •07 •08 09 10 •II 12 •II 14 15 •16 •17 IS •19 •20 •21 22 •21 -24 •25 26 27 •28 •29 10 •31 32 33 •34 -3S 36 •37 -38 •39 •40 -41 -42 -43 •44 -45 •46 47 '48 49 1 2 1005 1028 1052 1076 1102 1127 1153 1180 1208 1236 3 1007 1030 1054 1079 1104 1130 1156 1183 1211 1239 4 1009 IJ33 1057 1081 1107 1132 1159 1186 1213 1242 5 1012 1035 1059 1084 1109 1135 1161 1189 1216 1245 6 1014 1038 1062 1086 1112 1138 1164 1191 1219 1247 7 1016 1040 1064 1089 1114 1140 1167 1194 1222 1250 e 1019 1042 1067 1091 1117 » 1021 1045 1069 1094 1119 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 S 6 7 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 S 5 5 7 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 S 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 S » 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 9 1000 1002 1023 1026 1047 1050 1072 1074 1096 1099 1122 1148 1175 1202 1230 1259 1288 1318 1349 1380 1413 1445 1479 1514 1549 1585 1622 1660 1698 1738 1778 1820 1862 1905 1950 1995 2042 2089 2138 2188 2239 2291 2344 2399 2455 2512 2570 2630 2692 2754 2818 2884 2951 3020 3090 0 1125 1151 1178 1205 1233 1262 1291 1321 1352 1384 1416 1449 1483 1517 1552 1589 1626 1663 1702 1742 1782 1824 1866 1910 1954 2000 2046 2094 2143 2193 2244 2296 2350 2404 2460 2518 2576 2636 2698 2761 2825 2891 2958 3027 3097 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2.ANTI-LOGARITHMS Proportional Parts 0 •00 41 02 . 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 t 1143 1146 1169 1172 1197 1199 1225 1227 1253 1256 1282 1312 1343 1374 1406 1439 1472 1507 1542 1578 1614 1652 1690 1730 1770 1811 1854 1897 1941 1986 2032 2080 2128 2178 2228 2280 2333 2388 2443 2500 2559 2618 2679 2742 2805 2871 2938 3006 3076 3148 8 I28S 1315 1346 1377 1409 1442 1476 1510 1545 1581 1618 1656 1694 1734 1774 1816 1858 1901 1945 1991 2037 2084 2133 2183 2234 2286 2339 2393 2449 2506 2S64 2624 2685 2748 2812 2877 2944 3013 3083 3155 9 1265 1268 1271 1274 1276 1279 1294 1297 1300 1303 1306 1309 1324 1327 1330 1334 1337 1340 1355 1358 1361 1365 1368 1371 1387 1390 1393 1396 1400 1403 1419 1452 I486 1521 1556 1422 1455 1489 1524 1560 1426 1429 1432 1459 1462 1466 1493 1496 1500 1528 1531 1535 1563 1567 1570 1600 1637 1675 1714 1754 1795 1837 1879 1923 1968 2014 2061 2109 2158 2208 2259 2312 2366 2421 2477 2535 2594 2655 2716 2780 2844 2911 2979 3048 3119 4 1603 1641 1679 1718 1758 1799 1841 1884 1928 1972 2018 2065 2113 2163 2213 2265 2317 2371 2427 2483 2541 2600 2661 2723 2786 2851 2917 298S 305S 3126 5 1607 1644 1683 1722 1762 1803 1845 1888 1932 1977 2023 2070 2118 2168 2218 2270 2323 2377 2432 2489 2547 2606 2667 2729 2793 2858 2924 2992 3062 3133 6 1435 1469 1503 1538 1574 1611 1648 1687 1726 1766 1807 1849 1892 1936 1982 2028 2075 2123 2173 2223 2275 2328 2382 2438 2495 2553 2612 2673 2735 2799 2864 2931 2999 3069 3141 7 1592 1596 1629 1633 1667 1671 1706 1710 1746 1750 1786 1828 1871 1914 1959 2004 2051 2099 2148 2198 2249 2301 2355 2410 2466 2523 2582 2642 2704 2767 2831 2897 2965 3034 3105 2 1791 1832 1875 1919 1963 2009 2056 2104 2153 2203 2254 2307 2360 2415 2472 2529 2588 2648 2710 2773 2838 2904 2972 3041 3112 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 4 4 5 1 2 264 .

ANTI-LOGARITHMS Proportional Partt 0 50 SI 52 -51 55 •56 •57 •58 •5* 60 61 -62 -6) 64 -65 -66 •67 •68 •69 •71 •73 3162 3236 3311 3388 •S4 3467 3548 3631 3715 3802 3890 3981 4074 4169 4266 4365 4467 4571 4677 4786 4898 1 3170 3243 3319 3396 3475 3556 3639 3724 3811 3899 3990 4083 4178 4276 4375 4477 4581 4688 4797 4909 2 3177 3251 3327 3404 3483 3565 3648 3733 3819 3908 3999 4093 4188 4285 4385 4487 4592 4699 4808 4920 3 3184 3258 3334 3412 3491 3573 3656 3741 3828 3917 4009 4102 4198 4295 4395 4498 4603 4710 4819 4932 4 3192 3266 3342 3420 3499 3581 3664 3750 3837 3926 4018 4111 4207 4305 4406 4508 4613 4721 4831 4943 5 3199 3273 3350 3428 3508 3589 3673 3758 3846 3936 4027 4121 4217 4315 4416 4519 4624 4732 4842 4955 t 3206 3281 3357 3436 3516 3597 3681 3 767 3855 3945 4036 4130 4227 4325 4426 4S29 4634 4742 4853 4966 7 3214 3289 3365 3443 3524 3606 3690 3776 3864 3954 4046 4140 4236 4335 4436 4539 4645 4753 4864 4977 A 3121 3296 3373 3451 3532 3614 3698 3784 3873 3963 4055 4150 4246 4345 4446 4550 4656 4764 4875 4989 9 3228 3304 3381 3459 3540 3622 3707 3793 3882 3972 4064 4159 4256 4355 4457 4560 4667 4775 4887 5000 I 2 3 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 6 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 4 7 8 9 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 5 6 7 5 6 7 5 6 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 II II II II 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 14 14 14 14 15 15 16 16 16 17 17 17 18 18 19 19 20 20 21 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 II II II II 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 14 14 14 14 15 15 16 16 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 10 II II II 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 14 14 14 14 IS 15 15 16 16 17 17 17 18 18 4 4 5 •70 5012 5023 5035 5047 5058 5070 5082 5093 5105 5117 5129 5140 5152 5164 5176 5188 5200 5212 5224 5236 5370 5383 5395 5408 5420 5433 5445 5458 5470 5483 •72 5248 5260 5272 5284 5297 5309 5321 5333 5346 535S •74 5495 5508 5S2I 5534 5546 5559 5572 5585 5598 5610 •75 -76 •77 •78 79 60 -81 •2 -83 84 •85 •M •87 •88 89 •90 5623 5754 5888 6026 6166 6310 6457 6607 6761 6918 7079 7244 7413 7586 7762 7943 3128 8318 8511 8710 8913 9120 9333 9550 9772 5636 5768 5902 6039 6180 6324 6471 6622 6776 6934 7096 7261 7430 7603 7780 7962 8147 8337 8531 8730 8933 9141 9354 9572 9795 5649 5781 5916 6053 6194 6339 6486 6637 6792 6950 7112 7278 7447 7621 7798 7980 8166 8356 8551 8750 8954 9162 9376 9594 9817 5662 5794 5929 6067 6209 6353 6501 6653 6808 6966 7129 7295 7464 7638 7816 7998 8185 8375 8570 8770 8974 9183 9397 9616 9840 5675 5808 5943 6081 6223 6368 6516 6668 6823 6982 7145 7311 7482 7656 7834 8017 8204 8395 8590 8790 8995 9204 9419 9638 9863 5689 5821 5957 6095 6237 6383 6531 6683 6839 6998 7161 7328 7499 7674 7852 8035 8222 8414 8610 8810 9016 9226 9441 9661 9886 5702 5834 5970 6109 6252 6397 6546 6699 6855 7015 7178 7345 7516 7691 7870 8054 8241 8433 8630 8831 9036 9247 9462 9683 9908 5715 5848 5984 6124 6266 6412 6561 6714 6871 7031 7194 7362 7534 7709 7889 8072 8260 8453 8650 8851 9057 9268 9484 9705 9931 5728 5861 5998 6138 6281 6427 6577 6730 6887 7047 7211 7379 7S5I 7727 7907 8091 8279 8472 8670 8872 9078 9290 9506 9727 9954 8 5741 5875 6012 6152 6295 6442 6592 6745 6902 7063 7228 7396 7568 7745 7925 8110 8299 8492 8690 8892 9099 9311 9528 9750 9977 5 6 5 6 5 6 S 6 5 6 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 1 3 4 2 3 5 2 3 5 2 3 5 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 9 8 9 8 9 8 9 8 10 8 10 8 10 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 7 9 10 7 9 II 7 9 II 7 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 II 10 10 10 10 10 II 11 II II II 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 14 •91 •92 •93 •94 <95 •96 •97 •98 •99 4 6 4 5 0 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 265 .

NATURAL SINES roportional Part* 0' 0' 1 2 1 4 S 6 7 • 6' •0017 -0192 0366 0541 0715 0889 1063 1236 H09 1582 1754 1925 2096 2267 -2436 2605 -2773 2940 3107 •3272 3437 •3600 •3762 3923 4083 •4242 4399 •4555 •4710 4863 5015 5165 5314 5461 -5606 •5750 5892 •6032 •6170 6307 6441 •6574 6704 6833 •6959 6' 12' •0035 0209 0384 •0558 0732 0906 •1080 •1253 1426 •1599 •1771 1942 2113 •2284 •2453 2622 2790 2957 3123 •3189 3453 3616 •3778 3939 4099 4258 4415 4571 4726 4879 •5030 -5180 5329 -5476 -5621 5764 •5906 •6046 •6184 6320 6455 6587 6717 6845 •6972 12' IS' 0052 0227 0401 0576 0750 0924 1097 1271 1444 1616 •1788 1959 2130 2300 •2470 2639 2807 2974 -3140 3305 3469 3633 3795 3955 4115 •4274 •4431 •4586 4741 4894 5045 5195 5344 5490 563S 5779 5920 6060 •6198 6334 6468 6600 6730 6858 6984 IS' 24' 0070 0244 0419 OS93 0767 0941 1115 •1288 •1461 1633 1805 1977 2147 2317 2487 2656 2823 2990 3156 3322 3486 3649 3811 3971 4131 4289 4446 4602 47S6 4909 5060 5210 5358 5505 5650 •S793 5934 •6074 •6211 6347 6481 6613 6743 6871 •6997 24' 30' 0087 •0262 0436 •0610 0785 0958 •1132 1305 •1478 •I6S0 1822 1994 •2164 •2334 2504 2672 2840 3007 3173 3338 3502 3665 3827 3987 4147 4305 •4462 4617 4772 4924 5075 •5225 •5373 •5519 5664 5807 5948 6088 6225 •6361 6494 6626 6756 -6884 •7009 30' 36' 0105 •0279 0454 0628 0802 0976 1149 1323 •1495 1668 1840 2011 2181 -23SI •2521 2689 2857 3024 3190 3355 3518 3681 3843 4003 4163 4321 4478 4633 4787 4939 5090 5240 5388 5534 •5678 5821 5962 6101 6239 6374 42' 0122 •0297 0471 •0645 0819 0993 •I167 •1340 •1513 1685 1857 2028 2198 2368 2538 2706 2874 3040 3206 3371 3S35 •3697 3859 4019 •4179 4337 4493 4648 4802 4955 •5105 •5255 5402 5548 5693 5835 •S976 6115 •6252 •6388 48' •0140 •0314 0489 0663 •0837 1011 •1184 1357 1530 •1702 1874 2045 2215 2385 •2554 •2723 2890 3057 •3223 •3387 3551 3714 387S 4035 4195 4352 •4509 •4664 4818 4970 5120 5270 •5417 5563 •5707 5850 5990 •6129 6266 -6401 6534 -6665 6794 -6921 •7046 48' 54' 0157 0332 0506 •0680 0854 •1028 1201 •1374 •1547 1719 1891 2062 2232 2402 2571 2740 •2907 3074 •3239 3404 3567 3730 3891 4051 4210 4368 4524 4679 4833 4985 •5135 •5284 5432 5577 •5721 •S864 6004 6143 6280 6414 •6547 •6678 -6807 6934 -7059 54- r 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2' 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 3' 9 9 9 9 4' 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 II II II II II II II II II II II II II II II II II II 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 8 8 4' S' 15 15 15 IS 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 II II II II II II 10 S' 00000 00175 0 0349 00523 0 0698 0 0 0 0 0 0872 1045 1219 1392 1564 » 10 II 12 1} 14 IS It 17 IS 19 20 21 22 2] 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 3' 0 1736 0 1908 0 2079 0 2250 02419 0 2588 0 2756 02924 0 3090 0 3256 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3420 3584 3746 3907 4067 4226 4384 4540 4695 4848 5000 5150 5299 5446 5592 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 S 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 2' 05736 0-5878 0-6018 0 6157 0 6293 0 6428 0 6561 0 6691 0-6820 0 6947 0' -6508 6521 6639 6652 6769 6782 6896 •6909 -7022 7034 36' 42' r 266 .

NATURAL SINES Proportional Pares 0' 6' 12' •7096 •7218 •7337 7455 •7570 •7683 •7793 •7902 8007 •Bill 8211 •8310 -8406 8499 8590 8678 8763 8846 8926 9003 9078 •9150 •9219 9285 9348 •9409 9466 9S2I 9573 9622 9668 •9711 9751 9789 •9823 9854 9882 9907 •9930 9949 9965 9978 9988 9995 9999 18 •7108 •7230 •7349 •7466 •7581 7694 •7804 •7912 8018 •8121 -8221 -8320 8415 -8508 -8599 8686 •8771 8854 •8934 •9011 9085 •9157 •9225 9291 9354 •9415 •9472 •9527 9578 9627 •9673 •9715 9755 9792 •9826 9857 9885 9910 9932 9951 24' •7120 7242 7361 •7478 7593 •7705 •7815 7923 8028 8131 •8231 8329 8425 8517 8607 8695 8780 8862 8942 9018 9092 9164 9232 9298 9361 9421 •9478 •9532 9583 9632 9677 9720 9759 9796 9829 9860 9888 9912 9934 •99S2 30 7133 •7254 7373 7490 •7604 •7716 •7826 •7934 8039 8141 8241 8339 8434 •8526 8616 8704 8788 8870 8949 9026 9100 9171 9239 9304 9367 9426 9483 9537 9588 9636 9681 •9724 9763 9799 9833 9863 9890 9914 9936 9954 36' 42' 48 •7169 7290 7408 •7524 7638 7749 7859 7965 •8070 8171 8271 8368 8462 8SS4 8643 8729 8813 8894 8973 9048 9121 9191 9259 9323 9385 9444 9500 9553 9603 9650 9694 9736 9774 9810 •9842 9871 9898 9921 9942 9959 9973 9984 9993 9998 0000 48' 54' •7181 7302 7420 7536 7649 7760 7869 7976 8080 8181 8281 8377 •8471 8563 8652 8738 8821 8902 8980 9056 9128 9198 9265 9330 9391 9449 9505 9558 9608 9655 9699 9740 9778 9813 9845 9874 9900 9923 9943 9960 9974 9985 9993 9998 0000 r 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2' 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 8 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 7 5' 10 10 10 10 9 9 9 9 9 8 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 45° 44 47 41 49 SO 51 0 0 0 0 0 7071 •7083 7193 •7206 7314 •7325 7431 •7443 7547 •7559 •7672 •7782 •7891 •7997 8100 •8202 8300 8396 •8490 •8581 8669 8755 8838 8918 8996 9070 9143 •9212 •9278 9342 9403 9461 9516 9568 •9617 9664 9707 9748 •9785 •9820 9851 •9880 9905 •9928 9947 9963 •9977 9987 9995 9999 7145 7157 7266 7278 7385 -7396 •7501 •7513 7615 •7627 •7727 7837 •7944 8049 8151 7738 7848 7955 8059 8161 52 51 S4 55 56 57 SB 0 7660 07771 0 7880 0 7986 0 8090 0 8192 0 8290 0 8387 0 8480 08572 0 0 0 0 0 8660 8746 8829 8910 8988 59 60 61 62 6} 64 65 66 67 «S 49 70 71 72 73 74 7S 8251 8261 8348 •8358 8443 8453 •8536 8545 8625 8634 8712 8796 -8878 8957 9033 9107 9178 9245 9311 9373 9432 9489 9S42 9593 9641 8721 8805 8886 8965 9041 9114 9184 9252 9317 9379 9438 9494 9548 9598 9646 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 4' 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 9063 0-9135 0 9205 09272 0 9336 0 0 0 0 0 9397 945S 9SII 9563 9613 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 76 77 78 79 SO SI 82 S3 >4 85 86 87 SS If 0 9659 0 9703 0-9744 0 9781 0 9816 0 9848 0 9877 0 9903 0 9925 09945 0 9962 0 9976 0 9986 0 9994 09998 9686 9690 9728 9732 9767 9770 9803 •9806 9836 9839 9866 9893 9917 9938 9956 9971 9982 9991 9997 OOOO 9869 9895 9919 9940 9957 9972 9983 9992 9997 0000 42' 9966 9979 9989 9996 9999 0 9968 9969 9980 9981 9990 9990 9996 9997 9999 1 0000 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0' 6' 12' IB' 24' 30' 36 54 I' 2 3 5 " 267 .

NATURAL COSINES Proportional Parti Subtract 0 0' 1 2 3 4 s 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 11 14 IS 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 2] 24 2S 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 1 0000 0 9998 0 9994 0 9986 0 9976 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9962 9945 9925 9903 9877 9848 9816 9781 9744 9703 9659 9613 9563 95II 9455 6 0000 9998 9993 9985 9974 9960 9943 9923 •9900 9874 9845 9813 •9778 •9740 9699 •96S5 •9608 •»558 •950S 9449 9391 •9330 •9265 •9198 -9128 9056 -8980 •8902 •8821 •8738 •8652 -8563 •8471 •8377 •8281 8181 8080 •7976 7869 •7760 •7649 7536 •7420 •7302 •7181 6' 12 0000 9998 9993 9984 9973 9959 9942 9921 9898 9871 9842 •9810 •9774 •9736 •9694 •9650 •9603 9553 9500 •9444 9385 •9323 •9259 •9191 •9121 •9048 •8973 •8894 •8813 •8729 •8643 <8554 <8462 <8368 8271 •8171 8070 •7965 •7859 7749 •7638 •7524 7408 •7290 7169 12' 18' 0000 9997 9992 9983 9972 9957 9940 9919 9895 •9869 9839 9806 9770 •9732 9690 9646 •9598 •9548 •9494 •9438 9379 9317 •9252 •9184 •9114 •9041 8965 •8886 -8805 •8721 -8634 •8545 •8453 8358 -8261 -8161 8059 •7955 •7848 7738 •7627 •7513 7396 7278 7157 18' 24' 30' 36' 42' 48' 9999 9995 9988 9978 9965 9949 •9930 9907 •9882 •9854 54' 9999 •9995 9987 9977 9963 9947 9928 9905 9880 9851 I' 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2' 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3' 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 S 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 4' 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 5' 0 0 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 S 5 5 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 0000 1 0000 3 9999 9999 •9997 9997 •9996 9996 9991 •9990 •9990 •9989 •9982 9981 9980 9979 •9971 •9969 9968 •9966 9956 9938 9917 9893 <9866 9836 •9803 9767 •9728 •9686 -9641 •9593 •9542 •9489 9432 •9373 •9311 •9245 •9178 •9107 •9033 •8957 •8878 •8796 •8712 •8625 -8536 •8443 8348 •8251 8151 •8049 •7944 7837 •7727 •7615 •7501 7385 7266 7145 24 9954 9936 9914 9890 •9863 9833 9799 9763 •9724 •9681 -9636 •9588 -9537 •9483 9426 •9367 •9304 •9239 •9171 •9100 •9026 8949 •8870 •8788 •8704 •8616 •8526 •8434 8339 •8241 •8141 •8039 •7934 •7826 •7716 7604 •7490 •7373 •7254 •7133 30' •9952 •9951 9934 9932 •9912 •9910 9888 9885 •9860 •9857 9829 •9796 9759 •9720 9677 •9632 •9583 9532 <9478 •9421 •9361 9298 •9232 •9164 •9092 • 9826 • 9823 • 9820 •9792 9789 9785 •9755 9751 9748 •9715 •9711 9707 9673 •9668 9664 9627 •9578 •9527 •9472 •9415 •9354 •9291 •9225 •9157 •9085 •9622 9573 •9521 9466 9409 •9348 9285 •9219 •9150 •9078 •9003 8926 8846 •8763 •8678 8590 8499 8406 8310 8211 •8111 •8007 •7902 •7793 •7683 •7570 •7455 7337 •7218 •7096 48' 9617 •9568 9516 9461 •9403 9342 9278 9212 9143 •9070 8996 •8918 •8838 •8755 8669 8S8I 8490 8396 8300 •8202 •8100 7997 •7891 •7782 •7672 7559 7443 7325 •7206 •7083 54' 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2' 0 9397 0-9336 0 9272 0 9205 0 9135 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9063 8988 8910 8829 8746 8660 8572 8480 8387 8290 8192 8090 7986 7880 7771 7660 7S47 7431 7314 7193 o- •9018 9011 8942 8934 -8862 8854 •8780 •8771 •869S •8686 8607 •8517 8425 8329 8231 8599 8S08 8415 8320 8221 8131 8121 8028 8018 •7923 •7912 •78 IS •7804 •7705 7694 7593 •7581 •7478 7466 7361 7349 •7242 •7230 •7120 7108 36' 42' 3' 4' S 268 .

2554 2402 •2385 2232 2215 2062 2045 1891 1874 1719 •1547 1374 •1201 •1028 0854 0680 0506 0332 0157 1702 •1530 1357 •1184 •1011 0837 •0663 0489 0314 •0140 3 3 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 14 14 15 15 15 IS 87 88 89 3 3 0122 18' 0' 4' 12" 30' 36 48' 54 I" 2' 1' 4' 5' 269 .NATURAL COSINES Proportional Parti Subtract 0' 41° 44 47 48 49 50 51 52 S3 54 55 54 57 58 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4' 12' •7046 •6921 •6794 6665 6534 >6401 >6266 >6129 •5990 5850 •5707 •5563 5417 5270 •5120 4970 -4818 •4664 •4509 •4352 •4195 4035 3875 3714 3551 •3387 3223 3057 •2890 2723 18' 7034 6909 •6782 6652 <6521 6388 •6252 -6115 •5976 -5835 5693 5548 •5402 •5255 •5105 •4955 4802 4648 4493 •4337 4179 •4019 3859 •3697 3535 •3371 •3206 3040 2874 •2706 •2538 •2368 2198 •2028 •1857 1685 •1513 1340 <1167 •0993 •0819 •0645 0471 •0297 24' 7022 6896 6769 •6639 -6508 6374 6239 -6101 •5962 -5821 5678 5534 <5388 •5240 •5090 •4939 4787 4633 4478 •4321 •4163 4003 3843 •3681 •3518 •33SS 3190 •3024 •2857 2689 2521 •2351 •2181 2011 •1840 1668 •1495 •1323 1149 0976 0802 0628 0454 0279 •0105 24' 30' •7009 •6884 •6756 •6626 •6494 •6361 -6225 -6088 -5948 -5807 -5664 5SI9 •5373 •5225 •5075 •4924 •4772 •4617 •4462 •4305 •4147 •3987 3827 •3665 •3502 3338 3173 3007 2840 •2672 2504 2334 2164 •1994 •1822 1650 1478 •1305 •1132 0958 0785 0610 0436 •0262 0087 36' •6997 •6871 •6743 •6613 •6481 •6347 •6211 •6074 •5934 5793 5650 •5505 5358 •5210 •5060 4909 •4756 -4602 •4446 •4289 •4131 3971 •3811 •3649 3486 3322 3156 2990 •2823 •2656 •2487 2317 •2147 •1977 I80S •1633 •1461 •1288 1115 0941 0767 0593 •0419 •0244 •0070 42" 6984 6858 6730 6600 6468 •6334 <6198 -6060 •5920 •5779 •5635 •5490 •5344 •5195 5045 •4894 4741 •4586 <4431 4274 4115 3955 3795. •3633' 3469 •330S 3140 2974 •2807 •2639 2470 •2300 2130 1959 •1788 •1616 <1444 •1271 1097 0924 07S0 0576 -0401 -0227 0052 42 48' 54' 1" 2" I' 4' S" 2 2 2 2 2 7071 -7059 6947 -6934 6820 6807 6691 -6678 6561 6547 6428 6293 6157 6018 5878 5736 5592 5446 5299 5150 5000 4848 4695 4S40 4384 4226 4067 3907 3746 3584 3420 3256 3090 2924 2756 -6414 -6280 -6143 •6004 •5864 •5721 5577 •5432 •5284 •5135 4985 4833 •4679 4524 •4368 4210 4051 •3891 3730 3567 3404 3239 •3074 2907 2740 6972 6959 •6845 6833 6717 •6704 •6587 •6574 •6455' •6441 •6320 -6184 •6046 •5906 5764 -S62I 5476 5329 •5180 •5030 4879 4726 •4571 4415 4258 4099 3939 3778 3616 3453 3289 3123 2957 2790 •2622 •2453 2284 •2113 •1942 •1771 1599 •1426 1253 •1080 0906 0732 0558 •0384 0209 0035 6307 •6170 6032 •5892 •5750 5606 5461 •5314 5165 <5015 •4863 •4710 4555 •4399 •42424083 •3923 3762 3600 •3437 3272 •3107 2940 2773 •2605 2436 •2267 2096 1925 1754 •1582 1409 1236 1063 •0889 0715 0541 0366 0192 0017 4 4 4 4 4 4 6 6 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 10 >0 10 10 10 11 11 II 11 11 11 i| II II II II II II 11 II II 11 II 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 10 11 II II II II II 2 2 2 2 2 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 S 5 5 5 5 S 5 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 14 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 •3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 14 14 14 14 14 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 6 6 6 6 6 6 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 0 2588 0 2419 0 2250 0-2079 0 1908 0 1736 0 1564 0 1392 0-1219 0 1045 0 0 0 0 0 0872 0698 0523 0349 0175 2571 .

21 ! 26 16 21 26 28 17 17 23 29 J' 4' S' 27O .NATURAL TANGENTS Proportional Parts 0' 0' 1 2 ) 4 s 6 7 a 9 10 11 12 12 14 IS It 17 18 1? 20 21 22 2} 24 25 26 27 28 29 10 31 32 3} 34 35 36 37 38 i' 12' •0035 •0209 •0384 •0559 •0734 •0910 •1086 •1263 •1441 •1620 •1799 •1980 •2162 •2345 •2530 •2717 •2905 •3096 •3288 •3482 •3679 •3879 •4081 •4286 •4494 •4706 •4921 •5139 •5362 5589 18' •0052 •0227 •0402 •0577 •0752 24' JO' 36' 0105 0279 0454 •0629 -080S •0981 1157 1334 •1512 1691 •1871 •2053 •2235 •2419 •2605 •2792 •2981 -3172 -3365 3561 3759 3959 -4163 •4369 •4578 42' •0122 •0297 0472 •0647 •0822 48' -0140 0314 0489 0664 0840 54' 0157 •0332 0507 0682 -08S7 •1033 -1210 1388 1566 •1745 1926 2107 •2290 2475 2661 •2849 •3038 3230 3424 3620 3819 4020 4224 -4431 4642 4856 5073 5295 5520 5750 5985 6224 6469 6720 6976 7239 7508 7785 8069 8361 8662 •8972 9293 9623 9965 S4' I' 3 3 3 3 3 3* 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 1' 2' 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 3' 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 4' J ' 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 IS 15 15 15 IS 15 IS IS 15 IS 15 IS IS IS 16 16 16 16 16 16 17 17 17 17 18 18 18 18 19 19 20 20 20 21 21 22 23 33 24 24 0 0000 •0017 00175 •0192 0 0349 •0367 0 0524 •0542 0 0699 •0717 0 087S •0892 01051 •1069 0 1228 •1246 01405 •1423 01584 •1602 0 1763 0 1944 0 2126 02309 0 2493 0 2679 0-2867 0 3057 03249 0 3443 •1781 •1962 •2144 •2327 •2512 •2698 •2886 •3076 •3269 •3463 •0070 •0087 0244 •0262 •0419 0437 •0594 •0612 •0769 •0787 •0963 •1139 •1317 •1495 1673 •1853 •2035 •2217 •2401 2586 2773 •2962 -3153 •3346 -3541 •3739 •3939 •4142 •4348 4557 •0928 •0945 •I 104 •1122 •1281 •1299 •1459 •1477 •1638 •1655 •1817 •1998 •2180 •2364 2549 •2736 •2924 3115 3307 •3502 3699 3899 •4101 •4307 •4515 •4727 •4942 •5161 •5384 •5612 •1835 •2016 •2199 •2382 •2568 •2754 2943 •3134 •3327 3522 •3719 •3919 •4122 •4327 •4536 4748 •4964 •5184 •5407 •5635 •5867 <6104 6346 •6594 6847 7107 •7373 7646 7926 8214 8511 •8816 9131 9457 •9793 24' -0998 1016 1175 •1192 -1352 •1370 -1530 •1548 •1709 1727 •1890 •2071 •2254 •2438 •2623 2811 3000 •3191 3385 3581 •3779 3979 •4183 •4390 4599 4813 5029 5250 •5475 5704 5938 6176 •6420 6669 6924 7186 7454 7729 8012 -8302 8601 8910 9228 9556 9896 42 1908 2089 2272 •2456 -2642 •2830 •3019 3211 3404 3600 3799 4000 4204 •4411 •4621 4834 •5051 •5272 •5498 •5727 5961 6200 6445 6694 6050 7212 •7481 •7757 8040 8332 •8632 -8941 9260 9590 •9930 48 6 9 13 6 9 13 6 9 13 6 10 13 6 10 13 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 II II II 2' 10 10 10 10 II II II II II 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 14 14 14 IS 13 13 14 14 14 14 15 IS 15 15 16 16 16 17 17 18 18 IS 19 20 0 3640 3659 0 3839 •3859 0 4040 •4061 0-4245 •4265 0-4452 •4473 0 4663 04877 0 5095 0 5317 0 5543 0 5774 0-6009 0 6249 0 6494 0 6745 •4684 •4899 5117 •5339 •5S66 5797 •6032 •6273 •6519 6771 •4770 4791 >4986 •5008 5206 -5228 •5430 •S452 5658 -5681 5891 •6128 6371 •6619 •6873 7133 7400 7673 7954 •8243 8541 -8847 9163 9490 •9827 30 5914 6152 6395 •6644 6899 7159 •7427 7701 -7983 •8273 857f •8878 9195 9523 9861 36 •5820 •5844 6056 6080 •6297 •6322 •6544 6569 •6796 -6822 7080 -7346 -7618 7898 -8185 -8481 •8785 •9099 •9424 •97S9 18 19 40 41 42 43 44 0 7002 •7028 •7054 0-7265 •7292 •7319 07536 •7563 •7590 0-7813 •7841 <7869 0 8098 •8127 -8156 0 8391 0 8693 0 9004 0-9325 0-9657 o•8421 •8724 •9036 9358 •9691 6' 8451 •8754 9067 •9391 •9725 12' IS 2o! 25 16.

NATURAL TANGENTS Proportional Parts 0' 1 0000 1 0355 1 0724 1 1106 11504 1 1918 1 2349 1 2799 1 3270 1 3764 1 4231 1 4826 1 5399 16003 1 6643 1 7321 1 8040 1 8807 1 9626 2 0503 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 I4S 246 356 475 605 747 904 078 271 487 732 011 331 705 145 4' •0035 •0392 •0761 •1145 •1544 •I960 •2393 2846 •3319 •3814 4335 4882 •5458 •6066 6709 7391 8115 •8887 •9711 0594 •154 •257 367 •488 •619 762 921 096 291 511 758 041 •366 745 •193 730 386 207 •264 9 677 I I 66 14 67 19-74 30 14 63-66 6' 12' •0070 •0428 •0799 1184 I58S 2002 •2437 •2892 •3367 3865 •4388 •4938 •5517 •6128 •6775 •7461 •8190 •8967 •9797 •0686 •164 267 379 •500 633 778 937 115 312 534 785 071 402 787 242 18 •0105 •0464 •0837 •1224 •1626 •2045 2482 2938 3416 •3916 •4442 •4994 •5577 6191 6842 24' 0141 •0501 •0875 •1263 •1667 2088 •2527 •2985 •3465 •3968 •4496 •5051 •5637 6255 •6909 30' •0176 •0538 •0913 •1303 •1708 •2131 2572 •3032 3514 •4019 4550 •5108 •5697 •6319 •6977 34' •0212 •0575 •0951 •1343 •1750 •2174 •2617 •3079 •3564 •4071 •4605 •5166 •57S7 6383 •7045 •7747 •8495 9292 0145 •1060 •204 <311 -426 •552 •689 -840 3 006 •191 •398 •630 •895 •198 •548 4 959 449 42' •0247 •0612 •0990 •1383 •1792 •2218 -2662 •3127 •3613 •4124 •4659 •5224 •5818 •6447 •7113 •7820 •8572 •9375 •0233 •1155 •215 •322 438 •565 •703 •856 024 •211 •420 •655 923 •230 •586 S 005 <503 48' •0283 •0649 •1028 •1423 •1833 •2261 •2708 •3175 •3663 •4176 4715 •5282 -5880 -6512 -7182 •7893 8650 •9458 •0323 •1251 •225 333 •450 •578 •718 •872 042 •230 •442 •681 •952 •264 •625 050 •558 54' •0319 •0686 •1067 •1463 •1875 •2305 •2753 •3222 •3713 •4229 •4770 •5340 •5941 •6577 •7251 •7966 •8728 •9542 •0413 1348 •236 •344 •463 •592 •733 •888 060 •251 •465 •706 •981 •297 •665 •097 •614 6 6 6 7 7 7 8 8 8 9 2' 3' 4' S' 12 18 24 12 IS 25 13 19 25 13 20 27 14 21 28 14 22 29 IS 23 30 16 24 31 16 25 33 17 26 34 30 31 32 33 34 36 38 39 41 43 45 48 50 53 57 60 64 68 73 78 46 47 48 49 50 SI S2 5] 54 55 56 57 58 5? 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 8S 86 87 88 89 9 18 27 36 10 19 29 38 10 20 30 40 I I 21 32 43 I I 23 34 45 12 24 36 48 13 26 38 51 14 27 41 55 15 29 44 58 16 31 47 63 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 7 9 3 4 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 8 5 5 6 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 7532 •7603 •7675 •8265 •8341 •8418 •9047 •9128 •9210 •9883 1 9970 2 0057 •0778 0872 •0965 174 •278 391 •513 646 •793 954 133 33S 558 812 102 •437 829 •292 •184 •289 402 526 660 808 971 152 354 •582 839 134 •474 •872 •343 194 300 414 539 •675 824 2 989 •172 •376 606 •867 165 •511 •915 •396 7 8 7 9 8 9 II 9 12 10 12 13 14 16 10 13 14 16 18 20 23 27 31 37 44 54 67 86 114 9 14 19 I I 16 21 12 19 25 15 22 29 18 26 35 5 671 6 314 7115 8 144 9 514 I I 43 14 30 19 08 28 64 57-29 «' •789 107 •174 243 850 •912 S 976 6 041 460 •691 •772 855 6 940 7 026 535 •612 •596 •700 300 396 •495 <806 7-916 8 028 •357 386 •777 8 915 9 058 -205 513 •643 9 845 10 019 10 199 10 385 10 579 10780 10 988 11 -205 I I 91 15 06 20 45 31'82 71 62 12' 12 IS 21 33 81 16 46 20 69 85 18' 12 43 15 89 22 02 35-80 95-49 24' 12 71 13 00 13-30 1362 13 95 1846 16 35 16 83 17 34 17-89 22-90 23 86 24 90 26 03 27 27 38 19 40-92 44 07 47 74 52 08 143 2 191-0 286 5 S73 0 114-6 30' 36' 42' 48' 54' I I 21 32 43 13 27 40 54 17 34 51 69 23 46 68 91 p.p cease t o be sufficiently accurat« 1' 5 4 27O .

Sc. 6d. Evaluation and Manipulation—VII. Construction. E. the Binomial Theorem—IV. Differentiation—XII. Simple Equations—VI. Functions.A. 374 pages with 109 diagrams. Differentiation of Functions of a Single Variable—VI. Volume II By P . Mensuration of Regular Solids— XIII.Sc. The Exponential. Revision Exercises in Arithmetic—IX. Simpson's Rule—XI. Quadratic Equations. ABBOTT. Graphs. Solution of Triangles. Combinations. Determination of Laws—X. MARSHALL. The Definite Integral. The Binomial Theorem—XI. and G. Elementary Rules—IV. Vectors. Compound Angles.A.. Quadratic Equations—XVI. Permutations. MAHON. This three-volume work covers the full course in Mathematics taken by students working at Technical Colleges for the National Certificate. net I. The Trigonometrical Ratios— XI. KERRIDGE. Price 9s. Measurement of Area. Trigonometrical Equations—VIII. you are recommended to obtain NATIONAL CERTIFICATE MATHEMATICS Prepared under the general direction of P. Some Standard Methods of Integration—XIV. The Trigonometrical Ratios—VI. Fundamental Geometrical Truths—X.# V . the Solution of Triangles— IX. B. and is particularly well adapted for use by students working privately. Limits. Maxima and Minima—VIII. B. 356 pages with ug diagrams. Integration—VII. 6d. B. Arithmetical and Geometrical—V. E.A. Volume I I I By P. II you want to go still further with your mathematical studies. B. Maxima and Minima. The contents of each volume are as follows: Volume I By P . Trigonometry. Indices and Logarithms—II.Sc.Other mathematical text-books in the " Teach Yourselt" series are listed on page ii of this book. Mensuration of Linear Figures. Price 8s. and C. Sine and Cosine Rules—VII. ABBOTT. Applications of the Calculus. A B B O T T . Simple Formulae—III. The Addition Formulae. Price 8s. Algebra. and H . A B B O T T . The Determination of Laws— III. More Difficult Graphs—IX. Indices. Algebraic Operations—V. Simultaneous Quadratics —III. Elementary Graphical Work—VIII. Differentiation and Integration of Trigonometrical Functions—X. Graphic Solution of Trigonometrical Equations. . Logarithms —IX. Functions. B. Harder Formulas. Differential Coefficient—V. the Circle and Solids—IV. net I. The Circle and Circular Measure—XII. The Solution of Equations—II. 320 pages with 98 diagrams. Progression. Mean Values. B. B..A. Physical Applications of Integration—XII. 6d. Variation—XIV. net I. More Difficult Graphical W o r k . Hyperbolic and Logarithmic Functions —XIII..

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