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MATHEMATICAL PHYSICS
VOLUME
I.
ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM
ELEMENTARY MATHEMATICAL ASTRONOMY. By
C.
C.
W.
BARLOW, M.A.,
B.Sc.,
and G. H. BRYAN, Sc.D., F.R.S.
PROPERTIES OF MATTER, By
3s. (3d.
C.
J.
L. WAGSTAFF, M.A.
TECHNICAL ELECTRICITY.
B.Sc.,
By
Professor H. T.
os. 6d.
DAVIDOK,
and R. W. HUTCHINSON, B.Sc.
MODERN NAVIGATION.
7s.
By WILLIAM HALL,
B.A.,
R.N.
6d.
MATHEMATICAL PHYSICS VOLUME I.A.Sc. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM BY C. W. C. NEW OXFORD 1913 ST. AV.C. 1 JOINT AUTHOR OF " ELKMEVTARY MATHEMATICAL ASTRONOMY LONDON: W. M.. . OLIVE (Umoemfg HIGH ST... B. BARLOW. B.
.
SATISFACTORY knowledge of Physics must include Wide reading about apparatus.PREFACE. rendered nearly worthless by the passage of a few years. which is intended to supplement the ordinary textbook. Every good textbook must therefore contain many numerical examples. is devoted exclusively to the mathematical aspect of the subject. A special point has been made of the elementary mathematics of the electric discharge in vacuum tubes and of radioactivity. Enough is given to " " popular treatises really intelligible. This book. numerical or geometrical point of view. But the mechanical interactions and numeriresults is often cal relations between physical quantities remain. A and Mathematics. The the quadrant electrometer and the tangent theory galvanometer survives. which introduce new ideas and mechanism. processes. when the construction of the of instruments changes. essential to the type of instrument Only such descriptions of instruments are given as are and are involved in its General facts are considered from a mathematical theory. make some of the .
visable to go beyond the rudiments of the Differential and Integral Calculus arithmetical. C.VI PREFACE. . BARLOW. and most of the work is frankly A great advantage of working out calcuis lations in Electricity that the student accustoms himself to deal accurately with quantities ranging over the widest diversity of magnitude. W. to which I am greatly indebted. Most of the numerical results used are taken from Kaye and Laby's Physical and Chemical Constants (1911). In an elementary textbook the mathematics is necesIt has not been thought adsarily a little restricted. C. March 1913. .
CONDUCTORS 98 121 CHAPTER CHAPTER CHAPTER VIII. . MISCELLANEOUS ELECTROSTATIC PHENOMENA 55 CHAPTER V. PROBLEMS ON FLOW OF ELECTRICITY IN .CONTENTS. THERMOELECTRICITY 256 . 3d I 304 . VI.. . 228 CHAPTER XIII.. IV..... 72 87 CHAPTER ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE CHAPTER VII....... 151 X.. THE MAGNETIC FIELD MAGNETIC FIELD OF CURRENTS BALLISTIC DISCHARGE AND IX. FLOW OF ELECTRICITY IN ELECTROLYTES .. POINT CHARGES 1 II..... 197 . CHAPTER XIV.... PAGE CHAPTER CHAPTER CHAPTER CHAPTER I. . CHAPTER XV. .. . MEASUREMENT 177 OF CAPACITY CHAPTER XL INDUCED CURRENTS PERMEABILITY . . CHAPTER XII.. CHARGED CONDUCTORS INSULATING MEDIA 22 41 III.. .. ANSWERS INDEX ... THEORY OF UNITS CORPUSCULAR THEORY 269 277 .
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magnets. we are obliged to disregard both the historical order of electrical discovery and the most convenient order of experimental demonstration. I. Point Charges. and that these can be localised on small portions of matter represented by gilt pith The air does not permit the spheres in experiments. The order of thought is therefore outwards. but which are simpler than the realities encountered in experiment. ment was to attract light bodies by rubbed amber. batteries and coils. We assume that there exist 2. such as electrified spheres. mathematical principles.CHAPTER I. Charges of Electricity. POINT CHARGES. so that it is unnecessary to aim at more than transforming vague acquaintance into exact knowledge. The charge can be of either of two kinds. The laws involved in this apparently simple phenomenon As our object is to apply are very complicated indeed. escape of these charges and they can therefore be said to be insulated. for granted that these objects are already more or less familiar. called Positive and Negative. from conceptions formed It is taken in the mind to objects visible in the world. We assume that certain laws are obeyed. Ley den jars. begin with such ideas as can be precisely defined and We immediately subjected to mathematical processes. M. A charged body so small that its linear dimensions can be disregarded is called a Point Charge. Order of Treatment. 1 . The consequences of these laws will prove to be exactly applicable to the ordinary bodies met with in experiments. PH. The earliest electrical experi1.
If (jj and q z be the charges. d be the small charges. and with great accuracy by the Cavendish Experiment ( 3). B. cannot be found separately. The mutual repulsion between A and B = o/>/fcr2 . . Both the laws and the assumption on which it rests are verified roughly by Coulomb's Experiment 5). and Find the forces which and C would repels C with 10. but r is the same in all the experiments. Ex. measured in any convenient be the force and r the distance apart. F OT F F= q l q^r* q iq . generally. c. itself provides a method of measuring charges. B D B D D B m We So put mbd = x. The force exerted by one point 3.'. It is a repulsion if the charges are both positive or both negative and an attraction if one is positive and the other negative. The law ( are small charged bodies. exert respectively on at the same distance apart. and if . C. Let a. This law assumes that Electric Charge is a measurable quantity.2 POINT CHARGES.lkr*. The equations are mab 20. units. Quantity of Experimental properties are that a positive and a negative point charge attract one another but two like point charges. mbd = 350/30 = 112. and mac = 30. mbc = 10. And. mad = 35. = mad x mbc = 35 x 10 = 350. are asked to find the forces x and y which and C exert on D. k being a constant. repel one another. But . It is proportional to the quantity of electricity in each. a constant. If A be placed 6 inches from it repels it with a force of 20 (quite arbitrary) units. and to the inverse square of the distance between them. &. charge on another acts along the straight line joining them. . of a charge can be called a The magnitude Electricity. A. since every charge is proportional to the force it would exert on a given charge at a given distance. mod = Obviously m. Coulomb's Law. B y. 6. mac = 30. . the fundamental laws of any science are proved in the most absolute way by the agreement of complicated phenomena with the consequences deduced from these laws. . and therefore we can put the force = mab units. m?abcd . Si m ii ari v wca = 350/20 = 17. At the same distance A repels C with a force of 30 and with 35. both positive or both negative. 1. a.
at distance 8 apart. so the charges are unlike and may be called The algebraic sum is 14 and .'. Assuming that the total charge is unaltered. but redistributed so that the spheres are charged equally. Two precisely equal small spheres have charges 5 and 19 arbitrary units .POINT CHARGES. They are allowed to touch. with a force 20. the charges will be 7 19 and 5. the repulsion = JL k 7x7 ' = 256 19 = x 5 49 25 _ ~ Torsion Head . and attract each other. Ex. 2. find the force exerted subsequently if the distance apart of the spheres be o. Coulomb's Law gives 20 in = 5 x 19 20 x 8 x 8 5 x 19 256 19 terms of the arbitrary units used. After contact. There is attraction. and 7 after contact.
we can put cos ^0 If. an insulating rod. D. The lever is in equilibrium under (1) couple proportional to the angle of twist 8 f a of the wire. A = straight line which wire. as usual. Hence . the final equation of equilibrium L(6 is + a) = lq* cos J 6 /CD* = q. 2 and the equation becomes L(0 sin \ a) J 6. is small. second capable of holding an electric charge insulated. = + = = .cos 2 0/4Z sin 0. . and therefore he If the instrument is is enabled to measure charges directly.4 POINT CHARGES. mounted on in a fixed position within the glass cylinder so that the rod is vertical and the balls C and just touch in the zero position of the lever. to be used to prove Coulomb's Law. withdraw the ball the charge 2q Replace D D To use the instruand give a charge 2q to it. 2. equally shared between : is C and D. and let the position angle DOC of the lever be 6. (3) The weight of the bar and the equal and contrary vertical component of the tension these balance. Formula for Torsion Balance. and an equal and contrary force at the horizontal component of the tension in the OD If OC forces form a couple I. and repulsion takes place. A D DOG 5. Iq* is cos i B/CD Z CD. for the lever is zero. and denoted by L(6 f a). can be set gilt pith ball. 1. these = = . Let the torsion head be now turned through an angle a so as to bring the balls nearer. the torsion angle at A should also be zero if the wire be without twist. q^/lB If the experimenter always turns the torsion head so far as to bring to a constant value. and etched on a surrounding glass When the position angle cylinder. Fig. The angular motion of the lever can be read by a scale concentric with it. (f is proportional to 6 f a. ment. where L is a constant 2 z q /CD acting in the (2) The electrical repulsion .
000 kilo: = = = = = . The units used inter6. 90 when the torsion head is not turned. e = 10. 3. 6 is Find what Here q~ e3 Since q multiplied by 2~ It becomes 9 '4. and therefore 2&1 to one part in a million. One Ib. = = second. The unit The absolute unit of work is the erg. different and much more accurate verification of the law is given in A 31. halved. &z (0 + a) should be constant. again repelled. The one joule per practical unit of power is the Watt. now removed. = Ex. The charge therefore G returns carried by the to touch 7). 5 the charges are left unaltered and the head turned to give a series of readings a for different readings 0. the work done by one dyne in moving its point of application one centimetre in its direction. Then. A charge is given to the instrument. When 453'6 gm. and has very nearly the same value at all attainable force localities. = = . if be not large. will be. Find what values of a make 6 = Here the approximate formula may be assumed. If g be the acceleration of a body The falling freely. How much must it be turned to make 6 = 60 ? Note that these values of 6 are not small. It is stated (Chanev Our Weights and Measures} that 1 inch 2539998 centimetres. and Berlin at the sealevel. 2/3 . The absolute unit of power is the power Joule. 2. and therefore the exact formula must be used. and 6 is observed 1. the weight of one gram is g dynes. of an agent which performs one erg per second. nationally are based on the centimetre. dealing with engineering problems one can use the rough 5 furlongs 5/8 mile approximations 1 kilometre 1 mile 1*6 kilometres 1 ton 1 tonne 1. fixed ball and shares D <x Let 6 is = 15 when is is a = 0. Paris. and o. = .POINT CHARGES. The practical unit of work is the 10 7 ergs. grams. gram and second. Ex. Ex. of force is a dyne this is defined as the which would give unit acceleration to a particle whose mass is a gram. its charge. and and . . Absolute Units in Physics. 15 when a = 0. value of g is 981 in London.
: Hence q. balls. The horizontal force on each = q*/G* = g 8 /36 dynes. We An Electric Field is a region of space 8. provided that the surrounding medium is air at normal temperature and pressure. 1 and r 1. A But 6 = 2 x 8 x sin 8. 3. For small deflections. 1 in air. is The formula which expresses Coulomb's law But q { F = *i^. Find the absolute value of q. and F = = = F= when = Ex. They hang from the same point by fine insulating cords 8 cm. _ x be the distance between the deduce that if x be the divergence (length or angle) between the leaves of a gold leaf electroscope. at a distance of one centimetre. I = length of cord. 2. whence q = 37 '8. if q /O show that approximately q = x Vwg/21. We may speak of the field of one only of the bodies . If w weight in grams of each pith ball. we can substitute vacuum for normal air in The practical difference is quite negligible. tan = 3/ A 7 55. the resolved repulsion perpendicular to the cord = q 2 cos 0/36. If 6 be the slope of either cord to the vertical. The weight of ball = 98*1 dynes and its resolved part = 98*1 sin 0. and with the vertical. 1. qt Hence It 1 for air.= 36 x 98 '1 x . Electrostatic Unit Charge. within which the influence of charged bodies extends. charge 2q is shared between them and they repel each other till equilibrium is reached at a distance 6 cm. or of Quantity of electricity is such a quantity that if it were collected at a point it would exert a repulsion of one dyne on an equal and similar quantity similarly collected. prove that q = 21 Vwg sin 3 6 sec 0.l> POINT CHARGES. Ex. the charge is roughly proportioned to a/2. using the above unit of charge. Ex. q = the charge = angle which each cord makes on each. The Unit of Charge 7. . Two equal pith balls have masses '10 gm. If preferred. These must be equal. apart.. the definition. q~ = 36 x 98 "1 x tan 0. 3/ v'55~. long. sin = 3/8. Field.
Hence. in any direction. They can therefore be compounded by the law of the Parallelogram or the Triangle of Forces. FG = 2. The component fields are 1 and o in lines ABCDEF # FD in AF and 3/( V3) 2 = 1 and 1 FB and FD. . charges at J. Unit Field Ex. is 3. or of all of them. the force which a charge q would exert on unit charge at distance r is q X 1/r2 Hence the field of a point charge has magnitude q/r~. Field or Force at a given point of the electric field. q/r*. If air be the medium. the field at a point at which a unit charge would experience a force of one dyne. direction and sense by a straight line. the side of the hexagon being 1 cm. Field Strength. 5. and its direction is along the radius r. Obviously the field of a point charge extends to infinity. but no influence is large enough to be detected at a considerable distance from a point charge. = V3~. The following definitions are obvious : Fig. F . Composition of Fields. . The Find the field at are 1. is the resolute in that direction of the force which would be exerted on unit charge at the point considered. if the electric distribution in its neighbourhood be supposed unaltered. 7 considered.POINT CHARGES. are the forces which these distributions would exert on a unit charge at that point. representable in magnitude. Resolute of Field. . Intensity. 5. D. By definition. or of any number. is the force which a unit positive point charge would experience if placed at the point considered.3. It follows that Field Strength is a vector quantity. O.3. 0. 1. (Fig. + = 9. but due to two different distributions. are the six angles of a regular hexagon. 3). The distance Ffi = and EF produced. the fields at the same point. and obeying the ordinary vector laws.
find the the centre of the hexagon. F 60 be the /. And since the works done by different forces are additive. BCD 1. but it is usual to take the potential as zero at any point infinitely distant from all the charges in the field. 2 '732. If is a square of 10 cm.D.D. of Hence. F = 2 (3  V3)* + (2 V3) 2 = 24  V3 = Its 13608. perpendicular to CF in the direction 2 VS. 1 1O. 1. or for all. 3. or excess of potential at one point over that at another point. Potential. 2. 1 makes an angle tan = 2 V3/(3  V'3) + A/3 = 6 with CF produced where = 70 nearly.v'3. find the field at the centre of the square and at the middle point of each side. A at the corners in succession. side. = field. is the work which the electric forces due to charges in the field would do on a unit positive point charge travelling This (in air) from the first point to the second point. Hence Ex. can arbitrarily choose the point of zero potential.). unit charge is supposed not to alter the distribution of the actual charges in the field.8 POINT CHARGES.(1 + 1) cos 30 = 3 . The Potential Difference (P. Sum of resolutes along = The sum (1 + 5) cos 60 of resolutes 1) sin EA = 6 (5 if CF produced . or for any selection of them. Ex. direction F= = 3'70. We We . and has charges 1. This work may be estimated for any one of the charges present. In other media than air the same definitions hold if we imagine the unit f ve charge to travel from point to point along an infinitely narrow tunnel bored through the medium and occupied by air or vacuum. field at With the same data as in the above exercise. or some. the potential at a point due to a group of charges is the algebraic sum of the potentials due to the charges separately. The Potential at a point is the P. or all of the charges in the field. The implied assumption that the work from point to point is independent of the path of the unit fve charge is proved in the next paragraph. can therefore speak of the potential at a point due to one. at that point over a point of zero potential.
The formula III. If chosen as a position of zero potential.ST OS^' . Drop perpendicular RT on OS (Fig. quantities for every small arc RS we A to get. We shall generally denote the potential r be the distance. Potential Difference due to a Point Charge in ARSB any path from A Let q be the charge at . The work from StoS=q. in limit. Potential at and A = qjOA. 4. than air is given in V= q/r. and not on the form of the path ARSB. in the limit 'RS'o& ST 08 OR q =: q.. 9 air. equal to Fig. Q~ B= = 1 Adding such ultimately. if media other Chapter . Potential difference between A and work from B = q \OA OB) It is evident that this depends only on positions of and B. 11. the potential A B be at A infinite In the mathematical theory we choose B to be at an distance from every point charge in the field. OR. Rio S The work done by = this force as the charge moves from *8 ST ' 1 But . Its component along arc RS is. Hence OB = oo . l/OB = 0. The force on unit charge at S B\ R = q/OS*. for by V\ hence.POINT CHARGES. 4). to and S two points very near together. and OS* = OS.
5) be indefinitely near points on an equipotential surface. Composition of Potentials. point charges q lt (/. . . And. the whole work done by all of A them on a unit charge travelling from to oc. 0. Eqnipotential Surfaces are loci of points in space Each surface can be which have the same potential. That is. ">. . at 0. therefore the field at any point in space is normal o the equipotential through that point. 4 =q /O l A l "We can write this V = 2q/OA = for 2q/r any finite number (however great) of point charges. Hence the force acting on this charge is perpendicular to PQ.D. The usually a plane. the field at P (shown by arrow) is perpendicular of to 011 the equipotential every indefinitely small arc surface. considered. equipotential lines in a diagram are the lines in which the equipotential surfaces are cut by the plane of the diagram (see Figs. the P.. taking the limit. . If there be several .. specified by the common potential of all its points. Evidently the equipotential surfaces of a point charge are a set of concentric spheres as in Fig.. 7). 6. P P and Q is zero. An Equipotential Line is the line in which an equipotential surface is cut by any surface considered. If and Q (Fig..10 POINT CHARGES. and r its distance from point A 13. 6. potential at A (in air) = . 12. . .. and the field is I PQ everywhere radial. Fig. . dq being element of charge. and consequently no work would be done on a unit f ve charge travelling from P to Q. "dq r for a continuous distribution.
POINT CHARGES. 11 Fig. 0. . Fig. 7.
If  P drawn for the potential 7=0.12 POINT CHARGES. 60/23. 11/3 30/7. 5/2. (1 + 5) /I + ( 3  3) / ^3"+ 0/2 = 62 V3~= 2'54. 1. Since V 7=3. N SN F 9. r = 4 cm. . A continuous line drawn in space whose direction at every point is that of the field at that point is called a Line of Force. Draw 10 placed at points a set of equipotential lines for the charges 10 and at 10 cm. 11/6. 3. therefore lines of force cut equipotentials orthogonally.' Since the resultant field at any point is perpendicular to the equipotential surface at that point (13). ^ '/* 30/13.andO. 12. be a point at which the potential is + V. 8. With 14. Similarly two different equipotential surfaces cannot . 2. apart. lines due to a charge = 2. 7 + V =3. potentials at For V 1 on each of the five circles of radius SP touch two points whose distances from are the corresponding values of JVPj. && 8/3 ^ ^ 10/3. 9/4. 7 + 7 =2.] V =  Fig. 7=3. 9. 10. 2. 30/11 The curves for 7 negative are bisecting perpendicularly. S and (Fig. Of course 7=0 gives the straight line Similarly for 7=2. and so on. 4. Two lines of force cannot cut one another except at a For wherever the field point of zero or of infinite field. 7/3. described like those for 7 positive. ) In the figure the lines are 10/SP = 10/iVP constructed as follows Describe about 2. 13/4. : Sa series of circles of radii SP = If If If 7J. or 10/JVP = V + 10/SP. find the An*. With the data of the worked example. 15 2/3 7 = 1. 7 + Then'10/SP = 10/SP = W/NP = IQ/SP = 10/NPz = 10/SP = 10/iVP 3 l 5/4. 4/3. 60/11. when [The figure is printed to a scale of f. Ex. 3. 3. 10/3. The figure was 7. find the potentials at the centre of the square and at the middle points of its sides. 17/4. 23/6. Ex. 1. 1. NP = NP. 5/6. Lines of Force. when 12/2 = 6 cm. 40/9. 40/17. the data of Ex. Ex. 7 is drawn N to a scale of ^. = + 12. and centre of hexagon. interchanging 8 and N. = NPl = l 13/3. /. 2. 40/13. 5. 3. 6 . is finite its direction is determinate. 60/17. 6 shows the equipotential r q/r. 17/6.
of Field or Intensity. Let is the point and q the charge. It is immaterial whether this be large or small. tary line comprising an infinite infinite. The lines of force or equipotentials due to different charge distributions can lie within the same region. Of course a " uni" is a group of lines. is an arbitrary number. Fig. for the potential cannot have two different values at one point. Plnx of Force. be 15. the number of lines which pass through any area A of a sphere. must be proportional to A. and cut one another.POINT CHARGES. To speak more precisely. and therefore the lines of force Their number is are straight lines radiating from 0. or 16. Of course we are at liberty to consider the lines of force due to one only of the charged bodies. be divided into as many as we equal submultiples like. N number of individuals. tional line. . whose centre is 0. define the Flux of Force. We P . P but we shall classify them as unitary lines. The lines should be regarded as distributed equably or symmetrically in all directions around 0. integral or fracfor each unitary can as above described. 13 meet one another. 8. or to any selection. 8). where N N . of a point charge q at Consider the lines at (Fig. The field at any point in the straight line OP. through any small area as equal to the number of unitary lines which cut through that area. The whole surface of a sphere of radius r is 471r2 hence each of our unitary lines should pass through an area AinP/N. Lines of Force of a Point Charge. The number lines per of unitary unit area is N/4mi*. which all pass through the same area 4nrr2 /N described on the sphere.
4?r . making an angle <f> with is the angle the area A on spherical surface. The vector quantity Field = = + . may be called Hence drawn Resolute of Field in any direction = Number But of lines of force. through A 17. Maxwell N/4wq. be the projection of S on the spherical surface. 8 cos</>. " unit area for 8 = F cos X N/4<7rq. N N= . number N was quite Faraday arbitrary. be very small. . the field of a single point charge. per unit area. Maxwell Tubes of a Point Charge. if we choose q. perpendicular to that direction. SN/4rq. = < P A Flux through S flux The " flux per and is equal to the product of F cos <. our unitary lines lines or tubes. Then if A between the field at =. r hence the flux through A is AN/^Trr2 radius OP 2 therefore 1/r 3 But the field is q/r F/q. + field number of Faraday perpendicular to any small area tubes per unit area x 47r. from q But is ( 15) the whole number of lines originating hence 4arq lines pass outward from charge q. and the flux is equal to FAN/4nrq. for the present. In 15. Hence A = We F . by the constant quantity N/4<Trq. then our lines are called Faraday Unit Tubes and we have the statements that and that the q Faraday tubes originate from charge ? . we have seen that the flux per unit area through the small area S Two If = Normal component of the field x we choose N = 4arq. let the area S be oblique. and perpendicular to First let the area can regard A as part of a sphere of the lines of force. <f> = FAN/^irq = F cos <. the normal component of the field at P.14 POINT CHARGES. . different conventions have been adopted to dene it. Considering. Next. and every line which goes through one area goes through both. 16 the Tubes. so that and the normal to S.
. cos solving normally. Surface Integrals.POINT CHARGES. =F l cos . 3 . The Surface Integral of a vector quantity over a given surface is the sum of the products of every indefinitely small element of the area by the resolved part of the vector along the normal to the surface. which re makes angles <J> lf 2. is 15 often called the Electric Displacement. . Hence the sum of products for all elements dS is the sum which pass outward (algebraic) of all the lines from through the whole surface S. <f>. Fcos . we first consider the surface integral of a point charge q situated at any point O cos the number of dS Every product (Pig. 9). F cos . . dS. lines of force from that proceed through dS ( 16. dS the element of surface.. = . To prove these theorems..) The surface integral of the electric field taken over any closed surface which does not contain any charge is zero. 3 .d8. Consequently number of Faraday the Electric Displacement (normal) Tubes per unit area. = 18. Therefore. + F < . </>! +F F. . . F be the resultant of F < < lt F. 17). . (II. . sum of of the resuljbant vector is the surface integrals of the component 19. summing. with the normal. . + . .) The Surface Integral of the electric field taken over any closed surface whatsoever 4rr algebraic sum of the charges within the surface. Gauss's Theorems.z . then. F 3 . and If and the normal. dS = F l cos 0! dS + cos 2 + F3 cos 3 dS + ^3 cos . (I.. then the surface integral augle between is the result of integrating or summing all the products < F F F cos If the vector <f>. the be the vector. The Surface Integral algebraic vectors. = .
Hence. q v q v q 3 etc. and may cut any even number of times. . the surface integral is zero 4nr x and. if any be due to a charge inside. . if otherwise.16 POINT CHARGES. have more than one point charge. entering as often Conseas it leaves. . . the surface integral 4<Tr x that charge. = 2O. Lines passing inward must be taken with the contrary sign. F= . Consider the closed surface When we l 8 formed by it $. every line from at least twice. . . and let contain no charge. be the fields due to q lt q v q^ Let 2 v y sepaThen the surface integral of Algebraic sum rately. due to Next consider the surface integral of the field any number of positive or negative charges. every must cut line from the surface once to pass subsequent cuts are as Hence the often inward as outward. 9. and $2 and the sides of the bundle. of the surface integrals of 2 v 3 But if any of these be due to a point charge outside the And surface. 10). Consider a bundle of lines of force starting from every point of an area 8 and terminating on an area 8. if all the charges be outside. if it cuts oftener. . algebraic sum is the number of lines of force which originate at 0. 4>Trq. the lines of force are generally curved. = . to enter must cut which cuts the surface and pass out. and the algebraic If Fig. quently the number of lines entering is exactly balanced by the number leaving. . Lines of Force due to any distribution. F F F . the corresponding surface integral is zero. be inside. and exactly balance. out. . The surface integral of field is zero over 8 ( 19) and it is evidently zero over the sides of . sum is zero. F F F . the surface integral algebraic sum of the charges inside. and.2 (Fig. If be outside. the = F . .
Hence the surface integral. and let $2 be a sphere of small radius described Fig. 12. the on $2 can be neglected except in so far as it is due to q. which contains no charges. 21. within any region of air space in which there is no air space charge. or . I. 17 the bundle. in any Fig. over 8 and $.. for these are formed by lines of force and consequently the normal component of the force is zero. If we divide the lines entering at S l into n unitary tubes in such a way that n the flux inward over $ p the same l = produced to $2 will determine n tubes leavlines ing at Sy and the number n of lines will equal the outward flux over a. we can suppose the lines of force drawn in such a manner that the number passing through any portion of any surface will equal the flux over that surface. thus drawn. is equal. Consequently. 10. about field q. for q/r* is ultimately infinite compared to any other M. but of contrary sign.z be taken small enough.termicharged space. will be continuous in unThat is. nate. 11. PH.POINT CHARGER. And these lines. Let ^contain only one point charge q. none will originate. or flux.. Fig. . Lines of Force originating from each Pointcharge in an Electric Field. If the radius r of S.
Cross Section of Tube of Force. =F F F= The field at any point = the number of Maxwell lines =F l { per unit area drawn at that point perpendicular to the field. 23. let S and S2 be portions of surfaces (equil 20). P2 be an arc of an orthogonal line (line of force). Hence the number of unitary lines through S2 is and none originate or terminate between 8 and $2 hence the number through 8^ is also 4<7rq. Properties of Equipotential Surfaces. POINT CHARGES. potentials) orthogonal to the lines of force (Fig. This is equal to 4rr x the number of Faraday tubes per unit area. And n/8. Let be the average field between ve charge P. Let # be two equipotentials for which the potentials V^ T2 differ very little. S Hence 8 is constant pressed by n 2 $2 for every orthogonal cross section of the same narrow bundle of lines. the number of lines passing outward total charge inside. by similar reasoning. In that case. that the total number of lines passing outward through $. and P2 so that the work done on unit 2 F + . 4nrq . and take S 19 and therefore $2 . If 8 contained more than one point charge such as q and q'. If Maxwell be taken. that is . 10. 8Z could be regarded as a set of spheres of indefinitely small radius described about these charges. through S l . = 4?r x total charge inside. so small that the fields may be considered uniform over them of values l and Then the equality of the surface integrals is exz F F . These theorems (from 19 onward) are consequences of Coulomb's Law and would not hold in the case of any different law of radial force. Let P.18 term. and we should have. We could have used Faraday lines instead of Maxwell lines. l t = lines 22. These lines are the general Maxwell lines for any distribution.
Observe in Figs.. . and F' represent the and 2 '. which depends on Coulomb's Law. or a minimum. It would not be true under any other (in Law of Force. or as the number of successive equipotentials (whose P. travelling 19 t =V l F. 6. If next Pfi be not orthogonal. average field component along PjP. The Potential cannot be a maximum. Potential per unit distance. 1) per unit length of line of force. reckoned in the direction of the field. For if it were a maximum.D. This property is deduced from Gauss's Theorem.V. 7 how the = successive equipotentials approach one another in regions where the field is intense. at any point in empty space unoccupied by a charge. But this work F= or. it would be possible to draw a closed surface around the point and so near it that the potential diminished along every outward normal. 24.Pf.PZ the Field at any point the Potential Gradient at that point.' between t F' X 1 '.. .D.POINT CHARGES. Hence the outward flux is everywhere positive./Distance. or as the reciprocal of the distance between successive equipotentials. Similarly the potential could not be a minimum. to Hence P is F. It is advisable to discriminate 1924) between theorems generally true and those which rest on the assumption of a special law of force. from P. the work 2 Consequently the resolved the potential gradient in field F' in any direction that direction. Note that these properties do not depend on the Law of Force (Coulomb's Law). = The Potential Gradient is the limit of the fraction It can be described as the Change of P. (V. But this is impossible ( 19).)IP. and the surface integral could not vanish. but follow directly from the = P P P P = definition of potential.
(2) If an equipotential surface. 25. is impossible ( 19). (1) Within a closed equipotential surface. at the same potential as A. consequently the surface integral outwards is positive. and there must be a charge within the surface. A. which is contrary to hypothesis. and is outwards within P. B (3) If the potential be constant throughout any finite region of space. The field is zero at every part of the surface within A. In the same way the potential cannot increase as we travel from in any region containing no charges. or less. provided it contains no charges. It therefore is constant. and a narrow slice of lying along a short length of the boundary of A. Regions of Constant Potential. the whole space is also at the same potential provided between A and it contains no charge. Let the within potential be diminishing as we travel from Consider a closed surface enclosing part of region P. at some points than at others. The proof is the same as for (1).20 POINT CHARGES. completely encloses another. no charges. it is also constant throughout all space continuous with this region. For let be the region of constant potential. B. the For otherwise the potential would be greater. containing potential is constant. and it would be possible to find a region of maximum or minimum potential which . A A A P + A .
nor the potential constant. Hence the field is not everywhere zero. substance through whose interior an electric charge can assume that any charge tends to move in the flow. Conductor is any portion of a 26. What is the same thing. it is always possible to describe a closed surface containing more positive. within any portion of space containing charges. Also the boundary of each conductor must be an equipotential surface. We first show that the field cannot be zero. It follows that Positive Charges in conductors flow from regions of higher to regions of lower potential . Conductors. and negative charges flow the other way.CHAPTER IL CHARGED CONDUCTORS. The Electric Distribution on a Conductor is entirely superficial. and therefore the potential cannot be constant. ward over such a surface will have a finite value. In a region of space within which electrical equilibrium is attained there can be no flow. 21 . For in a region containing charges. Hence the potential must have a constant value throughout the substance of every conductor. the Field within the substance of every conductor is zero when equilibrium is A We attained. The surface integral of the field outelectricity within it. But within the substance of a conductor in equilibrium the potential must be constant ( 26). Hence there is no electrical distribution other than superficial. same direction as that in which a charged body would be urged if situated at the same point. or negative. 27. positive or negative (19).
28. due jointly to this distribution and the external charges. by itself. This distribution is said to be Induced. If a the conducting substance.22 CHARGED CONDUCTORS. For the boundary is an equiConsequently potential surface. which contains no charges. No (2) No lines exist in a cavity completely surrounded by conducting matter. uniform within the conductor. The potential is constant within a hollow conductor. When electricity is in motion. If the conductor has zero charge. conductor be charged and have charges outside.e. the distribution on the surface is everywhere the algebraic sum of the Induced charge and that distribution of the original charge which would. . If the conductor is charged. the charge must distribute itself over the outside surface in such a manner as to produce a constant potential within the substance of the conductor and within any hollow completely enclosed. This only applies. the field is zero. line of force penetrates within the substance of a conductor. i. and containing no charges. the flow is usually through the interior of the conductor. Lines of Force (1) and Conductors. to electricity at rest. 1) the potential is constant inside. but there are charges outside. 25. then charges must appear on the outer surface of the conductor whose algebraic sum is zero and which are so distributed as to make the total potential. Since the potential is constant. in a space completely enclosed. containing no charges. For the field is zero. for they (3) Lines of force meet a conductor normally are always orthogonal to equipotentials. 29. this chapter we shall ignore any difference ( 68) that may exist between the constant potential within a hollow and the constant potential in ( For the purposes of Both will be called the Potential of the Conductor. produce constant potential inside. (4) If we have a charge f q within a hollow conductor. of course.
induces If the q on its inner surface. 14). Assuming Coulomb's law. therefore the angles OBC = OCB = But since < to BB' < = <.be the actual surface density. to show that the field within a uniformly charged sphere is zero.CHARGED CONDUCTORS. the two induced charges are each surface. conductor be uncharged. " Thus a charge + q. must terminate on the conductor. Let 88 19 SS2 be the areas BB'. therefore the projection of BB' on to a plane at B perpendicular to AB. CC' which the cone intercepts on the sphere. on a conductor and be the field just outside then is normal and is equal to the number of lines of force per unit area. Then OB OC. . Here q' always < q. the angle between the normal 8$! cos = and AB. . BAG. therefore . 30. If 4np' terminate. 4nrq lines 23 These (or q Faraday tubes) originate from it. Hence a charge q inside a hollow conductor " " induces f q on its inner surface and q on its outer In these cases. 4nrq lines originate from it of which some terminate on it and some do not. . F . Let be the centre. + q must appear on its outer surface. and consequently there must be a charge q on the inner conducting surface bounding the hollow. numerically equal to the inducing charge. and the induced charges are numerically smaller than the inducing ones. within a hollow " conductor. B'AC' indicate a double cone The chords whose vertex Sw is is A and whose solid angle indefinitely small (Fig. F F F= 47T(T. (5) If a charge 4. Uniformly Charged Sphere. or charge per unit area. lines originate from charge Hence <r. a charge and q' is induced q' appears on another part of the outside surface.q be outside an insulated uncharged conductor. and a the radius. + (6) If a. Let A be any point within the sphere. say.
hence the charges on 8S and S$2 are o.JAC by Coulomb's law. is zero. Therefore the total field at. = the = Similarly 8S. and therefore we have minimum potential at the centre of a positively charged figure. A A AO sphere. in more than CC'.24 CHARGED CONDUCTORS. It differ was shown by Maxwell that the force from 2 by so much as 1/36000. Z = A But the . Then. . So>.8/8' 1 and <r. This is true for every double cone with vertex at A. The Cavendish Experiment on Coulomb's Law. SS2 /AC Z hence But we have just shown that 8SJAB 2 these are equal and contrary. oc l/r. when Clark Maxwell called attention to his researches after several of his results had been rediscovered .S$ 2 would be Therefore their repulsions on unit f charge at z o. suppose that the nearer points exerted a larger repulsion in comparison with remoter points than Coulomb's law would give. hence SSJAB* surface density a. By symmetry is along towards 0. The great advances made by Cavendish were ignored and forgotten for nearly a century. who proved the law in 17711781. If Coulomb's law be not precisely true.SS. 31.is given uniform. . is urged from BB' repels the nearer to the remoter parts of sphere.. = . = 1 cos <f>/AB 2 solid angle subtended by 80. cos <^IAG Hence 8S at A. A . Experiments show that the potential is uniform and therefore there is neither a maximum nor a minimum and the accuracy with which the experiment can be carried out measures the accuracy within which Coulomb's law is established with certainty. but with less accuracy than Maxwell attained. less repulsion The contrary supposition that nearer points exerted a would make the potential a maximum at the centre.&SJAB* and <r. Hence the resultant field at is at a lower potential than A. where k does not This method of proving Coulomb's law was due to Cavendish.J. BB' SS2 /AC*.
Coulomb's own demonstration ( 5) of the law of the inverse square is not susceptible of anything approaching the same accuracy. the whole sphere acts. The field at D is <r. 6S . DB. Hence the field is 33. OD = and in Then OA OD = OB hence therefore OA/OB = OB/OD 2 . The resolute along OD = a. of resolutes. Uniformly Charged Sphere External Field. Potential of Uniformly Charged Sphere. hence OBA = AB/BD = OBD are similar. triangles OAB. 32. Make the same construction as . hence the resultant force due to. OB/OD = a/r. travel outside the sphere from infinity to any point D. Hence its magnitude is The ^ & field 8w.  The the same as that due to a point charge Q Hence if a unit +ve charge located at the centre 0. the field is . But IT (30). join . To show that the field of a uniformly charged sphere at an : external point is Q/?2 where r is the distance from the centre and Q is the whole charge. . Fig.SS/BD 2 acting along BD produced. by symmetry. and A be its inverse point {defined by the two relations that OA is a straight line 2 and that OA (radius) }. in direction OD. But 2 8o> f = 4rr . 14. cos <f>IBD* 2 = ^ dS cos <f>/A B\ resolute 8w= 88.CHARGED CONDUCTORS. D D . 15). <.8o>. the 4f7ro2 sum 2 . and angle BDO = Then the element of surfaces &S at B has charge <r8S. Let be the external point (Fig. cos ^/AB along OD is . hence the = o/r Now <r = Q surface area = 2 Q/4ira . 25 by others.
16. As in 30. Field of an Infinite Plane Disc Uniformly Charged. . 34. 1. Find the potential of each. The potential of A due to its own charge is x/a. DB'E' indicate a cone of small solid angle whose vertex is D. uniformly charged.e. Hence if FAF' be the plane which contains the point of contact of every to the tangent from sphere. can suppose the electrical distributions uniform. Hence the field due to a flat disc. and approach the surface. and let DBE. the ratio a2 /?*2 will ultimately reduce to 1. Their charges are x and y.26 CHARGED CONDUCTORS. is GD D 27TO. assuming c to be large compared with a and b. Q/a on the surface of the abruptly. then ultimately OD the potential 'But the potential does not alter Q/a. Hence the potential is the same. 2 . this plane cuts the sphere into two por D tions Hence the which exert equal forces on D. In Fig. Two small spheres have radii a and b. the charges on BB' and EE' DB are proportional to 2 hence the forces exerted at by these elements are equal. a. hence it also conductor and within its substance and throughout any cavities completely enclosed which contain no We (11) is Q/r. Their centres are at a distance c apart. field due to the nearer portion FGF' If the radius a be indefinitely increased and the distance of from the surface remains finite. D Fig. = = = = charges. Its value can infer the potential within the sphere. DE . If D r a.ndFGF' becomes a flat disc. i. work done on it is the same as if the charge of the sphere were concentrated at the centre. Ex. 16 let DB meet the sphere again in E. we consider c so large that we may neglect induced We electrification. Let us call the spheres A and tt.
Hence the and similarly that of B is + + y/c . whose direcFind the charges tion makes an angle 6 with c. total charge is unaltered. be p. If the two spheres be connected by Two a and a fine wire. is cos 6 hence the potential difference (or P. 2.D. If the charges induced be x and x.) due to the field is c cos 0. let their charges become x and if the common potential be V we have V = Q/p whence x and + x/a . yjb. find their subsequent potential and charges. then the total P. Ex. (Fig. resolved along . q and c. due to all causes The field H. B and at C. > hence x found. 17). Neglecting "A He cos 8 . If the charges be x' and y' we have Ex. are in a uniform field of magnitude H.x/c = V are found. Q/q + x/c  x/b. As they are connected by a conductor. 3. Two small sphere?. Ex.D. and B be now connected by a fine insulated wire.CHARGED CONDUCTORS. cos 6 + (x/a is  x/c)  (x/c  x/b). connected as above. CB. Then the potential of is potential of 27 is A A due to B's charge x/a x/e y/c. 4. When x. If A . radii small uncharged spheres whose centres are A and & are in the neighbourhood of a point charge Q Find their potentials. their potentials are equal say V. Q/q. H H = He This has to be zero . find the charges and potentials of each. Let CA. on each A B. The potentials of A and AB B when uncharged are Q/p. Then connected. V= and x'/a + y'/c = x'/c + y'/b.
Hx and the distance between their line of action is c sin 0. where L = H z c~ ( + if 6 j\ This = la if But we know from mechanical principles constant the motion is a be the angular acceleration. is ultimately = LS. Two 35. will indicate the field in a similar manner but the mathematical theory is . If two systems of charges would give the same potential at every point of . CHARGED CONDUCTORS. apart. ( 181. If they be originally uncharged and then put in a uniform electric field of unit strength. The forces exerted on the spheres are Hx. which approximately Hence the couple = = H 2 c. find the period of small oscillation (angular). 7.28 Ez.sin cos d f( + Ez. by a fine wire and suspended by a silk thread as in Figure 18. Hx c sin 0. Three small equal spheres of radius r have their centres at the corners of a triangle whose sides are a. Any elongated H conductor. Ez. 8. diameter are connected by a fine wire (of negligible capacity) so as to be 3 cm. 5. If / be the moment of inertia of the system about the centre of the wire. 18. Ez. and obviously the direction of the field is indicated by the direction of the line joining the balls when in equilibrium. more difficult. such as a thick wire with rounded ends. c. 6. b. spheres of 1 cm. The couple be small. Electric C and C' Images. field on the system. Find the ratio of their charges that all may be at the same potential. . calculate the charge on each when the line joining their centres is in the direction of the field. Find approximately the couple exerted by the . 184) that if a/0 be angular simple harmonic motion of period T where T= __ Hence 2?r // ( a + ~ &) Note that this experiment gives a means of measuring horizontal The apparatus consists of gilt pith balls connected electric fields. The field is proportional to the first power of the frequency . Fig.
G and ( 25) at every point within 8. 19. 20). 20. and therefore the Surface Integral ( 19) is zero. which contains no charge belonging to either of them. C' produce potential everywhere outside 8. If two such distributions produce the same potential throughout an extended region of space.CHARGED CONDUCTORS. they also give the same potential at every point within S (Fig. they give the same G' give the Fig. . within 8. outside of which no charge belonging to C and C' lies (Fig. if G and G' give the same potential at every point of a closed surface 8. then G and produce zero potential at every point of 8 and therefore Hence. This need not be true in the first case. the potential due to G and C' is zero everywhere outside 8. Similarly. is zero. In the second case. For C and zero potential both over 8 and at infinity. and therefore at all points between ( 25). Hence the field outside 8 is also zero. Fig. thereConsequently the total charge of G fore the total charges of the equivalent systems C and G' are the same. 19). For let C' denote the distribution produced by same potential. O . a finite closed surface 8. they also produce the same force or field ( 25). 29 G' together reversing every charge in C'. and either is called the Image of the other. They can be called equivalent distributions for the region considered.
Then q and are equivalent both for the inner surface and all points outside hence q is the image of Y for external points (Fig. 21). If a point charge q be inside a hollow conductor kept at zero potential. be called Y. 36. let the charge induced on the inner surface X X +Q r Fig. Let 8 be the surface of the conwhich we may call ductor (Fig. In both these cases a possibly complicated distribution X or Y has a simple image. for all points behind the plane " Earthed " means kept at zero potential. * tial of . there will be induced an electric distribution on the conductor X. By previous paragraph Q is the image of with respect to all inside points. Earthed Plane Conductor. 22). Y Y is ? (35). Although the potenthe earth is not precisely zero in the mathematical sense. the induced distribution be called equivalent to Q at A X. therefore Q and produce the same potential everywhere on 8 and everywhere in its interior. Fig. in front of infinite plane CE at distance c. Then its potential must be zero. 36. Use of Electric Images. The total amount of . Drop AC perpendicular to the plane. kept at zero potential. namely a point charge Q or q. it is small enough to be taken as zero for most practical purposes. so is that AC = CB = as in X If.g. A point charge Q put at A. 37. 22. A good earth connection is a metallic connection to a moist stratum . If a point charge Q be outside a hollow conductor.30 CHARGED CONDUCTORS. is c (Fig. and produce to B. a water pipe. 23). e. nor even precisely constant. 21.
Q/AD along AD produced and Q/BD 2 along DB. Let a be Charge Outside. By symmetry. AffQ) quite close to the surface.( Hence 19). a2 OB OB are inverse points with respect to the = . the outward field 47ro. replacing Q at B. as it should be ( 29). In the same way. = a =  cQ/2ir . = 2 Q AE AC _ i If o. A E*. the potential is due to Q at A . 23.r > a. 24). At any point D. as drawn. by the image  X the field at of 2 D is the resultant B(Q) Fig. On A so that OA.CHARGED CONDUCTORS. this is equivalent to 31 X B for all and to D Q at A and Q at B. If is in front. Fig. the 2 2 Q/AE Q/BE are equal and equally inclined to CE. got by resolving in the direction BA. Earthed Sphere. Hence the potential = Q {I/AD l/BD}. points in front of the plane. Their resultant is perpendicular to CE. forces .X. At E. Then A and B the radius of the sphere. Q at . = B = = sphere.be the surface density induced on the plane conductor at E. take a point s az/r. Thus the induced distribution has a density proportional to the inverse cube of the distance from A. Its magnitude. point charge at A at a distance A r. X 38. If X be the induced distribution on the sphere. 24. cenLet Q be a tre (Fig. is also equivalent to Q at CE.
t A..OP = OP: OA. and Q is the image of X for all inside points. And Q at for such points. is the image of Hence q at for all external points. The field at P is the Q/AP* along AP. and r \ sin / #P0 = PAB. at everywhere on the surface of the sphere. would produce at P the potential = = .2 a2 ) 2 . field at D is due to Its value is Q and Q/DA q/DB. PA/PB = A and X produce zero potential on and within the sphere. qjPB* along PB. the charge induced by. 07M are similar. The be the resultant of Q/DA* along is along DB. Tangential component of field resultant of OPN = Q sin APN/AP* . Take any point P on the sphere then by geometry a constant r/a charge q at J5. hence the force exerted on Q is D would AD.. _ ~AP[ L AP ~BP~ fc ' J' Q . .qBjP In this case. a/s.32 CHARGED CONDUCTORS. q at zero if q is equivaQn/r.q sin BPO/BP* Q ( sin APN mn_BPOl . = + Q on the earthed sphere is q The X. and q/DB2 X Qq/AB* = Qql(r But q = aQ/r. . 180 AS O7?P. which potential at any outside point is the same as Q and q.4 BP . If be the normal. J PN/A P = sin BPO/BP. q ~APTJP' But OB. . . And (35) the total amount of is equal to q therefore winch is = B lent to Q A A B X X B X X . is equivalent to Hence also q at is equivalent to for such points. The field at A due to qfAB~. Induced Surface Density. together with Q a. = Q arl(r.Qa/r. APN= .0#P = .4P0 = 180 . 39. A QIAP . . hence the force a*.
a3 from Hence it varies as the inverse cube of the distance the inducing point.+ q cos BPO/BP* cos BPN Q (cosAPN ] BP ) AP\ AP BP cos PBA + AP cos PAB Q AP PB AP .. U+ U M.AB Q . the point charge at A. of X. ff field is 47r<r. is The total quantity of q so if the distribution were formed on the sphere there would be an extra charge This must produce constant potenq. and its value Q (r .Q (r 8 . 4O. tial (17 4. 3 . of the distribution in Also Q is the image.PB' ~ButAB field at =r s =r P is a?/r. for described space outside the sphere. If o be the surface density. Consequently Q and zero potential throughout the interior of the sphere. charge Now the actual charge distribution has to satisfy the two conditions that it maintains constant potential within the sphere and that its total Quantity is U.a*)/a. PB = AP. as it 29). and insulated sphere.CHARGED CONDUCTORS. U Let Q be be original charge on the and imagine a charge q would be the image. If we construct as in at B. Insulated Sphere. is Hence the normal inwards. = . These condi = 38. PH. a/r. AP* . i. the .<?)/& within the sphere. for the space inside the 38. would produce sphere. this q Charge Outside. and acts outside the sphere like a f q concentrated at 0. Qa/r X X X X . (AP)*. and therefore is uniformly distributed. The normal component of field = Q cos APN/AP. Hence the tangential component ( 33 should be is zero.
41. AP* + _$ 47T q/^ira (** The charge force exerted Q by an uncharged sphere on a point an attraction. Hence these form the image of the induced charge.Qq/OA= Q 2 ar/(r2 . with the addition of q/a? outwards. lent (for external points) to a point charge distribution of zero quantity and equivalent (2) (for external points) to two equal and contrary charges q X U A Z and B. Hence the image of the distribution Z is the doublet and Two q .Q*a/i* = Q 2 a 3 (2r2 a 2 2 is ) a*)/r*(r* ) . The force exerted by a sphere with charge is the re2 sultant of this attraction and the repulsion Q If r is U/r a. distributed uniformly.q distributed uniformly. q located at such charges. the product of either charge by the distance between. and separated by a Its Moment is finite distance. a Hence the density is = . Let us put U The normal field is as found in o. infinite is finite Uncharged Insulated Let the charge field be F. U . This is infinite when r = a. so that Q/r 2 . and equivaat the centre. We can Sphere in it Uniform due to an suppose and = F. Q at an infinite distance r.a 2 2 . (1) The original Z7. equal. OB = qa/r = Qa^jr^. are called a Doublet. due to the image = charge q at 0. contrary. Density on uncharged Insulated Sphere.Q (r2 a 2 )/47r. the resultant is an attraction even if Q and nearly have the same sign. = U 42. = Qq/AB~ .34 tions are satisfied CHARGED CONDUCTORS. distributed according to the law by previously found ( 39) and Z7f. Hence the resulting charge is made up of two parts. 39. Field.
of course.Fcos0/4jr. and its charges q are infinitely great. Then q and Q produce the same r/a =. therefore Q is the image of for all outside points. Therefore so do q potential at every point of the surface. Hence the field at anywhere within the hollow is the 2 2 resultant of Q ! along produced. at distance s (s < a). . Earthed Hollow Sphere. Let and Y Y and the of (Fig. to P just on the surface can be shown. The field at 39. Y is Q total charge Imagine where q/Q = Y E EA AE E = Q{\/EA  <!/* Kll}. = F F F 43. as in a 2 ) a. a/s. 25. Fig. 25).CHARGED CONDUCTORS. is due to the doublet of Its length OB = s = arjr is. the above 2 cos 6. thus ultimately q/PB* (a  2 s cos 0)  4 a~ = ^cosfl. The normal force at P due to the doublet is the limit of q/PO* inwards. 35 moment Then the induced distribution 3 Qa?/r* = Fa . q at P. and the density is <T 3. and qtEB along EB. and Y. infinitely small. Q at A Charge Inside. If < BOP = 0. aa neglecting A Put for q s its value. the other letters being Then Q as in 38. Hence for all internal q is the image of points. And the potential at is Q/EA q/EB.AP3 be normal and to have the value q (>~ . and produce zero potential over the inner surface. Hence the resultant normal force due both to the doublet and is 3 the inducing field cos 0. the charge inside be fthe induced distribution be called Y.
F= Q If r were less than a. potential difference between two points outside at distances r and r can be shown. r. =Q 2 Q afs. as in figure. 26 is it Bod or Cylinder. . In represents the axis. . Let a.s 2 )/47ra. 6). let a = the surface density on the cylinder. (by symmetry) radial and a function of OP only. 26) is drawn to show equipotential lines for a set of potentials in arithmetical progression (cf.36 This CHARGED CONDUCTORS. Let OP r. A .a/s. AP by Hence the surface density . The field at any point. and therefore holds for a thin rod as well as for a cylinder. if we replace q. s?)/a. . Fig. of radius r and length h. Take be F. by calculus. Then 2irrhF = 4?r x F = 2irah<r. a cylin der of radius r would enclose no charge. More is shortly. The _f2Q "V The formula does not involve the radius a. Uniformly Electrified Fig. and the surface integral is 2jrrhF since evidently there is no surface integral over the flat ends.Q (a 2 . BP S . F= 0.= Q 2 asKa*  s 2 2 ) 44. Consequently 2TrrhF = 4?r x charge inside. a?/s. (a BP. P. = = . Its curved surface is 2irrh. 4ira<r/r. 2Q/r. where the charge per unit length. is The resultant force on q at B is. and radius of cylinder the surface integral over a cylinder coaxial with the given cylinder. If r > a. = QqlAB. figure (Fig. as in 38.
In the same way the potential at Q on second cylinder . If P be any point on the along A. A and B. which are inverse with respect to both cylinders.r)//>. O'B = c . is and the potential difference 4^ log {(ac  a. That is. If each be outside the other. . c > a J. 37 and 0' represent Parallel Cylinders. 27. on 00' can always be found.logAP} = 2Q log (OB/0 A) = 2Q log (a?/x*) = 4# log d/x. 28). and let 00' The cylinders are not supposed to cut one another. the potential at P = 2Q{logP . a2 and O'A O'B . Put OA = x.x). V = (c  x) (c  tf/x). Let their radii be a and b. as in Fig.CHARGED CONDUCTORS. Let c. OA OB = OB = a?/x. and first cylinder. . Imagine a charge of uniform linedensity. their axes. The working is the same in both cases we confine ourselves to the first. and * can be found from the quadratic equation. then a?/x. Q. . c < a ^ b (Fig. If one be inside the other. arranged Q along B. A and B can be regarded as rods perpendicular to plane of figure. 45. Two points. O'A =: c x. Two = . The potentials over each cylinder are therefore constant.b.r}.P.\ogAQ} = 2Qlog(0'B/0'A) = 4 Iog6/(c .
the induced electrifications. Fig. a?/x x a2 /c. on of potential. Q along for inside points. Then c perpendicular distance from is (c Evidently to the plane. = = root x = + = + = (c ^c 2 (c 4a2 )/2. b.38 CHARGED CONDUCTORS. is as required between the two cylinders. and that the P. 6=0. a 2 ex a2 o. a rod). and we can take c o.c (j + ajx) f a. Y B A 46. If one cylinder be of zero radius (i. giving the smaller quadratic reduces to a. 28. The If the cylinders be of the same radius. if two cylinders be kept at this difference and Y. namely. Q for outside points. .e. The quadratic   rf)2 2dc + d = (c . let c b = d where d becomes a plane. one cylinder also c is infinite b = the . Consequently. x)/x The c potential difference is 4# log  = 4Q log * 4a2 If b be infinite.x) (c .D. The potential difference is infinite. is finite. at all outside them will be such that the image of and for all is the distribution Q along the bar X X points A . that the potential is constant over each cylinder. Particular Cases.a*/x) = . along For this set of images will satisfy the conditions. Also the image of is inside points is Q along B.
. on which such cylinders stand all have a common radical axis and have a common pair of inverse and B. then the potential at R is Hence the equipotentials are such 2Q log {BR/AR}. The lines of force are orthogonal to points and B. 2. suppose a unit charge be placed at B. and is smaller than before in ratio 1 *91. A A Ex. Ex. Ex. 5. A + ve point Ex. calculate the density perpendicularly under A and B. 4.CHARGED CONDUCTORS. from the charge. Divide by c and then put l/c = o x + (i'/x = 2d. Equipotentials and Lines of Force. that is. The potential difference = 4 Q log a. surfaces as have BR/AR constant. 1. or of their equivalent rods A and B. 3. If infinite plane. from the plane and 4 cm. . 1. 2 cm. For (c  #)/& = I + (d x}jb = 1 in limit. 47. Sh^w that the surface density induced at the point of the plane nearest to the charge is nearly '04. RR'. they are cylinders of the system coaxial with the original cylinders. The circles. With the distributions of Ex. : Ex. If R be any point in the field of the two cylinders. Taking the case of Ex. and therefore are circles through such as PRQ. If both the charges at positive charges. these coaxials. from A. and the middle point of 1 / > . 2 and Ex. and B in Ex. 2 were unit magnitude and direction the force exerted A any number of point charges be before an earthed show that the surface density everywhere is the algebraic sum of the densities due to the point charges separately. Calculate the force with which a unit ve point charge at is attracted to an infinite earthed conducting plane at a distance of 2 cm. find in on each of them. Show that the resultant force on A will make an angle of 45 with AB. 3.
Hence is zero for the induced charge. from the centre Ex. calculate charge be put at C where the resultant on each point charge. it is repelled from the centre of the sphere with a force of 058 dyne.4' = Hence the product %Q V far . 1. 3 cm. 1O. If a unit 4. and the energy is 1/8.4 is that 1 &t A'. It may be assumed that the mutual energy is minus one half the sum of the products QV formed by multiplying the actual charge Q This at each point of the tield by the potential* V at that point.x '2)/8. 11. other charges in the tield. 110. A A Ex. Calculate also the attraction between the sphere and the point charge. from A put at B. calculate the difference in the results. Similarly in other cases.4'. AC = BA Ex. sphere whose centre is ^4 in of a unit 4. Each potential is to be taken as due only to the agrees with 54. If the and (7 are greater than B Ex. 6.4 B cuts the sphere.4 and B are . 2 the potentials at . In Ex. the charges at is : show that the force exerted on either the sphere had been absent in the ratio 15 '9 1. Find the surface densities at the ends of diameter AB. Show that spherical cavity in conducting material of radius 5 cm. 1. with figure as in Ex. 8. A is the centre of an earthed sphere of radius 5 em. without counting that at the point considered. CHARGED CONDUCTORS.40 Ex. a second unit f and is in the same straight 7. 6.charge is at B. if . but is spread over the earthed conductor whose potential is zero.point charge be a point at distance 7 cm. B Ex. 8 is unaffected. in Ex.% A and the charges are 2)/8 hence 1(^1' = (4 . The induced charge 1 is not actually on the image . is . and is 1/. in Ex.(4 .1 Thus.s *>) 8 and f (4 . Ex.4. 68 had been insulated instead of earthed.4 is 1 8. the potential at . be the image of ^4. If. but initially uncharged. f 1 and if If. Show that Ex. Calculate the Mutual Energy in the various cases of Ex. : . 4. 9. line.1 and .4' due to the image charge . calculate the surface densities at the two points where the straight line . %QV . force 7.
but depends on the time for which the solid has been in the electric field. it is so nearly 1 that we can neglect the difference. Q/ka. 41 . fc 2 nearly for pure water. or any other insulating medium. Externally. and gases at ordinary pressures. F= Internally. It is greater than 1 in solids and liquids and many gases. = point charges. INSULATING MEDIA. the Dielectric Power. For a vacuum. k = 80.CHAPTER III. And similarly for other cases. Using the amended form of Coulomb's law we get. than air. Coulomb's Law in Insulating Media. For many solids & is not constant.Jr\ same charges be surrounded by turpentine. the law becomes The constant k is called the Specific Inductive Capacity. F= F= F= 0. the Dielectric Constant. Qjh' For a disc uniformly charged 2ir<r/k. For turpentine. for . 48. we have seen ( between two charges in air is given by the If we force F= If the qi q. q[kr\ V= V= V= For a uniformly charged sphere. etc. 7) that use absolute units. when space is filled with a dielectric other q/kr. Q/kr.
42
INSULATING MEDIA.
49. Lines of Force (Maxwell). Let a sphere of radius r be described about a point charge q in an insuIf r be small enough, we can neglect lating medium. other charges and take the field q/kr* anywhere on the sphere. Choose the Let lines of force be drawn as in 14, 15. number of unitary lines in such a way as to fulfil the connumber of lines per unit dition that the Resolved Field area then the number of lines issuing through the sphere
=
=
;
N = Area
The
lines are
x Field
3 =. 47rr
x q/kr
=
4arq/k.
Maxwell Lines of Force ( 17) they indicate the field strength in the most helpful way, but have the disadvantage that the number proceeding from the charge q alters if q be moved from one medium to another.
;
50. Lines of Induction and Faraday Lines. Next, us choose our lines in such a way that the number issuing is 4*irq. The lines are then called Lines of Induction. They are related to a certain vector called the Induction in precisely the same way as the Maxwell Lines That is, the resolved induction are related to the Force. the number of lines of induction per in any direction unit area drawn perpendicular to that direction. The Induction due to a point charge q at distance r is q/r2 whatHence ever be the dielectric (supposed homogeneous). k x Field. the Induction Third, let the number issuing be q. The lines are now Faraday Lines. They are related to a vector called the Electric Displacement in the same way as lines of induclet
=
=
tion are to the Induction. Every Faraday line contains 4ir lines of induction, and at every point the Displacement
=
Induction
^ 4?r
Field x
kj4fir.
It is inconvenient having two vectors, Induction and Displacement, related to each other so closely and differing
only by a constant multiplier. Faraday Lines are most used in Electrostatics but in the corresponding work in Magnetism one employs lines of Induction exclusively. Also the constant k is often defined as the ratio
;
Induction
r
Field.
INSULATING MEDIA.
43
Hence we have to know both definitions. We must even be prepared for confusion in textbooks between
these quantities.
51. Boundary Conditions. Imagine a point charge surrounded by a concentric sphere of (say) turpentine of radius a, then by air. It must be taken for granted that the field in air at great distances C is independent of the turpentine, and therefore is q/R* hence there are qjR' lines of force per unit area of a large sphere of surface 4nrR2 that is 4<7rq lines in all. In air k =. 1, so there is no difference between force and induction. Hence the number of lines of induction in air is 4?r^, independent of
q,
;

the turpentine sphere
;
Now
4<Trq
lines of induction
and they radiate symmetrically originate from q in the
and these also radiate symmetrically. Hence we can infer that the lines of induction, reaching the turpentineair surface, pass without altering their number from one medium to the other. At an uncharged boundary no lines of Induction stop or start. The same
turpentine,
is
true of Faraday Tubes.
l
52. Refraction of Lines. Let F and B be the field and induction in one medium then they are in the same direction* and B fc^. Let them make Z.<$> with the normal to a boundary. Let Fz B 2 k,, 2 refer to the medium. F on the other side of the boundary. Since the
v
l
=
;
{
,
,
<
lines of induction are continuous
the
= the number leaving it in the
B
l
number reaching
cos 0!
unit area in the
first
medium
cos
$.,.
second, hence
l
=
.5 2
cos
<f>.>
;
or k
l
F
cos 0,
=
k.,F.,
Another relation between the media is derived from the fact that no abrupt change takes place in the potential, f Hence the P.D. alters by the same amount for a small travel PQ, where P and Q are consecutive joints on the boundary, whether P and Q are regarded as points in the
*
are considering only isotropic dielectrics, t Compare, however, 69 and its footnote.
We
44
first
INSULATING MEDIA.
direction
Hence the field component in It follows that the the same for both. tangential components are equal, or
or second.
medium
PQ
is
F\ sin 0j
:
=
F.^
sin
<f>.^.
In words In crossing any uncharged boundary the normal component of the induction and the tangential component of the field are both unaltered. By division " tan r/tan z law of refraction." kjk,,, which is the
</> <j>
=
53. Condensers. Mathematically a condenser is an uncharged region occupied by a definite bundle of Faraday Tubes originating from one conducting surface and termiThese conductors are called the nating on another. Armatures. By the definition, the conductors must have
contrary charges each equal to the number of Faraday Tubes. Let these charges be Q, and let V be the potential difference (or P. D.) of the armatures, then the Capacity of the condenser is defined as equal to Q/V. Let an ordinary Ley den Jar be charged positively in the usual way, its outer tinfoil being earthed. Nearly all the lines originating from the charged inner tinfoil terminate on the outer tinfoil, and constitute a mathematical condenser according to the above condition. But a few lines usually stray to (say) the walls of the room, which may also be supposed at zero potential. These form, matheThe two ve coatings are matically, a second condenser. ve metallically connected, and the two coatings are at the same potential (zero), so these condensers are said to
K
+
be " in parallel."
54.
Energy of a Condenser.
two charges,
Let
K be
Let
its
Q
that
its
energy.
difference
its
Then
K = Q/V, Q = KV.
KV,
V its
capacity,
potential difference,
its
and
W
its
undergo a very small increase 8V and its charges potential difference becomes become and its energy becomes W. The f Q' increase of energy W; and the charges are
+
=
V
=V
potential V, so
8W =
W
numerically increased by
8Q
=
Q'
Q.
INSULATING MEDIA.
45
The
ve
alteration
f charge 8Q other. But the
from one plate of the condenser
equivalent to transferring the small to the P.D. is F and, therefore, ultimately the
is
workdone
=
SW=
V.dQ
= KV8V.
F)
Now
F
2
 F 2 = (V  V)(V +
=
dV.
(V +
V),
which ultimately
for
= 2F5F;
we can take the change Hence ultimately
V
2
F
as small as
2
)
we
please.
5W=
%K(V'  F
increases
F=
gradually W increases at the same rate as JK"F
;
Hence
as
F
from
.
zero
2
And
W =upward, when
Hence
for the condenser is then uncharged.
finally
Also
Q = KV,
therefore
we have
additional equations
55. Simplest Case. The simplest case is also the most important. The condenser consists of parallel plates of area opposed to one another, the distance apart is d and the specific inductive capacity is Tc. suppose d so small that all the lines from one plate reach the other the
A
We
;
lines of force
being parallel and uniformly distributed over the area. The charges are aQ and Q the surface densities
+
where
<r = Q/A (Fig. 29). The number of lines of induction
= 4vrQ,
Fig. 29.
..
B
If the field be F, then
F = work
:.
done when force
F
acts
over distance d=.Fd'
t
F=
V/d.
46
INSULATING MEDIA.
But
B = kF
.:4wQ/A = kV/d
.
'.
K=
Ql V (by def. )
= A k/4ird.
The capacity Note. depends on the medium and Jc x /. it varies as k capacity of a similar condenser in which the dielectric was air. This is why Jc is called can therefore define the Specific Inductive Capacity. Specific Inductive Capacity as the ratio of the capacity of a condenser in which the plates are separated by the given dielectric to the capacity of a condenser (otherwise identi;
=
K
We
cal) in
which the plates are separated by
of this simple condenser
air.
The Energy
But
=
QV.
B=
But Ad
is
4irQ/A,
andF =
V/d,
the volume of the condenser
. .
Energy per unit volume = BF/Sir.
56. Field
Energy in General Case.
;
electric field whatsoever.
surfaces can be drawn ting them at right angles. on an equipotential so small that it can Take an area be regarded as ultimately plane the lines of force through A determine a corresponding area A' on a consecutive The potential difference is supposed so equipotential. and at small tha.t A' is ultimately equal and parallel to a small distance from it. The field between these areas is the same as if the two equipotential surfaces were conductors suitably charged, so as to give rise to the same number of lines of force. Hence the energy per unit volume at any point of the electric field is the same as it would be in such a condenser. It therefore
Consider any In it a series of equipotential and a series of lines of force cut
A
;
A
Ex. 1. On a very large plane conductor rest successively three layers of dielectric of small thicknesses d lt d 2 , d 3 and specific
INSULATING MEDIA.
inductive capacities k lt fa, k 3 and then another plane conductor. If A be area of the opposed conductors and V the difference of potential of the plates, find the charges (Fig. 30).
;
Let
area
4jrQ
opposing charges.
= 4irQjA.
be the number of lines of induction, so that Q are the The induction number of lines per unit
B=
Hence the fields in the three media are successively 4wQ/Ak lt Then V= work done by unit charge travelling 4irQ/Ak*, 4:TrQ/Ak 3 distances a,, a2 a3 under these three fields,
. ,
v_
whence
t
'
i
Q
2.
is
found.
metal sphere of radius a is in air, and enclosed in a concentric spherical shell of specific inductive capacity k and radii b internal and c external. Outside all is an earthed metal sphere
Ex.
A
Fig. 30.
of radius d (internal). sphere, find the field
If
Fig. 31.
Q
be the charge given to the inner metal
and potential at every distance r from the
centre (Fig. 31).
be potentials at distances a, b, c, d. The number Let A, J?, C, hence of lines of induction radiating from inner sphere = 4irQ the induction at distance r = the number of lines per unit area
;
D
47r#/47rr = Q/r*. Where k = 1, i.e. from r = a to r = b and r = c to r = d = force or field. Hence the work done on unit charge travelQ/r' l from r = a to r = b is Q ( ~] .\ A  B = Q/a  Q/b. ling U / \  D = Qfc  Q,d, Similarly C = b to r = c, the field = Q/kr~. Hence Where k *f 1, from r
J
=
B
;
;
1

,
(t
BC= Q/kb 
Q/kc.
is
The outer sphere
Hence, adding,
earthed,
.*.
1)
=
0.
Ex.can be neglected the capacity is where S is the mean of the areas of the bounding cylinders. is k/2 log (b/a) . is nearly 15. radii..800. V be the potential at any distance r. a and a + x show that if (x/a). . length = 20. 7. Find the capacity of a Faraday condenser formed of concentric spheres of radius 10 and 10'5. If I be the length of a cylindrical condenser. carried at a uniform height of 20 feet above the earth's surface. x>.~\ . the dielectric being vaseline (k = 22). tinfoil 3. and specific inductive capacity 7.) Ex. show that the capacity. capacity per unit length = 1/2 log (2hjr). where b and a are the radii. the dielectric being mica of thickness 1/10 mm. c ) were no dielectric shell. 5. be 6. Calculate the capacity if k = 2. a = 1. Ex. cm. where h and r are the height and radius. 8. Show the capacity per mile of a telegraph wire of radius 1/8 inch.a 6 + 1 i kb kc +!}. 4. Find the capacity of a condenser formed of two sheets of each of area 25 sq.*. parallel cylinders. of a condenser formed of two long coaxial cylindrical surfaces. Ex. per unit length. Assuming the result of 44. and the logarithm is to base e. [From 46 we can deduce the approximate formula. V= Q i. this is equivalent to putting b = c.48 If INSULATING MEDIA. separated by a dielectric. of two very long (Use 45. kS/^Trx. per unit length. ?> = I'l. this is equivalent to ^ = If there fl_i (.  I if r lies between c and d and b c a and b If there putting d = were no external metal sphere. Ex. Ex. Find the capacity.
= 1 1 1 1 = 3 . .V. and (b) A j + . *fr "SfSSfSfWMSffffsmsMMih Fig. 1. 4 A Ex.).. Thus all have the same potential in parallel difference V. + .= K2 3 = l + I/A'. f v plate of first condenser. Q = /. .'. r. A' capacity is AC = 1 2 is 3T/2 and V I6 in the two cases. = A A. = K z r. and goes to the Q appears on f Te its nega + Q plate of the second condenser. set of condensers is in series when the negative plate of each is connected to the positive plate of the next (Fig.+ A3 Ao 1 . . The capacity K= of the combination is K + K. PH. their changes are Q = K. Q be the total charge. + energy I. A set of condensers is if their positive plates be connected and also their negative plates (Fig. 4 .+ 4. A + Earth Fig. and the successive potential differences are Q/K lt If V be the total potential difference between the first and then last plate. and I if their capacities are K v K^ 3 . + AH.INSULATING MEDIA.. If they be initially uncharged. Joining np of Condensers. total in parallel. 49 57. 2. + K + .''*! V= $A j + % + A + . 0(1. . Thus Q is numerically the charge of every condenser of the series. .. and charged to potential ]'.. then tive plate. Q.. Three Leyclen Jars of unit capacity are put (a) in series In case (a). 1/3.. A= + + . M. . 32. 32). . and K the resultant capacity. in (6) 1 1.'. The . . Qi + Qz + V= = (Ki + + * )!'. If Q.. . 33. and Q be given to 33).
and the available charge halved. Two flat circular plates of radius c are separated by a narrow air space of width d. . has capacity the information that the capacity of a flat circular disc of radius c. The back of the charged plate forms with the walls of room a condenser of capacity z nearly C/TT. Since A c /4<i TTC\ . A positively charged conductor in empty space can be regarded as the origin of a set of lines of induction which proceed to zero In practice. The case of a negatively charged conductor is similar. The condensers are in parallel.b)~l(a + 6). the K's would be as beforehand the energies = Q/2V &nd . Ex. conductor of zero potential. If the extreme plates are connected. Capacities of Simple Bodies.60 If. A sphere. Find the capacity. the potential difference doubled. and the energy Q?/2K F = = K= QV = may add its radius ( 33). is 2c/7r. 2.'. K. Hence the capacity Charge i Potential Q/F. charged both sides. earthed. the same charge been given to each system. instead of being charged to same potential. Show that the energy is unaltered. They are then placed in series. the other earthed. The opposed charges are equal to the charge Q on the conductor. INSULATING MEDIA. and has energy F2 (a . Two condensers of unequal capacity a and b are charged in parallel to potential F. One is charged.D. The energy is unaltered and potential difference doubled. JEphms Condenser. show that the system retains charges + ( a _ b)V. = F"2 /6 and 3F2 /2 in the two cases. Thus a conductor can usually be treated as one of two plates of a condenser the other plate being at infinity or . Two equal condensers are charged in parallel. = We 59.'. They are then disconnected and placed in series. e. of this condenser is the potential of the conductor. which can be treated as an earthed 58. walls of the room. 2 not too large. Q had Ex. 3.g. The P.. hence the total capacity c z/4<d f C/TT The space between has capacity 55) if K r nearly ( d is =A = / '4<nd K = nearly. the lines proceed to the potential at infinity.
The forces are therefore the same as if the tension along the lines of force is BF/S^ per unit area.INSULATING MEDIA. A rectangle of sides a and 6 is separated by a small distance d from an infinite conducting plate. Next. we also have kV*ab/8ird z . Its charge is Q. 34. increases 7 ^ &/ / = K= a _ __ _ a d{ b"/ /~7 / ** Fig. 51 60. 2 2 by 8E where 5E = If ZwQddlabk. Since a tension. this = kF*/&7r = BFiSTr. The capacity is Ak/4nrd 55) ( abk/4f>rd. and the force exerted on each edge of the rectangle parallel to the plate (Fig. If be the force acting Y on the edge a. be the force needed to pull the plate outwards. and if kV 2 /8vd is 2 . b alters to b + Sb. and therefore is a pressure. KjJT ^tibk/lirdf. to which it is parallel. = ak \b + ___ db b j = _ dbk ultimately. 8E= T8b. To find the force exerted on the rectangle perpendicular to the plate. The energy is If d increases by Sd. 34). the work done in the displacement is X8d. The V/d force per unit area = X/ab = = F. _ "abW This force can be regarded as acting on the area ad. E E = Q /2K = 2ird Q jabk. Hence the force per unit area = YJad = as before. Forces acting on an element of Conducting Surface. Hence Since X X= Q = A' = dE/Sd = 2irQ~/abk. and the .
Show that there is a force F'z / 2ird acting on every centimetre length of the edge of the plate (Fig. the other two are connected. V*/8ir x ('2) 2 = 98 1. of the instruments should be descriptive textbooks. wt. But the area of A and C together. supposed uniform.per unit area. radius. The movable plate is a circle of 3 cm.52 INSULATING MEDIA. difference of potential between the plate and the connected plates V. pressure in every direction perpendicular to the lines of force is also SF/Sn. is d . when a reading is taken. suspended at by a torsion fibre so as to hang and turn Let its potential be F. The force is measured by weights. The force in dynes = A V2 /8ird 2 and 1 gm. 36). The absolute electrometer measures V by finding the attractive force exerted on an area A by a larger plate charged to a potential difference V. This force (by AV2/87rd?. area over each space A or C is therefore F/8ir = V*/27rd~. and its distance horizontally. from top or bottom surface be d. Hence QTT. . and d can be adjusted by a screw. electrically connected and therefore at the same potential The F. . Find the P. hence the force per unit length is V~/'2ird. Absolute Electrometer. exactly. per cm. the 60) dielectric being air. and The connected metallically. Example. V~ = 3 '488.35.. length of the edge. V = 1'87. . The fixed parts form a conducting (brass) cylindrical box ABAB cut into four Two opposite quadrants AA are quadrants (Fig. The distance between the plates is always 2 mm. F 61. is ( FD A plate is midway between two parallel plates EB E B i . Other electrometers = of same type estimate the The actual construction read from force by springs. wt. whose distance apart is d. and at potential F2 moving part is a lamina of form shown dotted in figure. . The force per unit Fig. =981 dynes.D. The field between the free plate and either connected plate is Vfed hence u B = = 2V'jd. Example. Quadrant Electrometer. 35). 62. in absolute units when theattraction is 1 gm.
if and Heterostatic use of ElectroThe quadrant electrometer is used heterostatically F is the three potentials F. so that the angle varies as the square of the P. is not large. but not quite.F f 2 )} (F. .F2 )} F! (2F . and one compares potential deflection produced. . F.F2 ) C is constant. this couple constant for the suspension. Idiostatic meter. within the quadrants B.). F. F. at least where nearly. The V^/Zird as in Ex. (F 2 on the edges OC.) for the edges .F2 . The electrometer is used idiostatically if the moving part or "needle" be connected to a pair of quadrants B.Vtf = C{(V{(Vwhere be (F.. giving a A. ue where Z7 is a constant for the instrument. large and constant. and v F2 small. 53 The force per unit length is quadrants A. are all different. hence oc (F Fj) 2 . I). is F2 ) 2 the same multiple of ( F total moment is C\(V. within the 60. . Then F= F 2. V Usually . ar F. = known l V l 0/(V stant for a of experiments. is then regarded as con A F . or nearly so. where L is 0. then the observed 6 gives us 2 The quantity A. until it is thought necessary to test its value again by the standard cell.F2 t ). 36. LO. Hence. OD. 63. or 9 = X ( F . series differences by the angular standard cell or battery is used.INSULATING MEDIA. to sum sum The of moments of these forces fibre is a certain about the torsion multiple of of (F moments and the F. nearly . If the angle of torsion = Fig..
What was the potential of the when needle ? Evidently it V be the potential required . heterostatically. It is found that a quadrant electrometer turned 20 divisions When idiostatically connected to a P.  * For the definition of the volt see later.000cm. V= 625. Ex. 3. The deflection is 14 when the quadrants are connected to the charged standard condenser of capacity 1. If the quadrants be connected to the plates of a standard condenser of capacity 1. Find the capacity of the jar. find what charge given to the condenser is The instrument is used indicated by a deflection of one division. were occupied by turpentine (k = 2).000.. 2. of 50 volts. 1/300 absolute units of Potential.D. 20*7= 50 2 15U = whence V. the force would be double for the same potential difference. 4. It can be regarded as . 1'5. It falls to 11 5 when a Leyden jar is connected in parallel with the condenser. Ex.* used heterostatically its quadrants were connected to 1*5 volts and the turn was 15 divisions. Show that if the space between the plates of an absolute electrometer. or within the quadrants of a quadrant electrometer. It is observed that a quadrant electrometer deflects 20 divisions for 1 '44 volts (or 1 '44/300 absolute units of potential). 1. Ex. INSULATING MEDIA.54 Ex.
the Common instruments potential to which the disc is raised. Since ximately equal to the sum of the radii of the balls. If two gilt pith balls are suspended side by side by equal parallel cords and then charged. Electroscopes. Ex. 2). Condensing Electroscope. they will repel each other to a distance roughly proportional to the (charge) 2 / 3 (see If the'balls are charged 7. and detect one tenth of this. Here again the deflection oc F 2/3 . stant . . etc. see should make a potential of one electrostatic unit (i. deflection of the balls oc the pith ball electroscope really measures Potential. If its plates be connected to the two terminals of an accumulator. and if is the capacity of potential V K the balls. 65. they will be charged to its very small P. i. K is approit is con Thus . The plates and the mica constitute a condenser of large capacity K'. volts. and the leaves are protected by a glass bottle from draughts. 55 . 300 103) quite obvious.D. by contact with a conductor they are charged to the of the conductor. 64. The support is well insulated.e. where F is the common potential of the leaves.CHAPTER IV. Let a thin plate of mica be laid on the disc of the electroscope and a brass plate (provided with an insulating handle) laid on this. the charge imparted is KV. and therefore the F2/3 In the Gold Leaf Electroscope there are two equal gold leaves hanging close together from a metal support which connects them to a brass ball or disc. The combination forms a Condensing Electroscope.e. MISCELLANEOUS ELECTROSTATIC PHENOMENA.
The earthing reduces the }K)tential of the pail and leaves to zero. i. The repelled induced charge is removed. Ex. the disc and leaves retain the charge K'v. A hollow conductor* stands on the disc of an electroscope. where 300 volts V= K We = An electroscope situated in infinite space would measure P. and the attracted induced What happens? The * For shortness we call it a Pail.D. which is equal to on the ball. terminals and then the top plate are removed. situated within a hollow conductor measures the P. As it approaches it raises the potential of the system consisting of the hollow conductor.D. or a surrounding wire cage.56 call MISCELLANEOUS ELECTROSTATIC PHENOMENA. proof ball (i. and of the same sign. that the original charge on the ball is transferred entirely to the Ex. 1. Assume the ball charged + vel y. When the it v. connected to a good earth contact such as a water pipe. the pail is earthed for an instant. The charge on each plate is K'v. But when the ball is well inside. and the leaves collapse. The contact completely the charge discharges the ball and neutralises the attracted induced charge . and the gold leaves. measured in Volts. 1 electrostatic unit. a metal ball insulated by being carried on the end of a vulcanite rod) is charged to potential V. leaves diverge to a maximum as before. 2. The experiment commences as before. the potential An electroscope at an infinite distance from all attracting bodies. 1. and then held within Describe what happens. . and it should be quite large potential is are led to infer that accumuenough to be detected. When it is completely within the conductor. the Thus the gold leaves diverge potential of the latter ceases to alter. lators and galvanic batteries generally have their terminals These differences are commercially at different potentials. divergence measures the repelled induced charge. but their capacity is now the Hence the of the instrument. Ex. earthed conductor if electrical experiments are proceeding therein hence when real accuracy is wanted one should use an electroscope with a metal case. reaching a maximum when the ball is inside. . it The total effect is therefore does not alter the deflection at all. so electroscopes measure But the room is not an ideal potential referred to the earth as zero. A conductor and electroscope. above or below the potential of the conductor. the conductor.e. Their gradually. ordinarv capacity K'v/K. above or below the absolute zero of potential. then the ball is withdrawn. Ice pails were used by Faraday. and ultimately touches it. A room in a laboratory can be regarded as an earthed conductor.e.
Now V ot So if log V diminishes uniformly. = 159.. . In this multiplied by 2 2 3 ' . hence I* * d. It the plates are moved. find the theoretical connection between d and when d is small.D. and does not affect the process of giving an additional charge equal to that of the ball. = 4 3 ~ = 8. . r l/k. What divergence would one expect ? How many such contacts would produce a divergence of 40 divisions ? However great a charge the pail may have. 032 . The charge is constant and the capacity * But V <x 3/2 hence c^/03 is constant. the rate of leakage is proThe mathematical theory of such leakage is it is there shown that the logarithm of V 3 2 hence log V = condiminishes at a constant rate. 57 charge completely masks the effect of the ball at all external When the ball is withdrawn. for an hour and then. " But V or '63. 48 units.. log 6 does so stant +  log 6. and its charge is given completely to the instrument. producing a divergence of 10 scale divisions.. Consequently two contacts give double the charge. Now the deflection (if not too large) a (charge) ~ 3 If therefore be the deflection when the charge is doubled. Ex. as in Ex. If the final deflection be 0. 1. It is left Ex. . = 36/0 . The ball is charged to potential F. 40. n contacts give a deflection 4.* = 27. It is again charged to the same potential V and is again inserted and made to touch the inside of the pail.MISCELLANEOUS ELECTROSTATIC PHENOMENA. Ex. The space between the condenser plates of the above is is with a liquid whose alter? oc fr. the dielectric being air) has one plate earthed and the other connected to an electroscope. . also. owing to leakage across the insulation. Ex. 0/10 If = 2 2 /3 . What will the deflection be in another deflection of a The Galvanometer is hour portional to the P. and 189 given in . divergence. the outside of the pail and spreads to the leaves. An ^pinus Condenser ( 55. 3. 5. tfx ' 3 /. this resides wholly on its outer surface . filled 6. W hen T ? log 48  log 36 = log 36  log 0. specific inductive capacity k  does Capacity case is /. The charge on the pail and electroscope is equal and contrary to the original charge on the ball and the divergence now ought to be equal to the orginal . 40/10 = ?r /3 n . a conductor leaks to earth. 1/rf. its deflection is found to be 36. this attracted charge goes to points.
37) below which there is ordi1. after successive operations. . 4. No great precision is possible. In the case. A' other. of water Pressure. whose density (for saturation at 15) is nearly 000013. . 25. above conand vapour. from to BB'. pure water above BB'. within whi(jh the properties alter by degrees. . Eesearches on Capillarity have established the fact that when two different media are in contact there is no absolutely abrupt transition. The thickness of the film. 16. Give an estimate . we could say there is pure mercury below A A. 67. we have a plane AA' (Fig. has been investigated. by 2~ 63. all in the same state. of density nearly have also a plane BB' above which there is only water vapour. from the properties of one to those of the A Vapour Water Fig. across a bounding surface of no appreciable thickness. There is always an interme Intermediate Stales B ^ diate region. nary water. The jar is made to share its charge with an identical jar which is afterwards discharged. but the = We = AA distance is of the order of 10 ~6 cm. Taking the same figure as before. The operation is of the deflections repeated as often as desired. no other sub stance being present. where two liquids meet say water rests on mercury. 7. Intrinsic sidered. The simplest case is where water at 15 (say) is in contact with its saturated vapour. The deflection is 40 when the gold leaves are connected to a charged Leyden Jar. and the mercury density alters between and BB' from its full value to zero the water density altering at the same time from zero to 1. Between these we have water matter of densities taking all values from 1 to '000013 as we pass from AA' to BB'. Each operation halves the potential and multiplies the deflection 2/3 The deflections are roughly 40. Here again we have a surface film. 10. . . 37. called a Surface Film. or '63 nearly. Ex. Surface Films. 25. 66.58 MISCELLANEOUS ELECTROSTATIC PHENOMENA. is A more complicated case AA . Assuming the boundary horizontal. the pressure above BB in 1 .
C be three liquids in a reentrant glass tube (Fig. When two is substances (Fig. 7BC = /AB PB /BC  Pc . the vapour is quite small. the difference of pressure at opposite sides of the surface film is the contact pressure difference of and call it I Hence .MISCELLANEOUS ELECTROSTATIC PHENOMENA. B. A A' potential different at the are in contact. A B C .} The intrinsic pressure This AB + B A = the differdifference of water and mercury in contact ence of intrinsic pressures of water and of mercury. The above seems to have no direct bearing on Electricity. so that we may neglect pressure effects due to gravity. sider why this large quantity is not readily detected by experiment. 37).g. In the liquid it is enormous the largest estimate (Dupre) being 25000 atmospheres! The difference is called the Intrinsic It is instructive to conpressure. When equilibrium. = 68. Let A. Fig. This relation makes it impossible to detect intrinsic pressure by a mercury pressure gauge. . the electrical two sides of the surface film and BB' and has continuously varying values for intermediate points. and meet. 59 . . It is inserted because it is closely analogous to another phenomenon quite different. = Pc  PA . 38) whose axis is horizontal. / I J 0. Similarly '. we can put gether in equilibrium. . P P P . the pressure throughout each liquid is constant call them Also. is attained. Contact Electrification. so that (e. 38. /CA 0. where A B A B . + + A* = is a relation which holds between the intrinsic pressures for any three substances capable of resting toIf C be vacuum.
then PA = FA + 7A FB f IB Similarly for another metal B. the potential of an insulator in the same result there deduced would be unaffected by a constant intrinsic potential difference. but separated from it by the surface film.g. A. the potentials of A and B would be FA and FB and the potential difference is FAB FA FB The . way. In 52 we regarded The .P A . = . or metals.B. = Pc Adding. true potential difference is.(FB . Hence FAB = P AB + <FA . call them A B C P P P . joined in a reentrant series. 69. with this convention. conductors at the same temperature. e.60 MISCELLANEOUS ELECTROSTATIC PHENOMENA. the potential in each one is constant. electric equilibrium does not exist. = .7A + 7B . If PA be the potential of the metal. ) PAB ) PA BB . For an insulator can be in equilibrium when the potential within The equation holds for three metallic it is not constant. if the temperature be not uniform. . is an insulator. metallic wires.  + FCA = PCA  . Similarly for other substances ^BC B and C. and FA of the air. the potential difference across the surface films . say C. For many nonmetallic conducting circuits. 7C + 7A FBC + FCA + FAB = P BC + PCA + PAB 'B /c .PB = PAB . Apparent and Heal Contact Potential Difference. . We cannot now discuss the cause of the difference. PB 28 we provisionally regarded the potential of a In conductor as that of air in contact with it. 38) be three conductors. Let (Fig. may be denoted by IAB ^AB 7 etc. Let JA be the intrinsic potential difference between a metal A and the air just in contact with it. and the equation fails.* So.C And . where ~~ * P A _ PB * 7 'BC P ~ JP B _ F C> 7BC 7 *CK 0. . of course. If there be equilibrium. "Mfl p _ PA* Hence 7AB + + 7CA = Note that this equation is not proved for three bodies in equilibrium if one of them.. For metals both * sides of the equation are zero.
D. . P F Potential Differences.'s with carbon.D. validity of the method be not admitted. with certainty.MISCELLANEOUS ELECTROSTATIC PHENOMENA. of Zn and Cu is 1 096 . Carbon is electropositive to the metals named.D. Volta supposed the potential difference of zinc and copper to be fairly large. . . Copper .D.'s are given for carbon and certain metals."370 = '72(5. nearly a volt and Ayrton and Perry by careful experiments established it as '73 volt. Their researches were really on the apparent . of two metals is the difference of their P. This is calculated from thermal effects (as in If the 241). . it becomes impossible to fix any one contact P. Cl The distinction between A and A has been overlooked until quite recently. The contact P. F PAB A The contact P. It is generally supposed that AB ~ for copper and zinc is about 10 6 volts. Thus the P. few of Ayrton and Perry's results are given below.D.
the water being positive. But these charges are no longer on the plates of a condenser of high capacity.62 MISCELLANEOUS ELECTROSTATIC PHENOMENA. Pure water and have a contact P. Electrophorus. 39. If a water drop falls and splashes. true contact at very few points space lies between T) and P. The sole is to be always kept H Fig. This explains what is miscalled by Friction.D. Typically parts. As the bodies are drawn apart. and when separation is completed the charges are only as great as if the contact had been over a minute area. Electrification by Splashing. furnished with a knob. and mounted on an insulating handle of varnished glass. on separation. There effectively a narrow air 81. salt water has opposite properties the air near ve the sea is f ve and the spray : . Curiously. called the sole the other is a circular brass plate P. friction with catskiu. 72. the separated charges flow to the parts still in contact.. Conductors are not capable of being raised to so high a P. Ky method explained later. * then laid on it. is usually so bad a conductor that both sides of it retain their charges. The capacity of the opposed surfaces is very small as separation ends. the air around is negative. Negative potential is observable* around waterfalls. for the rubbing is only to ensure close contact over all parts of the surface successively. but f Te in the actual spray. the film is first extended and then torn apart.D. is The at zero potential by being metallically connected to earth. now have Electrification air 71. hence the separated insulators a very large P. . this consists of two _ D One is an ebonite disc mounted on a brass plate 8 . The disc is electrified negatively to a high potential by plate' is .D. The water spray is positively electrified.
MISCELLANEOUS ELECTROSTATIC PHENOMENA.
63
Let A be the area, and a the radius, of P. Let d and t be thicknesses of air space and vulcanite. Let Q (negative) be the charge on the disc. A positive and negative charge, j q and q, will be induced on lower and upper forces of the disc. The plate is now earthed for an instant enough positive electricity will flow from earth to neutralise q and raise the positive charge on P to the larger value q'. P is now lifted by the handle H, used in experiments which require a positively
:
charged conductor.
We have
73. Charges on Electrophorns before Earthing.
to consider three electric fields (or condensers), traversed by different sets of Faraday tubes. Neglecting which is not covered by P, there is that part of First, the condenser formed between the rubbed surface of the vulcanite and the sole. Its capacity Ak/4?7rt, But if k be the specific inductive capacity of ebonite. 2 2 ?ra therefore A fc& /4. l Its Second, between the rubbed surface and the plate.
D
K =
l
=
,
K =
=
A/4ard a~/4d. capacity K^ and the walls of the room. Third, between the top of Its capacity can be taken as half that of a disc in 3 empty space, and therefore as a/ir. It is evident that K^
=
K
D
is
is much larger than 2 very small, and usually Q be the charge on "the area A of disc, there are altogether Q Faraday tubes in condensers K^ and 1T2 say q has a from the plate and Q q from the table. Hence
.
}
K
K
If
(Q  g)/Kr The sole is earthed, potential difference V. therefore the top of the vulcanite is at potential Since q is the f ve charge on the under side of the plate, is is the on the side, and f
q negative charge upper q the charge induced thereby on the walls of the room. Hence the condensers J5"2 and 3 each has q Faraday tubes and their potential differences are qlK^ q/Ky But the walls of the room can be assumed at zero potential, therefore q/Kt ) is (q/K3 q/K3 is the potential of P, and that of the rubbed surface.
V=
K
;
}
K
;
+
Hence
q
+
q
= Q
q '.
Q _ 
1
/
f
1
l
.
l
\
64
MISCELLANEOUS ELECTROSTATIC PHENOMENA.
Plate.
field
74. Earthing the Faraday tubes in the
This
destroys
all
the
I/KS
= o.
q'.
and
The fields in The potential
K

K^
and
l
K
1\
and
2
practically can be called
makes
Q
~
q'
differences
are
equal,
say
V,
therefore
V=
q'
(Q
q')/K,
=
q'/K,,
_
g
tfjUi
q'
K"3
J
//I
AV'
which proves, of course, that
>
q
As approximations,
paragraph)
Hence
is
in the expression for q (last very small indeed, so l/K and \IK are
l
negligible in comparison with
q/Q
=
Ex. 1. If the plate has a radius of 10 cm. and thickness 1 cm., and the air him be '05 cm., find A",, K^ The specific 2 inductive capacity of ebonite may be taken as 3. Find also q and in terms of Q. q'
K
,
Here and
K = kaz /4t =
l
75
;
z KZ = a /4d = 500
;
K
3
=
ajir
=
S nearly.
And
Ex. 2. The plate ebonite, but held above
disc.
?'
_ "
500
Q
of
it
_ 575"
20
23'
an electrophorus is not laid on the at a distance equal to the thickness of the
Find
Here
A',//T 8
=
K
q'/Q.
l
and
K
2
are condensers of the
k/l.
Hence q'/Q
= KJ(K, +
K
same dimensions, hence
2)
=
l/(l
+
k).
If
k
=
3,
75. Sparks. Two large parallel metal plates,* just convex enough to localise the electric discharge, are kept at a constant P.D. and gradually approached. At a
certain
*
distance,
x
centimetres,
is less
a spark passes.
The
The sparking distance
for spherical
knobs of small radius.
MISCELLANEOUS ELECTEOSTATIC PHENOMENA.
relation
65
of and a; (in electrostatic units, implied in 10) deduced by Chrystal from Leibig's experiments is 49997 99'593a; in dry air, which gives, in round 100*. numbers,
F
F=
F=5 + The field F = V/x = 100 +
The surface density
(
+
S/x.
is
one spark has passed a second passes much more readily, and sparking continues if the plates are drawn further apart. Each spark makes a trackin the air of much diminished resistance. An Arc is a region rendered so conducting by the previous passage of electricity that it continues to allow the electric current to pass. The arc is formed by bringing its terminals so near that sparking begins, then, when the interspace becomes a conductor, drawing them apart Here the conductivity is mainly due to high gradually. temperature, for the atoms of a gas which has been dissociated by intense heat can carry electric charges. But the conductivity caused by small intermittent sparks is due to carriers whose nature is not well known but which are more complex than the normal gaseous molecule.
is
not very small.
When
29)
F/4ar
= nearly
8,
when x
76. Electric Wind. If the density on a conductor be greater than about 8 units, then, even if no conductor be near enough, it seems possible that a minute spark would travel to any minute carrier that was suitably near. The spark would manufacture other carriers. Thus carriers
would be continuously produced, and then charged like the conductor and repelled. They would not attain a great velocity, being hampered by frequent collisions with gaseous molecules but they would eventually set the air in motion and produce a perceptible current. This is the most likely explanation of the electric wind originating from projecting points on a conductor, and of the luminous brush discharge. We regard the mathe;
matical theory of discharges as quite outside the scope of this book, but those who desire information should study J. J. Thomson, Conduction of Electricity through Gat?*. content ourselves with the approximate statements (which in exceptional circumstances are very
We
M, PH.
j.
66
MISCELLANEOUS ELECTROSTATIC PHENOMENA.
iiideed) that the sparking distance is about 1 cm. per 100 electrostatic units of PJ). (or 30,000 volts, 65) and
that a brush discharge takes place about 8 units per square cm.
if
the density exceeds
Ex. 1. A small Ley den Jar of capacity 10 is being charged gradually by any kind of electric machine. Its knob is J cm. from the knob of a large jar. Show that the charge given to the large jar is nearly proportional to the number of sparks that pass. Let k be capacities of small and large jars, and V = P.D. needed for a spark. When Fis reached, the spark formed is (for the instant) so good a 'conductor that both jars are brought to same potential. If charge q passes, the potential of the large jar rises by q/K and that of the small one falls by qjk, hence
q/k
+
q/K =
V.
is
Hence the charge q given by each spark
very much larger than
k,
constant.
If
K
=
is
we have
q
nearly
=
kV.
10,
As an approximation we have
therefore q
=
550.
This
is
is
5 + 100 x '5 55, and k the principle of Lane's Unit Jar.
V=
Ex.
1
2.
What =
the P.D. of the terminals of a Ruhmkorff
?
coil giving
= 260 254 c.m. By formula, But since a much nearly. Changing to volts we get 78,000. smaller P.D. will maintain a series of sparks than will create a new spark, and since the sparking terminals are not flat plates, the actual P.D. is less. The usual estimate is about 40,000 volts per
inch
an inch spark
7=5+100x2*54
inch.
small jar, gradually charged by a machine, sparks at Ex. 3. intervals to a large jar whose knob is at a distance \ cm. Assum=5 100 x, find the capacity of the small jar so that every ing spark may carry 1,000 units of charge.
A
V
+
77. Properties of Sparks. A spark is an exceedingly narrow column of incandescent gas. Although only a small proportion of the energy of discharge of a Leyden Jar appears in the spark, the local heating is enormous. The air traversed is largely ionised (see Chap. V.), and becomes temporarily a good conductor. Its volume increases with such rapidity as to produce an explosive increase of
pressure this produces the shattering effect when lightning strikes a tree or building, and further damage may
;
MISCELLANEOUS ELECTROSTATIC PHENOMENA.
67
ensue from the heating effects which fuse metals and set wood, etc., on fire. Because the air becomes a conductor, another spark is able to follow the same track with great ease. Ordinarily, what we call a spark is a series of sparks, of an oscillatory nature, leaping back and forward until equilibrium is
effected.
If sparks be passed through water, they often produce decomposition into hydrogen and oxygen. This is mainly due to the enormous rise of temperature. Sparks passed through the oxides of metal can reduce them, restoring the
pure metal.
On the other hand, a spark passed through the mixed gases hydrogen and oxygen causes them to combine exploThis is the principle of the Eudiometer. sively into water. Other reactions are produced by sparks, e.g. the conversion of oxygen O, into ozone O
.
?/
Example. What is the total energy released when a 1 cm. spark passes between terminals of a jar of capacity 50? The charge If the spark is 1 cm. long, the P.D. is about 105. = 50 x 105, hence the energy is i.oO x (105) 2 = 280,000 ergs.
78. Projecting Points. If two distant spheres be connected by a fine wire and gradually charged, their potentials F will always be the same, and therefore their charges will be in the ratio of +~" + +7+ + T++H+ their capacities, i.e. their radii If a and b be radii, ( 58). the charges are Va and Vb, and the surface areas are and 4nrb2 hence the surface
4
,
densities
are F/4?ra, F;'4?rft. is the Fig. density greater on the smaller sphere, and a convection discharge takes place from
Obviously
40.
it
first.
to a sphere of projecting sharp point is comparable is enorvery small radius. The density on such a point than on the rest of the conductor, ami mously greater therefore the electrification on the part of the conductor off. immediately round the point is rapidly converted
A
68
MISCELLANEOUS ELECTROSTATIC PHENOMENA.
Insulating plates cannot easily be charged by contact with a conductor, but are readily charged by the stream of electricity from a projecting point on the conductor. Points on conductors appear also to collect electricity. Imagine a f vely charged surface, conducting or insulating, near a point projecting from an insulated conductor. ve The ve charge induces electricity round and on the The density on the point is so great that a conpoint.
+
vective negative discharge pours from it, and gradually ve on the neutralises the  ve on the surface, leaving
+
This continues till the conductor and the conductor. surface are very nearly at the same potential. These properties are possessed only by points projecting outwards, as at a. Such points as b and c are useless.
79. Electrical Machines Inductive. The student should compare the simplified explanation below with a Wimshurst machine. The twelve lines, a, 6, c, .... Z, represent any large
:
Fig. 41.
number
of tinfoil conductors
following each other con
These in practice are pasted on a circular secutively. rotating disc of varnished glass, vulcanite, or celluloid, so that / in figure is next to A% and there is no break in the
sequence.
In the same way
a', b'
/',
are tinfoils on
PQ is an insulated metal wire with metal brushes at its ends similarly for P'Q'. The region around P is nearer than Y. e' have recently been made P' is X + . Jar to give it larger capacity.g. PQ itself. and Q' to Y. carriers is of the same nature as that due to X and Y for X i . The stream of charged tinfoils P and P' and acting inductively when they get leaving opposite Q' and Q ultimately reaches Y.. /. V + ve  Thus the machine has a tendency to continue going ve] y when once started. electricity is still generated by action of the carriers themselves. which have just passed P. 41 and diametrically Each of these is connected to a Leyden opposite to it. and is therefore at a higher potential than the average. and to an adjustable metal bar with a knob at the end. close to the first. which is in momentary and + contact with c and i. will therefore have induced is and charges around P and Q so that c is charged ve Similarly d and e. while that around Q is lower.ve Now e lowers the potential around This effect of the Q'. while i is raising that around P'.MISCELLANEOUS ELECTROSTATIC PHENOMENA. . pleteness They are practically within a hollow conductor and touching it. as in Fig. ve] y X Y + + from and But even if their a spark passes between the knobs. and a negative on ve ve and i' is and that at P'. a second rate in (59 disc. X having positive and negative charges respectively as indicated. When and are charged to a high enough P. and Y Supposing the machine actually at work XX . . if the knobs are placed the inductive together). and rotating at the same the opposite direction. Q charged tinfoils Similarly the Q' are increasing the charge on X. clos> discharge is complete (e.D. where the procomjecting points discharge them with almost the same as if there had been actual metallic contact. is a conductor on insulating supports which has sharp points directed inis a similar one wards. . YY . are and j and Tc are \. The machine will therefore work if once started so much Usually one of the metal brushes Q is made . It follows that c' is ve and in the same way d'. + . Hence a positive charge is nearer to induced on the conductor passing Q'. .
The to escape to earth. of any machine is limited ultimately by the size of the machine. glass is it When electrification is is developed f rictionally. the P. Quite generally. Hence it is equivalent. Then F cannot exceed the sparking potential for r/4 cm. nearly. as in the Electrophorus and the Wimshurst. of the charged surfaces is almost wholly given by overcoming the electrical attraction between glass and rubber. Electrical Machines FrictionaL In frictioual machines a disc of glass is rotated against a rubber of leather smeared with amalgam of mercury and tin. Say that it is r/4. Limit of Potential Difference Attainable. the work The energy largely dissipated in heat. of X X F to either or P'Q'. approximately. similar to X above.70 MISCELLANEOUS ELECTROSTATIC PHENOMENA. to the mechanical work done in drawing the charged surfaces done in friction apart. These original small charges are increased by the cumulative inductive action. and the electricity is collected by a prime conductor. charged by contact. electrical 8O. increased by care bestowed on effective insulation. " friction" produces longer than the other three that its ve electrification on the disc around Q as to enough induce a little . The longest spark between the knobs is not likely to exceed a quarter is V of the diameter.D. the plate from the . therefore the greatest and PQ X .D. The nearest distance from of these wires is considerably less than half the radius r of either disc. but often a machine can have its P. of the prime conductor and rubber. When this is approached sparks begin to pass along the surface of the glass disc.D. armed ve elecwith points and connected to a Leyden Jar. the source of the electrical energy is again the mechanical work done in drawing opposite charges apart. V is. If be P. i. When electrification is developed inductively. which seems to afford an easier channel than the air. the P.and f at P and Q. and so charge c and i slightly at start. tricity on the rubber is usually allowed A limit exists to the possible P. of and Y.D. value of about 50r electrostatic units.D.e. : The from + vel y electrified.
lias P = A it falls off. and if a shower of sparks is produced so that C units of electricity (electrostatic) pass per second with a mean potential difference. Then the electrometer registers U. and thereIn this of the apparatus. the mechanical work supplied per second will be OF ergs. U the prevailing air potential. The Water Dropper. and nearly F. and is placed at a point around which the prevailing potential of the air is to be found. it carries away negative electricity. Let F be the potential of the apparatus. fore increases the potential would It can be seen that is made nearer to U. 71 disc. the air potential just round the tube. UV positive. the potential of the undisturbed air. A small metal water vessel a projecting tube from which the water falls in drops. in the Electrophorus. as modified by the presence of the apparatus. and the carriers from those conductors which induced these charges. F. through mechanical friction. also be made nearer rapid succession of drops. drop of potential F growing in a region of higher When potential P must have a negative induced charge. could be eliminated. each of which brings F F F F U A nearer U.MISCELLANEOUS ELECTROSTATIC PHENOMENA. finally makes UV negligible. . 81. If all waste of energy. way if UV were negative. then PFis small and positive. It is connected to an electrometer. Then P must If we suppose lie between U and F.
S. per sec. The unit capacity is that of a condenser whose plates are at unit P. is 1/3 x 10 10 E. IN ELECTROLYTES. wait charge E. E. does unit work (one erg). when its charge is unity.S.D. we therefore have E.S.S. The unit of work is the Erg. as contractions for Electrostatic and Electromagnetic.S.D.) its charge would be 9 x 10 20 (E. As the new unit charge is v times the electrostatic unit charge.M. units when its P.D.).S. the new unit potential difference must be l/v electrostatic units. unit P. unit capacity = 72 9 x 10 20 E.M. the electromagnetic unit charge is v electrostatic units. units.).D. as before.M. The value of v can be taken.CHAPTER FLOW OF ELECTRICITY V. and E. 1/3 x 10 10 E. Derived Units. unit condenser has charge 3 x 10 10 E. moving through unit potential difference. 83. For unit P. reckoned in absolute units (cm. unit charge. unit P. It therefore has capacity 9 X 10 20 Hence . potential are used than those denned in the velocity of light in empty space. The unit of Potential Difference is such that the new unit charge. without sensible error.M.M. Electromagnetic Fundamental Units. units. Using E.M. (E. For 82. reasons that will appear later other units of charge and If v be 57. as 3 x 10 10 cm. Hence the E. = = 3 X 10 10 E.S.D. per second. .
Regarding the earth as a conducting sphere isolated in Its radius space. 84. can be taken as 6370 kilometres. 73 The E. express its capacity in electromagnetic units. 2. units.100/3 x 10 10 = x lO. But the constituent atoms H H definite positive charge. Many chemical compounds. is nearly 60.S. charged to a potential of 20 E. which orbit. when dissolved in a suitable solvent. machine gun sends 10 pellets per second.S. Ex. IN ELECTROLYTES. Capacity This = = 6370 x 1000 x 100 637 x 10^/9 x 10 = 6'37 = 7'1 x 10' E.000 times the radius of the earth's of current. lonisatiou.000. unit current = 3 x 10 l<) E. units.. . Hence is The unit charge is such that unit E. dissociation of nitric acid is In the same sented by way the repre the second constituent being not an atom but a equivalent to an atom.M. units . .8 E. Many of these molecules dissociate in aqueous solution into the atom carries a and Cl. called lonisation. and the Cl atom an equal minus by writing HC1 = H + + Cl_. x 10~ 13 E. unit of capacity is equal to the capacity of a sphere whose radius is 9 x 1020 cm. units (cm. conveyed per second. Find the electric cm. partially disintegrate into Such disintegration is constituents oppositely charged. = 10 x 10 = 100 E.).S.PLOW OF ELECTRICITY its radius. charge we signify this . units. in both systems. capacity of a sphere in empty space is equal to Hence the E. The charge carried per pellet 1 A = Hence the current Capacity x Potential = f x 20 = 10 E.S. Let HC1 denote a molecule of hydrochloric acid.S. of diameter Ex.M.S.M. current and express it in electromagnetic units. units.M units. 1.
Conduction in Solutions. This name is given to any conductor from which an electric current enters any body or space considered. are . In an electrolytic cell. speak of the anode or of an electric spark or discharge. They if chemically replaceable by a recognised or 01. and the to the higher potential. Similarly ions of higher valency carry proportional This ionisation is apparently due to the fact charges. The second conductor is the Kathode.74 FLOW OF ELECTRICITY IN ELECTROLYTES. is maintained in the solution. by methods discussed later. There is thus a positive current one way and a negative current the other way. the field in the liquid is usually due to two conductors of the same metal (e.S04 = 2H + + (S0)*__ Cu S0 4 = Cu ++ + (S0 _ 4) signify double the monovalent atomic charge. we can therefore Divalent ones carry double the charge are monovalent H . such as Every monovalent ve ion carries numerically the same charge (+ ve or ). ++ > If there be 110 elecexcept that which is due to the ions.g. for instance. ions. these ions travel equally in all directions. can. potentials. that the solvent (here taken as water. which is called the Anode.D. platinum) kept at a constant P. the electropositive ones are Rations. the p e ions are impelled towards ve ions the region of lower potential. The current in the liquid flows from the one at higher potential. write H. but similar phenomena occur with other solvents) has a large specific inductive capacity and therefore greatly weakens the electric attraction which helped to bind together the p e ve and ion into one molecule. and the net effect is a flow of electricity from higher to lower tric field 85. where . We The electronegative Anious . monovalent atom. But if a P.D. which seek the anode. Such charged atoms or groups are called Ions.
. because there water present with which it can react. 2 .. II. Electrolytic Reactions. = H. 01 + 01 + On = CuCl.." kathode H 3 4 4) : 4 f O . Copper electrodes VI.O .  Oxygen and hydrogen given III.FLOW OF ELECTRICITY IN ELECTROLYTES.S0 H = H. Electrolysis is chemical What happens separation due to the action of a current.0 as before NaOH act differently to 4 . salts act somewhat like solutions. is no Strong solutions may V.S . Sometimes the ion is simply given off sometimes it reacts with the electrode. + = 0. dilute solutions : HC1 = H+ + Cl_ : At anode 01 + 01 = Cl at kathode H + H Thus chlorine and hydrogen are given off. off. . at anode. . when an ion reaches its electrode is dependent on chemical relationships.O = H. kathode Na + H O = NaOH + H H + H = H.2H + + (S0 ++ + H. 75 86. weak om>s. . Platinum or Carbon electrodes I. .. At anode SO 4 H S0 . Thus oxygen and water appears hydrogen and NaOH at kathode. kathode Na is deposited. + O O + O =< : >. NaOH = Na + OH_ 4 2 : At anode OH + OH = H + O O + O = O. . H h : H .y. H S0 3 4 = 2H + + 4 (S0 )__ : At anode S0 kathode H h H = : + H. = H . HC1 = H+ 4 01 . . and Fused IV. sometimes reacts with the liquid.SO.. H. = Na + + OH_ At anode OH + OH = O + H. The following are particular cases. (fused) : v.
. : CuSO 4 = Cu ++ + f (SO 4 )__ at kathode Cu is 4 Thus copper is dissolved from one deposited. = . 87. if completely ionised. L. Gram Molecule. and Cl is monovalent. but 96/2 it is divalent. H S0 = 2H + + S0 + Cu = CuSO as above at kathode H + H = H. gives 2 mols of hydrogen and a mol of sulphion S0 4 Mols must not be confused with equivalents. etc. Thus a molecule of hydrogen has and therefore a mol of hydrogen gas is two formula 2 grams. . mol of sulphion. the solution of 2 and of CuS0 4 gets stronger. is the quotient of the atomic weight of the ion by the valency.. VIII. Of course if the current SO 4 gets weaker lasts a long time. Cl. or Mol. 32 + 4 x 16 = 96 gm.76 FLOW OF ELECTRICITY VII. 35 gm. in simple cases. therefore the equivalent weight of chlorine is also 35 the . IN ELECTROLYTES. therefore a mol of In the same way the hydrogen ion is one gram only. Cl. At anode SO 4 Cu = CuS0 . H . Thus the mol of chlorine ion. till a stage is reached at which Cu begins to be deposited on anode as well H as hydrogen. so a mol of sulphuric acid is 98 gm.). molecular weight of sulphuric acid 2 H S0 2 4 is + 32 + 4 x 16 = 98. their formula is H simply. electrode and deposited on the other. the solution remaining of the same average strength. A Gram Molecule (or Mol) of any element or compound is that number of grams of the substance which is numerically equal to its molecular weight. and therefore the equivalent weight is 48. The mol of chlorine gas. is 70 gm. S0 4 = .. copper dissolved at anode. Equation II.r Hydrogen liberated at kathode. of 86 shows that a mol of this acid.. If ions of hydrogen appear in a solution ( 86. 2 4 4 : At anode SO 4 4 . II. The equivalent weight.
or nearly 2'9 X 10 13 E.] or millionth a of a farad 10 . 00001035.S. mol of every other monovalent ion carries the same charge. of silver is deposited. units. = A .. Joule. the coulomb is 3 x 10 E. The Volt is 10 8 E. Conversely. = and so on. AgN0 3 when '0011 18 gin. units. E. The commercial Coulomb is that charge which passes from anode to kathode of cell containing dilute silver nitrate. it is therefore 10 9 E.M. Commercial Measure of Electric Ampere. .M. of the absolute E. it is thereThe Farad is the capacity of fore nearly 1/300 E. The Ampere is a current of one coulomb per second. and the coulomb is 1/10 trivalent.M. of atomic weight 107'88 taking oxygen as 16).S. . 77 thereby produced. Volt. one coulomb deposits 1/96500 00001035 mol of a monovalent ion.F. For the present it must be understood that the ampere is 1/10 of the absolute E. Silver is monovalent. unit of charge. The student should remember the numbers 96500.FLOW OF ELECTRICITY IN ELECTROLYTES. unit of current. the common standifficult to construct such a condenser dards are microfarads [M. radius capacity has radius 9 x 10' cm. Hence. Farad. units of mol of a monovalent ion carries 9650 absolute charge. . The above explanation Current. units.M. Consequently a measurable electrolytic eft'ect can be used to measure charge and therefore current. using 82. A spherical conductor of 1 M. one third of a . of conductivity of solutions involves the property that the charge of electricity conveyed through any one solution is proportional to the quantity of chemical change 88. and carries 107'88 ^ '001118 96500 coulombs. very approximately. etc. consequently a mol is 107'88 gin. units. half as much of a divalent. The reason for the definition of the coulomb and ampere will be explained later. A 89. Belated Commercial Units.S. units of Potential. Coulomb. when absolute electromagnetic (or E.) units are defined ( 161). a condenser whose potential rises 1 volt for a charge of ~ It would l>e 1 coulomb. A mol of a divalent ion carries twice this charge a mol of a trivalent ion carries thrice as much.M.15 absolute units.F. Taking the earth's .M.
F. phate. Cl mass of H .gm.4?r/300 x 36 = Sir/21900. A 710 M. 97 in the four cells. of copper from CuS0 4 Find how much hydrogen. If it also the field (in volts per cm. hydrogen. How much recharged by zinc is used In each cell 20 amp. An ampere (one tenth unit current) in a second deposits "00001035 gram molecule in 20 hours it deposits In copper sul00001035 x 20 x 60 x 60 = '7452 gm. absolute. Assume 1 c. of Volume = 3 TT. ) at the surface of the sphere. mass HC1 as present = ^. 34 x 10 x 3 x 10 10 = 102 x = 102 x 1020 E. Atomic weights are taken . units.'. hence 63 gm Cu is equivalent to 2 gm. and their values in Practical E. and therefore is 102 x 10" volts per cm.M. It is 1(T X 10 J = = Ex. and 760 mm.S. A . passes . . Hence the Cu deposited is 63 x 7452 =. An accumulator has 20 ampere hours much copper will it deposit from copper sulphate ? Note that Capacity : capacity. of copper. The Potential (in E.M. The same accumulator when run down is a battery of 4 bichromate cells in series. and 65 of Zinc is equivalent to 63 Hence a similar calculation to the above shows 24'2gm.78 PLOW OF ELECTRICITY IN ELECTROLYTES.. abso= 340 x 10 9 E. by 1 volt. in 2 hours. How is not used in the sense of the definition in simply denotes the quantity of electricity that can be stored in the accumulator. measured by the change of potential per unit distance. happens to be numerically equal to the potential. charge and potenFind tial of the sphere. find the E. molecule. by volume.2 = 235 gm. we find its capacity Joule is the work done when one coulomb alters its potential 8 10 7 ergs.S. the potential is . it releases per minute from dilute acid. The charge required is that which is associated with l/lOO of this hydrogen it = 8?r x 965/21900 coulombs = M33 coulombs = 1133 E.S. radius contains a 1 % solution of were possible to withdraw onehundredth of the Cl atoms with their associated charges.M. is used in each cell . the temperature and pressure being normal (0C. Reducing to E. CuS0 4 Cu is divalent its atomic weight is 63. This lute units.cm. H = 1. Ex. sphere of 1 cm.S. .M. up? 2. Ex. units. 10 IS volts. is '0000900 gm. units. Ex. !) . 1. of mercury). The Field. as 637 X 108 cm. 4. certain current deposits 1 gm. 300 = 35i. 2 units) = Charge/ Radius and Field = Charge/(radius) is 3 '4 x 10 E. units. hr. A HC1. 53 but it . 3.
and electrically inert. Ex. 7.cm.cm. F= = it We conductivity. Let m ber of mols (gram molecules) of solute in 1 litre of that fraction which is ionised.PLOW OF ELECTRICITY IN ELECTROLYTES. Show potential of 300 volts that enough electricity to charge the earth to a is carried by less than 1/4000 c.M. Ex. by .. Find the current which liberates 32 c.. units carried If q 10~ 3 mol of monovalent ion.. . Avkmq. It is found by experiment shall call C FA the specific that ordinarily C oc F.. 6. . saturation pressure of water vapour for this temperature is 17 mm. =C=A (11+ v)kmq. Show that 1 ampere in 1 second liberates '115 c. in 10 minutes. a solute like HC1 or HNO.cm. there are Jem mols of the k)m of the positive ion and km of the negative and (1 solute not decomposed. = + .cm. . ion molecules of the will flow across a section (PP') of area A as are found in a volume many gram + Fig. 5. num9O. field strength Let change of potential per unit distance in direction of current. The Conductivity of a Solution. hydrogen or chlorine at normal temperature and pressure. 1 '#. and may be assumed saturated with water vapour. and denote Specific Resistance. 70 of Ex. consisting of two monovalent ions. the charge. of hydrogen The gas is collected over water. the current carried by the per 3 ions carry ions across the barrier is Aukmq. 1CT and the 3 10~ the other way. Consider a tubular portion. flowing : be its cross section let u be velocity of the + ve ion. 10~ . of hydrogen. The temperature is 20 C. LMM'L'.! . of the solution along which the current is = = . and the pressure in the vessel in which the gas is collected is 75'5 cm. )iFf . c. in absolute E. l Au this number is Aukm. and v of ve ion then in one second as the Let A . If solution and let k we consider the simplest case. # tinInking culh'd Hence }JK = 1(r 3 mqk ((l + . Hence the total current .
or small shot falling in glycerine. Nature of the Resistance to the Ionic Motion. Hence the resistance . For a given solution. cricket balls. minute water drops in air. but have its motion opposed by a resisting medium. And since C oo u +va F. and therefore the ultimate motion is with infinitesimal The limiting velocity is reached in this limiting velocity. and F is the force per unit at a rate proportional directly charge. . ion carrying a constant charge. Now if a body be impelled by a constant force.80 FLOW OF ELECTRICITY IN ELECTROLYTES. Water (and most perature rises. sand grains in water. . infer. but vanishes when the velocity is zero. Hence C and F vary. an exceedingly short time when a very minute body moves in an ordinary resisting medium. e. with this limiting velocity. . F. resistance to such swift bodies as meteorites is pro3 The resistance to certain much portional to (velocity) slower projectiles. R is also constant. is more or less pro2 The principal physical cause of portional to (velocity) the resistance here is that the ball has to give momentum to the air it encounters in order to clear it away. As the value for which the resistance is velocity approaches the the acceleration becomes equal "to the impelling force. 92.g. This resistance is fluid friction. Velocities of Ions. = therefore we are justified in inferring that the resistance due to the fluid is proportional to the velocity. But the resistance to the slowest bodies. the impelling force. q and Jc are constant. the force resisting ionic velocities is also due liquids) gets less viscous as the temThis implies that the resisting force is to viscosity. if only 91. and since this is true for all solutions we can infer that But u is the velocity of an u and v separately vary as F. But u oc F. sensibly. the resistance due to the medium always increases as the velocity increases. hence the ions travel to the force exerted on them by the electric field. or viscosity. the quantities m. The is due to We proportional to the velocity itself. The ions will travel.
rise of temperature. rise of temperature. DefiniThe temperature coefficient of any physical quantity is the amount by which it increases per 1 C. the freezing point of water. Molecular Conductivity of Salts. 93. Since. tion. v these being the hence we can put u/F u u/F = = + t) . K+ ).103 mqk(u n Hence the specific conductivity If k + /') were constant. for k . The specific Now u and v a F. M. 10.PLOW OF ELECTRICITY IN ELECTROLYTES. conductivity velocities 94. hence the Specific Conductivity of aqueous solutions should increase as the temperature rises. divided coefficient of the resistance of a dilute equal to the temperature coefficient of the viscosity of solvent (usually water). PH. solutions.3 kq Its quotient by ///. Temperature Coefficient of Resistance.. under unit potential gradient. 81 less at higher temperatures for the same velocity. It is nearly constant for dilute whon the solutions solutions. Thus the temperature The temperature solution is coefficient of Resistance is the increase of resistance per 1 C. however. if we use solutions so dilute that practically all of the solute is ionised (so that k 1 nearly. the resistance is proportional not only to F/(u between the temi>) but also to h. and can be treated as a constant) the Specific = Conductivity is found to remain inversely proportional to all the viscosity at ordinary temperatures. It is the called the Specific Molecular Conductivity. Indeed. this would x m. but alters considerably with is /. It holds approximately in very dilute 1 It breaks down in dense ones. .v)/F is greater. by the resistance at C. solution in conductivity divided by the strength of the gram molecules per litre. = {t . the equality + perature coefficients of resistance and of viscosity only holds when k is constant. ' . divided by its value at some standard temperature which usually is taken C. i. Consequently (u 4. 10~ 3 mqk (u v~)/F.
'001 = 10 = . But 1 volt = m= . chloride to 100 gm. potassium chloride in conductivety 353 x 1015. MO + v = 00134. Here 3453 X 1016 A = 10 3 mqk .S. for instance by the change of boiling point produced by the dissolved substance. very dilute solution of hydrochloric acid has comIts specific conductivity at position '001 gm. Note that calcium is divalent. and estimate the specific conductivity of a solution of 1 gm. of calcium Ex. units. and since 108 Hence u + VQ = '00358. q 108 absolute units. Ex. = The Molecular conductivity i. Calculate the molecular conductivity at infinite dilution. both with respect to the behaviour of salts and the peculiar property of acids. velocities of the hydrogen and chlorine ions for a potential gradient of 1 volt per cm. Consider similarly a solution of potassium chloride. potential gradient 1 volt per cm. 00001 gm.The limit approached by the molecular conductivity when the concentration is indefinitely small. dissociation factor can be investigated by other methods. k can be taken = F= 1. noted in next paragraph.e. and has atomic weight 40.74 5 = '03. Show that the molecular conductivity is '143. '00068. . find the value of MO A + tV Ex. molecule per litre. 2. . Find the sum of 18 is 3453 x 1016 absolute C. The atomic weight of KC1 is 39 + 35 '5 = 74 '5. Assuming k = 1. 3. The velocities (per unit potential gradient) of Na and Cl in water at 18 are 00045. Consider solution of '224 gm. Ex. therefore the number of gram molecules per litre is '224 ~.G.'. The only varying letter is k. 4. 9650. 5 per cent. litre u + v = We '0012.82 FLOW OP ELECTRICITY IN ELECTROLYTES. These methods agree with the electrical methods. 1. molecule per litre. 5. per litre. solution of CaCl 2 (i. solution) has specific conductivity '0643. the amount of changes of molecular conductivity exhibit In fact the dissociation factor k of a salt dissociation. get 1 Ex.* conductivity 1293 x 1018. (u + v)/F. and therefore the are dense. 5 gm.
4S. . such as NaCl. 1J which conductivities of dilute potential gradient) from solutions can be calculated with fair accuracy. Gram Fig. proportional U ordinates represent the Specific Molecular Conductivity X IO The Specific Conductivity of the Solution is deduced by the number multiplying the Specific Molecular Conductivity by A further multiplication by 111 of gram molecules per litre. Solutions which behave anomalously.FLOW OP ELECTRICITY IN ELECTROLYTES. As the solutions are mode more dilute. haviour of dilute salts.. 4. etc. 1 8:3 95. molecules pep litre Abscissae are the logarithms of the dilutions . show curious divergences But acids.. but afterwards diverges from it widely. n which are not yet explained. to . See Fii?. like HOI.. the molecular conductivity first approaches the value demanded by theory. HNO .S. agrees 3 with the above theory so well that it has been found possible to draw up a table of ionic velocities (per unit KNO . reduces to Practical Units.. The .
and v mols of S0 4 enter the solution through the barrier. . Hence there is an excess of u \. for instance a solution of copper sulphate CuSo 4 in a cell with platinum electrodes. of Cu is taken from the anode and deposited on kathode while the solution is strengthened near the anode. 96.g. and of against the 3 current is 10~ Amv. u mols of S0 4 are left behind. the ratio of these is u:v. and weakened near the kathode. For every u inols of Cu that cross the barrier towards the anode. deposited. and the solution on the anode side is stronger by v mols of CuS0 4 in virtue of the v of S0 4 which has entered and attacked the anode. v inols of S0 4 cross towards anode each of the ions being divalent. the number of gram molecules of f ve ion that cross Avith the current per second ve ions that cross is 10~ Amu. Here we have copper electrodes. For every u mols of Cu which cross the barrier. by u mols. Ratio of Ionic Velocities.84 FLOW OF ELECTRICITY IN ELECTROLYTES. Consider the anode side of the barrier. 4 . Ionic Velocities in Copper Electrolytic Cell. . Hence if all quantities be measured in gram molecules the depletions of the solution on the two sides of the barrier are as u v Take if this be not modified by other chemical charge. sugar or alcohol in water) do not appear to ionise. . and the u mols of Cu on the kathode side are ( :>> \ . . . Consider next the kathode side. 97. The solution on the anode side is weakened by u mols of CuSO 4 and destroyed to furnish the Cu that has migrated the solution on the kathode side is weakened by v mols of CuS0 4 Of course the v liberated mols of SO 4 011 the anode side form sulphuric acid. liberating oxygen 86.v mols of SO 4 which attacks the anode.). If we consider an imaginary barrier across the liquid. . . The u mols of Cu which enter are deposited on the kathode. and do not show electrical conductivity. The anode loses u f v of Cu. II. Some solutions (e. The v mols of S0 4 which go away weaken the solution by v mols of CuS0 Hence u f v mols leaving v mols of Cu to be deposited.
First Method of Observing Ratios of Ionic Velocities. Then a current is allowed to flow for some time. and copper sulphate around anode. The anode and kathode are in vessels connected by a tube which contains a jelly solution. The : A .FLOW OF ELECTRICITY IN ELECTROLYTES. u. 4. A silver anode A is at bottom of a burette B is a silver kathode. is first is Ag and N03 The found and plate B weighed. For instance. Th'ory <>/' S . and the solution becomes running denser around A. B we get a num 99. The copper travelling with the current entered the jelly and * These particulars are from Whethain. Such salts are chosen that the progress of the ions can be watched by colour changes produced. AgNO Fig. As this travelled along the tube it decolorised the phe + of H nolphthalein. vessel is constructed as in Fig. in the jelly and solutions of potassium chromate around kathode. increase of weight of v hence u/v is found. contained an acid. 44.* Oliver Lodge used sodium chloride in agar jelly in the tube rendered slightly alkaline to bring out the red colour of a little phenolphthalein added as an indicator. for a potential gradient of 1 volt The velocity was found to be about '0026 cm. Masson used a colourless salt. 85 98. To observe u v. ber a u + and by finding. Second Method of Observing Ratios of Ionic Velocities. KC1. so that ve ion was the hydrogen. 44. The anode vessel Fig. By out half the contents of burette and analysing one can find the strengthening of solutions which oc nitrate 3 are monovacomposition of solution silver . per sec. solution the ions lent.>.
and it is physically necessary . Since Cu travels less rapidly than K under the same potential difference. and is not complicated by the it should travel equally alter fast. and Cl under the experiment compares the velocity of the same potential gradient. In the same way the chrome ion advancing against the current followed the swifter Cl ion and formed yellow potassium chromate in the One might imagine that the swifter K and Cl would In practice get away from the pursuing Cu and Cr0 4 The current is physically bound to be this is not so. . porous diaphragm A prevented convective motion of the column due to its change of density. Hence the potential gradient is least steep in the KC1. must more rapidly with the distance A K velocities of Cu and Cr0 4 which are travelling under different potential gradients. The K would travel faster than Cu under continuous.86 FLOW OF ELECTRICITY IN ELECTROLYTES. with a vertical liquid column instead of a jelly solution. there was no tendency to blurring the colour boundary by the Cu getting ahead. Whetham used a similar method. formed blue copper chloride. the advance of the colour showing the rate at which the potassium ions left the chrome ion available to combine with copper. jelly. that tial consequently the potenin the steady state is reached in which region of the Cu ion. the same potential gradient.
Some of this energy is dissipated. 86.CHAPTER VI. i. 100. voltaic cell . some is directly used in producing the current. and consist in the fact that there is hardly Practically all any local accumulation of electricity. to produce chemical reactions. the positive going other. But the differences are are exceedingly small in the cell. Chemical operations depending on the flow of a current are usually reversible.g. makes a complete circuit. A is quite analogous. We 101.e. Continuous Currents. Reversible and Irreversible Operations.). in overcoming the friction of the moving parts. and that this electrical energy is produced by another form of energy (mechanical) supplied by the person who turns the handle. Its current is usually much larger than that of a Wimshurst when it is working and the free charges. only of degree. VII. wires. In the copper electrolytic cell.g. He also supplies other energy. is uselessly converted into heat. and some can be used in other ways. which is dissipated. e. we can consider an electric current to flow across the spark gap and around a circuit completed by the machine. through the cell and connecting one way and the negative the have seen ( 80) that in the production of a series of sparks from a Wimshurst machine there is a conversion of electrical energy into heat. Similarly a voltaic cell will only deliver a continuous current if sufficient energy be supplied. ELECTKOMOTIVE FORCE. ( 87 . which are conspicuous in the Wimshurst. When a Wimshurst is used to produce a shower of sparks between its terminals. the current removes copper from one plate e.
M. at the expense of the energy of the current. engineering unit is the Joule.M. Back Electromotive Force. it is evident that a unit charge flows round the current circuit. which = * There also may exist heating effects which are reversible.F.F. The practical or 10" ergs. 102. If a unit current flows for a second. The electromotive force of a battery. Power.M. 103. can also be defined as the work provided (reversibly) per unit charge.F. This is the work done. what is done by a current is undone by an equal but contrary current. it follows that the E. or other source of electric current.F. XIII.* Chemical operations can be irreversible in their nature. per unit charge.). That is to say. and E. is the work which it provides (in reversible processes) per unit current per second. and deposits it on the other. Resultant Electromotive Force is the work done.F. We shall other way find later that certain other effects of a current are also reversible. reversibly. Take as an example the simple Volta cell. Hence the E.]. . irreversibly. Hydrogen is given off from the copper plate and most of it escapes. These are considered later (Chap.M. Electromotive Force [E. would produce the contrary A current sent the effect.F. in any circuit is equal to the sum of the back E.M. Units of Energy. It is therefore impossible that this hydrogen should be recombined on reversing the current. and an equal but contrary current would also heat the conductor equally. per unit charge. The flow of a current in any conductor produces a heating effect which is irreversible. the current heats the conductor. and resultant E.88 ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE. The absolute unit of energy is the Erg. That is to say.M. at the expense of the energy of the current. Since all energy given to the current must be eventually given back either reversibly or irreversibly. Almost the whole of this work is dissipated in the irreversible production of heat.
and is 10 7 absolute units.M.O. It appears a mere consequence of the definitions of 102.000 joules 36 X 10 13 ergs.000 Watts. 104. called the Kilowatt.F. Consequently the total energy can be found from the apparent reactions in a cell.M. of a Practical unit is called a Volt.M. we know the work supplied per unit.e. The It is the E. and these reactions are reversible. This merely expresses that the E. 7 i.M.600 seconds at the rate of 1 i. = .M. Engineers frequently use a larger unit. which is called a Watt.F. but historically E.e. The absolute unit is oiie erg per second. with more or less certainty. of a cell can be calculated from the energy of its chemical reactions. That is. The electromagnetic Absolute unit is the E.F. 80 Power is rate of working. " consequently all are proportional to the current and to the time.600. The chemical processes in a battery are either electrolytic or secondary reactions due to the electrolysis. And the energy of a reaction can be measured. .T. source which expends 1 joule in producing one coulomb.F of a source which expends one erg in producing the flow of electromagnetic unit charge i. 1 ampere for 1 second. If the energy of every reaction is calculable. of the cell. even when these differ considerably from the real ones. It is the Kilowatt Hour.F. The practical unit. kilowatt.] Unit of Energy. Thus a volt expends 10 ergs it therefore in producing 1/10 unit current for 1 second 8 is 10 absolute units. and evidently its value is 3. the work done in 3. the E. by the heat it produces.e. is one Joule per second. unit current per second. the quantity of every reaction is proportional to the charge that has gone round the circuit. Founded on the Kilowatt is the Board of Trade [B. The Thomson Rule.e. . which is 1. i. Electromotive Force is work per unit charge.ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE. The energy of chemical processes depend only on the final result.'s were measured before first Helmholtz and afterwards Sir William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) explained their connection with energy.
equivalent of any other substance. This is because the same substance can H = H H = enter into reactions involving different valences. The tabulated reactions are per gm. and which simply produce heat or secondary processes and. taken from the Annuaire du Bureau des Longitudes.96500 on the reaction. The energy provided is 4' 18 calories Consequently the E. joules.F.M. Of course a gram equivalent of a monovalent ion. in calories per gram equivalent quantities of the chemicals employed equivalent to 1 gm.e. in so far as it depends =. secondly. be the heat of a i. of water (1 mol) give 1 gm. there are differences produced in concentration and in and the work done or provided in ionisation of solutions these processes is not accurately known.F. equivalent. of formation reactions. the reaction of 1 gm. or of a compound from which a monovalent ion mol. The heats number of production of zinc sulphate and destruction of sulphuric acid. does actually depend on the reaction considered.90 ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE. Consequently. equivalent occurs when 96500 coulombs flow round the is That of a divalent ion We : circuit.000 nearly. 1910. H O + K = KHO + 2 ZnO + 2H.F. give a list of heats of reaction of a few common substances. molecule^ not per gm. Heats of Reactions. first. for reaction. The questions remain how far the E. of hydrogen. that we do not always know which reactions provide energy for the current. To use the table proceed as follows One coulomb (or 1 ampere in one second) would release '00001035 gm. H = Compare . is liberated. or involve '00001035 gm.M. Let H .F. and + Zn 2 In the first case 18 gm. of hydrogen.M. It . that we do not fully understand all the reIn a Volta cell. H. and if these questions are not answered correctly the calculated E. 105. The difficulties of the method are. and how much other reactions contribute. besides the actions that take place.M. is one half a mol.'s accurately. so the gram equivalent is the gram molecule. is 4'18 ff/23. of hydrogen. will be wrong. have been calculated for a large would seem therefore quite simple to substitute and find E.. .
so the gin.0 of formation in thousands of calories.M.ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE..e. coulomb. In order to divide by the valency proper to the reaction consiget Divide again by 23 for the energy in joules per dered. the E. molecule. hydrogen. H Heats H. . 91 In the second. equivalent is half the gm. of water give 2 gm. i.F. 18 gm.
The + . 7.M. CuClo. . 6. E. of a to decompose zinc chloride. Find E.M. = 27 "5/23 = 1'2.F. ZnCl. chloride is 29 Difference is 27o /. Table of E. is 56 "o..ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE. of a silver chloride cell. Heat of silver reaction is 2AgCl + Zn = ZnCl 2 2Ag.M.F. divide by the valency 2. Find the E. 5.M. cells. Standard Clark Daniell Cadmium Zn Zn Cd Common cells.F.M. Ex. Cu. that of ZnCL>.F. Leclanche Bun sen Grove . Ex.. 's of common Cells at 16 Name. Ex. Constituents. cell composed of Zn.F. needed Find the E.
1 'o joules are provided by the chemical reactions per coulomb. the heat reversiblv absorbed per coulomb. there will be definite chemical changes and definite heat liberated. we get // = Using H/e = (  293/700 = 42. should l>e 1'OS as observed. the chemical changes will be undone again. But the observed by Thomson's Rule is 105. . Small electrolysed dilute acid between electrodes of palladium. '42 appear as heat. Hence Jf/6 9:}  (//  J{')/(0  0') = (/. Daniell cell and a coil of wire forming a circuit be enclosed in an ice calorimeter which keeps it at constant temperature.M. the charges be taken indefinitely small.1/700 at 20.M. current c in time / produced by .1/700. If a current be sent through a metal wire at uniform temperature. Consequently the heat is exactly as great as if it had been produced by the chemical processes without an electric If some outside agency be used to send an equal current an equal time through the cell in a reverse direction. was only T08. is on a metal wire.M. and d = 273 f 20 = 293. Irreversible Processes. the heat produced per second is proportional Hence if It lx> tho heat in to the square of the current. given gases. _ E')/(8  0') = if dE/d8. which absorb most of the separated The operation is therefore reversible. and the change of E.M. for no clu i  mical change occurs. the melting of the ice will show a liberation of heat.F. 3) 1'5 volts.F. and the E.ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE.F. E. per 1 rise was . The E. and no other process in which work is done. tically as much heat is The simplest experiment produced again. Hence although 107.F. Example (from Arrhenius). After such a time that one coulomb has passed. Ex. The most universal and If a typical irreversible process is the production of heat. th> Insit energy units produced per unit current p>r svon<l. By this equation we can calculate H. but pracdirectly current.
absolute units.M. 108) Re* = and Hence resistance in series are additive. 161] produces 1 erg of heat in 1 second. The energy provided in the irreversible production of heat . of a wire in second. . If it be absolute units.F.M.M. 1 ohm = 10 9 E. : Ect . 10 7 = R 2 (1/10) . .94 ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE.M. If R be joint resistance. heat H produced in time t ( 107. the resistance of a wire in which a current 1/10 absolute units produces 10 7 ergs.Rc't = Rct E = Re or.F. Resistance. The absolute unit of resistance is the resistance of a wire in which unit current [ 82. If 110. then the series.it R3 the separate resistances. Resistances in Series.'s) and t be current. R= 10 9 . E be the total E. is the total energy provided in time t by all the reversible processes. . If the resistances be in the same current c goes through all. of a circuit (the algebraic sum of E.'. That is.F. Ohm's Law. hi words. The resistance of a wire (whose temperature is uniform) is the heat energy produced per second when unit current passes through it.'s and back E. 108. The Ohm or Practical unit of resistance is the resistance which 1 ampere produces 1 joule of heat in 1 Hence an ohm is. then Ect. R . The resistance of any conductor is the heat energy produced per second by irreversible processes when unit current passes through it. 109. and R v R.
Find its resistance in ohms. uses energy at rate 1 '6 watts. to 83 calories.){x  . . 16 = Rx 2 (1) . If we reckon metal filament lamps to use 1 '2 watts per candle power... the resistance.. In a second it produces 72 joules.\ 3344 = 2 tf(o) 60 R = 223 ohms. raise its temperature 1 it needs Rise of temperature 5. (resultant) is the product of the current and The equation holds whether E. Ex. What rise of temperature should we expect if 1 '2 amperes flow for 2 minutes through an immersed coil of wire whose resistance is 1 ohm ? Ex. = 172*8/83 x 4'18 = 5. To melt 1 gm. 95 The E.>. current c is divided between two wires of resistance Find what the current in each wire must be if the heat produced per second be a minimum. . R. .. Ex. equivalent calorimeter contains 80 gm.a) 3 Then RI and R. and C = '5 amp. 3. . A H l = (R.. Ex. 2. Ex. 4. In one second it uses 1'6 joules.M. + R. joules. Let x flow along /?. c are measured in absolute units or in the practical system. Thermal capacity = 83. or 83 x 4'18 joules. 1. and c x along R. per minute.F. of water. R= 160 ohms. volts. 72 = R(l/3)~ .ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE. R= 648 ohms. this therefore is heat produced. An incandescent light takes a current of *1 amp. of ice requires 80 calories = 80 x 4 18 = 334 '4 The time t = 60 sec. i. A wire carrying a current of '5 ampere is immersed in an ice calorimeter and melts 1 gm.e. and amperes.(c . A is //= BcH = 1 (12) 2 120 = 1728 joules. ohms. and its water 3 gm. and Find its resistance. find the resistance of a 60 candle power lamp which uses 1/3 ampere. = R aZ + R.
of zinc in each. See 112. zinc burned to ZnOa gives 84800 65 4 = 1300. Ex. Here series be used. In a single Daniel cell (E = 1'08) find the ratio of the calories of heat produced to the grams of zinc consumed. ff/. If //be in calories. therefore the current divides in inverse ratio of the resistances. 418 // = But 1 gram equivalent of zinc. /32o x 96500/418 x 325 770. find ratio of heat pro E= lQ8w..96 ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE. be consumed. hence it is The tirst term is an exact square and cannot be a minimum when it is zero. . consumed for ever}1 ct . net = 96500 x. But every 96500 coulombs traverses n cells in series and consumes 32 '5 gm. . Hence c .. and is the joint resistance + jK 2 ). negative. 1 1 gm.'. Ex. 8. Ex. 108 lOSct./(^j 2) . = But RcH.'. zinc in a cell gives 770 calories.) and Rz >C"X Fig.. . 4*18 #= lQBnct. 9. y.. 6. 4'18 His in joules. the same as before.cKR. If n Daniell cells in duced to zinc consumed. + /?.x = R. 1 '08/327 and H/x = 770. or 32'5 gm. .v = = 96500 108 a. Ex. current of *5 Find in calories the heat developed per minute by a ampere in a resistance of 8 ohms. Compare the expense of electric heating by use of Daniell cells with that of heating by burning zinc.. is #= Re = . ~ gm. If x gm. Hence it is 1 '7 times cheaper to burn zinc as fuel. 96500 coulombs. .^ 6  H = R^C^RI + R ^^.
97 Ex. PH. rent. An electric flatiron has to develop heat at the rate of 20 calories per second. 11. 10. passed through a standard ohm Find the curresistance. The E. An unknown current.M. A lamp. 12. M. is 120 volts find the resistance (supposed all to be within the iron). Ex. gives heat Ex. I. . supplies energy 50 calories per minute. volts.F.ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE. . supplied with current at 200 energy at the rate of 60 watts. Find the current.
That In a homogeneous conductor (all at same Current x Resistemperature) Potential Difference is : = tance. Extension of Ohm's Law. nor back E..F. and therefore the energy available is Vet.M. current being led to it from without. I. Ohm regarded potential difference as External E. Assuming this is converted into the above heat. taking what we have denned as E. has passed. '2.CHAPTER VII. No change is supposed to occur in the conductor. 1 ohms? 98 . Vet /. to be Internal E.F. Ex. of resistance o. The heat produced is EcH. ct.F. 4.F..M. Imagine it contained in a calorimeter. PROBLEMS ON FLOW OF ELECTRICITY IN CONDUCTORS. But if the terminals by which the current enters and leaves have a potential difference V.M. The common experimental proof of Ohm's law is a verification that V a c for the same conductor V being measured by an electrometer and c by a galvanometer.M. hence the above energy can only be drawn from that of the current.M. 3.F. A battery has resistance :~y ohm. = V = Ref. 111. Kc. consequently there is no E. A total charge. . Its terminals are joined to a quadrant electrometer and produce deflection 30 on What deflection is produced when they are connected also scale. by a win. Consider a homogeneous conductor at uniform temperature. 1. we know (11) that every unit charge does V units of work in passing from one to the other.
FLOW OF ELECTRICITY
If
IN CONDUCTORS.
connecting wire, then
B
B + R is total resistance
If
,
be battery resistance,
;
R resistance of
c
/.
So when no wire
battery.
Fbe P.D. of ends of wire, When R is or R/(B + R) =
is
= E/(B + V = Re,
1
R).
.'.
 B/(B +
V = ERI(B
fl)

+
R)
A*.
1,
..
r =
inserted the electrometer reads the E.M.F. of
&
;
Since the whole E.M.F. divisions, the deflection in the first case is 30 x in the other cases 267, 257, 24, 20.
=
In our example B $f l f f' I
=
if
/.
R
5, 4, 3, 2, 1
we have R R
(
f
li)
is
indicated by 3O
10/11
=
27 '3, and
Ex. 2. A Voltmeter (see 176) can be taken as simply an instrument to measure P.D. Find the resistance of a battery of that the voltmeter reads 8 volts at its terminals. accumulators, given and this drops to 7 volts when they are connected by a 14 ohm wire.
E=
Hence
Ex.
8,
ERI(B + R) = 7, R = 14. U = B = 2 ohms. 
^
;
An Ammeter 176) is supposed simply to read current. 3. an ammeter in series with a lamp show ampere, and a voltmeter connected to its terminals shows 180 volts, find its resistance.
(
If
180
r
720 ohms.
Ex. 4. Find the current in a uniform wire of o ohms resistance, a voltmeter across its terminals showing 4 volts. Find also the potential difference per cm. length of wire, the wire being 200 cm.
long.
Current is 4/5 amp. Resistance of each cm. Hence P.D. = 1/50 volt.
is
1/40
ohm.
Ex. 5. A current '02 amp. passes along a uniform trough of terminals of an copper sulphate. Two wire gratings connected to electrometer are dropped into the trough 20 cm. apart; and show a P.D. of '6 volt. Find the resistance of the trough per cm. length.
Resistance of
_
20cm. =
volts.
6
:
<>2
X*
is
volts; resistance per cm.
\\
112. Conductors in
Fig. 47.
conductors whose
rent enters,
To find the joint resistances of two or moiv terminals are connected where the curParallel.
it
and where
leaves, the
system
(
Fii;.
47
).
100
FLOW OF ELECTRICITY
JBj,
IN CONDUCTORS.
Let
c
.R2
.
....
resistance.
Let
be their resistances, and R the joint V be P.D. between their terminals A and B
.
;
the total current
;
c lt c2
.
.
.
currents in JB P
2
R
2,
.
.
.
.
Then
/.
V = cR = c = V/K,
c
c^ = c #
2
=
etc.
c,
= V/X
etc.
lt
c2
= V/R
etc.
But
=d+ =
Co
+ +
/.
dividing out
l/
I/.R!
F
l/tf 2
+ etc.
Mhos
1/.R is called if JR be in
Ohms.
the Conductivity. It is measured in Evidently the total conductivity
of conductors in parallel
= sum
of their separate conductivities.
See 110, Ex. 5, for proof that the above partition of currents is that which produces the least heat in the system.
113. Extension of Ohm's Law, II. Kirchoff's Law. Consider any conductor which forms a portion of a circuit and which includes E.M.F.'s or back E.M.F.'s, either of the types already considered [Batteries and Voltameters] or of other types to be considered in later be the algebraic sum of the E.M.F.'s in Let chapters. the conductor, and let V be the potential difference between the ends of the conductor. heat produced by the current in time t. Then RcH work provided (as in previous paragraph) by Also Vet the charge as it alters its potential, and Ect work provided by chemical (or other) E.M.F.'s.
E
=
=
=
Hence
Rct
.:
=
Rc =
Vet + Ect, V+E.
114. Currents in a Network of Conductors.
To
avoid considering V for all the points of a complicated system of conductors, one can reduce the system into
PLOW OF ELECTRICITY
IN CONDUCTORS.
101
braic
Let separate meshes. (Fig. 48) be such a mesh, each arm of which may contain E.M.F.'s. Let E AB alge
ABODE
arm
sum
of
E.M.F.
in
AB
=
which supply energy to a current going from A to B. Let EAB be resistance of
reckoning those positive
G
AB,
CAB current in
AB, F A
potential at. A.
Then
= FA VK + = FB  F +
T
& AB
EM
#C:D
A'DK
=
#KA*KA
 FD + = FD  FE + = T rE  FA +
Fc
#K A
Adding
for this mesh, all the F's cancel.
Therefore
+
.
.
.
.
R K \ C K\ =
&AB
+ A
is
Kirchoff enunciated therefore two laws, of which this the second. They are
(1) Algebraic sum of currents flowing to (or from) any angle of the network is zero. (2) Algebraic sum of products of current by resistance, taken round any mesh, algebraic sum of E.M.F.'s round that mesh.
=
115. Maxwell's method of simplifying the Currents in a Network. Imagine a constant mesh current Thus, in Fig. 4X. put round each independent mesh. may be taken as the mesh current for AHCDK, y for BGFC, z for CFHKD, etc. Of course ABGFCDEA is also a mesh, but is not an independent one. for it is the sum of the meshes ABODE and KGFCB. The actual
.*
of the current in any conductor BC is the difference * \j mesh currents in the two meshes it separates. then do not need to consider Kirchoff Law I. for the sum of currents entering each point ( 114)
We
;
102
FLOW OF ELECTRICITY
Thus
z
IN CONDUCTORS.
vanishes necessarily. are x z, y, y
at
C
DC
the currents in BC, FC,
Law
II. is
Kirchoff x; whose sum is zero. then applied to each independent mesh.
116.
F, G,
The Wheats tone Net.
H, L, M,
N arranged as in Fig. 49.
Consider six resistances Let there be an electromotive force in branch L.
E
Insert niesh currents x, y, z so that evidently the current in L is x; in is x y etc. Apply Kirchoff's Law II. to mesh
;
H
;
LGH] we
or
(L
have
y)
Lx + H(x 
+ G(x 
z)
=
E
(1)
+ H+
G)x  Hy  Gz
=E
Similarly the equations for the other meshes are
 Hx + (M + F + H) y  Fz =  Ox  Fy + (N + G + F)z =
(2)
(3)
Before giving the general solution, we consider some very useful results which follow if the resistances be related in a particular manner.
"
Bridge
117. To Find the Resistance of a Wire by the " Method. In 116 eliminate * from (2) and
y =
(3).
{MG + OH + HF + FG}
If such
{NH + OH + HF +
z,
FO}
z.
an adjustment
MG
/.
is made that = NH, then y = y  Z = 0,
and there
principle
is
no current in the conductor F. This is the " '" method of deteremployed in the Bridge
mining the resistance of a wire.
connected as resistance and the values of N, G,
M in figure. F
The wire considered
is
is
H are adjusted
a galvanometer,
until there is
no
FLOW
01?
ELECTRICITY IN CONDUCTORS
103
deflection of the galvanometer. zero, or
Then
the current in
F
is
y 
z
=
0,
.'.
MG
= NH,
or
M/N =
H/G.
/f are known.
This gives the resistance
M
if 2V, (7,
118. To Find the Resistance of a Galvanometer by Lord Kelvin's Method. If MG = NH as above, ami therefore there is no current in F, it cannot make any
difference to the currents in the other conductors make infinite by opening a key in F.
if
we
F
We
can prove this analytically.
(2)
Since y
=
z,
equations
(1)
and
become
(L +
H+

and
G)x  (H + G)y = K Hx + (M + H]y =
<>
As these equations do not contain F, the values of 2 and y In fact are independent of F.
x =
y =
z
=
x~y=xz=
E(M + H)/(ML + Mil + MG + EH/ (ML + MH + MG + LH) EMI (ML + Mil + MG LH).
i
III]
Let be the required resistance of a galvanometer. until Insert a key inF and adjust the resistances N, 0, the current indicated by the galvanometer does not alter whether the key be open or closed. When this is the case, is found *= or H'G, hence by above, if N, G, be known.
M
H
H
MG
NH
MIN =
M
Method.
119. To Find the Resistance of a Cell by Mance's Let z be eliminated from (1) and (2). Then AV;. (FL + GH + HF + FG)x  (GM + Gil + IIF f FWy

If such
an adjustment is made that FL x  y = EGI(FL + GH 4 HF +
OM,
FG).
then
and the solution does not involve the value of X. is the current in H, therefore the current altered by opening a key in provided FL
Hut
_.*
N
.
104
PLOW OF ELECTRICITY IN CONDUCTORS.
Example. Let be the required resistance of a cell. Put a key in and a galvanometer in H, and adjust the other resistances until the galvanometer deflection is unaltered by opening or closing
N
L
the key.
Then
L is
given by the equation
LF = MG.
12O. Full
Solution
Wheatstone Net.
of the Equations for Eliminating x from (2) and (3)
the
(MG +
OH + HF +
FG)y =
(NH + GH + HF +
FG)z.
Eliminate y from (2) and (3)
(MG +
GH + HF +FG)x
= {FM +
+
Hence we can write A x = FM + FN + FH + FG + A y = NH + GH + HF + FG, A z = 3/<2 + (?# + JO + FG,
7
MN + MG + NH +
FN + FH + FG
GH)z.
MN + MG
+
NH +
GH,
where
If
A
is
to be determined
by the equation
(1).
for the sum of products of the resistances in the sides of triangle, FGH, two a,t a time, we get the forms
we adopt the condensed notation (FGH)
/k =
JK = =
NH +
MG +
MG
MG + NH + (FMN) +
(FGH),
= = =
NH  MG, NH + (FMN),
+ (FMN).
z)
(FGH), (FGH),
Now
*
.'.
+
^A
This
= L(FM +
= # JJ(a  y) + #(* ^ FN+ FH + FG + MN + MG + NH+#H)
+ #(tfJf + + J/JV + MG), + G(FM + FN + MN + NH).
a symmetrical expression of 16 products, each of All the products of the six resistances, three together, are represented except the four formed by multiplying together the resistances in the three sides of a
is
^
3 factors.
'
triangle,
LOH + MHF 4 NFG + LMN.
G G to GL. Of course P/Q CD. r>u. The Metre Bridge. Let P. The resistance 10. pieces A. B. uniform wire whose length is generally a metre.G. etc. from B to the galvanometer from EB. IN CONDUCTORS. as names of single The resistance P Upoints. and also Q Utween B and GL. S correspond to our previous M. B. P : =R QM = HN AC = : 122. and the condition 8. Instead of B.N. as indicated. Q be resistances of AC. 100 or 1000 as desired. EB. as the wire is Q uniform. can usually be 10. and there are terminals. D This consists of three brass whose electrical resistance is so small that they can be regarded as points. lor. 10. 100. R 1 L to E. Its terminals are marked with the conventional letters G. 1/10 or 1/100. B. E. AD . This is a resistance lx>. The whole is mounted on a D D nonconducting board.FLOW OP ELECTRICITY 121. The Post Office Box. A and are connected by a points A. R. To distinguish the Q S (P) B (Q) GL two 6r's and 7?'s we shall have to use the double letters GL. The other pole of the Fig. L. Fig. and resistances R and 8 inserted in gaps AB and the BD. often placed in the boxes.. 50. thus the ratio P Q can INcan be any integer from S to be found is connected 1. tween G and B. tin one often battery uses the . QR or gives PS H. Q. battery is applied at variuntil the galvanometer ous points G along the wire shows no deflection. CD then evidently P. 51.000. so that the galva nometer can be connected from A to D.\ with three sets of resistances. one pole of battery connected to B. and correspond to the in Fig.
1/10 or 1/100.">2. 52. . Hence P be known. When a balance obtained at C. When a galvanometer G I?. T be placed between A and D in Fig. 100. AC' r. 9 . r. . The Carey Poster Bridge.AD Comparing these equations R"+~$ P+ . /> . AC = Q + r r.. 10. bridge wire. there is no current in the the other mesh currents be x in mesh formed by P.AC) = CC' Q is found if r (taking due note of sign). B . CD ti P+ Q Interchange r. some point Then Q + r. Its object is to find the difference between two resistances Q P and Q and 8 are equal.Q = (AC . . with B BK. P/Q = E!S . One can determine r by use of two resistances whose difference is accurately known or as in Ex. Extension of the Carey Foster Method. AC' P + Q+r. GK on two keys which connect when pressed 8 = R X 1. 123. fixed resistances nearly resistLet r equal. It has four gaps as shown. ance of unit length of R very nearly = Fig. . . . For a balance. and K. below.106 terminals FLOW OF ELECTRICITY IN CONDUCTORS. is P+ Q+ r. AC _ R ' r. re balance and if is obtained. Let a . sistance 124. AC R AD get a balance at R_ P and Q .
T. in 107 /. if only < r. + r. 2.CD/(T+r.CD/(T + r. a balance is obtained at C where common meter and 100 Let S 100 be the resistances at . . at at freezing point. + x) . Hence the change per 1 = '00527.AC/(T + rAD) = S + Q If .x + r. AD)z = r.AC/(T+rAD)}+y[8+Q + But by (\)x/y = . z ACD and T. 8.42)/42 = 1 3SO. at R.Tj(T+r.r. Tr. being the battery resistance.A D) 8 Itr' = r.. whose temperature can be varied.1JH17. IN CONDUCTORS. 1.z) P)x + r. A D. In a Carey Foster bridge / is a standard nluii and V " '" *' approximate ohm.FLOW OF ELECTRICITY and AC.AJ)) r'.y.'. AC. One usually adjusts r' = a convenient submultiple of an ohm. y in .y.CD the same as in 123. (2) (3) + rCD(z . In a and a fine AC = When S is 42 cm. The temperature coefficient = change per 1 .y) + T. bridge wire a standard ohm is placed copper wire.AC(z  (4) r. = r. R + p + r. O^R + P) x + (S + V) y . The balances when /' and V at<e fts and reversed are respectively at 50'7 and 4! 2. Cl>. CD (y . ! Ex. S.x + r.344)/34'4 . Equation (4) gives (T + r. Eliminate 2. + Tr.S/R. and the temperature eefficient of the resistance.A/>)}. less so that than the actual resistance per unit length. CD. Another expori ment is made in which Pis used in parallel with a '<> 'hm e  . When S is at boiling point. Add (2) and (3). Find the resistances at these temperatures.T. Evidently S /l = (100 = (100 . Ex. Q = Rx + fy x) (1) E=B(xy) + (R + E=B(y AC (x . the balance is at 34 '4 em. with >' substituted for t: Evidently I3o the effect of inserting ^is that the apparent resistance per unit length of the bridge wire is altered quite arbitrarily. Also S 100 The change of resistance = '527.AC.AC P+ which r' is R '&' Q + r'. we have. 1 : resistance at freezing point = '00527/1 '380 = '00382. Q and CD .z) + (S+Q)y + r.
1062. of course. /. A column of mercury in a tube of diameter '5 mm. is placed in one arm of a metre bridge and a 1 ohm standard coil in the other.1030 change for 85 = Hence by proportion the change 006. 2) carried on when When Q is at 100. We infer the for 1 is '032/85 and for 15 resistance at freezing point = 1 '024. A By 125. 43 '3. coefficient is is Hence the temperature 032 {85 x 1024}= '00037. + 19'4r 3. we get balances. the 1 ohm coil as above. that the joint resistance is 20/21. 4r. M. 1030. Suppose the above experiment (Ex. if N= MG/H+n. Hence And Ex. + 43'3r= 1 + 58'8r 1 + 155 x 004 = "032. But by previous example Q 15 .MG. Ex. where.MG)/A. and the exact resistance of Q. and If one of the four resistances N. The balances are now at 62 '7 and Find the resistance r per cm. Find the temperature Q P coefficient of Q. 1 + 56'7r = Q + 49'2r. G. By theory Also 20/21 + 627r = Q + 43'3r. N A is nearly constant when is Hence the current the charge of proportional to . balance is obtained at 17 cm. . with at temperature 15. at 58 '8 and 43 '3. Then a balance if the current is zero. Disturbance of Balance of Wheatstoiie Net. is = 1/21 Q = 11 '9r. slightly altered. NH . At 100 <2 100 Q loo = /. is not large. 120 the current in the galvanometer is y z = E(NH . y z = EHnj A . Q= r = 20/21 '0040. from the end nearest to the 1 ohm. and length 100 cm. this can be expressed by putting There is H be /. of bridge wire.108 PLOW OF ELECTRICITY IN CONDUCTORS. Q = 1 + 7'5r. Find the resistance of the mercury column and the specific resistance of mercury at the temperature of the experiment.
A P.'.O. J. The mesh curand y in ABCA. P. E=(P + e Q) x. The equations for the two meshes are of rents are x 4J1  e = P (y  x) + G y. . y = EGm I A . Find the correct value of R for a balance. 126.M. Evidently R 27 : 28 . using the notation of No exact balance is found. = PE!(P + Q). provided n is not large.F. AGC. differ by m from the value By similar work..R = R= S 10 : 13 264 "264 and = ohm. Then y The most useful = . P/Q the galvanometer deflection (assumed proportional to current) is 13 divisions to right when ti = 27 and 10 to left for 28. ACGA. but 100 so that S = R/IQO. G are the resistances A AC. if NH = MG.r .s of the corresponding batteries.FLOW OF ELECTRICITY the difference IN CONDUCTORS. 122. e = r. And But changes m. and we arrange Hence. lOJ) n between the actual resistance and the balancing resistance. CDBA.' Fi"7r>3. A E and e represent the diagrammatic view is given.M. . a strong constant battery.'. S is small. hence m/M = n/N. E. Example. and the two batteries to be compared are connected to the same terminal of the is The experiment is usually to compare E.mG . case is when we adjust for zero current in the galo. vanometer in arm G. The Potentiometer or Foggendorff Net. if M z necessary to balance. box is used to measure a small resistance. n produce the same current nff = .F. Q..
Forms Potentiometer.F. the ordinary meter bridge or bent to secure greater length.g. the cell is not liable to get out of order. and only small transient currents pass as the position is sought. of a balance. and CD are two ordinary boxes B(E) AD AC K each capable of giving resistances (say) from 1 ohm to 100 ohms. the value of = Px e is In the case If the cell is 126). + = = PE/R. . e = obtained first for e with with P' and Q P' R. can be a constant battery (e.M. e' is kept constant. a Clark Since 110 for comparisons of E. So that every withdrawn from plug corresponding plug in the other box A : P P+ the bridge wire the box giving a whole and the wire a decimal. resistances If f Q P A balance is P and Q then for . their sum Fig. galvanometer. cell) kept only current goes through it in the required position. we have seen e a standard one. number of ohms 128. In one form of is a bridge wire. Other uses of the Potentiometer. as it would do if used The battery e for the Bosscha method of ( 131). In another. Q is then 101 is given by one box and ohms and the value of part of being kept constant and =100. 127. Since ( . .110 FLOW OF ELECTRICITY IN CONDUCTORS. and a bridge wire of resistance 1 ohm The total resistance l)etween them. e' = P'EJK and e/e' = P/P'. then Q' f . As the resistance of one is increased that of the other is diminished.34. either box has its inserted. third form of potentiometer has two resistance boxes used as above. accurately known. either straight as in potentiometer.
The current is apart cell Ex. 18. V Ex. 133. cm. 1 AC is 05 ohms. The galvanometer indicates 204. 30. known. on so certainly as a standard cell or a resistance. Since x = e/P. An electrometer is connected to two point** 20 cm. 4. There is a galvanometer which is to be standardised in the arm Q. of the Bunsen.FLOW OF ELECTRICITY IN CONDUCTORS.. . of the Dry cell (that of the Clark = 1 433). (negative) : be plotted against the galvanometer readings. A balanced when the e resistance /. Find the E.M. 31.TO. the potentiometer gives instantly a method This method is often much more than the measurement by a direct reading galvanol>e It is very rare that a galvanometer can meter. A balance (with the same potentiometer but different current) is found for a Bunsen cell at 340 and a Daniell at 2U~>. 30. Tabulate the errors of the galvanometer. Ill P is also reliable of measuring currents. =400 x 108/205 ^217 Ex.F. Find the = Px. that the scale readings are 10. 1. 40. that of the Daniell being 1 'OS. 65 . 7 and The errors which ai e ' P and two P niilliamps. Find the E. is is made up with two resistance boxes sum of the resistances being 100. Find also the Potential Difference between the ends of a wire. corresponds Clearly in the tirst case 276 A Clark (5 . A potentiometer as described in 127. 12 ohms. 63'2. 20. 27. and therefore are 2<>. AC potentiometer wire has a length of 4(H) cm. the Clark cell current x. the true currents in amperes are the quotients 1'08 by the given resistances. 32. volts. Ex. 5. are "4. or other A balance is obtained with a Clark cell at reading = 257 and with a Dry cell at 280. !>7 milliamps when P = 54. x = 022 ampere. A The E. 1. = 1433 x 280/257 = I '56. relied arbitrary units. '433 = .F. Bunsen = 340 x P. 40. balanced correspondingly at distance 276. 2. and e is a Daniell is adjusted so as to produce a balance in a sensitive galvanometer at G. 3. A potentiometer net is set up in boxes whose sum is not kept constant.M. 1 08/205 = 1 '79 volts. 85.I). the electrometer. Ex. 3<.M. 1 "6.F. varied on a uniform potentiometer wire. 41 '6.
. The zinc consumed per second is evidently mnxz if z be the electrochemical equivalent of zinc. Hence 10 215 337 462 597 scale Similarly 20 30 40 50 scale divisions indicate . It also as it ought to be. corresponds to 20 X divisions indicate 104 millivolts. 1 m= B 4 and n = 5. Rm~x~. C in R is given by = mx = mnE/(mR + nB). In figure. be the exIf x be j  j 1 ^fj the K And the current current through every mx must be the current through the resistance R.. sets in parallel. is R 8 (ma?) . = mnxE so that it is equivalent to the energy supplied per second. to one mesh. Let E. . = mrii E'i l(mR + nB). jl be the electromo 1 1 I 1 S~*\ I '! 'iN tive force and resistance of Let il il il each cell. Applying Kirchoff's Law cell. "433/276 = '104. it is Bx~ in the outside wire . Rectangular Array of Cells. hence 20 cm.112 FLOW OF ELECTRICITY 1 IN CONDUCTORS. C In each of the it To mn cells find the heat developed per second.+ . nBx + Rmx = nE. = mx~(nB + Rm). x = nE/(mR + nB). I 1 1 Let there be in each containing n similar cells in series. 129. It is therefore proportional to the heat supplied. R jl j ^L^ I I 1 ternal resistance. Therefore the total is H = rnnBx.'.
The second arrangement is preferable it uses less /inc. 113 130. Here mn hence m~ 6. * The method should not be used M. and the nearest 120. n = 60 or 40. mR = = (mR Hence. . one on each side of ^NB/R But it t and find which of them makes mR nB numerically smallest. m~ = NB/R. Hence C is greater the more nearly nB.FT. Example. Analytically. Now C is mR f nB is NRB.+ 4mnRB. Bosscha or potentiometer method Lumsden Net. I. the current N be the number of cells m)iE/(mR Current with put given number of = mn. the electromotive force of to two active* cells. m . Maximum G= Let Cells. and we are obliged to take the two nearest factors. since m is restricted to be an integral factor of N. 120 cells of resistance 1 ohm are to be grouped to send a maximum current through a wire of 20 ohms resistance.= . two series each of (>0 and three series each of 40. is This is to compart* while tlif electromotive forces compare The of cells through which a current is not passing. Find the best method. . unrestricted positive quantities whose product is constantthe quantities are equal.20 or (20. It = 2 or 3. give the same current in /?.OW OF ELECTRICITY IN CONDUCTORS. for a Clark or other standard cell. PH. which is least if greatest (given N) when the denominator But the product of these terms is is constant. and mn Ar . And the sum of two otherwise least. nB. this is proved by the identity (mR + nB). possible.= (mR . cannot always equal */NB/R.'. mR . Then N + nB) = NE/(mR + ntt). if nB)" + constant.nB). . and '20m = n factors to y6 are 2 and 3. 131. 20i Hence happens therefore that the two arrangements.
\ 2 1_ If + BJl {B. If there be no balance.  R. E l } and 6r meter. arranged with resistance boxes R and R z Let x and y be mesh currents. + Bi _ 1 \ R z + Bj The student can cise.) .Z = R^  R^.y}= \ ( ( V/ti E . and E2 and resistance B^ and B z are of E.114 cells FLOW OF ELECTRICITY IN CONDUCTORS.z . E \R + B...'. . Q + BI Rz G \ + Bj' B is of The course potential difference at the points n( A 1 and = v= V G(x . x = y. as in figure. . the resistance of galvanoThe equations are (R* +B z )y + G(yx) = E.F. gal If another balancing adjust ment be obtained with different resistances. solving for the current in the galvanometer we obtain ^ R.P \W M + B + X>2/ i 1 \ ) 1 l /1 3 and the potential difference which would exist if the galvanometer were removed or replaced by an electrometer (G = oc .E + />! Xt + ^ ' . l/G / l = 0) = E. 2 z \ 2 C2/ ) / //I /(TV+P. R'.. finally E 1 :E.P+P.M.ETs do not alter with . is made that the . and the assumption the current. If there be no current in vanometer G. calculate x and y separately as an exerIn the balancing adjustment E )/(B z l B.
y = 4/19. + y .F. volt Find the P. x .FLOW OF ELECTRICITY IN CONDUCTORS. of If B over . shall do this a shorter way.y through galvanometer.50 212 . Let a.be mesh current through the one cell A Band y through the other two cells x . > 1900/87 > 20. A Daniell (E. A 3.x = 2.'.'s. Ex. IK) 1 Ex.IIH. the two terminals of one Daniell cell.125 50 S7' Hence 4350 + 87#. The connections are made asdntun The box at A is a standard ohm and 2iKM is 2iNNi ..D. A B and C on . + B.F. are compared by Lumsden's method.M.F.. 2. what currents would flow. 100 . therefore current = 3/7. .That is.M. 4.F. '2(xy) = 1. Then Ex. applicable when there is only one current. between A and B. Ex.F.M. required of ohms and E. x .  resistance. ~ = E. Examples illustrating Miscellaneous Experi ments. Ex. balance is obtained with resistances 50 and 125.M. + Qy x = 11/19. very small resistance is to l>e found. of the Bichromate. } ~ = 50 + 125 /?. 1. = 0250 + 50#. 132.. Three Daniells of resistance 2 are in series with a resistance of 4 ohms. and the least possible resistance of tinDaniell. y = 7/19. The resistances with the Daniell and Bichromate were first 6 and 14. 113).D. /f.D. cannot be negative. and show that one cell has a resist Two ance exceeding 20.M. The E. were connected to B by a galvanometer of resistance 2 ohms.. Find ratio of E. A .D.M. of A and B = cells 2(x  y) = 8/19. The P. If Tbe P.4 is 4/7 volts.F. Utwitn ^lint* a bar. Fi 7 the P.4#G'/>. and also loo ami 212... 1'08) is cum INI red with a BkhronmUby Lumsden's method. F. 1 1 and = = E.. A' in AH 1. afterwards 20 and 35. = 3 and resistance = 7. Find the E. between We A over B. r+1 = 1 x3/7( 4/7. As B.
116 FLOW OF ELECTRICITY IN CONDUCTORS. R = 37. are 2.'. therefore current + <). V 2015 2015 2037 2037 M/JL 2059 ) I = 2059 _ 2059 Ex.#)/(!+ AD) = 2000/2037 + AC)I(\ + AD) 2000/2015 BCj(\ + AD) = 2000/2015 . If C be united. = 15. Hence finally Bc=(L. Fig. if mesh currents be x and y. . y} x) K(y  y = M/(SG + SB + KG). R B R 1/AD = (1 2000/59 Hence Also (1 (I + AB)IBD = 2000/37 (1+AC)/CD = 2000/15 = 2000/2059 1/(1 + AD) 1 + AD = 2059/2000 + A . 58. By principle of Wheatstone's bridge. 0110. G first . . as B B in figure 59. In second case. relation between resistances. 2000/2037. galvanometer If A be united to the terminal of the adjustable resistance. E = Bx + S(x = Gy + . Find resistance BC. A battery of resistance B and a galvanometer of resistance connected in series with a resistance R then G is put in parallel with a resistance $ and the two are connected to the The current in galvanometer is same in both cases find battery. = 59. If we get a balance when be united.. \ In first Ej(R case the total resistance is R + f Cf.
at terminals of r and of /' are equal. of hydrogen in 5 minutes. The above relation can then be used to find galvanometer resistance // or (if this be known) a large resistance R or a small one S. Fig. 117 +B+ G) = S/(SG + titi + BU) This arrangement can be used to find battery resistance B. r. 60. 59. The potential differences are r (x r Px and f these are equal R).c. > ohm resistance is inserted. Ex. whose resistance is made up to o ohms I a resistance box. 4.FLOW OF ELECTRICITY Hence E/(R IN CONDUCTORS. . If we connect a battery of small resistance to a box //. D. Then x(P . r. the combination can be regarded as a battery of resistance H. lie 1=*Fig. the letters being resistances. 3. duced when the battery is connected direct to the galvanometer (unshunted) through a large resistance /. find the condition that the P. In arrangement in Fig. Calculate If. tin. Ex. Q. Find the resistance of the voltameter. x(P + B)yQ = o. if = PI(\+ y/x) = PQI(P Q+ This method P and (J used to find a very small resistance are standard ohm coils. is put in series with a galvanometer of 10Unlnn The same current is proresistance. if ft known. and the rate of production of hydrogen falls to 21 cm. is Usually Ex.y = f y).'. 5. x + y be currents in P. A battery. shunted with a 1/10 ohm coil.y. Let x. and the production of hydrogen if 10 ohms were inserted. per o minutes. A battery (of negligible resistance) is connected to A A voltameter and releases 30 c.
118 FLOW OP ELECTRICITY IN CONDUCTORS. CD is another wire of same material whose resistance is the sum of the resistIf the difference of resistance of ances of Aa and Bb. R R = The constants a and b A(\ + at + U). platinum thermometer is designed to measure temperatures beyond the range of a mercury thermometer. b = '00000038 for platinum. with these values of a and 273 C. Exs. and A its value at freezing point. As approximate values a = "00367. or the It may be resistance is 1/167 of that at freezing point. called leads. end) to measure it ( 53. and also to measure ordinary temperatures and temperature differences with a precision unattainable by mercury or air thermometers. fined temperature coefficient (41. the change of resistance with temperature not quite uniform. state of the wire as well as depend somewhat on the physical on its material. The Platinum Resistance Thermometer. stated generally that even bodies generally regarded as insulators become good conductors when cooled to the very like that of liquid air. the resistance. For t 273 these would give '0064. and it is not impossible that all bodies without exception would conduct at the thermodynamic absolute zero. A form devised by Callendar and Griffiths is shown diagrammatically (Fig. Resistance and Temperature. 10). 61). ab is a fine platinum wire. Aa and Bb are the thick wires (platinum preferably). The student may verify that. b = + 00000126. We have de and shown how is Strictly. R is almost zero at the temperature For various very pure metals Matthiessen has given the mean values. = R low temperatures 134. b. 133. 8. a = 003824. which conduct to it. wound on a mica frame and enclosed in a bulb (glass or porcelain) to be exposed to the temperatures measured. If t be the centigrade temperature. A .
= o. the difference of resistance 0' 1 will be about "00367 ohm. whose corresponding terminals can be indicated by dashed letters.100 Different observers give very diffeivnt values for tin . R=A point. so that ." It is the temperature erroneous hypothesis that the temperature coefficient of platinum is constant. It is at temperature & say. R = If t A(l + at + bt). A) (B If b were o. = 135. and is called the platinum calculated on th temperature. it is evident thaU 100(72 " This quantity is denoted by p. Simplified Formulae. im' 6. =  Hence p t = = a a f ift + 6 . AB of resistances ABC'D' and CD A'B' is preIt cisely that of the fine wires ab.A _ ~  t(a + bt) A 100(a 6. B =A " . If only one platinum wire is used. 119 AabB and of CD be found.100)' A). for 6 It is quite easy to measure by the Carey Foster bridge to a much smaller quantity. For accurate work another identical thermometer in taken. {1 + + lOOtt + 100006} R . Fig. a'b' is practically proportional to the temperature difference 0'. Let B B hence A is the resistance at freezing be the resistance at boiling point. Supposing ab to be about 1 ohm. this is the correct resistance of ab at the temperature of the enclosure. 01. The parts and C'D' are part in series. also the parts CD and A'B' and therefore the difference . while the first one is at 6. the temperature We have is inferred from the resistance. .FLOW OF ELECTRICITY IN CONDUCTORS.
nearly . Evidently If A= 1 '5 1*20. B= 1'50. temperature coefficient of platinum. They range from a 0024 to 0038. It seems platinum whose cowhence a/b must be nearly constant. to be nearly correct for samples of efficient a has very different values. then =  X 10~ 4 hence the above formula gives Z_* =  1:5 X 10~ 4 X (t  100). 54 x ICT 7 .A) = 100 x = 240. .120 FLOW OF ELECTRICITY IN CONDUCTORS. t = 245 C. tind the temperature 72/30 in dicated by a resistance Hence t p = p= 100(12 A)/(B x 2'4 x 1'4  . 1'5 6 = . 1 "92. This formula recommended by Callendar. and approximately = is 15 ^ (^ ij. Example. The divergence is undoubtedly due to the different physical state of the samples of platinum examined. /. If we use = a = 0036  36 bja x 10~*. = 5.
in a given space. 137. and indeed in most countries. Nothing quite resembling a point pole exists in nature. Many magphenomena have at first sight a close resemblance to electric phenomena. The elementary definitions can be adopted from We electrostatics with very slight changes. of either kind of magnetic matter will generally be taken to mean the excess of the quantity of that kind over the opposite kind. netic matter in each. and so small that its dimensions may be disregarded. We shall find. North magnetism and South magnetism. Magnetic Matter. North magnetism is the magnetism observed on that end of a freely suspended compass needle which points nearly to the north in England. by one point pole on another is 2. shall be obliged at first. however.mv the straight lim It is proportional to the quantity oi magjoining them. fundamental differences. speak of two kinds of magnetic matter or magnetism. The quantity. to speak of detached point poles as though such things wen A We possible. 136. This pole is rigidly connected with another point pole of the contrary kind at the other end of the rod. Point Pole is a body containing magnetic matter. however. Coulomb's Law. FIELD. and to the inverse square of distance between them.)in The f. It is a repulsion if the jtolis are 1J1 . (Cf.CHAPTER THE MAGNETIC netic VIII. The nearest resemblance is one end of a uniformly magnetised steel rod. Point Pole.
122 THE MAGNETIC FIELD. so that m  m P P = m */& = m ~/4. be the charges measured in any convenient and if P be the force and r the distance apart. m =316. 138. If the weight of each magnet be determine the pole strength. Let be the pole strength and let be the mutual repulsion of lower poles. both If or both S. 2 /. and inclination of 5 g cords. rounding medium is air in the definition. N if one is N and the m units. vulcanite. m =g = 981. * and an attraction other 8. are 1 cm. To pole eliminate the tensions of the cords take S of magnet SN. 10 2 moments about upper very nearly. and m. Then. Ex. water. 1. P = m^/pr2 H being a constant. brass. w /4 = 5 g x 1/2. the cords are fastened. Two magnets 10 cm. unless it be iron or one of a very few substances. apart. neglecting all forces except the weights of the magnets. It is sensibly the same if air be replaced by oil. unit is that which repels a like equal pole at a distance of The surone centimetre with the force of one dyne. Unit Pole. but the forces hardly depend on the medium at all. tensions of cords. long and of precisely equal strength are hung by cords side by side from a It is observed that their upper ends. apart and the lower ends 2 cm. these terms are used in their magnetic sense. etc. /. collected at a point. . it would repel an equal and like quantity similarly collected at a point The accepted at unit distance (in air) with unit force. . l Pot wiiWa/r2 or . *We when shall use these letters as contractions for North and South. and mutual repulsions. to which point. The unit quantity of magnetism or the unit pole is such that.
over another point in a magnetic field is the work which the magnetic forces would do on a unit pole travelling (in air) from the first point to the second point. tin10. see Field is due to a pole m at a distance r from pole has magnitude m/r'. the slope of the cord to the vertical is tan ~' 1/4 = 14. electrostatics. calculate how far apart their poles would X S poles hang. If the same magnets be fixed 4 cm. therefore the horizontal force on each magnet is 5 flf/4. if it exercised no influence on the magnetic distribution in its neighlxnir A N hood. Ex. magnetic potential due to a pole m at a distance r from has magnitude in V. The vertical force (weight of acting magnet) = 5g. and is in the direction of r. so that the line joining the S pole of each magnet to the A" pole of the other is perpendicular to the line of each magnet. If the same magnets were suspended with their in contact. All the electric and magnetic phenomena which depend . and is a scalar quantity. hence the tension of the cord must act so that it vertical component is four times its horizontal component hence . Potential. the The mathematical consequences of these definitions are same as those of the corresponding definitions in 8. Field. N The mathematical consequences of this definition are As in 11. 3. apart. 9. The excess of potential at one point. and parallel. Ex. a vector quantity that and the field 140. 2. so that fluare simply added with dispotentials due to different ii poles regard to sign. calculate the total attraction exerted by each on the other. 139. the same as for Electric Potential. The field of a particular body is the region in which its action is sensible with such means of observation as we Field Strength or Force or Field Intensity or Field simply) is the force that a unit point pole would experience at the place considered. The 2 f 1*23 repulsion between the lower poles is wi /4 = <//4 that between the upper poles is w 2 /! = g/l.THE MAGNETIC FIELD. magnetic field is a region of space within which the influence of magnetic bodies extends.
so that the four poles occupy the four corners of a square. component V = Fsind = 438. 9 in Electrostatics. for nothing analogous to a conductor exists in magnetism. applies (except 17 and certain consequences. . All these data are liable to rapid fluctuations about their mean values for the year. and pole strength 20 are placed parallel. Find the field and potential at the centre of the square.  67. 2. for though Maxwell Lines are used in magnetism. Practically the whole of Chapter I. The relevance of Chapter III. 141. The Earth's Local Field. Chapter II. The vertical plane which contains the earth's field makes now in Greenwich an angle of nearly 16 [15 45' in 1910] to the west of north. 1. The working and the result are the same as for Exercise 3. is considered in Chapter XII. apart. Faraday Tubes are not).124 THE MAGNETIC FIELD. 10 cm. immediately on Coulomb's that Law are so closely analogous assume identical mathematical formulae without further proof. Under ordinary circumstances. the field strength due to the earth is constant in magnitude and direction over a wide area. Ex. and at the point midway between the N poles. Two magnets of length 10 cm. the field at Greenwich for 1910 has magnitude F= slope to horizon 5 476. Ex. with like poles pointing the same way. Draw a series of equipotential lines for the poles 10 ^V and 10 S placed at Ar and S. and therefore its horizontal component H = Fcos and vertical d = 186. does not shall we apply. For example. and shall proceed to explain only properties in which marked differences appear. and the niean values alter very slowly with the time.
at a distance apart. where S*K is the perpendicular let m the magnitudes in a Uniform Field. These S the force is equal and contrary forces form a couple X 8K. we decompose the magnet into a numl>er of ideal simple ones. couple = MF S m6. with some accuracy. Hence the Fi itt.* But we shall HW that it is generally not important that an experimental magnet should approach the ideal character. by a carefully magnetised knittingneedle or steel bar. and its axis in the same straight line or a parallel one * by spherical Robisoivs magnets. are nearer to the ideal. conception. On j. and is the magnetic moment. By dividing the N magnetism of an ordinary magnet into a set of poles. and 8. KN at N mp mF to mF fall from 8 on magnet."i 142. = SN of KN of field.m m at the force exerted is mF. Every magnetised body has the property that the algebraic sum of An N . The product ml called is denoted by M. ideal simple magnet. Ideal Simple Magnet is a mathematical It consists of two equal and contrary poles.AT" magnetism (the S being taken negative) is zero. this couple iii/F sin 0. The Ideal Simple Magnet is the simplest arrangement all its which fulfils this condition. Let N8 be an be the direction of the and let Let F be the field strength. 6 = its If / length to the direction slope KN. of the poles. and the S magnetism into a set respectively equal to them. the distance between the poles being taken as roughly equal to the length of the bar. . This formula shows that the effect of a uniform field on an ideal simple magnet is identical with that on any other ideal simple magnet which has equal magnetic moment. It is represented.THE MAGNETIC FIELD. consisting of a narrow sttcl bar trrinnr steel knobs. uniform Hr Magnet field. on the contrary way. 143. rj.
. Similarly the second is replaced x 1 it = 1.. direction by the sides AS. . pointing magnetic east (perpendicular to the direction of H). the polygon. C . 144. moment of this is If therefore we are AG x 1 = AG. The magsystem reduces to by 1 and + 1 at B and C. BC. Compound Magnet. That is. AB and axis parallel to can therefore be replaced (so far as its magnetic moment is concerned) by poles 1 8 and 1 N. The moment of the resultant simple magnet is called the Moment of the System. since these form a magnet of moment AB AB. from 141. and pole strength 20 is placed horizontally. The first simple of a polygon taken in order. . 145. . Resolve the compound magnet into constituent single ones. or 1 and + 1. Let their magnetic moments be their resultant be represented by the sides of a polygon ( 144). F. and so on . . As in 142. any compound magnet is replaceable by a number of ideal simple ones. we have 1 together. at A and B.+ 1 at F and G. BC.126 THE MAGNETIC FIELD. which cancel each other. and let M. Example. This proposition can be called the Polygon of Magnetic Moments. if a magnetic system can be decomposed into simple magnets whose moments are FG of a polygon represented by the sides AB. the system will act like a simple magnet whose moment is represented by the side A G that closes dealing with . . we can compound together any system of simple magnets by the polygon law. Let their magnetic moments and axes be represented in FG magnitude and. The Action of a Uniform Field on a Compound Magnet. being replaced by 1 Thus at each point B. AB magnet has moment . the magnetic moment of the compound . taken in order. Find the couple exerted on it (1) by the earth'shorizontal field //. . A magnet of length 10 cm. the last + netic phenomena which depend on magnetic moments only. (2) by the vertical field V taking the values . and the whole and 1 and f 1 at A and G. or vector addition.
Experimental Determination of Magnetic Field. 20. The direction is sometimes called the . Find the angles of 120 with one another. Moment. and takes place when M M . of Ex. It is zero when Its maximum value is MF. sin 0. 7. and depends 144) the effect only on its magnetic moment. = (a  6) = V/sin 8. 9 are placed in order along the four sides of a square.THE MAGNETIC FIELD. the combination. bisecting the angle between the magnetic axes 7 and 9. Find the magnetic moment of (5~9) W "= V(3  2 7) + = 4 \'2. 2. This maximum becomes if F 1 Hence we have a secondary or physical definition of Magnetic Moment. Let it be W. in magnitude and direction. Three coplanar magnets of moment 10. 3. 1. the resultant effect is a couple of moment M. :io. magnet. and let it make angles 0. and V are fixed together so Ex. Ex. Find the magnetic moment of the combination. the Earth's Horizontal The magnet is supported in such a way that its magnet* . a . given H. equal nmknmgn 146. 127 The effect of the uniform field on each constituent simple magnet is given by 143. by Lami's Theorem for Forces. Two magnets of moment that their magnetic axes contain an angle a. Four magnets moment 3. in the magnet which coincides with the field when no couple is exerted.26 rcosa. Its direction makes 45 with the sides. = F = 90.d with 7 and V. moment of the combination. o. M Magnetic Axis. Hence ( of on the whole magnet is the same as on the resultant F F simple magnet makes an angle 6 with the direction of If therefore F. The Magnetic Moment of any simple or compound magnet is the maximum couple which can be exerted on Its direction is that direction it by a uniform unit field. o. U Then W~ = and W/s'm a U*+ U/sin r F 2 .
about axis perpendicular to axis of cylinder Hollow cylinder. b. . whose direction is perpendicular to M K . b. breadth. inertia of the magnet about the axis of the suspension. and its complete period is (by theory of simple H MH K = MH MHO harmonic motion) T = For values of 2ir K see table below. radii r and *  *)/(r3  .e. VKJMfT. MP/12 Rect6 2 )/12 angular Parallelepiped Cylinder. . THE MAGNETIC FIELD. angle. is the Moments of Inertia. Thin uniform bar Bar of sensible breadth. this can be put equal to angular acceleration^ (for small angles) proportional to the angular displacement. 2>/5 semiaxes a. about axis cylinder of 3 )/2 Sphere Ellipsoid M . Body. &*)/ to a and b Hollow sphere. move may be suspended on in a horizontal plane. if The couple exerted on the magnet by 6 be the angle made by the axis with the direction of H. r are length. the sin 0/K. In the following table mass of the body I. therefore the oscillation is simple harmonic. about axis of cylinder Cylindrical bar. c about an axis perpendicular . it a f rictionless pivot or from a torsion is sin 6. For instance. If be the small angular acceleration Hence the IK.128 axis is free to less fibre. the linear dimensions in the formula. to the magnetic north. If now be the moment of i. external and internal radii r and s about to its axis perpendicular length Mr*/* M{1~/12 + 2 (r Hollow cylinder. and radius and is the moment of inertia taken about an axis through the centre of gravity.
but at a distance x from it. magnet in dynes. stance. it can be found as be the moment of inertia about any axis follows If through the centre of gravity. A and B. But if a correction be necessary for the fact that G is not exactly on the axis. sin #//. AC and BD.* Let AB = 2a. In the horizontal plane contain W = mass of magnet so that g W = weight let = in D B' = of A'B' be drawn equal and vertically under AB. and cutting CD at its middle point 0. similarly for T in AC. by two equal cords. DW Resolving vertically.BB'/BD along DB' . the moment of inertia alxmt an axis parallel to this axis. from the two fixed points. exerted Taking moments about 0. from O on />// = 2Tab M. and let T tension in dynes of either cord.. tension T in BD can be resolved into a vertical component ing CD and parallel T. and and a horizontal component T. be angle between them. and Let also I = length of cord A C or BD> h depth of CD below = < ^41?. There 129 is usually no sensible error in supposing the of inertia taken about a vertical axis through the centre of gravity. is moment : K K + MX*. 147. the couple = 2T. PH.THE MAGNETIC FIELD. CD 26. .{DK/l} x perpendicular = 4 T x area BOD/ 1. let a magnet be suspended : horizontal at two points C and D. and AB and CD be horizontal. Instead of using the time of oscillation we can use any means of For inmeasuring a couple. Bifilar Suspension Torsion Wire. gm. I. = Th'l.
if the magnet be supported at a single point. Show that a magnet can be suspended bifilarly so as to be in neutral equilibrium. 143. 45 x 981 X h . < A Ex. be suspended on a pivot so as to rest horizontal. The moment of the weight about The magnetic the point of suspension is 4:5 gh = 45 x 981 x h. T = 12. x 45{10'4 2 = M= 2 987. 186. Substituting for T its = value found above. Period r = 2ir Here K = ^ 7T . the couple g Wdb sin (f>/h. H= + 6 } 2 = 4068. h = 600 X '44.130 THE MAGNETIC FIELD. It is near enough = 600/10 = 60. For equilibrium. 1. 4). 600. find how far the centre of gravity will be from the The earth's vertical field may be vertical axis through that point.'. produces in a torsion wire (cf. long. Show that if the magnet of Ex. hence the moment of the couple exerted in a vertical plane by V is 600 x '44. 1. For N . where L is a constant for the wire. moment is nearly 600. = 0060 cm. wide. and 45 gm. taken as '48. its A magnetic moment and pole strength. Ex. this pivot must be at a distance about '6 mm. *6 cm. Let h be the distance required. 2. magnet 10'4 cm. but the divisor should be a little smaller than the true length. 3. Taking the letters used above for bifilar suspension.'. Ex. pointing southwards. let A B be in the direction of the magnetic north. to take = m Ex. mass. from the centre of gravity. if the mass be 15 gm. 4. In the above example. which it couple can also be measured by the twist Its value is L<f>. The pole strength m J//10'4 approximately. Find oscillates in earth's horizontal field in a period of 12 seconds.
find the angle ft through which above magnet turns. but is n stae in stable equilibrium when in A equrum /gs exceedingly sensitive to netic fields.: Mdll = gWafi sin *H = tan a tan a tan 0/h.gWnb cos (o r a. But 6 is small. find the oscilla When a )>ecomes a 0. ">). but magnet suspended with gWdb slightly greater than ^fHh. Ex. 6. Evidently M(H f 8H) cos e = Wub cos (a .'. is = o. The**. a/A. all disturbing mag y mH pj .we can put sin and cos (a . 5. if the magnet were provided with a tracing point adapted to record the changes of 6 on a rotating cylinder. the restoring couple = J///C08 .6) = cos a COH B + sin a sin = cos a + e sin . An apparatus of this kind would register the alterations in the earth's field. For equilibrium arrangement (Ex. 66) Ex. If the earth's field alters slightly by 8/f.4/f makes an angle a with the magnetic along the axis of the magnet as usual.yWnbe Restoring couple sin a'A. Find the condition that the equilibrium position of the suspended magnet is perpendicular to the meridian. A gg ( (Fig.0)1 h. . 9. values of if North this way. Here the magnetic couple is MJI. In a bifilar suspension . = . and the angle between A A and is meridian while CD CD is ^ a . are equal for all 181 sin 0/A. *\> = f. . M(H + dff) = g Haft {cos a + sin o (j tan 0} <h. so neglecting 0.THE MAGNETIC FIELD. hence the condition of equilibrium is MH = gWab cos Ex. 7. With the above tion frequency. any angular displacement the bifilar restoring couple is / Wnt> and the magnetic couple is 3/7/sin tending to increase 0.
Let I = OC = OD. k be radius of gyration. Coulomb's Torsion Balance Magnetic. There is a scale to read the position angle of the magnet. Of course no couple is acting. is supported horizontally in a stirrup depending from a vertical torsion wire. If the pole strengths of sion is D 1 m w 2. Let its value be torsion head has been rotated through a in the direction which would diminish 6. This angle can be altered by when the turning the" torsion head. cos is f) I / 41 sin 2 B . Then the twist on the wire is j. 148.. The arrangement is as in 4. and the whole instrument should be adjusted so that the torsion head reads zero when the position angle is zero and the magnet is in the magnetic meridian. as in C and m^m^CD. and the wire is therefore without twist. A long magnet.a.132 If THE MAGNETIC FIELD. period = 2*V *!*_ abg sin a : . for through a certain angle. and the couple due to it is L (9 + a). the repul m w 2/4/ sin 2 and its moment about m^n.= 5. A ED D MH and . the magnet replacing the lever BC. second magnet can be set in a fixed position such that its pole D would just touch the like pole C if this were in its zero position defined as above. however. Hence the equation L(e of equilibrium is + a) f MH sin . The couple due to the repulsion acts the other way. moment of inertia = Wk\ :. Then be :J CD l = 21 sin . will repel Such contact will not occur. with well denned poles at its ends. sin The couple due to the earth's field is ( 145).
1. Suppose that.V from its /em If the torsion position in which it would have touched ('/). Ex.1 /> >oint.V. and f !) inserted. AO = R'tT'.1 = o. be not inserted we have + AO = First perform an experiment without CD. find the angle O to which .K1 = HUV. Torsion Balance Experiments. and verify a 4. or can simply tabulate 2 (a f AO) against 0.T.1 Also when a = 0. 2.HI A 3SO.45 . Kind \*v repelled 2.'.I // lying magnetic meridian with wire untwisted. I . 6 A . + A6 = if Hie when CD is inserted . and show it .4f> + + 10. .9A. fl '2 1. is an approximate constant. as before. The magnet CD is now inserted. we can tabulate a f AO against 0. CD o. 1 AB We have  I. For instance. and AB is repelled to 2. let how much the torsion head must be rotated to halve this angle. B= 42200 nearly. Next insert CD and find a series of corresponding values of a and 6. A = 10. Ex. head be turned back to zero. the movable magnet moves 10 from the standard jxisitiun if tluIf the instrument be brought Iwuk to the torsion head rotates 4. Use the formula in the a + A0 = 1*16*. . Knowing A. A torsion balance is in equilibrium position.') + in. We therefore have . and a. standard position. Observe 6 (which should not exceed 10) when a negative twiwt (of any magnitude) is given. 149.THE MAGNETIC FIELD. The torsion head is turned 45.  We thus get .AO x 1 0.4 = 4'">. if no tixed iimgnrt In. the above formula reduces to a 133 If " ! small. and the magnet in consequence turns 10'. when the torsion head is turned 90 let the magnet move 9 we should infer 90 . 2. .inserted.
*. 3) so that the magnet is always brought to rest in the magnetic meridian. 67. show that a and 6 = constant. At the second. At the first experiment. . tance and let r and 8 exert equal fields / and / at O in poles These equal fields can be repredirections 0. lt sented in magnitude and direction by the equal lines is represented on consequently the resultant lt r. due to a single pole m. Before taking any observation. and we have . or is in Gauss's B Let / be the field position.134 THE MAGNETIC FIELD. 4.'. The N = N0 = l perpendicular to JNS. is { = l N0 N0 0$ . m and m their strengths. AB Ex. A torsion balance is mounted on a turntable. . Pield due to an Ideal Simple Magnet. and CN = CS = L Let be the magnetic moment. how much must the torsion head be turned to halve the deflection ? Clearly the rotation of the instrument eliminates the earth's field. Let and 8 be the poles. F l the same scale by NS. Under these conditions. at dis00 : S. 3. Ex. so as to bring the movable magnet into the magnetic meridian. therefore the twist of the wire must be 80. Let C bisect NS.4 = 362 nearly. The magnet is then said to be " " relaBroadside On placed tive to 0. therefore the force is multiplied by 4. the distance is halved. if the fixed magnet repel the movable magnet 20 when the torsion head is at zero.$. But 10 of twist is due to the position of the magnet. a 4 ll^A = 4 x 23 A a = 80. a . hence 70 of twist is put on by turning the torsion head. N M so that M = Im. the twist of the wire is 20. First let be at P where Fig. a is And required when . the instrument is rotated as a whole. and d 00. If a turntable is used (as in Ex. The field is required at any point 0. satisfy the equation d~(a + 0) 150.
At the position O> of compass we have the earth's titId // north ward. we have two component fields. at deflection v*> f compass./'///will therefore make such an angle with the north that tan The compass indicates the direction of this resultant.m/(r + \l)\ 1 Total field is in direction SN. tance 2. A magnet points eastward. .THE MAGNETIC FIELD. If thnperpendicular to C0 y and fore C03 r. r. Their resultant . 2 J/ cos ^/r3 along C'O a r from Due east of it. The magnet (if Third. r we assume Coulomb's law. at distance Find a formula f>r the a compass needle. . Next let be at 0. . l Hence /'  // tan 2M r\ Ex. in line SN this is the " End On " Let CO. is A its centre.'2M/r eastward. is a compass.. = .f r. of it. This nearly equals M/d3 if / be short iii comparison with d.. position or Gauss's A position. Then the field due to X = m/XO.. F.f) 3 S = mlSO. magnet points eastward. be at ^. and (r its magnitude is + f)i 23/r If / be small enough to be neglected.! . = 2J//r { . CO '_. 2 = m/(r . and the magnet's Held F . Assume . angle through which the compass is deflected. 1. let Z iYCO short enough) can be resolved into one of moment ^f sin cos 6 along CO. Find formula Due north for angle <.t = M M sin and Ex. djr* perpendicular to . If 13... ' = Coulomb's law.
which is Coulomb's law. l ^ n+ = =fl/r = lm/r = n ^i a ^ the same distance. be L NOS. 5. H tan 0.136 THE MAGNETIC FIELD. ratio of fields z and " side On positions. w l ~n (using the binomial theorem. 67.6 with north.*. then F= . find the Fl of a magnet in " End On " and "Broad F = m/(r  B J) l m m/(r ~n + %)n .'. making L 90 CO. IfIT = H tan 0. / 1/r*. Now by we and . F= # tan = M/r*. . l Ex. oc r or tan cot . moment M and earth'smagnet points H find horizontal sin 0/r 3 perpendicular to 3 A short due east.". making L B with north. 4. t in Figure The compass is now at northward and F westward. Use the above apparatus to prove Coulomb's law. We want to show experimentally that As in Ex. Given magnetic M 2M cos 0/r along CO. It is affected by fields H As before. higher powers of l/r) and rejecting F . 2 above. is at O 3 Fig. Let r be distance CO and let The field at O has components field . 67.3 . . Ex. 3. 3 taking various distances and plotting r against cot verify that 3 oc I//. F = IfIT in the B position. the positions of the neutral points at which there is no resultant horizontal field. 2 F the field due to a magnetic pole or 1/r". If Ex. We showed that if /be field due to one pole at distance r.
Let jVS be magnet of length I.r. JY$ is When A compass needle 7. r = 2 log sin = C sin. Take C origin and use polar coordinates tan then = rdB/dr. H = M V2/r\ Ex. being constant. )444'. field But /. = A2??JL asin0' . C its centre. due east of C. . and sin lience cos = tan 0/(l + tan 0) = v'2/3. + constant. Resolving eastward 137 23/cos. If n l>e large. = = rdejdr = = rfr/r tan perpendicular to r/ field along r. Ex. / <f> with CO. Integrating.THE MAGNETIC FIELD. > . 8. sin 0/2 cos 0. Resolving northward ff = . M at a point Let /T he per CU = . To find the equation of the lines of force of a short magas net.0/r3 tan 6 = Msin= V2 = ejr\ 14142 . pendicular on /s^V (produced it necessary) and let . Let the line of force through make . A^S'is and northward at slope field is // The magnet at O. Find the changes of slojH> of (>. tan ^ "' "* (i Ex.V cos is tf J/sin 0/r 3 therefore . r to CO. 6 = + r . log . 6. if be the slope of needle to the north tan = 2ATcos 0/{Hr*  M sin 6].//.3M sin = tan 0/sec 2 $ cos 0/r1 . slowly rotated about C. the eastward field is 2. Find the field due to a short magnet given by Cartesian coordinates. sin 6/2 cos 0. f 7'  .d. neglecting earth's field. 2 cos 0d0/sin 8.
of finite length. Hence if X and Y be fields along and perpendicular to magnet.mUP/SP*. 68. its components are Similarly along UP.OS~ . ma? f 3/. and U X Fig. SN is a short magnet. m.+ ( NU Neglecting the square of Z and using binomial theorem.SU/SP3 . due to +m at N is I m.NU/NP* parallel to CU. SN east of centre C.138 The field THE MAGNETIC FIELD. . It points due eastward. S gives components . 9. A being the foot of the perpendicular from O on produced. Ex. and O is a point due the magnet must be rotated from the meridian position in order to produce a given eastward field at O. whose Show that the pole strength is m.c = In same M way Ex. If be the magnetic moment of SN. (7. 3 3 conditions that shall be a neutral point are /OS = AN/ AS. 11. find how the of the compass needle varies as the magnet SN is deflection rotated. arranged as in 10. UP NP* m/PN* .m. SJV is an ideal simple magnet. GP = V x. Ex. ON . and a compass needle be placed at O. 3 and H/m OA = ON~* . 10. Distinguish the two cases when M/CO* < and > H. Find through what angle X Ex. < M .
to a pole Exactly as in electrostatics. if placed at a distance of 30 cm. moment of the strong magnet. XP  10/SP = 2. If placed at 20 cm. due east of the centre of a strong magnet (B position). 3. tial = draw these equipoteutials by geometrical conFor instance. Show the lines of force compared near O are rectangular hyperbolae. the potential due at distance r m The are f m m/r. The work is identical with that in Ex. and the position of equilibrium if the magnet and W.THE MAGNETIC FIELD. SN Ex. and K. earth's field. with the position of its centre unchanged.l/SP = constant. the needle oscillates about the same equilibrium Find the period of oscillation if the position 4 times per minute. 12. find the magneticGiven tion in a period of 6 sec. let 8N == 10 em.. and m = for potenEequired to construct the equipotential \OI 2. Eqnipotential Lines of Simple Magnet. units. it oscillates in the reverse posi= '18. potential at = P due to a magnet in N8 whose poles and m is therefore XP m_ XS' for Hence the equipotential lines are the loci l/XP . Find the field at places very west) near O and show that the lines of force near O are rectangular hyperbolae. Ex. 15. 13. has a neutral point at O. H 151. . 14. The needle oscillates 20 times per minute. An ideal short magnet is pointed northward in the earth's field. 139 pointed southward in the Find the field very near O. magnet be removed. Due south of a compass needle is placed a magnet in the endon position. 13. N Ex. Show that there is a neutral point O due east (or of the centre C of the magnet. A short magnet oscillates in period 4 sec. An ideal short magnet. are small to the distance of the magnet. If the magnet be reversed. which We can struction. be rotated so as to point E Ex. at a point whose coordinates x and y.
152.NP = r\ V = ml cos . d6 + sin 0' d0' *.NP} /SP NP. 0. : The form 69 the fields along 2 . : r' : sin $ . if Now by differential calculus.'. Draw about 8 and N two circles For any one line of force let this constant of same radius R and draw = SN/R. 2 0/r = M cos 2 0/r . constant. m sin sin 0/r 2 . the potential V P magnet. de/r + dtf'/r = = r'dO'/ds. . But r . 0' : sin 6. = m {l/NP SP  l/SP} = m {SP .NPT.140 THE MAGNETIC FIELD. SPT. m/r' If PT PT we have M 0. PN. using previous nota. 69. and SP. theory developed for Electrostatics in directly to The whole 1416 applies Magnetism. But if CP = r and I NGP = 0. reperpendicular to Fig. Lines of Force of Simple Magnet. SPare 2 7/i/r . of lines of force for a simple magnet is found as follows With letters as in Fig. sin 0' .*. NP = ' cos e nearly.. For an indefinitely short at tion. 0' solving be tangent. if ds be element of arc. = m sin 0'/r' 2 . cos + cos = = ^ = sin 0.
Or r* ( 3 \ r  1 ) / of doublet. and determine a point 141 M UV perpendicular to SN cutP on For each position the curve. Compare the fields at these places. given in Minchin and Dale. Doublets. can evidently be replaced by . parallel to axis and BMxy p er p en(Jicular to it. small and M M m The theorems stated as approximations for ideal simple magnets can be taken as absolutely true for doublets. finite. distance they are 1 mm. at another 3 mm. = 8N/R = constant. cos 6 = MX/R. The Potential = J/ cos #//. to 9. Two lines of force are traced from the At one pole. transverse. A magnet points northward. An strength ideal simple magnet. This construction matical Drawing. A short simple magnet is called a Doublet. Hence ( 22) the fields are as 9 to 1.THE MAGNETIC FIELD. one each side of the north line. whose length / = set of m. Mathe Example. SU For obviously cos . J//r ! if 6 = 90 \ components 23/ cos 0/r J/" sin 0/r 3 1 radial. I 153. The Field at distance r = = and and in general has 3 2J/// if = 0. namely. apart. The sections of the same tube of force at these two distances are so that the areas are as circles of diameter 1 and 3 cm. of NV M. a set of parallel ordinates ting the circles in ZJand V. 8' : cos 6 + cos is 6' = SM/R. N .i = . must be very large if I is negligibly Since ml. in the limit when its length is quite negligible.
We 154. and moment sm. magnets of pole. and be directed towards it.142 equal THE MAGNETIC FIELD. 70) called a compass needle is acted on by the earth's horizontal field H. Its direction then shows the resultant of F F and H. certain shall also find that they (See 219221. It primarily measures their given or H M M H product. If we time the oscillations in a field of strength and moment of of a magnet whose magnetic moment is inertia K. If this magnet be placed with its centre C due east of the compass needle. Thus a simple magnet is collectively m make up 8N. is if This formula can be used to measure either if is given. The molecules of iron and other magnetic substances are doublets. If 8 and N equivalent to a string nally.strength and lengths which be joined by a curved line. into strings of doublets. the comand westward and pass is acted on by fields F H ' .) have real physical significance. this can be divided into equal short arcs s and each regarded as a simple magnet of length s. Hence a magnet is actually a group of an enormous number of doublets. Deflection Magnetometers (Tangent). of doublets arranged longitudi A compound magnet can always be regarded as the re sultant of a set of simple ones. Magnetometers are instruments used to measure either magnetic fields or magnetic moments or pole strengths of magnets. then the period T is given by M H T= 2ir VX/MH ( 146). A small subsidiary magnet ns (Fig. for 155. polestrength m. It is of the magnet experidisturbed by the horizontal field mented on. Oscillation Magnetometers. It is therefore resolvable Doublets can be utilised with advantage in problems.
to vary the sensitiveness of the instrument. and will point in the direction of their sultant. if slope of compass to the north line./r 3 . 71) and directed eastward. the resultant of !* and will be perpendicular to F and therefore. if = CO in figure. Both these arrangements can be called Instead of the Tangent Magnetometers. F H sin 6 = F/H. But F= J/. however. This makes angle 6 with the north. whereby the angle 6 is more easily read. and F= .If the is pointed towards the compass needle (Gauss magnet M position A) axis. northward. 0. 2J//H. earth's horizontal field ficial field we can have an arti Fig. If. 71. and tan e = F/H.'. 156. ns is shown carrying a light index db perpendicular to its length. o. in about an and we an arrangement which can rotate until the compass l>e rotate* 1 j>oints per pendicular to the line joining it to 3f. its field F is again due west. either stronger or weaker. r But F= . Deflection Magnetometers (Sine .THE MAGNETIC FIELD. . the magnet is placed due south of the compass needle (Fig. where tan e 143 re = F/H. M/H = ir> tan In figure. must understand North to mean the direction of tins field unmodified by the magnet We SN.
the correct formula is but in a tangent magnetometer tan 6 = F/H. we should have M/H = r 3 sin 6. and when SNis at A and B pointing westward the geometrical centre being at same distance r in all four The true centre is of course too near in two posicases. for 6 is marked on a of graduated scale by a long pointer ab both ends of which can be read. the geometrical centre of the magnet is not and S poles.144 If THE MAGNETIC FIELD. tions and too far in the other two. 157. one corrects for this by when SN. tan 6 H If we expand by binomial theorem and neglect Z 4 . and its length is not always negligible. We . and it be used in the end on position. M be placed in a similar arrangement. or tangent magnetometer In using a sine we must remember the magnet used is not an ideal simple one. M_ r H~ tan 3 j\ 6 _ V \ . In using midway between its a tangent magnetometer end on. These arrangements can be called Sine Magnetometers. reliable. is observing the deflection placed in positions A and B due east and west (magnetic) N of compass. If I be its length. pointing eastward. . Precautions and Corrections. get four values or we may read eight values. but in the B position. The mean of all these readings is practically . or _ M~^~ # tan 6 necessarily Again.
X 49iV7/(14"2) 47r 2 A7r 9705. we deduce that the moment of in. M/r = Miff . In a Kew magnetometer tlit. by 146 T= :. Ex. 2. 520 units of magnetic moment.) ducing the corrections for the length of the magnet. (Kx.magnet oscillates If a brass twr of magnetic moment .THE MAGNETIC FIELD. PH. If T be the period.'. Ex. MH = VK/MH. I. distance prfKluee. i of inertia. H 2S>2. The exact formula is of l4J> the F= and if Afl(r* + J/')3.s average deflection 4.V> Inperiod G'6 seconds.. . In the sine magnetometer 3 sin 0. and // = 185 unit of Held. width 1 cm. . we neglect ( j this gives 8 ' r* Ex.'. From the length and mass. and deflection (averaged) of 6 the magnetic moment of the magnet.r' sin = 27000 sin 6 H" = 9705/2822 = '03431).. ertia AT oo 2T x ( 10 4) / 12 = 495 7. Calculate also the magnetic moment of the magnet and it* moment . = 4T. A magnet of length 10'4 cm. Hence also jr M 9705 x 2822 = 2731MH). intro A somewhat more accurate value might be obtained by 1. If placed broadside on in a sine magnetometer at distance HO cm. 3. attached to it. they oscillate with period 75. oscillates about the meridian with period 14"2 sec. The mullet placed broadside on at 40*cin. Find the correction depending on the length magnet when it is used in the B position. the Calculate arrangement being that of a sine magnetometer. M. and rectIf suspended horizontally it angular section.i. 1. it produces a U Find the earth's horizontal Held //. has mass 55 gm.
(horizontally and centrally) with their axes at right angles. = M/r*H = 2 x 1240/(20) 3 x 2 . H* = M* = Ex. 2* MH = VKJMH. M = 8390. = 2M/r*H = = // tan 0. = 75W77. MH = 2 .146 Let THE MAGNETIC FIELD.66)MH. Hence (K and + 500)AK: = = = 7'5 2 /66 2 2 .'. 4. = 57 10'. Calculate its period of horizontal oscillation. Ex.34 sec. In the broadsideon position. = 37 3'. 47T 2 . giving K= 1716. and the deflection it would produce in a compass magnetometer if placed at 20 cm. '2 .QQ)MH = (7 '5 + 6*6) (7'5 . in the usual endon and broad moment sideon positions. then T= . K be the moment of inertia of the magnet. 1555/45260. magnet has magnetic moment H "20. M/H = = Hence 40 3 sin 45 = 45260. : tan 6 = H tan 0. Jf/r : tan 3 3 1240/20 x . the period is 36 sec. H= A '185. 1555 x 45260. 2Jf/r3 . 500 (7'5 . 47r 2 ^/66 4irjr  G For the magnet and bar. As in previous example r* sin 0. 5. If one of them be fastened to the other with its If they be fixed position exactly reversed. 1240 and In Paris. Two magnets fastened together. the magnetometer not being rotated. 141 x 9MH. giving MH = 1555. so that both point horizontally and parallel and are centrally suspended. In the endon position. what will the period be ? . oscillate in period 14 sec. T=2jr VK/MH = 2ir ^2600/1240 x "20 = 20 . of inertia 2600.
Square and add. are Ex. Ex. T= 1656 sec. so M would necessarily be zero. This H the case if the magnetic moments of the magnet be represented in magnitude and direction by the three sides of a triangle taken in order (by 144).) necessary to move the spot of light 1 em. 6. 72. it always = 2ir \ f IIMH. A magnet is suspended in a wooden case. Iii all 147 three cases the moment of inertia of the combination ha* the same value K. Hence but tan t) I ll)U nearly . 7. :.H. M = C/T. ^N AB=C/W. Its motions shown by means of a mirror attached to it. ">0 tan '20 =  1 . How In practice one would adjust by turning each magnet successively in such a way as to increase the oscillation period. which throws a si>ot of light perpendicularly to the centre of a horizontal scale at a distance of 50 cm. tan 20 1 "rf. can this l>e done in practice? The system must have no resultant magnetic moment. Find the eastward or westward magnetic fitId = ISD. hence the square of the period T is inversely to the magnetic moment = 6'/J/.A + B=C/U\ Si * [] Fig. When this was practically infinite.+ K) = C'{1/14*+ l^) 1 }. A . . where C is proportional or Ta constant. Show that if a certain condition be satisfied it is possible to fix three horizontal magnets together so that the system is quite unaffected by the earth's field. M A + /?. 2(A. tan = /' //. [// If the magnet turns through angle t). the reflected ray turns _V. has the values M ..THE MAGNETIC FIELD. But the unknown period T is given by 4 1/36 }. . If A and H l>e the magnetic moments of the separate magnets. But \'A' 1 + /f in the three cases. The magnets can be fixed in this wav provided no one has magnetic moment greater than the sum of the other two.
that. If a magnet be suspended on a horizontal axis which points accurately east and west. and by SfT. Dip Needle. It rests horizontal. xw = HM. swings through a small angle 6.148 THE MAGNETIC FIELD. A magnet is suspended so as to rest vertical. the magnet turns through an angle (small) Mdff/ivy. its magnetic moment. and its slope . 73. deflection = 000465. the coordinates of the axis of suspension (7. the weight and magnetic moment being w and M. Fig. Ex. Hence If V alters to V+ 5 F. Take V for vertical field. A A M xw = MV. The above magnet has oscillation period 3 '5 sec. relative to the centre of gravity O. 9. control magnet is used. hence the magnetic field is multiplied by The field necessary to produce the 1/4 and = '186 f. Ex. 10. If x be horizontal distance. 158. If. if H alters Horizontal = the dip 5 ( 141). let us find the difference produced by the weight w of the magnet between the actual slope and the dip. however. The period is doubled. find the horizontal distance between axis of suspension and centre of gravity. Ex. the magnet will point in the direction of the earth's resultant field. and the axis contains the centre of gravity of the magnet. and the moment of the weight alters by wyQ. be a in direction of magnetisation and /3 perpendicular to this direction. magnet is suspended on a horizontal axis perpendicular to its length whose height above the centre of gravity is y. The magnet the extra couple is 5 V. Find also through what angle the magnet will tilt if V alters by 5F (small). M wy8 This arrangement is used in a recording magnetometer to measure changes in the earth's vertical field. if the axis of suspension point due east and west and be at a horizontal distance x and vertical distance y from the centre of gravity. therefore its centre of gravity moves yd horizontally. 8. Show that. If w be its weight. Find now the magnetic field needed to move the spot 1 cm.4 = '0165. which brings the spot to centre of scale as before but alters the period to 7 sec.
If G'Af. be a and p. To its lower part number of separate small magnets this greater magnetic moment for the same weight than a single larger one. p. it makes the magnet. The upper part of the card is graduated in degrees. which may 1* a lens. we have pu' sin 5'. If # be the earth's resultant field. This consists of a light circular lamina called the Card. <>r n> in standard the reading is o "points. lamina can be floated on a liquid. and is the slope of the dip needle. from the magnetic north.THE MAGNETIC FIELD. It is balanced to hang horizontally under the influence of its weight and the earth's vertical field V if Walters (as when the compass travels to another country) the balance is corrected by small Instead of this form of suspension the counterpoises.s nf Hence for equilibrium. KM  / with the axi. and this ensures prfvt frictionless adjustment. we regard a. . Deviation. much \ X position. . turning centrally on a vertical needle. It is determined by the magnetic compass. cos (5 0) +p sin (5  0)}ir. RM6 = where 8' aic cos 5' + = d 6. The containing case carries an index. and exerts a couple sin 0. When the case is to read the position of the card by. 159. and sometimes in "points" or eighth parts of a right angle from the point on card. KM sin 6 If = [a. netic north This is (direction of H) the angle between the magand the true north." are fastened a gives . and if 5 the vertical. 6 as very small. the horizontal distance from H> G slojnj of MC be the tfSf in C to is a cos (d  0) + p sin (5  0). Hence the moment of the weight is (a cos (5  6) + p sin (6  0)\w.
Sometimes (as in a The reading is ship's compass) the compass case is fixed. The compass reads the angle between that vertical plane in which the telescope or sights are pointed and the north (magnetic). It thus gives the magnetic " bearing" or azimuth of the object viewed.150 THE MAGNETIC FIELD. Sometimes (as in the prismatic compass) a telescope or sights are attached to the case. which is then free to rotate. then to determine the bearing or azimuth of a line parallel to its zero radius. .
The magnetic field exerted at a point by a short segment of a conductor carrying a current is directed in a line perpendicular to the plane containing the point and the Its magnitude is proportional segment. The law is stated as follows. in any arbitrary units. magnitude of the field where A is a constant. = QS P(j. Let P be the point. Such experiments as have hitherto been made are in agreement with consequences mathematically deduced from this law. when circuits. :. the . direction of the field is perpendicular to the plane so that it is towards the observer if the motion If from Q to is seen to be counterclockwise around /'. In the limit. the ti*>ld is The PQR. and QS a perpendicular from Q on PR. and to the inverse square of this joining line. so as to study its magnetic field.^. Let C be the current. But these experiments are on complete elvtric It is practically impossible to isolate experimenta portion of a circuit. towards tin observer). QK the segment. the field As0//\>. and R upward through the figure (7. 151 . jointly to the current. To deduce a formula. Ampere's Law. 16O. therefore the angle be positively described. is be the circular measure of angle QPS.CHAPTER IX. to the length of the segment resolved perpendicular to the line joining it to the point. MAGNETIC FIELD OF CURRENTS. ally QR If is indefinitely small.
The resultant of F and //. If therefore is But F we express given by the formula It f= ^ Ampere's law taken as a numerical fact that. the unit current may be 1. 1. c = It ~ is tan 0. = 1 and c =. A r =. is The co the Galvanometer Constant. Hence F = 2?r when 2irAc/r. 1. = Ex. magnetic meridian. radius it would exert a magnetic field 2*r at the centre of the circle. The unit is so chosen as to simplify the above formula. Find the magnetic coil of field at is c centre O (Fig. hence that due to n turns is 2rrnc/r. consequently current in terms of this unit. radius field when the current Qlpl^ x x^ X> > XR N v x x P o~~ ~~z~ absolute units. r. arrangement can be used to measure efficient c n rH =^ 2 the usual type of tangent galvanometer. 75) of a circular n turns. at right angles to one another. tan U Hence the deflection is given by tan 6 = 2nnc/rH. northward. It is defined as such a current that if it flowed in a circle of 1 cm. find through what angle it would deflect a compass needle situated gjj Ex. 2 /r flowing The  If the above coil be set in the 2. Absolute Unit of Current. this Since currents. The earth's horizontal field is //. makes an angle 6 with such that = /'///. p a 7 The field due to coil is F = 2vnc/r. mately. . It must not be confounded with the Coil Constant r .152 MAGNETIC FIELD OF CURRENTS. Some authorities define the Coil Constant as the field produced at the centre Its value is evidently per unit current. due to one turn is 2irc/r. directed perpendicular to the coil and therefore eastward or westward. at the centre of the circle. 161. very approxi10 commercial amperes ( 88).
like an endon Ex. sum of all the small arcs /' = 2irrHC/R* = 2irr*nc/(r* + ' z) '. The constant '355 ampere. C = 0018 in amps. magnet [At great distances F = 2inir'C/z*. but not at its centre.. of radius 12 cm. OP cancel one another. . in Exs. OQ = r. As above. that the The sum /. Let P be the point (Fig. . c c = 2rr*HclR3 = flWtan e/Zwrn. mean Aw. whence finally . F= . 4. 3. PQ = A*.perpendicular .J J. Find the constant of an instrument of radius 3 cm. Find the galvanometer constant of a nometer of 10 turns. 2 = >'(10>  1). t*> and the arc. 5. The field at due to short arc * is Ac'R. C= and can be put 10r. = If(r. SrII/irn. Find the constant of a tangent galvanometer in whuh the compass needle is supported on axis of circular coil. Let Q be point on circumference. 2 and o. . by of resolutes along OP is deduced by IK icing * is '2wrn. .t/'2irr'H. See 150.500 turns.MAGNETIC FIELD OF CURRENTS. 75). 7.= to *cr/R\ it perpendicular symmetry. II tan 6 Ex. If 153 C be the current in amperes. Find field exerted by current c in a circular coil of n turns and radius r at a point on the axis of the coil at a distance z from its centre.+ z*)*. Eac. c tangent galva = rfl/2irti is = 12 x 186/20T . Its resolute F in line OP I*(J = The resolutes sc sin QPOIR. We get 2 (> + =) 3 2 = lOr 1 . Find the value of z in order that the sensitivem^ nmy be 1/10 as great as at the centre of the coil. the coil behaves of magnetic moment irnrc. = c tAn e where C = Ex. Ex.1W55 .'. C' = 355. 6. centre of coil OP = :.
**" Ex. The constant 5 A Ju J. units ( 82). shown that the and 2 electrostatic field in the same = Qz/(a + * 2 ) 3 /2 .154 Ex. so that Im = M. rai MAGNETIC FIELD OF CURRENTS. 8. Find the force exerted by the coil of Ex. and affects only magnetic matter. Find the constant of a Helmholtz galvanometer. hence the current is Fig. The electrostatic field affects only electric charges. this. the total force using m We m (r* +z 2 3 2 ) / __ 2 {r + (z + z2 2 /) } 3 /2 / (r 2 +z 2 * ) 3 2 / V . Let be pole strength and I length. rm Evidently the field is the same as with one coil of n turns. 10. The velocity is c = Qaw/v. Q electrostatic units is Q/v electromagnetic aw. In the can consider the north pole + limit we shall make I = o. 5. to be at a distance z. 9. and the south pole at distance z + L Hence. Of course the electromagnetic field would be exerted on unit north pole. 3 3 / and the magnetic field = It can easily be 2irca z /(a~ + z2 ) = i 2irahvQ/v(a' + z 2 ) 3/ 2 . r2 + 27rr ncm neglecting (r 2 . formula of Ex. Ex. 5 on a small magnet of moment M. placed longitudinally on its axis at a distance z from its centre. if z = r. 76) halfway between their centres on their common axis. and the compass is at A (Fig. in its axis of rotation at distance z from its centre. In \n turns are in one coil of radius r. is line as the electromagnetic. coil . 76. and \n in another identical the coils are placed coaxial and parallel at distance r apart. A conducting ring of radius a is charged with Q electrostatic units and rotated in its own plane about its centre with angular Find the magnetic field at a point velocity w.
S. on the axis of the coil. terminals by a deflection of 45. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. radius. and (JK U an element Drop a perof current in the infinite straight line A" V. Find tincurrent in amperes. A : i is its A galvanometer is in series with a voltameter. and the field at the centre of the coil. the diameter of the coil being 10 cm. Ex. is given off IHM kept at 45. The radius is 10. 14. 11. 16.M. of hydrogen Find the constant minute at normal temperature and pressure. Find the galvanometer constant of a tangent galvano meter of 300 turns. The current is 1/300 amperes. passed in When the inner is is 2~>. A charge 100 moving with velocity 100. Ex. 162. radius is made into a ring of 10 cm.MAGNETIC FIEL" OF CURRENTS. units. Find in amperes the current indicated per cm. It is charged with 100 electrostatic units. length on the scale. mid rotated with a linear velocity of 100 metres per second. is When a current resistance and lo galvanometer has 500 turns of radius Find the voltage indkated Iwtwwu 220 ohms. deflection of radii The inner has 20 through both. and pendicular PA on the straight M . and 1 c. therefore the field at centre = 2r/3U)0 x 1O = 00021 unit of field. units. radius 15 cm. meter of Find the constant of a Helmholtx tangent galvano20 turns. 9 and series 7. Find the galvanometer constant (1) when the indicating compass needle is at the centre.cm. A small galvanometer has a coil of 50 turns of mean radius 2 cm. 12. Assume that the charge is carried with the wire. find the number of of the galvanometer. A galvanometer has two distinct windings. turns. 15. I*'t /' the point at which lield is required. Copper wire of 1 mm. 155 Ex. Ex.000 is a current of 100 x 100. deflection is turns. a circle line.000 = E. the deflection is 11 of turns of the outer winding. 18. Find the number the same way. 17. (2) when it is 24 cm. If its radius be 6 cm.. 10. . This is 10T /3 x 10' = 1 ':*NNK. Its needle carries a mirror. 13. and the deflection is read by a beam of light reflected to a scale at a distance of 50 cm. the reversed. from the centre. Field of a Rectilinear Current. A tangent galvanometer to measure moderate currents with great accuracy has a single turn of diameter 20 cm.
QAP are similar. forqr:rs=PQ:PA ' = c. due to AR as = c. P PA PQ PR Draw The field at P due to c.PA.mn/PA*. the Any portion of any straight line can be represented sum or difference of two portions like AR. The sum of corresponding to elements of a finite straight obviously equal to Pn = PA Hence the field sin APR. . 77.RPQ = PQ = PQ. then ultimately the triangles qsr. in q and r.PA' t ^. drop perpendiculars rn and qm on it. and draw rs perpendicular to qm.156 centre MAGNETIC FIELD OF CURRENTS. QR c. It is therefore proportional to the inverse distance. of the infinite straight line is obviously Hence the field due to an infinite straight = line = 2c/PA.smAPR/PA.qr = S. Field of a portions line mn AR is Finite Straight Line. elements xy = PQ 2. The sum of all the elements x n mn corresponding to all the m Fig. and radius cut and the diameter xPy parallel to XY.
in a direction perpendicular to its plane. If the length due to c in . A current c flows round a rectangle PQJfS whose sides PQ and US are a and 6. "1 Ex. is cpr/(r + 4. With letters as in figure. 1. 7M. The plainat any <>t' tin point . at the centre of the triangle.MAGNETIC FIELD OF CURRENTS. Find the field at centre of rectangle.f e'. the field due to PA Similarly for PB. Show that the field at a distance .+ ab b~ A Fig. >7 r Ex. 5. Potential due to an Infinite Linear Current. show that P Ex. 4. The infinite straight line which carries the cunvnt is supposed to be perpendicular to the field figure and to cut this plane at A.r from the centre of a regular polygon.] Ex. this = . Hence the field of rectangle 8c / &' 1 /a* 8c + e^ \ 6 6\ a /' B P Va. [~ When 2. Find the n Show : circles. and like segments. sides. [Field = cp rli where /> is perimeter and r. x~) ^/F'+T 5 . l.4 7? is equal to cejz Vz. Let it be required to find an expression for tin* potential at a point P due to a current c in an infinite straight line. the field at = e. a is infinite. the notation being as in Ex. R are radii of inscribed and circumscriUnl Ex. 163. and = (Fig. 3. AR PA . 77). Find the field due to a circuit in the form of an equilateral triangle. field at centre due to a regular polygon of that this agrees with the formula for a circular current in the limit when n is infinite.
Find the currents c. are perpendiculars on them from The fields due to the currents are 2c/AP. Draw the circle APB. field due to two equal. the work done will be S 2nby a path (dotted in figure) XAP = that goes clockwise. and let be perpendicular to Then its centre and tangent. 2c/BP. These therefore are seen as points A and B. 2c x circular measure of angle QA P. parallel and contrary acting in infinite straight lines. 79. If let \\\ \ * . For each small portion such a& QP. P PA AP PT L in alternate TPA  L PEA . this can be taken as the potential at P. where n is any integer positive or negative. Fig. by Trigonometry. Ex.PAR.2wr. and the and PB. = 2c sin QAP. o pole Hence for the whole path XP the R/\ X = ^\\ v work = and 2c A X / \ i \ \x y Fig. X . Note however this peculiarity. an arbitrary point any arc XQP be described. It is f 2?r by a counterclockwise path which makes a complete circuit of A before proceeding to and its general value is f. respectively and BP. done on unit pole travelling from Q to P compo The work N = 2c. the work done on unit 2c X angle subtended at A. 80 is drawn in a plane perpendicular to the two infinite straight lines. 0. segment. 1.QPsinAQP/AD. and TPR  180 . that the expression for the potential is not If the positive angle singlevalued. its Q near P is 2 c/AQ perpendicular to AQ.\ is chosen for zero of potential.158 MAGNETIC FIELD OF CURRENTS. and nent in the direction QP is 2c sin AQP/AQ. in limit.
such arcs are Equipotentials. APB P points. = number of sides.">.r. 2. through They are a set of coaxial circles of which A and B are the limiting is by Trigonometry. The orthogonal system of circles are Lines of such as the dotted circle Force. 3. in dintin perpendicular to its plane.r. Using the result of Iti'J. Kx.I can be taken as .I B produced. ' . It can be seen that the com. and tan B = rlR. /'/Ml. Since the field at every point P normal to the arc of a circle through A and fi. Ex. is 2cw tan" '(/> sin 2nr) + constant. and of current receding. show that the nitntiAl respect to x between the values of the polygonal current at distance a' from it*s centre. APB ami inUi:ti n K' w tn Ex. and cos its value 9 / cos I TPB PB [PA PA ~r cos 2c P.4 PAR + PB cos . whose centre is T.L TAB. Find the potential at due to two equal and contrary currents as in the above example. Then if A be the line of action of the current approaching. and due to B as + potential hence the 911111 L P B TBP : = TBP . SO. A B perpendicularly. and . the due to .MAGNETIC FIELD OF CURRENTS. this angle is constant for all points on same Circular arc this arc is an equipotential. Hence resolving along PT the component of field * = 2c sm I _ ~ ( PB sin PAB TPB  sin TPA PA P \ /' sin Therefore the field is in direction OP. where .TA P As / A PB. sects and whose radical axis biFig. plementary arc of the same circle has potential APB. Let the arbitrary point of zero potential be chosen on .
and (2) that the proved experimentally by Ampere. equal squares. . by (1). A circuit and form can be supposed filled by a surface or curved evenly without points or On this surface are drawn ridges. winding and bending BA' could be brought near a sensitive magnetometer without affecting it. ever two squares are contiguous. one in a straight wire AB and the other in an indented or finely coiled wire BA' which lies around and always indefinitely near to AB. and therefore have no magnetic effect.ICO MAGNETIC FIELD OF CURRENTS. the same way round. These assumptions were cide . due to Ampere. when these lines approach and ultimately coinmagnetic field is zero of two equal currents. So the total magnetic effect of the current c in the squares . Imagine these to be small circults of insulated wire. each carrying the same current c as the large cirWhercult. Ampere's Theorem. that a plane circuit of small area has a field indistinguishable from that of a small magnet standing perpendicularly on the area. 164. Circuit of Finite Size. Of course the )B Fig. the current in their touching sides are equal. In addition we assume (1) that the magnetic field is zero of two equal currents flowing contrary ways in parallel straight lines. . close. Then he made the modification indicated Either arrangement in second figure. identity of fields only holds at points whose distances are considerable compared to the linear dimensions of the area or the magnet. of any size either plane p / I I ^j \ x ~ \ \ \ L \ Fig. The law stated in 160 is based on the experimental result. and indefinitely contrary. which ultimately are infinitely small and of infinite number. He used a wire bent back on itself. 81. 82. 164. as ABA' in first figure A and A' being connected to a battery so that the same current flowed in BA' as in AB. 165.
167. moment per uniform shell is such that the magnetic unit area is constant. each carrying the same current c. Let * be it* PN The potential at . is an indented line lying everywhere indefinitely close to the curve of the original circuit. and therefore so are the magnets. Magnetic Shells. Hence the original circuit is equivalent to such a distribution of small equal magnets perpendicular to an even surface bounded by the circuit that equal numbers stand on equal areas. moment in a direction perpendicular to the tanmagnetic not found in nature and gent plane. 166. The squares and their currents are all equal. and this border. such that the direction of magnetisation is everywhere normal to the That is. Magnetic shells are be constructed artificially. and let The magnetic moment of SS is in the direct required. that this is equivalent to c flowing in the actual curve. Each square is however ( 164) equivalent magnetically to a small magnet perpendicular to its plane. Evidently the arrangement 165 forms a uniform shell. cannot They can l>e number of small simple represented by supposing a large magnets fixed normally to the surface. Hence in limit the magnetic effect of the circuit carrying current c is identical with that of the indefinitely large number of equal squares described above. is therefore cosA7V> P0> M. . is 161 identical with that of a current c going round the outer border of the squares. easily A Consider a small element of surface &S at a be the point at which the potential point P. Potential of a Uniform Shell. (by ir 153) X. and has magnitude of the normal strength. PH. This constant is the strength of the of magnets described in shell. A magnetic shell is a distribution of magnetised matter over a surface. 164. a small portion of the surface has its surface. It follows from (2). in limit. I.MAGNETIC FIELD OP CURRENTS.
The method adopted applies only to complete circuits. the potential due to 8S is = And if we add the potential at due to every element of the whole surface S. the potential where ft is the whole solid angle subtended at by the periphery of 8. 161. Then the straight line A A' is represented in the figure by a single point A. We have shown ( 165) that the magnetic action of a current c is identical with that of a uniform magnetic shell bounded by the circuit in which that current flows.Y be an arbitrary prime radius. cos But 88 (cf. Find the potential at a point P due to a given current c which flows along an infinite straight line. Let this flowing in a very large circuit lie in the arbitrary plane XAA'.162 MAGNETIC FIELD OF CURRENTS. It is then equivalent to the infinite shell AB. finite Consequently the current c in the instraight line A A' must be replaced by one circuit of which A A' is one boundary. 83. Let . Hence the solid angle Sfi of the small 0. on the side remote from X. NPO/POis cone whose vertex 30). 1. Let the straight line be called A A' and let the plane of the figure be perpendicular to it and pass through P. shall show later that this definition equivalent shell. We = Ex. Let us define the measure of a current as equal to the strength of the Fig. and which stands on 8S as base. agrees with that of eft == curThen the potential of a current circuit rent X solid angle subtended by the circuit.4. to the perimeter of this shell The straight lines joining generate the two planes P PAA' and PC drawn t through ^ .
But the potential difference of and is the same wherever the prime radius 163. Cf. O is If a current c flows the centre of a polyhedron of n faces. 4. If r be the radius of a circular coil of one turn carrying on the axis from the centre current c. if we suppose the circuit As the plane is arbitrary. This result agrees with that of Ex. The potential at P is therefore 2c0. is A Find the potential at the centre one face. current Hows once round a square whose side is n. Consider a magnetic shell When (> is at A. Hence the potential is 2. The the figure pass through circuit can be supposed a rectangle bounded by A A' Jilt' and two Hence the straight lines frm finite lines at an infinite distance.e. Ex. . standing on circular arcs through A and B. for this is half . the completed in the plane XAA'. They are therefore cylinders (perpendicular to the plane of the figure) Iftf. show that the potential at O is 4irc//t. The area of such a lune is 20 consequently this is the solid angle. of the cube of which the square Bx. These to the boundary all lie in the two planes PAA'J'B/f. 6. lanes cut a sphere of unit radius about P in & lune whose angle E APB. the solid near it in front. By differentia2ir(l : show that the field at O in ting the potential with respect to 2*r 2 c/(2 2 + r2 ) 3 /2 .BB'. i. If about P. 2. around one face. and z be distance of a point of the circle. parallel to the plane 168 XAA'. indeterminate. P s Ex. is definite. disc. and let the plane of and be perpendicular to them. absolute potential is a sphere of unit radius be drawn any two points AX is taken.APB. all equal. show that the circle subtends at O a solid angle . Ex.MAGNETIC FIELD OF CURRENTS. on the indefinitely N taken as angle subtended can be 'Jr. Fig. P '. (see Fig. Deduce the potential at O. 79 . 85) in form of a plane side. 2. Find the potential due to a current in an infinite straight line and a return current in a j>arallel straight line. Ex. Let the straight lines be AA'. 3. 5. Find the potential due to a current flowing in A regular from all theanglr* of the polygu polygon at any point equidistant 168. The equipotentials are such loci that L A PR is constant.z/ \ x z* + r2 ). Cyclic Constants. these planes cut it in a lune DTE of angle = XA P.
. C. . A A'B' is . . for a circular disc. TT. no work is done. drawn nearly to scale from its value at A. . say n. At D the solid angle and potential are zero but. When any summation or integration gives a finite value when taken round a closed cycle. 85. G. ATT. Consequently the difference of _ _ negativeKB. fyrs. since the disc is equivalent to a small magnet pointing in direction GA. . . . . . . magnetic forces on unit pole travelling from A. ^TTS. of course zero. still less ZTTS at E. A BC . and the The potential is . it would be repelled if it along any path ABC were a unit north pole consequently the potential falls In figure. c. by path back to A again so that a finite quantity of work is done in a closed cycle beginning and ending at the same point. as marked. potentials at for the journey A and G is . the . the angles are subtended at B. AGFEDCB.rc of work is done by infinitesimal journey AG. G. potentials are therefore TTS. so that s =. The work done in going round a closed path . As C recedes STTS. It is of course evident that if a unit pole had travelled round the other way. . replace the disc by its equivalent current. in plane of disc . . and takes the values Fig. . to pass direct from G It becomes possible for to and since the distance is indefinitely small. this value is called the Cyclic Constant. which does not loop through the circuit.. . field at D is parallel to AG and the potential gets is than It zero as we travel onwards. 4irs ABC Now A .. that is G and A are at the same potential for the But 4.. F. ABCDEFGA.. if s be the strength.. . total solid angle subtended by all directions round a point. the work would have had the contrary sign.. the work would have V>een 4firnc. G'A. etc.164 MAGNETIC FIELD OF CURRENTS. Had it travelled round an integral number of times. ..
F. such as would be constructed by winding wire evenly round a long straight circular ruler.). which is the M. is the work that would be done on unit pole if it could be imagined to make the magnetic circuit. A solenoid is a helical coil of win*. Engineers prefer to use another unit called the Ampere Turn.F. iTi'i 169. the M.F. the current c is in absolute units. We ( N 170.x 1 1<* 1/10 absolute units. tr.M.F. but there is nothing flowing around a circuit in virtue of its M. of a circuit which once embraces a current of 1 amj>ere.F. Webers and Ampere Turns. can l>e defined as the work per unit charge making the circuit. The M. AD equal distances along a common axis pendicular to their plane. This work is reversible. 102). but M. By last paragraph.F.M.M.M.F.M.F. in a circuit around which electricity is flowing. for an equal amount of work must be supplied iu order to carry the pole around the circuit in the contrary N direction. Since an ampere = 4. evidently a close analogy tatween M.Tin* work which is done by the magnetic forces on a unit N a* pole it travels completely once round a circuit is called the magnetomotive force in that circuit. Hence E. Magnetomotive Force (M. mean radius of the winding Let a ( 171. therefore an ampere turn . The wire may U> in one or more layers. That is.ir wires of the same radius.M. In ltlli>!> the magnitude of the current was taken equal to that of the equivalent magnetic shell.M. 4irc. usually meet with E.i versed Very approximately the effect of a solrnoid a current is the same as that of a numU>r of ciivul.M...M.M.M. N = = 1*257 webers. is then in webers a weber denoting the M. in a circuit which surrounds once a current c is 4nrc. whose centres are jimmied at in Fix' * = the radius . Solenoids. of such a circuit that one pole travelling round erg is the work done on a unit it once.F. and The most obvious difference is this.MAGNETIC FIELD OF CURRENTS.F. is There E.F.
The M. Each is equivalent to a plane circular magnetic shell of Tret" and uniform c strength (7/10. sensible distance 172. and = 86) is FL Therefore F= where N is the of " turns per unit length. from the ends. in the plane of the last turn. is %F. half as great as the field in the interior. * / done inside. This is altogether independent of I. = turns.. is kxnc or 4^0/10. . current in absolute units. conse quently each exerts a field %F. The is field outside. C/10 or c amperes Each circle is equivalent to a magnetic shell of strength c or 0/10 and area TTCI~.F. Field in a Solenoid. and therefore of magnetic moment TTdc. It follows that the field of a solenoid precisely at its end. i. turn area 173. of solenoid.vTvn ~> number ^ N ABDA (Fig. Exact Treatment. like the coil of a tangent galvanometer. Field of a Solenoid. Let n any one of these circles. let it be called F. The field inside is form * sensibly uni . Hence." It is evident that the field at the sum of fields due to parts F E EA can be considered as and ED These parts (supposed long) have equal effect. It can also be expressed as nC ampere = = . nearly the whole work on a unit pole completing the circuit (/v. Hence the whole magnetic moment of the solenoid The is Trtfnc.16G MAGNETIC FIELD OP CURRENTS. Let I Let C be the current in occupied by the winding. the length of the cylinder or equivalent circles. or a long narrow one. at a very small compared to that within the hollow.M. the number of turns. This too is independent of I. so that its = = * See precise working which follows lower down.v.e. formula holds for a short wide cylindrical winding.
This m= N D B The field at a point quite close to A. at a distance z from A.( 34) The pole at D exerts a 2ircn/l. If field B be on the axis of the solenoid. \'a* the field due to D 2Tr<r{\ z'/ + z~\. the 8 pole of each annulling the equal pole of the next. . Hence accurately the field at B If B be at A. but just outside. If these can both be treated as long.MAGNETIC FIELD OF CURRENTS. If z = DK. magnetic I . The disc pole at A has uniform density <r cn/l consequently it exerts m/ira* a force 27ro. this '2ir<rl Va* + /' . its poles being its flat ends. 167 moment is TTO?C. can be divided into two parts. the field of each is 2ircn/1. field at E is 4wcn/l. and the total = = = = . the duo to the flat disc ?m 2 at A of surface density <r can be shown 27nr {1 to be z/Vd* + z}. A and are left uncompen sated. are successively in contact. The field at E inside the solenoid is the sum of the fields due to the two solenoids EA and DE. so that only the poles at. 3 For a long solenoid we can force m/AD" mrcn/l neglect this term and put the field = 2ircn/l. The field at a distant point is nearly mlBAm/BDif a be small. There are n turns in a length so if l/n be small we can consider each magnetic shell as a magnetic disc of length l/n and pole strength These n discs ira?cn/l.
the field at from If z and z' be the distances of of the fields just outside two solenoids of length z and z'. because not very small compared to its Ex. differenceis relatively large. sum and D. E A E Of course a = cn/l. Find the field in the interior of a solenoid 10 cm. radius. 1. 47riVc x 5/ v'& + 12 = 308. and 31 '4. is the diameter of the solenoid about 2% of the whole. cm. 87. The strict formula Ex. For the same solenoid. if we regard it as small. 2. 1 910 Fig. If we use the strict result given by the Calculus. the field at the centre N = The length. and carrying a current of half an ampere. long. 5 solenoid find the field at a point on the cm. of 500 turns. The approximate formula gives gives 15'6. find the field at the centre of 7 one end.For the same axis. .168 MAGNETIC FIELD OP CURRENTS. 3. The field == = 500/10 = 50.. c = 1/20. therefore the field = lOir = lirNc. from the end. 2irj!S c = 15*7. The radius is immaterial. Ex.
so the constant is 250 ampere turns. from the centre in a direction along. . field M.. The whole of the lines of magnetic flux are internal. They will then fit close together. Find also the difference of magnetic potential (approximate) between its ends. There are 500 turns.MAGNETIC FIELD OF CURRENTS.M.F = Hence 4/r x 1000/10. tances 5 and 15 from the point considered. ver}' nearly. Let be the field at distance r from the axis of A unit pole travelling round the axis at this distance ring. Ex.M. hence the work done on it 8 cm. . 7. 4. 6. above are utilised in the graph shown along with other results found similarly. is 1000 ampere turns. Find the cyclic constant of the above coil with the current f ampere. F Its = 100//. in the core. The radius Find the within and outside the windings. therefore the field is $ 2 (1/5  1/15 2 ) = 7T/10  7T/90 = 279. (2) exactly at the centre of an end face. and at right angles to. Find the magnetic moment of a solenoid of length 20 cm. Their thickness is we like (provided it is small). and the field (1) in the interior. (3) 50 cm. mean value can be taken as 100/8 = 12'5 gausses. the axis of the coil. . The results found in Ex. mean netic except in its circular core. Hence there will be no magnetic field at all exerted at outside points.. and the 1 ampere. 169 The approximate formula treats the solenoid as a magnet whose : The poles are at dispole strength is Njra c = 50?r/20 = 5ir/2. Draw a curve showing the relation of field to position on axis for the above solenoid. radius *6 cm. or 4*. The exact formula gives '274. describes a distance 4?rr cm. Ex. is wound uniformly with 1000 turns of of its section is '6 cm. and the arrangement is not maga thickness 2ir. number of turns 400. An anchor ring wire. Obviously the M. and the + face of each will exactly cancel (for external points) the face of the next. or 4?r 500/20 = lOOir = 314 absolute units. This wound ring can be regarded as a set of 1000 magnetic shells each equivalent to one turn of wire. for a current of F = 4wr. and we can suppose the shells to what have 8/1000 and be bounded by planes which are not parallel but intersect at the axis of the ring. 13 . 5. the radius of the ring itself (from the centre of the ring to the centre of its section) is Ex. Ex.F. current '4 amp.F.x 1000 x 1/10 = 1257 webers. .
Best Shape of a Section of a Galvanometer be the point at which the field is to be Let measured PQ the bounding curve Let OX be the axis of the section. be suspended by a vertical torsion wire so . As parallel. . with the normal to the acted on by a couple HA c sin Let the coil 0. 175. whose direction makes angle planes. problem is to find the form of the which produces the largest curve with a given quantity field along . cl nent d sin XOP/OP. A field length cl/OP OP. their magnetic additive is and the sum <p their planes are moments are is Ac. each of one turn. the resulof symmetry of the coil The tant field will be along OX. ing curve constant. is coil n parallel turns (absolute) their total area. PQ OX I 2 of wire. current c A Moving of Coil Galvanometers. tion is such that sin XOP/OP' = The curve has the polar equar = 2 sin 0. 174. Coil. 89. it would produce The most economical winding has these two expressions equal since otherwise we could get a larger field by transferring wire from one place to the other. . If the coil in a magnetic field it is H.along the axis. So the form of the boundsin XOQ/OQ. Fig. carrying equivalent to n plane parallel coils carrying the same Let A be current. and Fig. 88.170 MAGNETIC FIELD OF CURRENTS. If the coil were wound in such a way that this length were taken off at P of wire at produces at perpendicular to therefore produces compo P and put on at Q.
and $ are poles of a strong permanent magnet. A through what angle units) passes. 1. EB is the torsion wire. If it turns if a current c (absolute couple 200 produces a twist of 6. coil wire can bring the current to the If the suspension be torsional. magnetic field Let L be the torsion constant of the wire. one it away. . E and are the electrodes. = ir/30 radians.MAGNETIC FIELD OF CURRENTS. L be the L sin constant and the is If the coil be suspended bifilarly. radius 5. If the suspension and the other take N D circular coil of 100 turns. that the planes of zontal its coils 171 hori when the wire is untwisted. and of the bifilar suspension. 25?r. let it be  Then and we obtain D/cos O/wD/lM. 76f>r. then L= A = 6000/7T. Hence the equation HAc becomes giving cos = L6 = 6000 = 186 x 25(K>7rc cos 0/cos 0/*.4s . the current can be brought by the torsion wire and carried away by a vertical wire underneath dipping into mercury. The figure shows diagrammatically the coil BC of an AyrtonMather galvanometer. It is D usually better to find the number of degrees in S . </> H are vertical and contain a equilibrium is HAc<x0 = Le. CD a spiral.) x 180e/ir . hangs in the magEx. Since there are 100 turns of area 25007T. netic meridian by a torsion wire which would be twisted 6 by Find a couple of magnitude 200 absolute units. D = 076. or by a fine wire twisted into a very feeble spiral spring. so that LB is the couple exerted by the wire when its twist is 0. H can either be the earth's horizontal be bifilar. In that position 90 hence the condition for 6. field or a produced by permanent magnets or electric currents. the couple is equilibrium condition HAc = L Of course field tan 0.
.D. . 0438. A = mra 2 He = L tan . Hence H~ = 2L (a tan 6/a? tan < formula which does not contain c~ n). Direct Reading Galvanometers. between the poles of a fixed magnet.e. and <f>/2ir~an. we take cos = '00765 radian. the current indicated per 1 ? Ex. = 1. It supports a rectangular coil of 250 turns cm. ( 176. 6/nira 2 . Here . As the angle is D D circular coil is suspended bih'larly in the earth's field. A and turns through angle field. A coil of total area 50 sq. cm. Every galvanometer measures primarily the current through itself . 6. Show that we have placed at its centre. and weight '5 gm. If the torsion wire in the coil of Ex. If the deflexion is read by a mirror and scale. if the current be onetenth ampere. is supported bifilarly by two perfectly flexible wires. 6 when a certain current passes. This is the angle rotated by the Also mirror. which act as leads to the current. find the scale reading.172 MAGNETIC FIELD OF CURRENTS. Calculate the current for a deflection of 1. the magnetic field being that of the earth 186). in a magnetic field. it will deflect a compass needle.. therefore the reflected ray rotates 26 = '0143. 2. how much will this affect the sensitiveness of the galvanometer. Ex. Ammeters and Voltmeters. If however it be not allowed to turn. long. But b}' the formula for a tangent galvanometer c aff tan (f>/2irn. Ex. Give numerical results for above coil.. . the scale being 1 metre distant. i. of strength 120. and it be observed that the period of oscillation of the suspended coil is halved. c D/cos D = = 1/100. 4 is replaced by another one. through an angle 0. Ex. 5. The arc subtended by 26 at 1 metre distance is 26 x 100 = T43 cm. L tan 6 tan torsion wire is twisted 1 per couple of 100 dyne cm. sufficient data to find both the current and the earth's horizontal 3. '. apart and 5 cm. 2 mm. So = 0438. Calculate the current indicated per 1 deflection. very small. We have . and secondarily the P. 4. A 1x3 Ex. hence 1'43 is the scale reading.
and micro voltmeters.D. 177. the But it is expedient that the presence or absence of ammeter shall not appreciably affect the current measured therefore the ammeter ought to be of small resistance compared to the pieces of apparatus with which rent. A dynamometer then measures . . or a dynamo) and the P. it is In the second case a voltmeter is generally used. which 173 = current X galvanometer resistance. between the poles of the apparatus. measured consequently the voltmeter should have a large resistance compared to the . between its terminals. It can therefore be graduated either in current units or in units of P. and graduated in volts it is a voltmeter and we can also have millivoltmeters. graduated in amperes. These are instruments for measuring the force or couple exerted by one coil upon another situated in a standard posit ion. and measures the placed But it is expedient actual P. in parallel with the apparatus. the two currents are the same . between its terminals. an incandescent lamp. apparatus.g. it is an Amperemeter or similarly a Milliammeter is graduated in thousandth parts of an ampere. In the same way a milliammeter becomes a voltmeter if its resistance be made up to 1000 ohms by putting a box in series with it. that the presence or absence of the voltmeter shall not appreciably affect the P. If the two coils are in series. practically the whole and every ampere of current goes through the 1 ohm current produces 1 volt P. If used to measure currents and. let its value be c. For an experiment we may want to know the current supplied to an apparatus (e.D.D. and a Microammeter in millionths.D. Dynamometers and Current Balances. .D. In the first case we use an ammeter which is placed in series with the apparatus and measures its actual cur. Note that if a voltmeter of very high resistance be shunted with a 1 ohm coil it becomes an ammeter.MAGNETIC FIELD OP CURRENTS. For if it be put in series with a circuit. They thus estimate the product of the two currents.D. If used to measure P. between its Ammeter terminals. .
e. or number of joules of (current) It thus measures Power energy supplied per second. n be numbers of turns x. The field at the centre of the large coil is Z . be currents in absolute units. but usually the so rapid that a measurement can be made changes are which represents the average value of c 2 This is imThen ( 181) the portant if c varies harmonically.D. and leaves by a fine wire spiral underneath. The Weber Electro . 178. and the torsion head reads zero. This wire is untwisted. The current in the small coil enters by the torsion wire.Dynamometer. . The instrument has two coils. with its plane vertical and in the magnetic meridian. 91. directly. in series with an apparatus. directly. Then the dynamometer voltage between the terminals. Fig. which has high resistance. .) and amperage i. so that it is traversed by the whole current supplied and to put the other coil. y . the value of c is continually changing. . when the axis of the small coil is in the plane of the large one. b be radii of large and small m. .174 c 2 MAGNETIC FIELD OF CURRENTS. When currents flow in the two the small one is deflected and has to be brought back to its standard position by rotating the torsion head. so that its current represents the versed. or by a wire dipping into mercury. Another way of connecting is to put one of the two coils. in parallel with the apparatus. 2 average of c is half the square of the maximum current. which has low resistance. The small one hangs at the centre of the large one by a torsion wire depending from a torsion head. The large fixed one is like that of a tangent galvanometer. it gives the wattage. The reading is unaltered if the current be re If the current be an alternating or fluctuating 2 one. measures the product of voltage (P. or any arrangement which minimises torsion. coils. coil Let a. and that is the reason for the name Dynamometer.
Example. their radii be b Let the current x be the same way round in P. Ex. kept in standard position.. Let each represent the fixed system. 92. If the fixed coil suspended coil 179. their current. The Joule Current Balance. The four have radius is the Kelvin current balance. ( 175 The magnetic moment of small coil is 161. so that xy is measured at once by the angle exerts no couple on the coil. and Trnby. calculate the couple exerted on the suspended coil. The earth's field measurements are made when its axis is pointing northward. and distance apart 25 cm. the couple head. by a current of 1 ampere. Fig. When like currents flow. 8] 25 cm.MAGNETIC FIELD OF CURRENTS. The weights needed to hold the movable coil in a standard position are . they act as if they were two magnets whose dissimilar poles are opposed they therefore attract each other. The number of turns used is any multiple of 30 up to 450. The British Association Electrodynamometer is of this type with The large coil is replaced by a pair of coils certain modifications. is L LO. and its sensitiveness is adjustable by altering the distance apart of the . 0. If 6 be the torsion angle measured on the torsion a constant for the torsion wire. proportional to the product of the currents. radii arranged as in a Helmholtz galvanometer [ 161. represent the movable system. M= jnrb'y. as indicated by the . be 50 turns of radius 14. and the be 700 turns of radius 1. The suspension is bifilar. They and number of turns n and current y they can each be regarded as a magnet of moment The two coils if are smaller . Ex. for all Note. 1). . and P3 and the contrary way in P2 and P. both being in series. H wires at top. The fixed and moving coils are parallel. Hence L0 = Tfiiby x 2irmx/a = 2ir~b~mnxy/a. and let x l>e and number of turns P p m . An improved form coils a.
These instruments can be used for the direct measure ment of a single current. 10. 161. supposed upand exert an equal contrary wards. MAGNETIC FIELD OP CURRENTS. and the other in p 2 unite to exert a force. on p 1 while 3 4 The earth's field exerts no couple on p^p v for force on p r the currents in it are opposite ways. . 2 P P PP } The couple depressing p l is balanced by weights in such a way as to bring to its standard position and it is evident that the required gravitational couple is a calcu p^ . . lable multiple of xy. Putting the two coils in series we have x == y and therefore the quantity measured is #2 They can also be used as Wattmeters. The weights used are generally sliders which can be placed on the bar connecting the movable coils. The couple exerted by PjP2 3 4 on p p 2 (in the standard position) is found at once from the formula in Ex. by regarding each small coil as replaced by a magnet of the same moment. as above (177). P l . Then P Let y be one way in p 1 and .176 arrows.
If be the angle already described at time t. MEASUREMENT ISO. for &tr approximates to the value i&t when 8t. is ing.r be velocity. x will be acceleration. reckoned from any chosen epoch. Fluxion al Notation. for (in any natural process) no quantity changes with absolute limit.I. The average rate at which x alters for this interval is. Let x be any varying quantity whatsoever. x will be the velocity of that point. x denotes the " rate of change of ar." If x be the distance which a point has traversed. Another important case is that of angular motion. of course. and ultimately zero.PH. Instead of writing it is permissible to write dx = xdt as an abbreviation. V . then 8x also is small and ultimately vanishing. Let the value x occur at time t then we denote the value at time t + 8t by x f Sx. Let t be the time.to denote the rate at which x alters. are small and ultimately vanish In words. If the angular velocity and the angular acceleration.CHAPTERS. suddenness. BALLISTIC DISCHARGE AND OF CAPACITY. Ordinarily the fraction 8x/St approaches a This limit is denoted by dxjdt or by T. 12 177 M. If therefore . and therefore 8x. The quantity alters by fa in the interval St. One uses x for d'x/dt. 8x/8t. If the interval 8t is taken very small.
Harmonic Change. be the quantity of water in a reservoir. the electric charge. E being constants. x an Gos(nl of x . This x. The constant is called the o if we reckon t Epoch. 182. or. and therefore is equal to 2ira/T. The values of x recur when t is increased by 2ir/n. The average square of a quantity varying harmonically is half the maximum square. or q the current outwards. let x f. for it is as often positive as negative. Ar or Of = 1 = x. The maximum value occurs is called the Amplitude. This therefore is the period T. But E = x~ = a. q will be the current inwards. If x oc o or x/x A. The rate of change of x is + E). the water is actually the reservoir.T. The average of the second term is zero.siri~(nt + E) = a~  a~ cos 2(nt + E).in a flowing out. = 181. The average value (algebraic) of x is zero. It from the instant when x vanishes. Logarithmic Decrement. The maximum value of x is an. o where n is a constant. Mathematical Formulae. is It when nt j E= A and = a. Similarly if q suitable receptacle (an accumulator or condenser). Any number of other instances might be given. therefore ^a 2 is the average of x".n"% is the equation of simple harmonic motion. or the current flowing into If F be negative. where A is constant. The general solution (which the mathematical student can verify by If x differentiating) is x a and a sin( f E). V will be the rate at which V is increasing. is dt the rate of change of the Napierian Logarithm .178 BALLISTIC DISCHARGE. let x J How + x/x 3? .
First stants.t . (log e a. It can be verified that two values be are is a general solution containing two arbitrary constants a and This is the n. 183. = . xt > XQ f .be positive.T)//. then choose a new variable y such that By and differentiation. x f 2Xa. solution fails if Xinteresting case.r)/23026/. They can be got base 10 by 2*3026 hence . say k l and k. Resisted Harmonic Motion. . independent solutions. There  and a of k. This solution are then is perfectly suitable \~ . giving = X A/Xif __ M.2k\ + H 2 k o.. consequently . The above logarithms by multiplying logs. log XQ  log x = X \t. The above m n = X + m . ~ k .  n. . to are to base e. X = (lo glo a  lo glo . Hence 170 therefore log x diminishes at the constant rate A.\t..  log. e ~ **. To solve it. xjx = r _ . x=(y\y)< jr ^ (y  '2\y . The name Logarithmic Decrement is given to A.MEASUREMENT OF CAPACITY. put />. ae a and k being conassume that the solution is x Then x = kx. initial value (when t o) of x be = If the . and x = kx. + nx = Consider the equation o.be negative.
If it be displaced through a small angle 0. of is Simple Harmonic (by 181. but is always = ae~ ^' Hence X is the Logarithmic Decrement of the Amplitude. = ae~ Xt sin (mt + E). its suspension exerts on a couple tending to replace it. we denote the and the angular acceleration by 6. This can be regarded as a Simple Harmonic Motion whose amplitude is not constant. under no disturbing force. . solution of the equation of 6 motion can be written. LIK = The and the motion n*). Consider a needle suspended without friction. Free Oscillations of a Galvanometer Needle. putting period T= full 27r VKjL.180 BALLISTIC DISCHARGE. angular velocity by it tional to The same the time. Substitute these in the differential equation. t being If be the moment of inertia of the needle. where L is approximately a constant. and ultimately propor0. and G dt~ dt Ti . the acting and the angular couple must equal the product of If therefore the needle be simply swinging acceleration. quantities are denoted by . This couple may therefore be denoted by LO. = a sin t VL/K. 184. ~ After dividing by of a we get y + m'y = which the solution ( o. Employing Newton's Fluxional Notation. the equation of motion is K K Ke = or L6. 181 ) is y = a therefore a sin (mt + E).
The greatest value of 6 is a it occurs at which when VK/L = $T. total electric charge carried by the transient current through the galvanometer. Let C be the suspension. The total angular If q ct. the current indicated per unit deflection. Then = c = CO. and is WQ = a V/Z/A:  2jra/ T. and Ac/K is the average angular acceleration for time t. C= L! A. may be transient in one galvanometer and not transient in another. q is the velocity given in this time is Act/K. Let the needle be at rest in its equilibrium position = . In most forms of galvanometer ( 175 and Exs.e. The value of or . 181 where evidently t is the time reckoned from that instant = o. Let Ac be the couple for current c (absolute units). i. and its greatest value is when = = o. meter is called transient if its total duration is a time A small compared to the period of oscillation of the galvanoIt is evident. AC = L. that a current meter needle. so that Ac ordinary galvanometer constant.MEASUREMENT OF CAPACITY. current in a galvano185.at is B = a \/L/K cos t f VL/K . equilibrium is reached for such a deflection 6 that this couple balances that due to the L6 ( 180). Ac is the average couple. on 161) a couple acts 011 the needle which is simply proportional to the current when the deflection 6 is small. It gives the needle an instantaneous angular velocity Aq/K. If c be the average value of a transient current of short duration t. of course. If c be a steady current. Transient Currents.
a galvanometer is 3 seconds. KIL =j&ff T / ^ i . Galvanometer 186. 2.x 10~ 7 The charge ~7 or '776 microcoulomb. or to induced currents. The complete period of swing of the undisturbed mirror 1. It will be set in motion with the above angular velocity. The galvais then said to be used Ballistically. 125 X 10. it is proportional to the .. required is 13</ = 7'76 X 10 Ex. q = 3 x 125/2*. Frictional Resistance to Needle. q = Qa . Compare this with the Ordinary Constant. and will start to oscillate freely in its natural period. or to a liquid. ^ QIC = T/2ir. deflection of ~ ~ Since 8 cm. of . . used ballistically and the spot swings to maximum distance 13 divisions from central reading ? Measure c and q as current and charge per 1 cm. By t division. Ex. If the resistance be due either to the air. when this happens. Q = 2w K/A T. It enables the Ballistic Constant to be found at once when the Ordinary Constant has been determined. QIC But T= hence finally 2?r Vfffi. a say. and the Ballistic Constant Q is the value of q which would corso that 1 respond to a nometer = .182 BALLISTIC DISCHARGE. indicates 10 G amps. This very simple relation holds also in coulombs and amperes. c = 10 6 /8 = spot of light. is the value of It follows that a can be used to measure q. Hence Aq/K = 2va/T.7 Since q = cTfiir. A current of one microampere produces deflection of the reflected light spot through 8 divisions What charge is indicated when the galvanometer is of the scale. with a maximum angular displacement. The maximum angular velocity when = 0} it is ZTTOL/T ( 184). Find the ratio of the ballistic constant in coulombs to the current constant in amperes if the period of oscillation is 1 second.
is 2 neglect A (but not A).N6 . the time from the instant therefore put Reckon T = T'. or Kd + A + L6 = This equation is of the form considered in may here be written (replacing x by 0) 183. we therefore get the equation KB = . Thus the observed period T differs from But if A 2 be negligible. and we Period T= 2ir/n = 2ir >fK\L. N = o and \ = o . the corrected 187. . therefore A 2 it is negative. T. The actual period of the term sin (mt + E) is however T = 2nlm = 27T/ Vn*  X2 period. Apparent and Corrected Amplitude. In any galvanometer suitable for ballistic work. Then X/ o. A is 2 smaller than n. 2 Neglect A and ae ~ sin /. we decrement If there X see that the logarithmic NI"2K. T = T'. angular velocity. which + much 2X0 + n0 = o. and the is solution = where ae ~ X^ sin (mt + E) write We can ordinarily m = n. m = = when 6 n.MEASUREMENT OF CAPACITY.L0 T o. and therefore Comparing the equations. to 9 183 A couple acts on the needle proportional Call it and opposing the motion. = were no should have friction. Nti t .
3 = ' .. = e^/ 4  The next extreme swing. Hence aja t = e / ae The equations j = Qa. the charge in '8 sec.x = 10*7 . The approxi6215/43429 Napierian logarithms. 2. i. first The outward swing terminates when nt = * * t = TT/2n = 274. and a found from the formula ' . *This is an approximate statement. and divides its value by 3 in every q seconds. x = = I (15 + 13) = 14. which involves X being a small quantity.. =  dxjdt 6/8 = 6/8. .log 13 = 06215 (to 5 places).184 BALLISTIC DISCHARGE.e. l a/a. More accurately. the logarithm to base 10 diminishes by log 15 . hold only for the amplitude a which would exist if there were no If there be a logarithmic decrement. where Q/0 = 27T/T. there2 corresponds to the average fore X = 2/15. = Ex. as the more accurate. 2 is the diminution in 1 sec. is 11 10*4 = *6. 3 of 87 had successive swings 15 and 13 and period 2 sec. hence e==ai =ae. hence X mate method is as good. therefore we can put . a half period . find the relations between p and X. . 2. is negative "" The next is a. may be observed. in practice. hence value x 2  14X. when t = 3T/4. a and a 3 friction. The period is 1'6 sec. Ex. and successive swings are 11 and find logarithmic decrement. If a quantity diminishing under viscous resistance halves value in every p seconds. therefore 2. and numerically = a 2 = ae ~ 5X7V 4 x77 2 and so on. The galvanometer of Ex.^ Ti\ a/a. = % (11 + 10'4) X = _ x\x = x 107 = its 3. q and X. The half period is 8. = = Ex. Strictly. But x = if therefore x = swing = 15. Also x 0701. 10'4 . Divide by 43429 to reduce to 1431. 1. X = 1/7 = 1428. what was its logarithmic decre ment ? Approximately. in 1 sec. then x = X#.
Find also the corrected amplitude. hence a farad is 9 x 10 11 units (electrostatic) of capacity. The practical unit of capacity is the capacity of a holds a charge when the P. But an approximate method is used when the logarithmic decrement is so small as this.D. Ex.93> is 10 absolute units when the 8 potential is 10 absolute units. That is. but the correct values of loge 2. 5 that the second swing was a third of the first. Large capacities are necessary for hence there are many plates arranged as In practice they are sheets of tinfoil in the figure. 5. the logarithm diminishes by log 2 in time In the same way X = log 3/g. separated by mica or other thin dielectric. ~ therefore the farad is 10 9 absolute units of capacity. A coulomb is 3 x 10 9 electrostatic units of charge. in the previous quarter period. 6. find how much the apparent period would be affected.  log 1 1)/2. therefore X = log 2/p. l Farad. Ex.D. and a volt is 1/300 electrostatic units of P. the charge ~ Fl #. 185 Taking Napierian logs. This is too . If such a viscous resistance were applied to the galvanometer of Ex. The error here is only one per cent. It is assumed it diminished half as much. This gives a 14'13. It is a p. The amplitude diminishes 13 11 or 2 in a half period. and the complete period is 2 seconds. 188. The first swing is 10 'o to right. Ex. Calculate the logarithmic decrement. the second is 9 to left. Hence a = 13 + 1 = 14. and find after how long the swing will be less than 3 cm. loge 3 are '69315. Condensers.MEASUREMENT OP CAPACITY. directions) If the first what is and second swings be 13 and the corrected amplitude ? a/ 13 11 (in opposite = = V13/TI.. (3 log 13 or log a . sufficiently close approximation to take X = '1\p = 1'ljq. it is the condenser which of one coulomb of its terminals is one volt. Ballistic work. 4. 1 '09861. or 1.
unless they are very large (see 189).F. 10. The movable brass DQ is connected to terminal A. of the battery. and pressure on the vulcanite at P can disconnect it from B and connect it rapidly to terminal C. therefore V be the E.M. Let one pole of the condenser. when undisturbed. 1. consequently standard condensers have their capacity given in microfarads or microfarad is 9 X 105 absolute millionth s of a farad. C respectively. Ex. A and discharge con more complicated keys there is an arrangement for holding the key suspended for any arbitrary time in contact with neither B nor 0. If none of Fig. the charge sent No resistances matter. then q Condenser keys are intended Fig. and galvanometer be connected to A. B. on the pad connected to terminal B. . the insulating parts being shaded. Here and hence Q= Q= q I5q. Find the ballistic constant (q). . V. through galvanometer is KV.186 BALLISTIC DISCHARGE. volts and farads KV. A 50 volt battery is used to charge a 1/3 M. = (or in absolute units) simple type is as shown. electrostatic units. (one third microfarad) condenser which is then discharged through a galvanometer. If q. and when the key touches C the condenser discharges through the galvanometer.F. potential and capacity in coulombs. When the key touches B the condenser is being charged by the battery. A be the charge. KV = I'll = % x 50 x ~ X 10 6 . In to charge densers. The small spring presses it. 94. 9o. the conductors has too large a resistance we can assume If the charging and discharging to be instantaneous. large for convenient manufacture. The jump is 15 divisions. battery. Let the other poles be connected to earth. K. as in figure.
In a quarter period. Would the working of the above (Ex. so that Q = KV. Hence if the friction had been destroyed. producing a kick of 12 divisions. ballistic constant. let the charge and potential be Q and V. 6. 2) be modified if the second swing (the reverse way) were observed to be only 3*0 cm.M. 5. M. and discharged through the galvanometer.MEASUREMENT OF CAPACITY. What is the E. At time /. A Clark cell charges a condenser of 1 M. jumps of 15'5 and 9 '3 are obtained. 40 x 10 Ex. of the accumulator? Evidently the jumps are proportional to the E. 4.F. What is the capacity of the other condenser ? 93/155 = 6 M.3'0 = '4 in a half period. Ex. Ex. 847 . ? Here (cf. and with a standard M.F. Find the capacity of the condenser. condenser and another condenser.F. Let be the capacity of a condenser and R the resistance through which it is being discharged. With the same battery. With the same condenser of unknown capacity we get kicks of 3'4. 9'2 when a Clark cell and an accumulator are used. But the current equals the rate at . In experiments such as 4 and 5 it is never necessary to make a correction for frictional diminution of swing. For such a correction does not affect the ratio of the swings. and 3%= = 10 x 143. hence if the Clark be 1 43 volts the other cell is 143 x 92 134 = 387 volts.'s. Ex.is 2 sec. Discharge through Large Resistance. 2. discharge through galvanometer produces a jump 3 '4 cm.F. A condenser is charged by 5 Clark cells in series. Ex. 3.F. The period of swing. The difference of potential at the ends of the wire is T'. 187) the amplitude diminishes by 3 '4 . the diminution should be "2. 4. 7 . 7 . hence K the current is V/R. hence q 42 x 10 Ex. the first swing would have been 3'6 nearly giving q . The current indicated per unit deflection of a galvano 189. meter is 10" 6 amperes.6 x 143. 187 and the Find the = = KV = 10.
(E . Only one end of it is connected to the battery the other is to earth. the current is Q and it (E F)/B. which have Q is decreasing. Again. We therefore Q = This is  VjR = . 18'2. V.188 BALLISTIC DISCHARGE. small enough for its square to be neglected. the x = x x<> being the initial value of x. and if Q. have above meanings. Choosing t o at when E{1 V=o and x }. ~~ an equation of the form discussed in ~ flKR and therefore F = its solution is Q = Q e The Napierian logarithms of both the charge . potential F diminish . commencement of the charging.M. this gives ~ t/RK e . and / Ve t KR ' Q and the at the rate (KR) the condenser be being charged by a battery of E.F. =E x = . t The average current for time is If R be not large. which can be regarded as a condenser so capacious that t/KR is small. V. E.V =Ee~ t/RK V = . C = KE/t. hence it Q. Consequently so that the current been absent. = E.Q/KB. if = Hence If KV = x :. we have E . . so that t/KR if is fairly large. using the exponential theorem we have Bvit t/KR is is the same as if the condenser had In ordinary telegraphy let R be resistance of the live wire. through a resistance E.V)/B.e~VRK and Q = KE{\ e~ t/RK }. . .xjRK.
long a time is its charge (1) halved. t charge is halved when e~ 1/2. It is divided by 1000 when t = Iog e 1000 = 3 log. Ex. Find the leakage resistance of the condenser. is 1/3 x 10 coulombs. If the key remain suspended so that 2 sec. What would be the corresponding times if the same condenser were used as in Ex. K= hence 1/3 x 10 fi 6 . The logarith mic decrement = = Hence (log. and 5. The dielectric plates of a condenser are made of a material whose specific inductive capacity (in electrostatic units) is k. 4. R . A In how K . (>. 18  log. intervene between disconnecting the condenser from the battery and discharging it. 3. 6'9 sec. KR . so the times are given by IQOf = 7. 10 = 3 x 2%3 = 1. 4 to show that the logarithmic decrement is 49 x lO" 3 and show that the charge will halve in about 4 hr.F. 1. If a condenser of 1/3 M. 7)/2 23{log ln 18 1 7  loglo 7}/2 = 472.) is /.6 = 10 6 therefore = 1 and Q = Q e~ f The Here ( 2. which implies that the effective reoffice to another is only the resistance of the wire one way. R= Ex. nearly. from one microfarad condenser discharges through a megohm. . the current sistance is 189 C/R. Given that an electrostatic unit charge . the jump is 18. . but the resistance were only 10000 ohms ? KR = 1/100. (2) divided by 1000? = 10 . show that the charge and potential of the condenser have a logarithmic decrement of Av/12 x 10 ". Ex."> megohms. very large resistances are used. . KR = but 472 . and 100* = 6 We infer that the discharge is practically instantaneous even when '9. 2. of its dielectric plates. 3 x 10 /'472 = 635 x 10'' = 6'3. be discharged instantly through a galvanometer. Ex. Apply the result of Ex. the jump is only 7. The methods of 188 are valid with any resistances up to considerably over 10000 ohms for most of the discharge takes place in a time very small compared to the galvanometer period.">. R ohms. and unit potential is 300 volts. and whose specific resistance (in ohms per cubic cm. Ex.MEASUREMENT OF CAPACITY. During the two seconds the condenser is discharging through the enormous resistance. The its dielectric be specific resistance of mica is taken to constant or specific inductive capacity x is 10' '. e* Ioge2 = '7 sec.
and therefore is discharged. Assuming that deflections are propor K 1 K K } K r . be large enough we use a ballistic galvaSecond. and let the insulation z be perfect. and Let be the capacities.KK. If released. ttfi.190 BALLISTIC DISCHARGE. if the capacities be small. and the only difference is that the key ABC should be capable of resting suspended in contact neither at A nor C. ABC and A'B'C' are condenser keys of the be pressed and then usual type (as in Fig. if nometer instead of the electrometer.KK. rapidity. share again. 19O. The second condenser (previously discharged) is now connected to the first. Hence if 2 be K. K^ is first connected to the battery and then to In figure. Pressing and releasing D' makes it first share the charge of K and then discharge and this can be repeated many times with great itself l . discharge it. charge. First press D and let the key fly back to B thus l . 94). tional to potentials we infer y\x = K. K. D C'. K . is connected to earth by the electrometer. + In Fig..) If KJK 2 is enormous.. and so on till the after sharing the Fig. Of course one coat of the condenser and one terminal of K v K K l the electrometer is earthed. It is put in the same place. it is bet ter. 1 V/(K 4and the de2) flection becomes y. First. Comparison of Condensers. to disconnect K. + K. and the other coat is connected to the other terminal. The \charge VK^ is shared and the total capacity is hence the potential falls to. the deflection after n sharings. the potential is multiplied by JQ.. Sharing Charges. Connect to an electrometer and charge it to a potential V giving deflection x. sharing operation has been reEach time. 96. as with condensers used in electrostatics. peated n times.
conFind its denser. and the jump is thereby halved. Finally the suspension is released and contact takes place at B and the charge n V{K /(K 4. 1.F. (1 log + 3 A) 3010/20 0352. It is recharged. is halved in be divided by m Ex. 1/2= {l/3/(l/3+ 1 20 A')} . the jump x measuring to recharge and suspend the key is now insulated and may be made to share its charge n times with . As an approximation. Ex. + A' 2 K)" = 3. log(l + 3 A)  & log of 1 2. prove three in n sharings.. + A".K"2 by working the second key. If the capacities be A". prove A'2 / A! A'. Thus l K K l . . ar/y {(*! + *.}' 2. A' is small. 191 is charged by the battery and discharged through the V. 3.)/*}. A' = 1/2 in microfarads. 2. K/(K + 1/3)  18/30 .MEASUREMENT OF CAPACITY. After two sharings the jump is 30(18/30} = 108. Next press D galvanometer. and and the kick If it sharings (m large). capacity. A condenser is charged by a given battery and discharged through a galvanometer./A'. A standard 1/3 M. and it is then discharged giving a jump of 18 cm. .)/A. and state the jump after two sharings. the Napierian logarithm Hence 3A + 3A" is 3A' if = = K= = & log 2.z )\ is sent through the galvanometer and measured by the jump y.F. + 3K = 2 l/ . 693/20 = 03465 01155 M. = = I I /ti. Using common logs. M. giving a jump of 30 graduations.. = 'Ijm. its charge is shared with a standard 1/3 M.. 3A'= AA'. Find A'. condenser shares its charge 20 times with a small condenser K. = 01505 01 17 = log 10352 . Obviously {(A'. (A. K K l l l l K .F.F. Ex.
3). and its thickness is 1/2 mm. 1/90 nearly. . If during. its capacity in nearly. A standard condenser 55 the capacity .). fc/tf = = 8842 x 10 3 ./K. Hence the final effect is the same. after.A/ltrd. condenser to halve its 6.. then a time t comes . Ex. 100 k/K therefore = k/K = 11 (see "Oil is Ex. and if leak for time t.192 BALLISTIC DISCHARGE.F. above) about 80 times to a charged M. which exactly halves the potential and it is also difficult to . show that the final charge is the same whether the sharing occurs before. cm. = m  1 log 2 = 1 7/m. . the sharing. to determine the precise contact of the key . The time taken is noted. the sharing multiplies the charge by charge of K l K f(K + } l K. and neglecting squares quantities. Ex. K. the dielectric is air. or during the leaking. It follows that leakage and sharing can be separately calculated. small log (1 + K. of Taking Napierian logarithms./KJ = K.JK = l log 2 1 = 11/H. l leakage takes place subsequently. 4. and when K is recharged and allowed to leak for that time the jump is multiplied by '9. It is obviously however. If Hence electrostatic units is 9 X 105 potential. 7958 more accurately. and the order t of multiplication is indifferent. 5. The number of connections n 693 4 (k/K) = 78. and the leakage multiplies by e . of capacity. '098/. The diminution due to sharing only is '3/'9 = 1/3 hence .  constructed thus. More accurate values Ex. Find IcjK. the charge at time t is unaltered and therefore the same . Find its electroShow that it would have to be connected (as static capacity. and t sharing. If the time be taken after before. Experiments of this kind can be used to compare the electrostatic and the electromagnetic units difficult. It consists of 50 plates of which the effective area of each is 100 sq. If before or after. If the are '693/w. also K^ be shared with /fa. A large condenser K is shared with a small one k a hundred times. By and d = . The total area A = 50 x 100 hence the capacity k = 20 x 50 x 100/47T = 8000 1/20 be a microfarad. and the jump is multiplied by *3.^ after. K .
and are then separately discharged through Show the kicks are proportional to their it a ballistic galvanometer. capacity 500 electrostatic units. A standard microfarad is charged. i. It is observed that charge is halved in ten minutes. In Fig. If there be n contacts at either spring per second. Rotating Commutators. is charged and is allowed to discharge itself slowly by conduction through a very bad conductor (e. Thus the condenser and commutator act precisely as a resistance of magnitude series with CB nK R' = 1/nK would M. conductor in megohms. in figure it will indicate an average current provided of course that the period of the galvanometer needle is considerably larger than l/n. Ex. the total Fig. As the wheel rotates. charge transferred per second from K B y V We C (r.MEASUREMENT OP CAPACITY. 97. and made to share its charge 500 times with the smaller condenser. charged in series ? would have made if they had been Ex.D. C are connected to poles of a battery or otherwise kept at a P. 9. 7. the condenser is charged whenever the metal to potential of the wheel touches 0. The instantaneous. 13 This . 97. its Calculate the resistance of the 191. and if a galvano meter be put in or 6?.D. A Leyden jar. equal to 7. 193 standardise electrostatically and electromagnetically the two condensers used. PH. 8. operations charge given at each contact is KV. whose other ductors may all be connected to a condenser while pole is connected to spring springs B. at either of the positions V. parallel Two condensers (which do not leak) are placed in and charged. the cirThe concular wheel A has its insulating parts shaded. to B is nKV. and is discharged whenever the metal shall suppose these touches B. What difference capacities. act with the same constant P.g. a damp silk thread). In what ratio is its charge diminished ? Ex. An electrostatic standard condenser is prepared whose capacity is 1000.
98. Fig. The same charge flows back at break.D. 2 Z . The condenser charges the charge is zero.194 BALLISTIC DISCHARGE. 99. does not obey the same laws as ordinary fictitious resistance resistances if put in series or parallel with other resistIts effect is always calculable by higher matheances.z . In the second method the connections are as in Fig. but the only really simple case is that in which we can assume a constant potential difference and an instan taneous charge and discharge. The galif vanometer is unaffected K R. The condensers l are charged to P. initially. matics. 192. Zero Methods. whence the name.R. and the charges that run into them = through the galvanometer collectively .'s cR v cRr. and therefore are at the same The potentials at any subsequent short time t potential.. both ends of the galvanometer have Fig. break.K g their way. When a balance is reached. 98. Comparison of Capacities. 99. nothing goes through the jr* 1 galvanometer at make At make. The Method of Mixture is shown in Fig. or are considered to = K^ on mix . been connected to the same pole of the battery.cK'^ + cK. will also be the same ( 189) if or I . Let c be the current which flows through R and R 2 at make.
F.F. therefore the wheel turns 100/20 or five times R K per sec. how fast would it have to rotate in order to make the equivalent resistance = 10000 ohms ? R = 1/nK . find the resistance R connected to the other condenser.. R= 9 x 10*/7958 (nearly) = 113. and discharging a M. is compared with a standard M. T K= 6/9 600 and also 6/?/9 = The x 10 11 l/KR. A gold leaf electroscope of capacity 6 electrostatic units leaks so fast that its charge is halved in 10 minutes. 2/900*. Ex. n = 100. . 1. 2. but = 10*. by a zero method. There must be 100 contacts per sec. GENERAL EXAMPLES. If 1 ohm be the resistance connected immediately to the M. Ex. In log. l l 195 Hence a balance is reached as before if K R = K^.'. Hence evidently the earth in farads. 2 farads. 4. condenser to earth is not an absolute discharge. E= E= E 707 M.. Ex. = = R = 600/loge 2 = 600/7. 4 x \(PI"2ir cm.MEASUREMENT OF CAPACITY. regarded as an isolated sphere. It may be noted that these methods of comparing resistances are much less affected by condenser leakage than the method of 190. in farads. condenser.13 x 10' 3 l:l ohms 13 x 10 7 megohms.= 707 x 10 = A . Find its insulation resistance. steady current and the condensers behave precisely like resistances \jnK r l/nKr Both methods of connecting are then seen to be cases of the Wheatstone Net. 190. logarithmic decrement = x 10 11 /. 9 x 10 /7 . but a sharing the charge with a much larger capacity. In both these methods the galvanometer is used ballistiBut if a rotating commutator be used we have a cally. = . Ex.F. Hence .. hence this is its capacity in electroIts radius static units.F. 3.F. If a toothed wheel of 20 teeth were connected as a rotating commutator to a M.10 6 . farad is 9 x 10 n . The condenser of Question 6. Express the capacity of the earth. . Hence if be the capacity of ~3 .
Dividing by 3 X 10 we get 5'1 x 10 These Examples. beis tween the ends of the wire and hence the charge in the condenser is KRC. 4) be charged to a poten 200 volts. 4 and 5.D. the P. and AB . Condenser and Resistance in Parallel. Hence during make. ~ 193. show how the largest resistances and the smallest currents are measured. 5. If the final current in the wire at make is C. than flows through R KRC. If the above electroscope (Ex. 100. while the current rises from zero to its full value. is placed in parallel with a in any circuit containing a resistance make and break key. of flow between the parts the circuit. The excess If we could goes into the condenser. tial of BALLISTIC DISCHARGE. and from the is K A R R RC + itself. or CD and BG.196 Ex. find the current. condenser of capacity Fig. Current = 13 200/13 x 10 = 1'54 x 10~ 12 amperes. 19 9 electrostatic units. a little more electricity flows towards the end of R. end of R. it would register the excess charge KRC. arrange an apparatus to measure the difference of total and BG.
hence wft is the number of the lines due to m that fall within a solid angle ft. each system remaining unchanged in itself.e. the M. subtending a solid N angle ft at 0. Their Mutual Energy (or Mutual Potential).E. 194. Mutual Energy. is then the algebraic sum of the numbers of the lines of force. the M. Hence the M. and therefore the M.E. due to each separate But the sum of the pole. is the work that will be done by the magnetic forces if either system be removed to an infinite distance from the In this other. flowing in any circuit. that pass through the circuit of c.. 140). If this other system be a current of strength c absolute units. the potential. becomes cwft.E.. will be devoted to the special effects of different 195.CHAPTER XI. numbers of the separate lines from different point poles which go through any circuit is (as in 20) the same as c x number of lines of force through c 197 . But 47rm is the total number of lines of force that radiate in every direction from a pole m.E. The M. Consider two permanent magnets or other magnetic systems exerting forces one on the other. M. Further.E. Formulae for Mutual Energy. INDUCED CUKKENTS. and the next chapter media. If the pole be of strength m. is the potential at due to the other system (see Def. is eft. chapter we shall consider the systems to be surrounded by air or other media which are magnetically equivalent to air.E. if the system be any magnet or system of magnets. is = due to m. which pass through the circuit. it can be supposed replaced by a series of poles m situated at points 0. i. If one of the two systems be a unit magnetic pole at a point 0.
If the first system be either then W= and therefore Fc gives 5 W= cdF. the M. is the product of c by the number of lines of force due to The the first system which traverse the circuit of c.F.198 INDUCED CURRENTS. W/c Rate of Change of Flux is known as Faraday's Law. This gives the direction of the E. number of lines through a circuit may be called the Flux through that circuit. Hence Mutual Energy = W= Fc. Of course E is in absolute units. If c does not alter.M. Evidently for it changes sign if c does hence the E. .M. and the rate of change is F or dF/dT ( 180).F. due to the W . To reduce to volts we divide by 108 ( 103). the rate at which the mutual energy is Now W= being increased. is the work supplied (reversibly) is reversible.F. F changes its value by an amount 8F. and will be denoted by F.M. 196.M. of two systems. The Induced E. The law that Induced E. motion is E F. moved or altered. produced.F. is so directed that the magnetic field of the resulting current opposes the change of flux.M. the number of the resultant lines due to the aggregate of the pointpoles. 197. current system can be regarded as a system of magnetic A shells. The increase must be caused in causing the motion or alteration of F. by work provided But ( 102) E.F. W = cF. Change of Flux. Lenz's Law. F the number = = = of lines enclosed by the circuit c. Hence. one of which is any whatever and the other is a current c (absolute units). It can be written E F. and = = F= number of lines cut per sec. so 8F the number of lines cut by the circuit in the change considered. The law can be differently expressed.E. which go through the same boundary. per unit current per second.
therefore the law holds in this case . is in the direction BC. the downward flux is increasing in the area current which would oppose this to left of BC. over insulated rails whose distance apart is 1 metres. Find hour. Ex. and therefore a mile = 1600 metres = 16 x 10 5 cm.M. If 10 5 x 150 x 438/3600 It follows that the E. __ . course the result would be contrary if the vertical component of the . thereby produced between the rails. an negative. in BC and the P. 199 For the mechanical forces acting between two systems tend to produce a motion which provides mechanical work at the expense of their mutual energy and therefore diminishes W. The earth's vertical field is '438. endure between insulated rails. would flow from B to C and No current can therefore the E. of B over C is zero.. if permitted. A maes makes ereore negave.M. cm. so is 8c. The frame is rotated with angular velocity u about a vertical axis in (or parallel to) its plane.F. when The rail the steady state is reached. Consequently. In 1 sec. and therefore F U.1 ^ 1  tion hence the change of flux induces a current which opposes the change. The rail of higher Of potential is on the left hand side of the travelling train. 1. Hence. has ^V turns of wire wound around it. The two ends .F. 2.. there are therefore '438 lines to every horizontal square cm. and therefore the algebraic sum of the E. and it sweeps out an area 40 x 1*6 x 10 x 150/3600 sq. If reversed.F.I). in figure is the train. = BO A BCD A Similar reasoning shows that it would produce a downward field in the area A' BCD' in which the downward flux is diminishing. the P. if it existed..INDUCED CURRENTS. A plane frame of any shape. the train moves 40 x 1'6 x 10 5 /3600 5 cm. ABA' is higher than DCD' by '00117 volt. so the number of lines cut per sec.D. Hence the current. ' F 'S.M. increase would produce an upward field in the area A BCD. Hence be is of contrary sign to c. A We = F = 40 x 1 6 x = 117 x 10'. W be also. and area A.A and so tends to diminish 5 negative Motion W . train runs in London with a velocity of 40 miles an Ex. in the wire is 117 X 10 5 absolute ~ In volts it is 1'17 x 10 3 '00117. and would produce motion of contrary sign to the spontaneous moc. earth's field were upwards. B is at the higher potential. the B A* spontaneous motion. take 11 yards = 10 metres. units.
is NHAw. is NHAu. 3 is rotated 10 times a The apparatus is connected in series with a galvanometer in a potentiometer circuit.M. and that no current will pass even then if the E. almost in the meridian.F. But it never touches NHAu the a square frame of 50 cm. X Hence the induced E.F. 102. A = = 1000 x 186 x 2500 x w/10 1000 x 186 x 2500 x 207T/108 8 = IT x 186/2 = 2922. D.F. = Ex.M. Find how many turns the frame must make per sec. The E. and thereof lines through NHA Of o js the angular velocitj% or = is w. "^ duced between the springs. magnetic field The number of limit if 6 be small. in volts. while a Clark cell balances at 220 cm. Find the E. is Ex. X and Y are A volts = 143 X 108 absolute x 10 8 units.F. X_Y M X XfiK/ Zl/g When 6 is the angle rotated through. due to the motion is equal and opposite to that of the Clark. side. second. is lines of force through . turns. The E. / F the number = NHA6. . produced in the springs. while the frame is passing through coincidence with the magFind the P. = H A = Hd but there are fore N A HAd Magnetic North Fig.F.F.M. 4.D. The induced E. pronetic meridian. of the frame. balance is obtained at a distance 45 cm.M.M. the component perpendicuof the earth's lar to the plane in sin 6. There are 1000 connected in series with a Clark cell and a galvanometer. of the Clark. It is evident that no current can ever pass unless X and Y are touching the terminals of the wire .  49 nearly.200 INDUCED CURRENTS. Hence 143 = NHAw = = 1000 x 186 x 2500 x w. of potentiometer wire. therefore P. and the number of turns per sec. Hence the circuit = = But the rate of change F turns. of the wire are soldered to brass terminals which rotate L and and Y for with the frame and make contact with two springs only a very short part of each rotation. so long as the frame is the springs and except at such times. and put The same frame as in Ex. for an exact balance.M. of a Clark is 1'43 3.
We name Electromotive Impulse. A close coil of small radius (1 cm.g.INDUCED CURRENTS. The X. 8q/8t is the average current. The charge abbreviation E. and q If It follows that q be the final flux F = F/B f a and F (} Fig. 103. = F mains =F o.M. Find the maximum E.M.F. The E. radius. if F re .) consisting of 20 turns of moderately coarse wire is connected in series with a galvanometer of 5 ohms resistance.M. produced by rotating a circular coil of 500 turns. and cuit in which it flows.F. To reduce 8F to practical units we divide (as in 195) 8 The Practical unit is the impulse due to a volt by 10 enduring for a second. the constant is determined by the condition that no current is induced. 20 cm. 5. If c be a current entirely due to inducbe the resistance of the cirtion.F. the initial flux. 10 times per second. ~~R ' ~di constant.M. hence q = FIR . Impulsive E. = Ex. In the limit ( 180) dq/dt c. Ex.I.)/R = dFjR. and the no suggestion that this change is small. pole of a simple magnet of .FJR = (F  F. or Electromotive Impulse. any constant evident that Examples 3 and 4 indicate methods by which cell can be standardised in absolute units.M. e.SIR. measurable by a ballistic galvanometer. 198.F. 1. t Of course 8F simply is signifies the change in and there q is shall also use the The quantity 8F is called the Impulsive E.Resistance. " ~dt E = dF/dt. If 8q be the charge which goes round a circuit in the interval 8t. we have = R c . of Clark 201 = It is '2922 x 220/45 = 1428 = 1'43 nearly. . We therefore have Electromotive Impulse Charge *r.
Neglecting the corrections that ought to be applied for logarithmic decrement. 103. But their ratio is 25 to 19.202 INDUCED CURRENTS. once be the E. An arrangement of ballistic work in the We magnets of this character can be used for same way as a battery is used for current work. 402. hence the charges are somewhat less than 3016 x 10~ 3 . A set of permanent magnets is arranged as in Fig. The charges are U/O. Calculate approximately the charge that goes through the galvanometer. is U= UIG = 7*54 x 10 754 x 10 hence the charge denoted by 25 divisions : Y 158 3. 2.seconds. There is a movable coil of 120 turns which can be thrust rapidly from one position to the other.. Estimate its E. . 7. Making the approximate assumption that each of them is cut 20 times.M. A Magnet Inductor of negligible resistance produces a kick of 25 divisions with a given galvanometer. If = lir x 80 x 20 X 10 ~*. The total resistances in the three cases are 2. 400 ohms.6 . and the poles.I. G 19 x 50/6 = 158 ohms. If the E. If a 50. = 7 '54 x 10 3 find the ballistic constant 185) of the galvanometer. in by each turn. U 1077 x 10 ~3 . division. 1875 x 10 ~ 5 . The total resistance of volt.ohm coil be put in series.M. . Q = 4ir x 80 x 20 x 10~ 8 / 5 ~ 6 = 4 x 10 coulombs.I. then roughly U = 47r Of course all x 500 x 120/10 9 = 7'54 x 10 ~'\ the lines are not cut. pole strength 80 is thrust well through the coil. we get 5^ = 4?r x 80 x 20. so as to pass completely over the JV. The number of lines originating from the pole is 4?r. 3. + 50) . T the aggregate pole strength of the A poles in contact being 500.I. the circuit can be taken as 5.M.M. Its resistance is 2 ohms.80. the resistance of the galvanometer for a few turns of coarse wire can be neglected. Let G be the required resistance. ( 25(7  19 (G ~ 3 . Ex. ballistic galvanometers of re be the E.I. shall call it a Magnet Inductor. U/(G + 50). Hence . The galvanometer constant q = charge denoted by one = 2 x 10. so is actually smaller than this. in practical units. 5 ohms. find ~ the resistance of the galvanometer. Hence U U . Ex. the kick falls to 19 divisions. charge which sistances I Let U it would send through ohm.
is held exactly horizontal. 5.I. as A fourth method is in 188. The total area of all the turns = 324* x 225 729007T. If the jumps in the resistance of the coil is given as 10 ohms. for its E. the corrected galvais 158 .M. [If 203 the resistance of the inductor be 2 ohms. 1 (3) By the Earth Inductor. Ex. and were in series with a galvanometer The of (1) A ohm.L due to reversal. The coil is in series with a galvanometer whose ~T and the resistance of the circuit is ballistic constant is 4 x 10 . This Example indicates a method of standardising a balNote. the current constant and the vibration period. stant battery.INDUCED CURRENTS. . the Taking the earth's vertical field as E. but q is unaltered. be used as the ballistic analogue of a conis calculable and unchanging. The area of one turn is TT. 4.I. by the formula of 185. replaces the vertical one '44.M. 18 2 = 3247T. .2 = 156. plane (perpendicular to the magnetic meridian) and suddenly reversed. A small coil of 200 turns of 1 '5 cm. find the ballistic constants of the galvanometers. The flux is V. two cases be 17 and 11. 6.8 = 0020. Hence A V U  A A 5F = 2 x 729007T x 44 = 201500. or Earth Inductor) Ex. In experimental work the E. 10. mean radius is placed in the intense magnetic field between the pole pieces of a powerful electromagnet. The kind of correction to be applied to q is indicated later. and W. 2. Calculate the E. . and deduce the ballistic constant as in 185 (2) Notice the deflection due to the discharge of a standard condenser charged by a known battery.M. The plane of the coil is perpendicular to the lines of force. 7. Ex. in If the above circle were reversed with respect to Ex. (2) 450 ohms. Given // = '186. and the change of flux due to complete reversal is 2A V. of a magnet inductor could not be calculated as in Ex.I. of 225 turns of wire of mean radius 18 cm. We have three principal methods: (1) Find listic galvanometer.] nometer resistance flat circular coil (Delezenne Circle. of the above coil if held vertically an E. find the charges sent round. U=dFx A Delezenne circle can Ex. but would be found experimentally. the earth's vertical field. It is rapidly reversed so that its position is again = '44. find horizontal.M. The calculation is the same except that the horizontal field '1S(> The result is 000850.
M.204 450.F.F. INDUCED CURRENTS.F. In saw that the induced current has a magnetic field which opposes the relative motion of the two systems.7 x 10 4 x 10 = 4 x 10 6 . the connections being reversed every time the plane of the coil is horizontal.M. Find the E.M.M. Ex. connected by springs as in Fig.M. A 196 we 199. and W.F. By Ex. rotating it The method indicated through 180. 8. If the gap between the pole pieces is wide enough. i. Consequences of Leiiz's Law. 4 be rotated about a vertical axis 30 times per second. The induced current a F. (average) if the coil be rotated as in Ex. 102. If the circle of Ex.F. and therefore 60 times per second. 9. 1O.F. When is jump and the coil 10 divisions. of 00085 is produced in each half turn.M. 5. other things being equal. produced. and therefore oc the relative velocity of the systems. Ex. the Find the field strength. except that the contacts are continuous for practically the whole of each half turn. an E. U = QR = dF= Now = Hence the field x 450 = 18 x 10~ 3 .e. is jerked right out of the magnetic field. = = flux per unit area 18 x 10 5 /4507r is = 400/7T = 127.F. quite suitable for measuring such fields. the total area of the coil TT x 1 5 2 x 200 = 4507T.M.I. position. Here Q = Hence 4 x 10. Ex. find the average E. The average E. 8 but about a horizontal axis.M. (3) E. whose square = average value of the square of the E. 18 x 10 5 . produced.e. = '00085 x 60 = 051 volt. per half turn under the most favourable conditions.. that E.F. and are reversed as the circle passes through the E. The .M. i. simple Dynamo consists of a coil of 5000 turns rotated 20 times per second in a magnetic field whose maximum flux through each turn is 5 absolute units. Find (1) Maximum instantaneous E. of mean square. the field could also be measured by suddenly reversing the coil. (2) Average E.
In how many swings would the above amplitude be both plates were used. In an ordinary oscillation magnetometer there is no appreciable logarithmic decrement. The magnitudes. 105). and therefore inversely proHence portional to the time in which the amplitude is halved. Compare the specific resistances of the metals. . the amplitude is observed to be halved in If a precisely similar plate of zinc be used. and the galvanometer indicates almost immediately. Given F. with perfect steadiness. one resting on the other ? . If a flat plate of copper be laid under the magnet." box ABCD we have Ex. the fifty swings. Consequently A oc l/R. Whatever be the distribution of the currents. Fig. This effect is discussed generally in It 182. large transient currents induced.INDUCED CURRENTS. proportional to the retardation per unit velocity. and is called " dead beat. A. halved 2. are inversely proportional to the resistances of corresponding portions of the conductors. 1. the conductivity of the conductor. The plates are alike in all other respects and therefore the currents (for the same velocity of magnet) vary inversely as the The specific resistances are therefore proporspecific resistances. however. or the coil of a moving coil galvanometer be packed in a cylindrical metal (Figures 104. 205 field of the current oc the current and therefore the total force called into play is proportional to the velocity and opposes it. Specific resistance of zinc : specific resistance of copper = 180:50 Ex. amplitude is halved in 180 swings. the final reading which indicates the current in the coil. If the magnet of a moving needle galvanometer swings within a metal ring. This A is the logarithmic decrement due to induced currents. Such a galvanometer is unsuitable for ballistic work. the current oc \jE. it produces the same effect as viscous friction. produces a logarithmic decrement. if = 36: 1. 104. Oscillations are either impossible or are rapidly destroyed. The viscosity of the air produces another logarithmic decrement. tional to the logarithmic decrements. they will be the same in both cases. 183. Consequently.
How of 5000 ohms be inserted. Ex. hence the parts of the logarithmic decrement due (cf. It also illustrates another point. therefore 1/JV N = 1/50 + 1/180 . R = 237 '5. soon will the swing be halved if the galvanometer be simply shortcircuited in the three cases are proportional to 1/30. the swing is halved in 20 swings. A galvanometer of 450 ohms resistance has a logarithmic decrement. When they are connected through a resistance of 50 ohms. Consequently the first swing observed ought to be corrected by being multiplied by 1*09 (see 187) when accurate ballistic measurements are taken. 4). When its terminals are connected by zero resistance. How thick a zinc plate would be as effective as the copper plate ? Obviously the zinc plate conducts as well as the copper plate its thickness is 3*6 times as great. Find the resistance of galvanometer.206 INDUCED CURRENTS. 5. 1/JV . the amplitude halves in 30 seconds. These are in the inverse ratio of the total resistances.1/30. these are inversely 69/38. 4. = 30/38. Hence l/N  1/30 : 1/20  1/30 =  5450 N 1_ ~= N J_ 30 450 5450 = 109 50 x 60 540 : 18 I 109 = 127 . and If R be the galvanometer resistance. 180 are in the ratio of If resistances of corresponding portions of the compound plate and of the copper and zinc. then N. 1/20. 190. .1/30.e. If the swing is halved in 4 '3 swings (i. N = 39. the common logarithm of the swing diminishes in a quarter period by log 2/86 = 3010/86 = '0373 = log 109. 3. A ballistic galvanomenter has a very small logarithmic decrement. The logarithmic decre to induced currents are proportional to 1/20 . Hence R/(R + 50) Ex. N= 4*3. be the number of swings. The logarithmic decrements in the two cases are "69/30. proportional to R and R + 50. l/N. 4 '3 half periods). which halves its swing after 30 swings. if Ex. But logarithmic decrements due to different causes are simply additive Ex. the amplitude halves in 38 seconds. due to entirely mechanical causes such as the resistance If a resistance of the air. This example illustrates the difficulty of using ballistic galvanometers shunted. Let ments N swings be ? the number required. 50. But the resistance in the first case is that of the copper and zinc is parallel.
W= M F= = M l = . If c be the current in the first or primary circuit. 8. plane. ' 250 = 27T/H. The conmust Mc lt Since is called the Coefficient of Mutual Induction (or stant field is As the F through W= F F= M : . A ballistic galvanometer. If it be started rotating in a strong steady magnetic field. and C is the current in the second one. therefore stant depending only on the dimensions and relative position of the two circuits. its period the logarithmic decrement is zero in the Assuming first case.= X ri* 54. in Ex. if X is at all large. show that it will be viscously retarded. Hence X2 = 4ir 2 {(1/250)  l/(256)*}. in its own a strong magnetic field. the flux the second or secondary circuit must also be Mc and Fc (as in proportional to c p therefore is an absolute conMc^c where 195). Show that there will be a logarithmic decrement proportional to the field and inversely proportional to the resistivity of the lamina. A circular copper disc is smoothly pivoted at its centre so that it can rotate in its plane about a vertical axis. 2OO. It must be remembered that this is only strictly true under the conditions assumed throughout this chapter. l . 256 = 27r/ra. proportional everywhere to c. excited If excited ' rises to 2'56. if c 1.. by an earth inductor. that there is no medium in the magnetic field whose magnetic proin perties are fundamentally different from those of air particular.. A suspended metal lamina is oscillating. no steel or soft iron.E. Ex. 207 by condenser discharge. Let both of the systems whose M. 7. Mutual Induction. X. 6. If it be in a magnetic field which is made to rotate about the vertical axis. the field at every point in space due to this circuit is proportional to c.INDUCED CURRENTS. is TF be currents in circuits. and m. show that it will ultimately rotate with the field. Ex. what is it in the second case ? < With the notation of Stf has period 2 '50 sec. = and very few swings can be observed This method of observing X is usually a bad one. for a slight alteration of period is only detected in a large number of swings.
quantities in terms of the ampere. Practical unit for this coefficient is 10 9 Absolute units and is called the Henry.F. The Coefficient of Mutual Induction is the impulsive E.M.F. have therefore a third definition of M.F. in the secondary.M.M. induced by this alteration in the other circuit. Cj If lt Mc and receives a finite alteration 8c v then M F always = is constant. hence dF = Mdcv But 8F hence is E. see that another We The Coefficient of Mutual Induction of two circuits the E.M. E ever E and c were in volts and amperes. induced in either when the current in the other is increasing at unit rate. If c be altering.INDUCED CURRENTS.I. In F Mc lt hence = E/c r If howabsolute units. these quantities ~ and 10 l c v so that in in absolute units would be l = M absolute units by the use of the definition of is = WE The M WE/c^ Henry M can be adopted. let E be the E. The In this definition absolute units are implied.M. 201. = qR.F.M. We M . and i = qR ( 198). 9 multiplier 10 is avoided in practice. of one volt is induced in either if the current in the other is increasing at the rate of one ampere per sec. The practical unit is the Henry and is the mutual inductance of two such coils ' that an E. Induced E.F. simply the Inductance) and the symmetry of the relaMc^ shows that its value is unaltered if the Hence the first and second circuits be interchanged. The Coefficient of Mutual Induction is of two circuits the Total Magnetic Flux due to unit current in either circuit which passes through the other. produced in either by a unit change of current in the is in Henries if we reckon the other other. volt and second. tion W= definition.
. 1. number of lines of force per square cm. radius a. A tangent galvanometer has current constant 4*1 and primary circuit. a tangent galvanometer or milliameter (T. in Fig.5 /4'l tan 40 = 3'94 x 10'. number of turns of secondary .x 200/12. Determine a general formula for a standard inductance constructed as above given the number of turns of primary = length of solenoid I.) whose constant is 4 x 10 " 7 coulombs. 12 cm.G. given that the resistance of secondary circuit is 550 ohms. 106) and "a tapping key for make and break. R = 100. Ex. 14 . radius. Hence the flux in the secondary due to unit current in the primary is 4?r 2 x 200 x 500/12. I.G. By definition. Reducing to Henries by dividing ~4 9 by 10 we get 3 "29 x 10 M . But each line penetrates the secondary circuit 500 times. duction. The primary circuit contains a battery. length. and the jump at make or break (opposite ways) is 12 divisions. 2. M. q = 12 x 113 x 10 '. meter (B. ~ 6 . if unit current flows in the solenoid the Held This is the inside is nearly uniform and = 4rr x 200/12 ( 172). The area of cross section 2 = is T. Hence M= 100 x 12 x 113 x 10. Ex.V. is in the . hence the total number of lines penetrating the solenoid is 4ir. and 200 turns. Here q dc Ex. PH. it measures 35 = = 7'3 x 4 x 10c 7 = 292 x 10 2 . I TT. this is the value of in absolute units. The secondary circuit has a resistance of 100 volts and includes a galvanometer whose ballistic constant is " 1*13 x 10 5 The deflection at make in the primary attains the steady value of 40. Find M. At make or break of primary.  o = 3'5 x 10~ and M = Rg/dc = = 292 x 550 x 10 ~ 6 /35 x 10~ 2 46x10 'Henries. Ex. 4. 3. The primary circuit is a solenoid of 1 cm. Find the coefficient of mutual inductance. the jump is 7'3 divisions. 209 The secondary is connected to a ballistic galvanomilliamps. When the current is flowing. The secondary is 500 turns wound Calculate the mutual infairly centrally around the solenoid. Here Sc = 41 x tan 40.INDUCED CURRENTS. . Using absolute units.
find M. M = 10~ Note. the flux is Lc. On primary in wound of constructing a standard of mutual a porcelain reel of suitable shape the in two coils of radius a. Denote Lc. The Coefficient of Selfinduction (or the Inductance) of a single coil is. When c is If c should be altering. the other The two coils have the same centre 1000 turns of radius 1 cm. through Ex. with itself. Ex. > The usual manner is is inductance this. One and axis. The field is then very uniThe form for a considerable distance around the centre. number of lines it = irar x <lirn/l. secondary s is wound in one coil of radius b. is bination. In practice. it by L. in absolute units. This is numerically F= . as 5. coil. For a Helmholtz galvanometer the unit area. b can be taken as large as a. due to unit current obviously the mutual inductance of that It is measured in henries for practical purposes. Calculate the mutual inductance of the following comof the coils is 225 turns of radius 14 cm.210 INDUCED CURRENTS. or number of lines per (per unit current) 3 /2 a2 + a 2 } is = 16?i7r/5 y5a. and N. Ex. *7. 9 x 167T 2 x 900 x 590 x 2 2 /5 yo x 3 = '01 exactly. near the centre is field. distance apart a. 2O2. the total coil magnetic flux through that It is in that coil. absolute units. considerably less than a. F= the current. therefore flux through secondary per This is the inductance in unit current in primary = lir~aNn/l. and 590 in secondary of radius b = 2. The approximate formula used in Examples 5 and 6 is then replaced by an accurate one calculated by Higher Mathematics. 6. Field in solenoid (for unit current) = 4irn/l. duction coil In henries. If the number of turns of primary and secondary be n a Helmholtz galvanometer. The flux per unit current got by multiplying this by Consequently in absolute units M = lQir'Nnb' Calculate in henries the inductance of a standard inconstructed as above if there are 900 turns in the primary of radius a = 3..
M. 211 ve the E. for is the work done in establishing the current. but the sign should be for induction always opposes the change that produces it ( 197). The E.F. hence Lc is the energy supplied per per unit current. Hence 203. The Production of Current in a Circuit. is resultant E.M. Lc and therefore the make. This and is not to be confounded with the energy which has to be supplied continually. 204.M.M.F. is of the type considered in is 182. Lc is the selfinduced E. at the rate Re 2 ( 107).F. Lcdc.. Hence we can write dW = the d denoting (as usual. if A = Its solution a nf e . c&t. is E .M.Ld = Re. Energy of a Current. see indefinitely small. is Lc. Let an E. then R This equation L. no constant being added. and LccSt or Lc8c is supplied in the interval Bt con sidered.INDUCED CURRENTS. . = o when c = o. is = .F..M.F. the self induced E.F. Lcc. 180) that the changes are By integration. Put x = c . Rt L . The whole energy supplied per sec. Let the current c increase by the very small quantity 8c in the short interval 8t then Sc sec. of amount E be produced in a circuit of At any time t after resistance and inductance R and L. to main W W tain the current unaltered.E/R.
then. If a current c be flowing in a wire whose ends are = l . so that the current divides in inverse ratio to the inOf course. be in parallel and a potential difference E be applied. is used ballistically. rejecting squares of small hence quantities . for Rt/L coils. (Rt/L denoted by suffixes 1 and 2. after a very final current = small./<?2 RJR as in 112. after a ductances if it be very transient. But XQ means the initial value of therefore x E/R. c = Et/L when t is small. and the coils in a resistance box are always wound so as to diminish L as much as possible. and c = o initially. _ E R _ E E st/L t The same equation and inductance of a results if coil R and L be the resistance whose terminals are suddenly brought to a steady potential difference E. If two short time. are frequently used in ballistic work But the results are always liable to 206. (see criticism if due precautions are not taken. 207). At start. one cannot alter the sensitiveness of a galvanometer by shunts in a known ratio when the galvanometer Wheatstone Bridge arrangements. Since the ordinary law of distribution of currents is not followed. such as the use of noninductive resistances. is approached very rapidly then considerable even when R/L is t is oo) is E/R. cz = Et/L z . and = x.212 INDUCED CURRENTS. considerable time. and other networks. ~ Rtl L can be put = 1 e Rt/L. if The The final state is large. . e. This final state is reached very rapidly if R/L be great for both It is obviously sufficient to make L very small coils.
circuit has resistance R. +C KtIL If t is so small that we can neglect . Ex. 3. 213 suddenly connected so as to reduce the P. Then 1. and putting \ve have.D. C ..M. Let the current be c at time t after the change. so that the current commences to diminish at a rate LIC(K R).] The current ultimately drops from C to EjR or CR/R'. A E giving a steady current C = ELc = R'c x .M.F. Ex.INDUCED CURRENTS. At the centre of a coil of radius 14 and *22. find how much extra charge flows round the circuit due to selfinduction. as in = EjR  c above paragraph. Calculate . resistance '000*2 ohm. radius 1 cm. to zero.I. With the notation of last example. = E R> ( . is and the charge = E. But hence x = EjR' C C. The change of current is therefore Hence the selfinduced E. Suddenly the resistance is altered to R'... the Lc = Re of which the solution is equation is . l ~ e R't/L} \ ) t~.I. an E. /Resistance _ CL I Ex."> turns is placed a copper ring. inductance L. and contains EfR. 2. [R > R.M.c= Ct(R'  R)/L. Find how the current alters.
a current of 1 amp. 5. 56. diameter. radius and 10 ohms resistance. for any change of curand rent. r . if the charge which goes round the ring or broken in the coil. be the 205. 1000 turns of 1 cm.F. 4. in secondary. to the plane of the secondary. and $2 be the resistance of the secondaries.'s (and therefore the inductances If other resistances if2 ) are in ratio E.M. determine the charge which flows round if a current of 1 ampere is produced in the primary. If $. Let of mutual inductance of one pair of coils A. show that a rotation 6 multiplies the coefficient of mutual Find how much the coefficient would be inductance by cos 8. Arrange the primaries of A and B in then the series with a battery and a make and break key 1 M . perp. hence .F. and 2 another pair B. and it will be seen that the secondaries 8 and $2 occupy precisely the place of the batteries B l and B r The formula is the same and is proved the same way. Ex. altered by sliding the central primary a distance of 10 cm. The figure may be compared R l E M l .214 INDUCED CURRENTS.'s can be compared by Bosscha's or Lumsden's method ( 131). z l : These impulsive E. f S 2 + $2 also give a balance. with Fig. : R z *8 ' 9 .M. 107. radius and *5 ohm resistance.M. 4 is used as a standard of If one coil can be rotated about a common mutual inductance. jR/. Comparison "of Inductances. to the inductances M l Fig. The arrangement of Ex.F. M ^ U J My currents in these primaries are necessarily always the same and the impulsive E. = #/ + #. M M l : z = R + 1 #1 : # + 2 #. the imand pulsive E. If the terminals of the secondary are joined. The primary of an induction apparatus is a short The solenoid.'s in the secondaries are proportional. Find also the charge which goes round primary for a current of 1 amp. is made Ex. secondary is 225 turns of 14 cm.
There must l>e two Net. If this fault is suspected.INDUCED CURRENTS. primary. ' + r. daries P l + P + : .P. the galvanometer. : is obtained with other resistances J/. When this is attained. Adjust ?j and r. Q. the battery key and galvanometer key.+r. To compare M. for a balance. P . 3/j : J/o = P + r. 215 Another method is to put resistances r. the impulsive E. reverse the connections either to one primary or one secondary.'. The ballistic galvano meter is unaffected if J/ i: J/2 = P. the mutual inductance of two coils S and its in figure.M. the currents in and P. and keys. Connect as In the first place the three resistance boxes P. Precautions ought to be taken that the magnetic field of neither primary affects the other secondary and that these magnetic fields do not affect . In both methods alike.) M. it is quite possible to arrange the coils in such a way that no balance can be obtained because the two inductances assist one another.. + r. and r2 in series with the primaries P and P2 and arrange these in parallel with a battery and key in the l The seconare arranged in series with the ballistic galvanometer.'s in 8 and $2 are therefore in the l Fig. ratio MJ(P + 1 r./(P2 + r2 ).' and second balance r. the self inductance of 8. 108.K. B. R may be arranged with S in an ordinary Wheat stone and T may be omitted.K.. 206. . Comparison of Mutual with Self Inductance.' l : P. with L. then J/! /. are inversely as P. r/ rl : r2 r2 A comparison of the figures will show that the two methods differ only in having the battery and galvanometer interchanged. A r./.F. and G. 108). r2 and TI and 2 circuit (Fig.
but B. If all is well. and not pressing G.K. . R R T. the jump is one way when T T disconnected] and the other way when T o. P \. as before. The current is finally divided between the three resistances Q S.. testing always by first pressing down B.I. The necessary time is generally a minute fraction of a second so that the keys are pressed almost simultaneously. When the balance is perfect. in S is zero.R. But it may be jerked by the transient curoc rents. in S in P due to mutual inductance is + M.216 INDUCED CURRENTS. The E. For a balance.I.K.F. and LG' = MC. Let G be the final current through P.K.e. T Fig.C. until all transient induced currents are exhausted. The galvanometer needle cannot be steadily deflected.M. [i. is Consequently the E. they are contrary ways. should now be joined in (unless this was done at start). preferably to the largest one. The balance are generally boxes in integral must be exact. and the balance should be tested by giving the priority to G. instead of B. a balance is only reached when the = = P impulsive E. must have priority.K. ohms.M. if desired) to get an exact in figure. so that If this is not the case. Q. and T so that the final current in S is + . As P. for the balance is bound to be perfect when the transient currents are exhausted. When this is the case.M. in S due to self inductance i LC'. reverse the connections of the primary current goes through it the opposite way. 109. it will not be affected in any way by joining on the resistance box . Alter P and Q (and balance. the nearest approximate balance must be corrected by adding a piece of fine wire to any convenient resistance.K.
perfect balance is obtained. To compare the selfinductions L and L. S are four anus of a first). V. If no second balance can be got. Therefore so that . P Fig. 110) look complicated. Q + U. Next make nite. 110. T can be regarded as a mere point. T ' infi and Q Alter to obtain a perfect balance (with the battery kev down Since P R. S form the four arms of a bridge. even by reversing the connections of the primary. If the resistance box T has all its plugs in. but are based on the ordinary Wheatstone net. V. M The method only will FT applies. + bridge. + 207. a new first balance must be obtained with a large P and small Q. therefore. 217 M= C' = (0 + IV4 S) ) But PS = QR for the preliminary balance .INDUCED CURRENTS. if L > M . therefore eliminating S. for generally L is much larger than M. Comparison of Selfinductions. The connections (Fig. and it be impossible to get the second balance by merely altering T unless L/M > 1 Q/P. The difficulty seldom occurs.2 of two coils U and V. U. and R. the battery keys being { A We always put down then have first.
etc.P. It is arranged with adjustable resistances P. .M. The precautions needed in carrying out this experiment are that the current balance must be exact. Hence Z L Q = _V+S L.Z + Q)R/P + T(P + Q)I(T + P + Q)' PS(T+P + Q) = Q{RT+ RP + RQ + TP}' = Q*{PR + QR + PT + RT}/P*S(T + P + __ _ __ _ _ X V = V+ S + R+U+T(P+Q)j(T +P Q)' + P+ QY PS/Q + 8 + QR/P + T(P + Q)/(T (P + Q)S/Q Q). now be perfect through T. are noninductive and that U and V be so placed that they neither influence the galvanometer at make nor have a mutual inductance. It is evident that the final test T being PEV and QUS are in ratio LQ 2 steady currents through Hence the impulsive E. so as to form a Wheatstone . and L the inductance. and Finally. that the resistances P. where is the resistance of T and P + Q X in parallel. Obviously this formula enables one to find the selfinductance of any coil if one has a standard of selfinductance. 2O8. of a coil.F.F.. the galva nometer key being put down first in every altered until there is no jerk. The balance whatever T may (for steady currents) will be since no current goes .'s are in the ratio of V + 8 to R + + U. and a battery and galvanometer.P R+U+X R (P = = L } /L.M. Q. S. taking the case of currents at break for simplicity. the theory of Bosscha's or Lumsden's method shows that these impulsive E.218 INDUCED CURRENTS. Let R be the resistance. Direct Measurement of a Selfinduction. get a balance for transient currents. Q. But.'s : in V and U are in ratio L.
L= Instead of increasing Trxl'2*y. which causes the charge qx to flow. and notice the jerk x. The ratio . L. 111. qx. and the steady deflection y due to qx the disturbance of the balance is observed. H. 8.I. and therefore adds no resist ance. whence P is found. This alteration is equivalent to inserting an E. G. Fig. x y by CL.F.F. Another box r is inserted with R has all its plugs in at first. 219 . one generally proceeds as follows. III. rC in the same network in which a charge qx is due to the E. qx is the charge which has been sent through it. 111.INDUCED CURRENTS. q/c = T2ir diminish ( 185). But as this necessitates using a formula which is neither easy to remember nor easy to The small refind. If c be the current constant of the galvanometer. If q be the ballistic constant of the galvanometer. qxfcy = LC/rC = L/r.M. CL is the E. we get Q. R by r.qx/CL can be calculated according to the theory explained for steady currents in 53. (exact) when the battery key is put down the galvanometer key then P/Q Put R/S. But Hence if T be the period of the needle. R (B and G = CLPKQR + PG + QG + PQ). one may 6' by s . In fact. = N being resistances of battery and galvanometer) ^and E.M. cy is the current carries a current C which through it. G. it Bridge as in Fig. B. (backward) of amount rC so that the current cy is due to the E. down the galvanometer key first. LC.M. and then the battery key. by Get a balance before . The resistance will hardly alter for the small charge of R into R + r.M. replacing F. M. Hence R . sistance r is introduced.I. P. If C be the final current in the coil R.
so that Q = o \IL =Jtf: Hence if this condition is fulfilled there ceases to be any extra current except in the section r and the leads of the . and let it be put in parallel and with a key. Now Kirchoff's law for any mesh.'s round the mesh.I. by integration. of the coil is LC.F. qr + Q(R r)= But q . or break. + KrC must traverse q the resistance R Put + KrC = Q. or increase Q. Then calculate r = from r/R = either s/S or p/P or g/Q and use the above formula. is.M. by p. This has ultimately the same effect if rjE s/8. the rest Let r be the resistance of of which is noninductive. If q be the extra charge which finally traverses r at q make r. Or one can diminish P. any portion of the circuit.M.220 INDUCED CURRENTS.KrC. because proportional charges of like sign would leave the balance unaltered and not affect the galvanometer.'. Let L be the self inductance of a part of a circuit.'s. The E. Let R with a condenser of capacity be the whole resistance of the circuit. also true for charges and E. Evidently the condenser is to charged potential difference therefore the rC.M. Comparison of Inductance and Capacity.LC. = Q . Therefore . that the sum of products of current and resistance all round the mesh is equal to the sum of E.LC. and C the final cur K rent. QR Kr*C = . 209. charge which enters it is KrC. q.I.
length. L= With 500 It 200 x 47T 3 x 200/12 x 10 9 x 500/12 x 10 9 = 132 x 10~ 4 . If it were possible to wind two coils of n and .n. trating the first coil n times and the second ?i Ex.INDUCED CURRENTS. circuit 221 A ballistic galvanometer anywhere else in the would be unaffected. estimating the magnetic flux. radius. are in the ratios 2 : JV2 : r?JV. Find what resistance. and / : M=n : A\ Interchanging the coils (which does not alter ^f) L:M = N. and that LI = M*. 2. r = 36 x 10 4 . . What difference would it make if there were 500 turns ? As in Ex. Ex. 1. 12 cm. Each line penetrates the first coil 200 times. let / be the number In of lines enclosed by the first coil and therefore by the second. M = i\7. the total number of lines through the first coil is 47r 2 x 200/12. be produced in the first coil. Estimate the selfinduction of a solenoid of 1 cm. in parallel with a onethird microfarad. in first (Def. and self inductance JA. will apparently annihilate this inductance.6 /3 . turns. and LI = J/ 2 . 3 of 201. L' is = 500 x 47r 2 = 8"22 x 10~ 4 . easily seen that coils of the same dimensions but different numbers of turns have inductances proportional to the square of the number of turns. 3. condenser. show that their mutual inductances I and L.A" turns so close to one another that any magnetic field enclosed by either was necessarily enclosed by the other also. and 200 turns. The selfinduction of a coil is '012 henry. therefore its selfinduction Ex. K= 10. 202) 200) therefore = nf. each line must be counted as peneBut times. We have hence L = A>2 L = . Hence L Mil = X~ Xn : : : ir. rj^l90. If unit current X / M = flux through first coil due to unit current = flux through second due to unit current / in that coil (Def. 12 x 10.
the currents in the coils are Cr/(R r). Hence the total . perhaps. 1. 2 i/c lc*. . the selfinduction is L + / + 2M. so is doubtful. c may be. where of course high approximations are treated as absolute results. 3 of 208 we have met with a hypothetical case 2 which LI Though this is mathematically impossible. 21O. particularly useful. is easier to find M direct. What is the selfinduction and r) connected in parallel ? If of two coils (of resistances R r). The energy of the first coil regarded as a system in itself is %LC 2 The energy of the second is %lc z The mutual energy is MCc. for every LI > M*. The expression for the energy leads to various consequences given below as examples. c. 2. + Hence W = \{Lr* is 2MrR 2 and the selfinduction Lr* (R MrR + + r)' IR* . because it Selfinduction. In Ex. Therefore we can find Mutual Induction by two measurements of This is not.lc2 is W M + positive whatever C and arrangement of two coils. Ex. I and =  (L + 2M + I) c~. Let them carry currents C and c. Hence. What is the selfinduction of two coils connected (either are supposed given. hence Here C = With upper sign. + MCc + 2MCc + .222 INDUCED CURRENTS. Ex. Energy of mutual inductance M and Two Circuits. in =M . With lower sign. Let the circuits have selfinductances L and I. C be CR/(R + the total current. Here L and I are essentially positive but by reversing the connections of either coil we can alter the sign of M. it can be approached so closely that we can treat it as an ordinary case in electrical engineering. therefore the quantity LC 2 2MCc f. But it is physically impossible that should be negative. way) in series ? L. the selfin M W duction is L + I 2M.
I. is and the " " extra charge As this charge goes through the is LC/R. If two coils be separate. ally 1.2(M + l)x + + 1(1 + 2M + 2 . At make. Two identical flat coils in series witli a battery are gradu to the nearest possible coincidence (with the currents going opposite ways).F. M L Obviously putting : M = o in the above. R = = LC . battery it produces electrolysis. and finally is practically zero. Show that their selfinductances can then them so that be compared by arranging them in parallel. The energy of the Held was LC originally . it is always possible to arrange = o. and adjusting until their combined selfinduction is a minimum.LI . each in series with a resistance box.2Mx(l = This is / . R : r = L : I . since the fields of the What coils annul one another at all points moderately distant. Source of the Field Energy.M. Ex. x = r/(K + r).M* least when the squared term . from a distance. of the battery. Ex. L)x\ 4. 211. = r R+ R R + r I L+ M + 2M + L and r L+ M T+ 2M + =L+ V I.INDUCED CURRENTS.x = R/(R + >) and the induction (taking M negative) x) (I = Lx~ . 4:. Consequently supplied ELC/R the extra energy supplied by the battery is LC~ half of this establishes the energy of magnetic field and the other half becomes heat. the current alters from o to C. and the chemical energy 1 since C E/R. and be resistance. so that R :r M:M+ Ex. then 1 . If 223 two coils be in parallel. becomes of the lost energy ? .(^f + J)} 2 I + 2M + L is zero. moved.r) . Let 3. Let E be LC E. {(I + 2M + L}x . find the ratio of resistances so that the selfinduction be a minimum. therefore the E.M. . hence I is found.
A primary current The is arranged to carry a current C.F. the period being T= 2ir/w. less heated (to this extent) than they would have been had no motion taken place.224 INDUCED CURRENTS. Ex.to 2LC . 2. Alternate E. and the mechanical Z attraction provided to the motive apparatus. therefore this charge takes energy 2ELC/R from the battery . 112. The total loss is 4LC LC . .F. therefore LC. in Fig.M.. So there is a total energy 4Z/O. E. 106.to put them into the position required. this = 2. The induced current is the same way as the original one. but actually spent in heating the wires. The general equation connecting E. What difference would be made if the moved to the nearest coincidence with the coils round ? coils had been the same 2 way The energy of the field changes from LC. 1 below and 236) where the E. 5. M L LC . 3. the battery supplies less energy to the extent 2LC. due to mutual inductance in each coil and if R be the total resistance of circuit. Find in Joules and in calories the energy needed to establish a current of '1 ampere in a coil of selfinductance *05 henry. the extra current carries a charge 2LC/R.F. = In the position of coincidence. MC Ex. as resistance of the secondary is R and the mutual Ex.M. induction is M.of and the wires are potential energy is lost. so mechanical work LChas to be done . The lost energy of field is LC*.apparently wasted. if L = AV 2 .I.M. alters harmonically with the time.M. and that the energy of the electromagnetic field is equal to that of the charged condenser. and current in a circuit is E = LC + RC (99) Cases are often met with (see Ex. 4. How much heat is developed in the secondary at make or break of the primary? What is the source (in each case) of the energy that appears as heat? Ex. 212.LC. 2 = The currents repel one another. With the arrangement of Fig. show that the work done by the battery during make is twice as great as if the condenser were absent . since the flux due to Hence is the either coil is the same in the other coil as in itself. and we can therefore write E = EQ cos nt.
Lag. . 1/2 and the average of sin nt cos nt or J sin "2nt is zero. tan a = nL/R and mum The maximum current is connected with the maxiE. (} nt cos a + sin nt cos nt sin a}.M. hence = then 6 E Q cos nt = C {R cos (w  a) . . n/2ir. for a very long period. C E/R therefore " ^"^" i g th e vlt? apparent resistance. called the Lag. occurs when nt = a. l/T The rate at which energy is being system at any instant is EC.F. hence. = of course.M. = . E by the equation 213. PH. Now + . E (} sin a = C nL. But by trigonometry EQ cos nt = E cos {(nt = EQ cos (nt  a) + a} a) cos a  E () sin (?j<  a) sin a.and Impedance. which = = = = supplied to the E cos nt E C {cosn () . 225 a). . is the average value of cos "nt. when nt = o. Consequently the This angle is maximum current is later than the maximum E.F. This acute given by tan a The frequency of the current is. C cos (nt  a). i. 4rr. 2ir.nL sin (n<  a)}. etc. angle a time a/n. equating coefficients. + a f 47r. as Therefor sin 2nt is a periodic function as often 15 M. Choking Coil. by is angle. a + The maximum current and the maximum E. where a is an acute nL/R. Assume or dC/dt = as a trial solution C cos (nt nC sin (nt a).INDUCED CURRENTS. The above equation resembles Ohm's law.M. E therefore cos a = C R.F. 27r. etc." It is called the Impedance.
and the current is a maximum when at = nearly 90. is E = F = But we can take 6 = wt and NAH NAH cos 6 =w n . the field X X= = 27r<7iV/r [ ((at 161. tan a proximately a = o. small. Find how the connected.+ w 2 2 ). When 6 is the angle rotated through. . pendicular to the coil A N A R F N The E. R A flat coil of turns and area Ex. tan a is large. 0. = NAHu cos wtjR. 1.fiT sin 6. the current will be If small and the waste of current energy will be very small coil of this kind is called a Choking Coil. and inductance L.] 2irNCo cos  a)/r. is fore the energy supplied at the average rate (see 181) or = \ E^CQ cos a = \ RC^ = R x average value of (7 2 = i RE\/(R. Ex.F. is therefore a maximum when wt = o or when the coil At high speeds. L/R is large. or if in the plane of the magnetic meridian. Hence the current = C 7 cos (at z  a) = E VR / tan a = At low small. and the total flux = sin 6. (as in Ex. E = NAHu. 1. due to When 6 = C is ut and the current is C= <7 cos (ut a). H . hence E = NAHw cos where wt = E cos at. on a compass needle supported at rest at the centre of coil. the component of per= . We may notice two cases. is very small but nL large. also. speeds. 2 of 197) Its ends are rotates about a vertical axis with angular velocity w. or the coil is in the east and west position. a approaches the value 90. 2.226 INDUCED CURRENTS. rotating as the above. Find the effect of a circular coil of radius r. or if L/R is is and ap C = En The current is cos wt/R. Its resistance is current alters with the time. Ex.M.
unit. = irNCQ = 7r. makes an angle is = (at If the rotation with the magnetic east and west ward component be in the direction indicated in Fig. The tictual B.AV(/7 . It will deflect an from the north. 113. . for instance the rotating coil was not a flat circular one. hence tan enables one therefore to calculate 7? in absolute units. A^ Southward.INDUCED CURRENTS.A. The average values are Eastward. of course. or can be eliminated by a series of observations at different speeds and the effect of L is very small if the speed is small. cancelling 77 and sim (R~ + T. ising the ohm. and angle The NOn = needle will behave as if affected by the earth's field by the above average values. = 7rAT wL/(7? 2 + L<J)r.TrN~AL(a'~ small. experiment was considerably more complicated .. X. An observation of But ^4 = Trr. A. L is calculable mathematically from the number of turns. It will be sufficient to suppose L  Then approximately tan = yj *". . F by its value _ . NAHw we get. the accurate determination of 77 is not important.V(7 cos a/r sin a/r = irNV R/(K~ + L(a~)r. A correction for the value of L ought. 2 <a)r. r = 7r 2 JN rw/7?. (t compass H northward. to be applied. This experiment is the British Association method for standardThe ohm based on this method was called the B. in which the Clark Cell was standardised and the silver deposited electrochemically per coulomb was determined. but a pair of circles arranged as in a Helmholtx galvanometer. Since 77 does not appear in the final result.A'. the eastcos tat 2 X cos tat = 2irNC = 2nNC^ cos ((at  a)/r {cos tat cos a is + sin (at cos (at sin o}/r . A number of subsidiary experiments were performed at the same time. and it 227 line. given by <f> tan Replacing plifying.). and the southward component X sin (at = 2irNG = 2irNC sin <at cos cos (tat (at  a)/r {) {sin (at cos a + sin (at sin a}//.
Since S is the magnetic moment per unit area. close to the plate. Consider a uniform plane magnetic shell ( 166) of though finite. and we therefore = N = = X N N P P X have Z=XThe fields at 4*1. it may be considered to be in a tunnel so narrow that the influence of the ends of the tunnel is negligible. Hence to left at the total influence of the shell is zero at and R.of magnetism on the faces I. r=8/x.CHAPTER XII.Q are X. whose thickness compared to its area. respectively. = X. Similarly 8 exerts 27rl and Q and to right at R. 114. and 47rl to left at Q. material of the shell. 228 and . There are lines of force per unit area reaching the face R. The normal fields at P.X and 4xrl Although Q is not literally within the shell. To avoid the N complication of having Q within the actual Fig. is very small strength S. 214. we shall define the field Z within the shell (neglecting the tangential component) as the field at Q. ^ which has north magnetism exerts The face force 27rl to right on a unit pole at P. PEEMEABILITY. The field due to a flat plate of density >X o+ I. and to left at Q and R. The surface density a.R. is 2irl ( 34). 8/x pole strength per unit area be the normal component of that magnetic field Let which is due to external magnets other than the shell. Field and Induction in Magnetic Shell. P and R X are the same. the magnetic moment per unit volume will be I where .
if any small volume V around Q magnetisation. The field at Q is defined constructed. be considered. If we consider the magnet as constructed of shells whose faces are perpendicular to SN. 229 It is reasonable to imagine the lines leaving the face N. as in tunnel has its may have a tangential and normal component H as the field in a small tunnel Hence the 214.PERMEABILITY. We magnet a magnetic shell. This is the field which would exist in a fissure or crevasse of small but finite width. and the normal components satisfy A' = Z+ If 47T/. and we say there are Z lines of force per unit area. we remember Hand . X It is called Hare Jf. the induction in each is the field which we should get if we left an air spacv between it and the next. hut denotes composition or vector addition in other cases. The distance between can be as small as we like so that we have traced in the . but lines of induction. They are here not called lines of force. At any point Q within a magnet. Within the shell the field or force is Z. can draw two parallel planes. and then there would be within the shell. and points proportional to direction called the V direction of J. If there were a tangential component of the external field. normal to this shell. let I be the intensity of That is. perpendicular to I. lines per unit area continuous. The induction is the number of lines per unit area taken perpendicular to the direction of the lines. Z and Y as above. for a shell. we should simply add a tangential component Y both to the force and induction as above described. Now the tangential components of B and the same. and one each side of Q. The induction at Q would be. Hence we can write B= if + 4717 that the 4. Field and Induction within any Magnet. This field axis parallel to the direction of J. X X Y 215. Its components are Y. its and = magnetic moment in a certain is VI.only denotes addition whon 47rJ are in the same line. the field just and outside the shell in air ( 214).
The total induction (B) is in the same direction as the total field (If) * and proportional is to it. Definition of Field and Induction. within a magnet. long bar magnetised longitudinally with uniform If it were sawn through transintensity / has cross section A. ( 34) But the surface 7? carries AI units Hence the resultant attraction of south A polar magnetism. In Fig. The exceptions are the most strongly magnetic substances. point provided that the axis of the tunnel direction of 217. The induction B. Induced Magnetisation. is the field which would be observed in air * in a small tunnel constructed around that is in the the magnetisation. 115. For a large number of substances the following law holds accurately. 2nT thus an extra magnetic tension of value per square centimetre. Consequently the attraction it would exert on unit $ pole close to it is 2r7. point within a magnet. = There is 2nFA. The field H. very weak fields with a certain degree of accuracy. is the field which would be observed in air in a small fissure or crevasse whose plane faces are perpendicular to the direction of magnetisation and have diameters and areas infinitely large compared to the distance between them. at anv Fig. vacuum is substituted for air in . When great accuracy these definitions. 115 the tunnel is shown to right. . The surface Q is uniformly spread with magnetic matter of surface density /. sought. and the cross section of the tunnel is indefinitely small compared to its length. and the crevasse to left. at any point 216. Example. including For these. nickel and cobalt. versely.230 PERMEABILITY. find the force which one portion of it would exert on the other portion. the law is obeyed in iron.
formula with 4T/ = . almost indif If p < substance netic. not with air 212). H f 4<irl. The magneti sation of the sphere may be considered due to a large number of doublets of compole.PERMEABILITY 231 is The constant ratio of induction to field (B/H) the Permeability (/A). Gases should be compared with a vacuum (see . indifferent. Examples are oxygen. nickel. and connected with /A by the equation is 47T& = A*  1. netic moment per unit OX. 116. and is positive. Any air.ve 218. is 1. all in the same direction Fig. mon m and If n be the tributed. ferric chloride. hence If a be the radius of the sphere. k = = . etc. The called DiamagExamples are bismuth. If//. and the substance is said to be paramagnetic. rare gas. and we have (AI 1)1 f. k is 4. B= //. footnote. as /P normal ferent. nml. and uniformly disnumber per unit volume. >1. its whole magnetic moment is . the magvolume nml = is /. . negative. cobalt. iron. /* = 1 + 4**. Faramagnetism and Diamagnetism. liquid If /x o and the substance is 1. / = where k a constant called the Susceptibility. Uniformly Magnetised Sphere. k is is and liquid nitrogen. Hence called B= Combine this fj.. 219.strength length /.II.
nm NS . The sphere of south magnetisation has a field along QS. and a. from 8N = N N netic matter were concentrated at JV. Similarly the sphere of 8 magnetisation acts like at 8.*:/ o lines of induction (external and internal) are shown in Fig. N . 1. the sphere of centre composed of north magnetisation can be regarded as a sphere of radius NQ.Hence the whole magnetised sphere acts like a doublet situated at C. of K N K Kl = ^7ra?nml f 7ra J. K/SP~ 150. the field at P is the resultant of KjNP* along NP.232 PERMEABILITY.nm/NQ? = fyrnm. of magnetisation acts at all external points as if its mag The N poles are OX. is negative. and internal . parallel to individually at a constant distance I. The latter exerts no force the former exerts %irNQ?. hence the density of each magThe sphere netisation is nm. hence they can be regarded as uniformly distributed through a sphere of centre N.nm and a shell whose external Fig. being in the opposite direction to The induction r/. It therefore is equivalent to a single pole at of strength 7ra?nm. while the 8 poles are uniformly distributed through one of centre 8. . = ^^1o Strictly it I.NQ along NQ. 117. There are n where poles (or 8 ones) per unit area. 3 strength = If P . 117. B= The 47r/ . mass ^vNQ^. be an external point. along PS and can be found as in If Q be an internal point. their corresponding 8 poles. The resultant of these is parallel to radii are NQ N8 and = o .
X + ITT/ = n(X  7r/). And B= Hence nH. Hence the actual field within most of the bar is the field due to causes other than the bar's magnetisation. ITT/. 1. and 5 = 3 A. Magnetisation Induced on a Sphere in a Uniform Field. If the bar be long and narrow. by induction. is Assume that the induced intensity of magnetisation equal to I and in the direction of X. The transverse field is //sin t). But B= and / = tilf. The field within the sphere due to the sphere itself is ITT!. uniformly and weakly magnetised. 2. 233 220. to intensity /. . ( 215). The longitudinal field is 7/cos 0. and be placed obliquely at slope 6 to the direction of the field. = fj. hence the total field is But . find the couple that acts mi it if ytt 1 be not small. These are independent of and very small compared to the corresponding quantities for a bar see Ex. A very long unmagnetised bar field of longitudinally in a weak XtoL In a long bar. Let X be the strength of the inducing field. Assuming that it is uniformly magnetised. find the ratio of [j. B=X+ 7r/. 1 below. the field due to the bar itself can be disregarded for nearly the whole volume of the bar. B=* H+ /* 2' /i + 2 In the limit when /* is / 3A74ir. is placed of permeability strength A'.] . H=XB = H + 47r/ '. and therefore is // = A'. ? Ji = ^ ^ 4ir 4ir Ex.PERMEABILITY. Ex. . The former produces longitudinal magnetisation of intensity / = .
4. To find the apparent permeability of the mixture. hence Ex. A very is uniformly magnetised in a direction per . ability (/A = A large or ). the volume. 3v/47r(l  r). cos d/4rr. vPd/3(n 2nl  I)//. and this couple tends to diminish 9 and draw the bar into a longitiidinal direction. . and the period irl Vd/H N/3&. Transversely Magnetised Cylinder. If we Let can neglect the effect of the spheres on one another. \}H cos 0/4?r as above the latter we shall disregard. the magnetic moment of the mixture per unit volume = Iv = 3Av/4?r.l)H~/4w. be the uniform field which induces magnetisation. Let be its moment of inertia. X ( F The apparent susceptibilit} 7 Jc=* = F 1 4 = and fj.sin9 cos 0. Ex. the mass is Vd. To find the period of small oscillation of a long para magnetic bar in a magnetic field. = L0 where L = V(n . and the moment of inertia is (nearly) .. (/j. number of small spheres. sin For paramagnetic bodies k is positive. ( if 9 be small. If be the average field in the mixture. long cylinder 221. K= K/L = = VdP/12. then the magnetic moment is If Kbe M= and the couple is ( VI = V(n VkH* J> 1) 1)# cos 0/47T. each of great permeare distributed evenly through a nonmagnetic matrix. the field within the spheres is /ero and that around the spheres is A.^K/l^ If d be the density. 143) MH sin = = H. the / within each sphere = 3^Y/4?r If v = volume of all the spheres per 220). unit volume of the mixture. 3. = + 4**= (1 +2?')/(l  r). K The couple.234 PERMEABILITY. The period 154) is T = 2n. since n  I = 4irk.
hence the external lines of force are circles which would all touch one another at 0.2ir7. and (Fig. A is in a lield h. it makes with OP an angle OPT = S For a point is Q inside. In limit. its axis. 116) the south magnetism exerts a force 27ra?mn/SP. 235 Find the field at any point inside As in the case of the sphere ( 111") Let a radius. uniformly distributed so that length I.PERMEABILITY.POA. By theory of attractions. the forces from .PiV. The induction Zmnnl Fig. 2Tr. magnetisation per : : SW. All the north poles collectively form a cylinder of uniform magnetic density mn. Fig.mn. The magnitude of resultant component along 2 27ra wwZ/SP. replace the uniform magnetisation by a set of doublets of m. "but vmnl therefore the field Hence the field at unit volume I. pole strengths there are n per unit volume. pendicular to or outside. 118 shows the lines of induc = hence their resultant = tion inside and out. 118. cylinder of permeability /u. the If 7 be the magnetisation.PS = parallel27?I 47r7 Example. this circle touches the axis of mag N netisation OA at the centre . AO and 2irl. 77 = h  2irl. 180 = NP = SP = P= . N and to are respectively 2irmn. Thus a circle described about SPN touches PT. this would produce a field at an external point 2irazmn/NP along NP. see Fig. to 2az I/OPz and . . P PT makes angle SPT= Z PNS. These forces and are in the along ratio SP consequently the is similar triangle of forces at to Z SPN. when S and coincide.NP. 118. and the resultant = P = NP PS PN : . this causes an internal Held The total internal Held is therefore sign showing its direction. Find the magnetisation produced placed transversely in it. and the in duction. 2?r7. .
The current therefore alters by infinite.1)A/( M + 1).'. 2ir/ = = (fl (/* . 1)A fr (M  1)27T/. field 8H causes every molecule to by an amount proportional to &H and opposing it. Molecular Currents. 47T/ . the change produced by the external field is exactly equal and contrary to the change of flux produced by altering the current. If there were any resistance. The susceptibility of the medium is therefore negative. This can be illustrated experimentally. Now. by Lenz's law. And 1). and an external magnetic field begin to act upon it. but no resistance at all. and the medium behaves as a diamag H netic one. the current would perish. Diamagnetism. But the F F/L. A sphere of bismuth [diamagnetic] is repelled from the space between the pointed pole pieces of a powerful electromagnet. and having inductance L. so that the charge circulating during the change = Change of Flux/Resistance. B is only '2h. and the charge cannot be therefore the total change of flux must be zero. This would generate an induced current.\)H=(p . Let a magnetic molecule be supposed to consist of a circuit carrying an electric current. current F/L opposes the So a change of magnetic alter its magnetic action the magnetic action of the extra change of field which produced it. is therefore magnetised so that its intensity I is proportional to and has the contrary sign. In the limit when /JL is infinite. PERMEABILITY. Let first the circuit be fixed in position. resistance is zero. That is. The medium.236 But . regarded as space containing a large number of such molecules. and magnetic properties would not be permanent.. 222. sphere of copper in the same position would be repelled A if .
etc. Paramagiietism. This being so. In any unmagnetised medium. . and is proportional in amount to the coefficient of mutual induction of the molecular currents. The paramagnetic is weak except in a few substances we therefore infer that molecules are nearly always held with considerable rigidness. even in the intensest fields. the poles were suddenly magnetised by a strong current for the increasing field would induce a current in the copper. The magnetic molecules are not supposed absolutelv free their deflections will be resisted. Molecular Currents.PERMEABILITY. it tends to get the criminately. the magnetic molecules have all directions indisIf a magnetic field act. probably. The diamagnetic property is always others the second. and repel this induced current circuit before it had time to decay. axis of every one of these equivalent magnets parallel to itself. Paramagnetism is proportional to the freedom with which magnetic molecules can be rotated. A vacuum has. very weak. Every other substance would have both the paramagnetic and the diamagnetic property but in some substances the first would preponderate and in . So this cause produces paramaguetism. Thus essentially diamaguetism is due to induced currents. except within iron. nickel. medium will acquire a magnetic moment proportional to the total effect of the field in directing the equivalent . no magnetic molecules. magnets parallel to itself. Small deflections are usually proportional to the deflecting fonv hence k is a constant for everv one of the inauv sub. . and each one will yield to the field by an amount which is more or less proEach unit volume of the portional to the field strength. The magnetic moment acquired through the mobility of the molecules is therefore in the same direction as the magnetising field. The molecule is then equivalent magnetically to a small equivalent bar magnet set perpendicular to the plane of its resultant current circuit. 223. 237 . We next suppose that the current circuits are not fixed in position. it follows that the deflections of the molecular magnets are very small in most cases.
therefore expect k not to be constant in iron. under great tension does not instantly take its full length and if the tension be alternately increased and diminished. in the case we are considering. In a strong field the intensity increases gradually. Saturation.238 stances PERMEABILITY. a system is generally so distorted that it tends to return to an altered equilibrium Often a position when the deflecting force is removed. perhaps. This property is called It has mechanical analogies. could do more than set all the magnetic axes of the molecules parallel to itself and only an infinite field could do as much. That if a large enough field be Coercive Power. have expected is that magnetic substances do not instantaneously take their final equilibrium state in any applied field. (whether paramagnetic or not) whose suscepti bility is small. however great. limit exists beyond which no distorsion can pass. netisation (J) which can only be approached but is essentially unattainable. the maximum length is later than the maximum tension. Besides. . Another property that we might not. Molecular Currents. Coercive In mechanical systems large deflections are usually not proportional to the deflecting force. should expect therefore that very magnetic substances would show the following properties That there is a limiting intensity of magSaturation. Hysteresis. when the field is removed it falls gradually. the substance does not return to its original state but shows (more or less) residual magnetisation. no magnetic field. Thus. wire Hysteresis. Even for moderate fields the magnetisation of iron is not strictly proportional to the magnetising force. Power. applied and then removed. We We : 225. Irrationality. 224. . This A . if deflections exceed certain limits. and if the field is first increased and then diminished the maximum intensity comes later than the maximum field. of the same kind as was produced by the field but of smaller magnitude.
239 Field i2 20.PERMEABILITY. r fief h2pJ Field .
Let x be any length of the bar. Of course l//x. crossing the section Or Compare with the formula for flow of electricity. the P. Therefore the permeability l/Rn the . Then is the work done by a force acting for a distance x or H . In virtue of the above analogy. is finite //. number of lines = F = pA V/x.240 PERMEABILITY. k or I/H tends to limit and tends to limit 1. namely / = JcH. hence the of lines crossing the section total flux or total number A pHA. F/V = pA/x. this C = and and R V/R ( V R . 111). H= V/x. 226. showing how B and p alter with H. we can (as in 109. and V the difference of magnetic potential at its ends. If Q be the specific resistance. B = fjiff. B= = AB F H V . As I zero. where C is the current. 120. 112) infer that if two reluctances be in series the resultant . property may be called Irrationality. has a certain analogy with Also the resistance R is which quantity is called the analogous to x/Ap. Let be the longitudinal field then the induction pH. . can be called the specific reluctance. /JL = 1 + 4dfc. specific conductivity. Let A be the cross section of any portion of a bar of iron or other magnetic substance. 119 typical curves are given constant. There are B lines of induction per unit area. x and A the length and cross section. Total Flux. and is expressed mathematically by the fact that Jc (and therefore p) is not In Figs..D. V= Hence the total Hx. reluctance.: CIV = A/xS //. when H is infinite. Of course we define Jc and p by the same equations as before. the resistance.
PERMEABILITY. " 169. and its value is 47rnC.* but engineers often netomotive collectively " is the sum of the work done on a unit N. 241 magnitudes their sum and if two be iu parallel.F. Hence V is form the complete circuit /. and loop round the current. of its current sible to crowd into . the Oersted of Reluctance. If there be an iron core looping round the great permeability causes as many lines as posit and there is practically no great error in supposing the iron itself to form the circuit. A V. of and r2 their resultant reluctance is . We M. F F= = length I sav. PH.M. the Gilbert of M. These names are not in common use. The unit of M. We have seen that lines of magnetic induction do not start or terminate anywhere. take number of lines in the iron. But if a few lines stray into the air and rejoin the iron again the effect is that of an air reluctance in parallel with an iron reluctance much less than itself. and either go both ways to infinity. whether they be described iu iron or air. Fl = M2r. and seem rather do not recommend anyone to remember confusing than helpful. It is as defined in the Magnetomotive Force the same for all circuits which loop through the current circuit. or Fx the work that would be done on a unit N. I. where V is For every section.M. or form reentrant curves. Assuming that any for the total lines which stray are negligibly few.F. reluctance is 1\ . In such cases any one bundle of lines which is followed completely round until it joins itself again is called a Magnetic Circuit. them. The lines due to a current circuit are reentrant. [Magis called a Gilbert. Magnetic Circuit. the Weber of Total Flux. Adding up for the whole circuit. pole in travelling the short distance x.. pole Here for displacements over all the short distances x which 2F Force] * The Gauss is the unit of Magnetic Induction and also of Field. /x pAV/x. 227. Iti . where C is the current (in absolute units) and n the number of turns.
fj.M. and the reluctance outside the windings is therefore much diminished. 2. and therefore is about 1/256. But at the ends of the wound portion the lines diverge into the air. estimate it in " ampereturns. what would the //. The iron of the ring is of circular section and of diameter 1 cm. what difference would this make to the iron and the wood ? Iron is so much more permeable than air that hardly any lines of induction stray out of the metal. at about 770. whose reluctance is a quarter of the whole. thereis 1 fore the reluctance = and the flux 167T + {2007T/4}  32 oersted. = = Ex. and its reluctance. 119 fore k = (fi . which carry a current ampere. 3. If the current be 1 amp. Apparently the highest permeability observed is about 12. The advantage of such an iron ring is that there are no free poles. for iron in a weak field. Also the values of \i differ widely for different specimens of iron in the same field. is practically unaltered. If the wire had not been wound uniformly. for Fig. and for the same iron at different temperatures. The lines run within the wood in the wound portion. 200. Ex. = 500 x '1 = 50 ampere turns = 20?r absolute units (Gilberts). and therefore no demagnetising force. The total re . fj. a temperature very little below the point at which magnetic properties vanish. and therefore its flux. wound on flux be ? 207T/32  1257T/2 196 Webers. The ring of evenly wound with 500 turns of wire.l)/47r = 158. and the length of the iron circuit is 167r. Take fi = 200. In the next examples we are taking p. and thereThis is quite arbitrary. If the a same wire carrying the same current were closely wooden ring of the same dimensions." and there be 1 turn.000. Find the flux around an iron ring of mean radius 8 cm. The area of the cross section is ?r/4. = 200. The M. hence the " " ampere turn 47r/10 Gilberts = = 1257 = 5/4 nearly.242 PERMEABILITY. Wood is equivalent to air. or 196 absolute units. = = 1 instead The only difference in the calculations is that The reluctance is 64. then C 1/10 and n=l.F. of Ex. The magnetic circuit is confined (practically) to the iron. Note. shows that can have all values from about 100 to 2400 for the same iron in different fields. but the 500 turns confined to only a portion of the ring (say a quarter). and the flux = 207T/64 = '98. 1.
the air portion is 200 r. in parallel. 3'9 for wood. 4. is the same as before and so are the reluctances of the rings. which is the flux in the wound part of the wood. The sectional area of this is three times that of the wood or iron.Y.1 and /> are surrounded by the same electric current. . We have half the cut and half the metal. show that their joint Show that this is true whether tlio reluctance is AB/(A + B). Ex. But with a wooden core these things are important. The total flux within the winding is therefore about 199 for the iron. Ex.F. What would be the effect of a saw cut of width 1 mm. 1/10 6. as only a few lines lie within the wood. 7. What difference does this make? The M. Ex. therefore the flux in this space is three times that in wood. 1 5. Adding. extending only half across the section ? The reluctance of a complete cut was found to be '1273. and the flux = 207r/4467 = 140 nearly. There is an additional flux in the air space within the windings. dividing by 200 and is '0006 but the reluctance of f he whole metal .PERMEABILITY. area r/4. the total reluctance is '4467. = 20r 3197 = HMi. The flux is 189. 243 luctance is therefore nearly 1/256. . hence the total flux. but the radius of the winding is double that of the section of the ring. ? The mm. The reluctance practically the same as total if '3197. and the flux there were no cut. If two magnetic circuits of reluctance . 8. What influence will this have on the flux The reluctance of the cut (length 1/10. ? What would be the flux if the width of the saw cut were mm. flux 19(i of a complete ring for an imperfect join are Ex. If r be the reluctance of the metal portion. and of the metal removed '1273 200. Hence the flux in the iron is unaltered and the flux in the wood is unaltered.M. and shows that corrections very large indeed. or 2'94. It is unimportant with an iron core whether the winding be even and whether it is close. /t = 1) is The reluctance of the metal removed is got by 4/10ir = *1273. made iron ring of Question 1 has a saw cut of width across its section. The above iron wound by 500 turns of wire as ring and wooden ring are evenly before. This differs from the by over 3". and the two in parallel have reluctance r x 200 r/(r f 200 is r) = 200 r/201  '1273 '402 = 0(103. is '32 and therefore that Ex. of the metal remaining is '3194. is about four times as great as before and the flux in most of the unwound wood is much smaller.
Things are less simple if ferromagnetic substances are The original magnetising force due to ^ is still present. The flux through the circuit of c due to c l All the matheis therefore Mc lt where If is a constant. calculate the flux in the helix. Round it is wound symmetrically insulated iron wire. 9. The magnetising field which is the direct result of c l is proportional to c : and produces induced magnetisation proportional to c r This magnetisation causes fields proportional to itself (and therefore to c. every p and k is a constant. be simply paramagnetic or diamagnetic. number of turns n. The demagnetising force due to this magnetising is everywhere .or dia. Influence of Ferromagnetic Substances. and magnetisation which are due to Cj are proportional to c 1 and independent of the current c in secondary. and 201.or Ex. and radius a. A 228.244 PERMEABILITY. in a helix of length I. circuits be para. proportional to duced by it is x whether permanent or due to some other current. even ferromagnetic. defined in any of the three ways given in l M 229. 200 210 follow. of radius r and permeability /*. etc. but depends on c in a more complicated manner and depends likewise on any other magnetisation previously existent in the iron. Show that the result is independent of I and n. But the magnetisation directly procr not proportional to it. which we shall call the Primary and the Secondary.. The terminals being joined. carrying currents Let first every substance present c and c (as in 200). Induced Currents. that is. In a field containing substances other than air let there be two circuits. current c (absolute units) flows in a long straight conductor. but the consequent magnetisation produced is proportional to the causative magnetisation (because k is constant) and therefore to c r The subsequent effects due to this consequent magnetisation can all be discussed in the same way. and matical consequences explained in can be called the coefficient of mutual induction. induction.) and acts as a demagnetising force in paramagnetic bodies and a supermagnetising force in diamagnetic. provided they do not appreciably influence one another. Hence everywhere the final field.
Mc argument we find that the final resultant flux due to which goes through c is not only not a constant multiple l of c p but is not even a function of c. Definition of Mutual Inductance. . But the only sense which can be attached to the term is the following The mutual inductance of two coils associated with ferromagnetic substances is the coefficient of mutual induction of two coils in air which would exhibit the same induction phenomena under the precise circumstances of the experiment considered. a precise value to Scientifically. has to be = 4>(c c). where is a function which is not written symmetrical in ^ and c. And the mutual energy. 230. If the cores of Examples 1. which is only the mutual induction between the coil and itself. Hence mutual inductions can be found or compared by any method previously described ( 205 onward). and c. but is dependent on the previous history of the iron W l { . a. Similar remarks apply to selfinduction. (>. treating OK 5(K) turns. !> evenly iron = Find " as .\ simply '1 circuit.secondary the primary of tion.g. one often speaks of the mutual inductance of a pair of coils (e. is not even dependent only on c. 2. one ought never to give any of the induction coefficients of coils with iron cores : . If the primary current be ampere.PERMEABILITY. and no surprise should be felt if Ex. But every different method will give a different value to the induction coefficients measured. two determinations give results which are not even of the same order of magnitude. and the same method will give different values if currents of different magnitudes IH? employed. wound with 10000 turns forming a . proportional to it . a "Transformer") which has an iron core. instead of being Mcc (200). 7 ( ~7). is 10  absolute units. (or other ferromagnetic substance) alters continually in the course of in such a way that </> an experiment. only. 1. For convenience. in addition t< the coefficients of mutual indue " paramagnetic it substawe 200). 245 to this demagnetising force is this Cj but the consequent magnetisation due no longer proportional to it Continuing but depends on the previous magnetisation.
M absolute units. calculate the apparent coefficient of mutual induction when the primary current is suddenly altered from to "01. therefore the flux = f/c. 4. so we must 6 2 = 196 x 108 therefore put 8f = 196 x 10 when 5 c = 10" . If a primary have n turns. M amp. Hence in absolute units M= 47r x 500 x 10000/1608. radius of section = 1 / 2 ) and a primary and secondary of 500 and 10000 turns. = 'I amp. 3. = '001 absolute 4?r x 500c = 2?r and the circumference is Hence I//* 1 unit. due to current c for n turns is 4irnc. Taking c = '01 amp. therefore But in. This penetrates times. The result '00098 for Example 2 is accurate for all currents.F. To reduce to henries we divide by 10 The result (on the false supposition made about iron) may be regarded as a constant for the coils.. In a certain sample of iron I/p = '0025 f '0001 H.246 PERMEABILITY. 9 Reducing to henries by dividing by 10 we have M= If c 38 henry. in the first example. 2. and the result is '196. TheM. The flux in the circuit is 4irnc/R. + 1/8000} = '168. If a ring have the same dimensions as before (radius of ring = 8. Ex. 3. the secondary is f = farNncjR. . and secondary turns. . the M. The flux due to this current. N M M = 4tirNn/R in absolute N units. = R= 3/= 64 {'0025 26 + 1/800}  '24. 7 are (in the same way) got by dividing the fluxes by 1000. the reluctance R= hence If c \ 64 { 0025 37. Ex. The answers for Examples 2.M.. 9 .F. = hence H= 1/8. is 196 lines. But each line passes 10 4 times through the secondary. = '0025 + 1/80000. 6. and the reluctance of the largest magnetic circuit which penetrates both coils be R. show that the coefficient of mutual induction is 4irNn/R. 16?r. 5. '1 and ampere respectively.M. since no iron was used. its actual value therefore 64 {0025 + 1/80000}  16 + 8/10000 = '1608. The reluctance would be 64 is for a wooden core ..
= ^' (la dx + by methods It is of differential calculus. M ir /. and for easily seen that large values of c it can be very small indeed. binding the primary and secondary together and forming a reenIf there trant helix of length '2irn and area of cross section *7>. 4. . 1/fL = a / is sions for M. The primary consists of w. times through it. and the accurate formula is infinite. M Ex.PERMEABILITY. is smaller in the second case. Around this coil is wound insulated iron wire. If be measured by a make and break experiment. 1 "76. The reluctances work out to '176. show that the total simple function of the primary current. Ex. If the permeability /* be given by an equation of the a + /3/f. 6. Ex. + pH (a + 4rtt/9c* It is therefore expressed as a function of c. calculate the mutual induction. Then the magnetising field is N turns H = 4TMC/J. The formula !/(/* . 196. and of radius a. a 7. '036 henries. + %b. length /. Obtain expres Consider the case of a core of length /.* as in Examples 3 and 4. are turns. is *A more 1 l/(/i  1) = a f /J//.2 turns wound in the same coil but insulated from the primary. = An iron tube. wound with n and as before. form flux 5. Consequently the values of Mare 36. turns of a considerable radius a the secondary is n. 247 In the same example what would the coefficients of mutual induction become for the same currents if the primary and the secondary were interchanged ? For the same currents. . 47n? M=V = dc */ .1) = a + pff can be treated similarly. the fields // are 20 times as large as before. and the ends of the iron wire are joined. "32. external and internal radii has the primary wire looped //. Therefore the total flux is/= a ftlf. N Ex./ JTMi But if M be measured for very small current changes. Tli when // which agrees with '2"2~i.
Consequently the energy per unit volume is . consequently the total flux through circuit is F = iT therefore the coefficient of selfinduction is The total electromagnetic energy ( 203. 228) is. m m Ex. 231. and number will of turns n. if /* be constant.248 secondary wire PERMEABILITY. also the selfinductance of each wire. and the iron wire is 1000 turns of iron wire of radius '5 cm. wound tightly as a helix round the strands. Energy of Magnetic Field. have mean circumference Z. if ft be constant. Let a uniformly wound ring. therefore the total flux in core This passes n times through the circuit. If a selfinductance is to be made of a flat coil of turns of copper wire. 9./l. Find ?i Calculate the 2 times. show that the self inductance has the same value as if the iron. bound into the appearance of an anchor ring by n turns of insulated iron wire forming a reentrant helix with its ends connected. 2. mutual induction. as described in 227. area of cross section A.. Ex. and permeability 200.. Find the selfinductance if the electrical circuit forms a coil of 100 turns of radius 5 cm. the field inside be H= The Induction is irnc/L B= 4*ncfi. If the current is c. wire formed n turns of a flat coil and the copper made a helix of turns around it. The radius of the iron wire is '02 cm. 8. Ex.
232. we find B = H. pole strength AI (cf. let B and I be the induction and intensity. the limits of integration representing the initial and final states of the system. and thickness. which is entirely unmagnetised. H and B above. the work done per unit volume 5 W= 7/57. this is 211). perpendicular to the direction of 7. / If 7 alters by 57. and so that the magnetic moment is 7^47. is Now energy can be taken = H' + ///" . use these letters to denote their components in . Consequently the whole work expended in magnetising a system is W = J//57. N. H is the field. H . equivalent to a change A&I of pole strength and therefore we can regard A8I units of N.4/57. if not. This can be put in another form. the force is HA8I acts through a dis tance and the work done Since Al is 77.  7/)/47r  the energy that would exist in an air H/STT Hence the whole space. Consider an element of a shell of area A. When is the field. border of the shell to the . As I. we the common direction OX say. is the volume. 249 Comparing with the values of that the energy per unit volume is In air. magnetism to be moved a distance I from the S. Energy of a Ferromagnetic System.PERMEABILITY. They are supposed all to be in the same direction or. so the result is H 2 /8ir. 1 = (B 77/8ir. Since B= H+ 4irl. //)/47r.
we put B = pH. an area similarly described If the state alters to that represented by P'. which represents the energy which would have been given to a body which cannot be magnetised. H= Fig. 121. N. this integral becomes (if ju. NN' x NN' which.250 If PERMEABILITY. 233. 234. The point denotes state in which the field and the intensity I P OM = NP MP = ON. Pf H would represent iHdB which body. can be rearea NPP'N'. supposed very near 81 hence HSI P. Construct a graph in and ordinates which abscissae represent values of H i . we find that the work done N . Graphical Methods. is con stant) . as in 227.a values of I.N. to quence of changes from state P in magnetising is represented by the whole area N^P^^N^ enclosed between the straight 'lines P.. garded as Adding for a continuous se = . in the limit when SI is indefinitely small. = 4:r x charge in the energy given to the magnetised The energy given exceeds the work done in magnetising by the quantity H^/Sir (taken between proper limits). Cyclic Processes.N2J ? P2 and the graph y If a graph were drawn in which the abscissae represented and the ordinates B. = NP t = P 2. Let a sample of iron be subjected to a field which gradually increases from to + then diminishes from to lt v then increases H H l H H l .
th. It may be remarked that the area of the closed curve is expressed analytically by $HdI taken all round and this is IHH. Hysteresis. and so on repeatedly. plete cycle.P_>.it is. consequently no mechanical or electric energy remains. In 'the change Q^P the work done will area Q^JV. 235. by the heat produced per cycle. the path P Q is described and the iron is left permanently magnetised to an intensity measured by OQ This is called its Coercive Power. The general property of which these are effects is called Hysteresis ( 2*25). and is then made zero. The work provided in each complete cycle is the area of the closed curve Everything has been restored to its original state.. . After a while.PERMEABILITY. If the iron has been magnetised to state P. t diminished) the work done is area Q P negative and so the algebraic sum for half the cycle is QoPjQiSimilarly the total work provided in the other is = 1 1 N 1 half cycle is Q. and the above work must be entirely expended in producing heat. Demagnetising Field. quently OR measures the demagnetising force or field. the intensity I will alter cyclically. It can l>e measured in practice by the area of the closed curve P..P2 Q 2 . For IH has equal to IH the same initial and final value when we consider a com.Q (as the field = . In the change P. the curve descril>ed being similar to that shown. or $IdH simply. { destroy the magnetisation. Coercive Power. 251 again as before. this field is called the l)emagThe magnetisation is zero at l\ r consenetisiug Field. If the field is reversed to such a magnitude as just to H } { .. when the cycle is detined by a iriven { maximum field ON.
. + a . Hence.F..firC /Mn = v sin a (3) .F.M. Then the equations for the two coils are v = lc + MC+rc. + Substitute in (1) v = (Ln cos nt cos + ?i a + a J? sin ?i a)lGQ fM + . An alternating E.252 PERMEABILITY. c.nMC . nLlG /M . By (2). for the two coils have a com . c = (Ln = (Ln cos nt s'mnt + a + R sin nt + a) G /M. then is nearly We are supposing that L. Let the E. Let the secondary have k times as many turns as the primary. (4) These give C and a. I. equating coefficients of cos nt + a and sin nt f a. periodic with .F. C R resistances. (1) (2) We assume C is .M. be the currents in primary and secondary. Let be the 2 LI in most cases.*. is utilised for some purpose. supplied to primary be v as it is alternat Let c.cos nt a sin a }. is supplied to the primary and the induced secondary current .7? cos + ?^ + a But y = v sin nt = VQ {sin ?i + a cos a . r and I and L selfinductions. can be treated as constants.M. then the flux through the secondary can be taken as Jc times that in primary.rLGJM = v cos a. o = Me + LC + RC. M M M ing we may put v = V Q sin nt.'.R cos wM^a) G /Mn. same period as . Transformers and Alternate E. 236. G= C C = nC sin nt +a + and cos nt a. mutual induction. A transformer consists of a primary and secondary coil wound on a soft iron core.(Ln sin nt + a . e.BICJM .
M. we have Assuming M. CQ =. indiued at make. i2 is so large that it can IH. RrCJMn = . therefore LI Similarly L Using these relations. At break. =M 2 . finally c Since initially c =o and = r/r. but C is indefinitely small and RC is finite. we assume Hence ItC'/k = /(c re ~ K> /rC) and re ~ X' +  ~ l\{re Xf /r + kie ~ .. = .R/& is also large. 237.v /V {&>'". Also RC is the K./MW + ' (>) () (K/k t) + rk)*} and cot a = Mn{l/rk + k/R}. Its value is therefore kv. re  RGjk.PERMEABILITY. Hence the charge of therefore M= c is rate of charge of flux per unit k times as great in secondary as in primary. Transformers and Constant t equations are (1) and (2) as above. by a much larger resistance r'. + ?&)<7 = . initially. v = = = + kO) + re lk(c + kC) + RC. The is now a con v o . and . so we assume . \= IKljr + kljR) and In an ordinary Rulimkorff. .F.'l = L/M=k l(c E.F. we have a current c v r already established and the " break " only means replacing r very suddenly Hence c r. 253 mon core.r sin a. taken infinite. but v stant. = Id.v6 cos a.M. (3) and (4) give (/?//. = and = ?// := c r/r' finally .. kM.
lk(c +  kC) v) + <7. (7 ^ = An sin a.M.Ln.254 PERMEABILITY.rcj = kc (> (r'  r) e ~ And this lk(c \lkc e + fcd) ~M {(r'r)/r' + k(r'  r)/B}. 2?r. is = i^~ \LnlE) later in phase than the zero E. VW = The zero current is the zero E.F. / = LG Assume C= C Then  RC. EG = = = k(r'c k(r'c . An cos nt = C But {Ln cos rU + * f 5 sin + sin ?tf + a}. . and F=o. An cos . when when nt nt +a= etc. = 4?i {cos nt + = An GOB a. O = An/ C"OJ w Lw a cos a w + a sin a}. and write F A sin nt. The motion of a moving coil produces a periodic change of flux through it.*. r' at make.F. The 7T/2 . assume this change harmonic. sin (nt + a). v As and = = l(c + kU) + = r'c o . .*.M. since always great. TT. tan a = JR/. Dynamos. ". by . zero current a. etc. before. The initial value of EC is A:c (r' and is therefore very much larger than is r) = ^(r' r)/r. . 238. The resistance and inductance of the circuit are L and R hence the equation for the current is = We . o.
n~ (Ln/R). The correction for hysteresis does so also. If a direct current is wanted. because C is made later in phase by hysteresis and selfinduction as The correction for selfinduction is ta. The angle through which the brushes are moved is called the Angle of Lead. owing to If the two causes. dynamo be simply connected to the external we have an alternating current given by the above equations. and obviously increases with n. sliding contacts (brushes) are arranged to reverse the connections. l .M. namely hysteresis and selfinduction. at the instants when C vanishes.PERMEABILITY.F. The brushes should be adjustable. before. and therefore alter the sign of C in the external circuit. circuit. sequently the zero current is later than we should expect. is later with an iron core than with a Consimply paramagnetic core owing to hysteresis. 255 The zero E.
Measuring everything in absolute units we may say that the heat absorbed (in ergs) when a current c flows for time t from A to B = H=q c t. If the current be reversed. The current flows from B to A at 0'. vanishing for a temperature (6) called the Neutral Point for the metals. 107. AB 240. shall assume that all other heat reversibly taken in or given out is negligible in comparison.F. = . 239. the multiplier q is negative. the sign of the effect changes. and negative for another range. THEKMOELECTKICITY. Second Law of Thermodynamics. flowing from B to A. so that the warmer junction absorbs qct. Consider a circuit of the two metals A and B. and the colder junction gives out q'ct.M. Let the current flow from A to B at 6. at the junction ( 102). Peltier Effect. which is proportional to c 2 ) and to the time t. heat is absorbed or given out. with junctions at temperatures 6 and & (Q > 0'). Its value depends on the two metals and on the absolute temIt is usually positive for a range of values of perature 6. If a current flows across a junction of two metals A and B. Hence q the energy reversibly supplied per unit current per second it may therefore be called the E.CHAPTER XIII. As we shall see H= We 256 . If heat be given out. This heat is proportional to the first power of the current c (thereby differing from the Joule Effect.
or f u dB will be called the Thermoelectric Height of A over B. if the resulting current flows from A to B at the hotter junction.M. 2.q')ct 257 Hence the H E. If this third metal be L. taking the limit small. later.q')l(B .F. = (H . = = = = = { . this is true if 6 0' be small enough.M. of value q <{ in the circuit.M. equal to (0 B')/B if the  temperatures are reckoned on the absolute 8')/0 scale. Since h limit of (q .THERMOELECTRICITY.. when & (and therefore q q') This quantity. The existence of such an E.?')/? 6 is Or. the Thermoelectric q the E.. and will be denoted by h. and . Height of A over B per unit temperature difference (1 absolute). in thermodynamics. and dq/dB cf is the E.M.F. Since h H/Bct. It has two physical definitions 1. Thermoelectric Height. so that there exists a resultant The Thermal as Efficiency ) is is =(HH')/HHence (6 and  defined. : 241. 1" . let h and h. Hence h = hl  /<. I. M. PH. at mean temperature B. but the h.F. the Thermoelectric Height of q/B A over B the quotient of the heat reversibly absorbed by unit current flowing from A to B for one second by the Thermodynamic Absolute Temperature. total is hct.st at LB absorbed is li^ct at junction AL. and current c pass from A through L to B. was proved by Seebeck.H')/H = (q.B"). whole energy reversibly supplied is . of the circuit.H' = (q . bo the Then the luait thermoelectric heights of A and B over L. It is found by experiment that the effects described are the same whether the metals A and B be simply pressed together or united by solder or a thin layer of some other metal at the junction.F.
AbsoluteTempepatupes Fig.258 THERMOELECTRICITY. . 124. 123. Fig.
's for the ultimately vanishing portions IT IT into which the range is divided.F. where ft and 0' are represented by 017 and OU' in Fig. reckoned from lead. 123. 124 is drawn for copper and iron. at the higher temperature.M/ 0039/ These data are true from 18 to + except for German Silver. temperatures finite range of equal to the algebraic sum of the E. 7 would be = = (0  0') PQ = VU.^ OO. extract from Lupton's Numerical Tables the following formulae [t the centigrade temperature] for the thermoelectric height in microvolts of certain metals. The reason of the choice is given later ( 245). E. into small portions of which one is ft ff.M. for the 2 to ft. taken as We = Iron  1734 German Silver 12 "07 . In thermodynamics the indicator diagrams are described clockwise when heat is taken in Hence the ordinate for the higher temperature should be described downwards in that case.M. PQ . and others draw them with the sign of h everywhere reversed.2 "24 Magnesium + + + 0487< '05l'2t Copper Tin  1 36 + 43 '0095^ Aluminium + 416 '77  009. The graphs of h as in Fig.M. being 473 and 273 absolute 200 and Divide the considerable difference of temperature ft. being larger. The values given represent an ideal for a certain standard of purity and texture.F.. and 6. against 6 are obviously straight lines Some textbooks draw the figures as here.F. But the sum of such areas as PQQ'P' is the whole area ft We assume that the E. the temperatures centigrade. is . The Fig. area PQ<J P' ultimately.PQ .M. of a circuit with junctions at ft and ft . The thermoelectric and P'Q' heights of the first metal over the second are ft' be small enough and they are ultimately equal if ft therefore the E. 259 tabulated thermoelectric heights are zero.F. of a Thermal Circuit. ft.. Let the tem peratures of junctions be ft.THERMOELECTRICITY. ft. 124. 242. all For convenience.
we can describe it in the order SP3 Q. is represented by area P^Q^P^ and the current flows from copper to iron (P to QJ at hot junction. and the and Q Q2 for the metals conthermoelectric diagrams Z P P } : PP 1 V cerned. (573 and 673) the current would describe the clockwise circuit P 3 P4 Q 4 Q r Similar statements apply to other metals at other temperatures. . between two given temperatures is Q represented by the area bounded by the two ordinates and 2 Q2 corresponding to the temperatures. 1. and 8Q 2P2 clockwise and positive the sum of these triangles happens to be positive because the positive Hence if the junctions were heated triangle is the larger.F. . and heat would be taken in atboth junctions. Hence the E. If in Fig. = 15'98  0582*. If the temperatures were 200 and 400 C. 1 1 not.M.3 SQ^P2 S and it clearly is the algebraic sum of two triangles.F. of a copper iron = (136 t 00950  (1734 f 0487*. 273 and If the temperatures had been 673 absolute.260 THERMOELECTRICITY. SP Z Q 3 described counterclockwise and therefore taken negative.M.M. (473 and 673) the total area P P3 Q3 Q will be negative. If we start the cycle at 8. and can be taken in only along the wires (see 244. . whether the thermoelectric lines are straight or l .F. The area . 124 the and 200 C. Ex. because the negative triangle is numerically larger than the positive one. to these temperatures a current would actually be produced in the clockwise direction P2 P3 Q 3 Q2 and it is obvious that heat would be given out at both junctions. At t = and = 100 the heights are 1598 and 10 16.M. circuit for temperatures The height of the copper over iron is h E. P^P^Q. From the tables given.. Hence the current would not flow in this direction but the contrary one. With temperatures 300 and 400 C. 245).). .^.F. temperatures be 273 and 473 absolute (or the E. the figure P2 P3 Q3 Q2 crosses itself at 8. Direction of the E. and 400 C. find and 100 C. 243. so that the diagram is described clockwise.
. 2.">() Otherwise thus hence the area at the average temperature = LV98 = Ex. = ir = p. = . for unit time. At = what temperature 1598 the height of copper over iron zero = 0582^. We //. . .Q.M. It then takes the original signs and increases to 600.F. between zero centigrade and zeio 244.THERMOELECTRICITY. ? = 1307. We have seen that the heat taken in at the hot junction = //! = thermoelectric height and temperature = P Q x Ot\ = area P^X^f^ l l The heat given out at the cold junction = //. What is the neutral point for iron and of a copper tin circuit. By figure.PM&P..M. 1307 x 100 = is 1307 microvolts.:t = 278. . 4. .Q 2 P. Thomson Effect. for temperatures is and 556 ? This found to be zero. Ex.P.^Vv } 1 1 i .F.M. 7. = trapezium ^(1598 + 1016) : = mean of parallel sides x x 100 = 1307 microvolts == The height 0582 x . 7r== Jf. Assuming the diagrams German silver circuit to be straight lines. until it vanishes at 521.. Imagine unit current to flow round the circuit P..F. of a copper absolute. 6./'.JA:/'. find E. This diminishes till 253 is reached.. .  If.J7 . then vanishes.. might have expected that //.M.area P.!/. from 100 to 200 C.VV. of the 201 distance between 1*307 millivolts.P.P^X. 3. Ex.}/: = P Q X M\ .p 2 ..</.V.. lut obviously this is not the case in general. _ jr  . And the heat converted into work is the E.^. 5.X. German silver ? Find E. One copper iron junction is kept at 25 the other is to 600. It changes sign and increases till 278 is reached then it diminishes as the temperature rises. Ex. = Po^o x Or.M.V.. State generally what currents gradually raised from would be observed. . Ex. What would be theE.F.P^^Mt ..Vi<?. Ex. A current is observed at 0.
JV 2 Jtf2 2 Q2 is the Peltier Effect at the second junction.262 THERMOELECTRICITY. This is the reason why the lead thermoelectric diagram is chosen as the coordinate axis. is the Peltier Effect at the hot junction (per unit current per second). = l N l NN l PM 1 1 = We PjQ^Mi 1 NN 1 P P MMP 1 1 P PQ. Graphic Representation of Peltier and Thomson Effects.e. or in both. no reversible production or emission of heat has been detected in a lead wire. it must be absorbed in one wire or the other. If the first metal be lead. Heat is given out if a current flows in iron from the hotter to the colder end. Hence the heat utilised and given out ( exceeds 2) the heat taken in (Jffj) therefore other heat must be taken in at some other place. its thermal diagram is the axis of coordinates OU2 Ur Hence the heat absorbed in the wires of a leadcopper circuit (per unit current per second) area Q Q. Then the area heat absorbed per second in a copper wire when Q Q2 2 a unit current flows from the hotter to the colder end. we see that the heat absorbed (per unit current per MJPZ second) when a current flows in an iron wire from the colder to the hotter end.M. If the current were reversed. i. W+ H William Thomson from thermodynamic afterwards verified by experiment.copper circuit.. 2 Q2 Each of these areas represents heat taken in when it lies on the right hand side of the current. . due to the temperature It is positive if the area be surrounded in a difference. But if it be not absorbed at the junctions. clockwise direction. The reversible production or disappearance of heat in a wire. 2 Z and Q are the Thomson effects in the two wires. the heat taken in. have now interpreted all the areas in the figure. as in the portions PP of "the circuit described clockwise.F. was deduced by Sir .N2 r By experiment. this absorption would be changed into production of heat. Returning to the iron. whose ends are not at the same temperature. 2 is the total heat taken in (per unit current per second) and is therefore the E. and 245. principles. when it is traversed by an electric current.
= Difference of temperatures x difference between the mean temperature and the temperature T of the neutral point x a constant for the metals which is the dif ference of their gradients.. a.)(. The do not appear except in calculating the neutral point. a. .F. ? t and t' and /. Thermoelectric Formulae: E.r.M. 124) = = area I\M\^. h.)T = (6 3 6 )(7 0.. Formulae for Peltier and Thomson Effects.F.. then h (centigrade). Then the thermoelectric heights 7t.M.t (f>i !>. sides are h T 1 .'.. . is represented by a trapesium whose parallel and h' corresponding to temperatures t and /'. 247. The Thomson effect in the first metal (say iron. Fig. . 6 )(7 O and E.. of the metals over lead are given by A! . Hence the E. 2G3 246./V). k^ = a l + + b. /t = .b. = a. Take the usual case in which the diagrams are straight lines. a's All these formulae involve the coefficients 6. (J/.'.THERMOELECTRICITY../'.P.F. The Peltier effect at t = h(t + 273 C ) = absolute temperature x difference of temperature and neutral point x a constant which is the difference of gradients for the metals considered. Then h' = (b.. + J/.M. . be the neutral point.. h = = rti + b^t A.  M^f.. and h. = o at temperature T.(&. This gives the heat per unit current (absolute"! in eri^s. 1 The E.M. b'. If T we have two temperatures .
we = Gradient X mean . 125. FAaf. and BC. Reversing the sign. + EFfa. l 2 3 as in Fig. Q (273 + ^ f * ) 2 of the metal x Difference of temperatures absolute temperature. CD. DE. and the quantity of heat is . copper wire and a German silver wire are connected to a galvanometer at the temperature of the room (16C. algebraic sum is the total heat provided per unit current. The Peltier effect at 6 l is that heat is taken in . 6 = + area <?<:&.F. M. Compare the total heat taken in reversibly (algebraic sum of Peltier and Thomson effects) with the heat given out irreversibly (Joule effect). Show how to find the E. Ex. Imagine a unit charge to flow round the circuit. find the Thomson effect =b (t. and the heat absorbed per second in each wire. thermal diagrams of the EF metals . 2. Ex. This energy is provided reversibly and is therefore equal to the the other Peltier and per unit charge) in metal CD with junctions at 0] and 2 is = + area CDdc. Thomson effects are DEed. the heat absorbed per second at the hot junction. and is evidently the area of the hexagon ABCDEF. heat is absorbed as the current runs from colder to hotter. Now t v MM l z difference of heights at the temperatures and (a t and z ).). F. T=  221. The E. Fig. . If the total resistance be 1 ohm find the current in the galvanometer. The Thomson effect (heat taken in 1 + + ABba. 1 Wires of three metals are joined in series. so as to get the standard case where heat is absorbed as the current flows from the hotter end. be the Let AB.M. Use the data in 241. The other ends are soldered together and put in boiling water. Similarly BC. FA the ordinates corresponding to absolute temperatures. for iron.264 THERMOELECTRICITY. 125. and the three junctions are at different temperatures. The equation to find the neutral point of copper and German silver is A  136  0095 T= 1207 + '05127 7 . Also.
So the E.20 .M. multiply by '0014. Calculate the magnetic Held produced at its centre when there is a difference of temperature of 1 between 6. terminals at .M. M.4.THERMOELECTRICITY.RC 3 = 1 x ('0014).F. An intermediate metal makes no difference if there is no temperature change.M. Similarly the heat given out at the two cold junctions with the galvanometer = 58 ergs. A ring of 1 cm. In the German silver wire. As no other work is done in the circuit except the irreversible production of heat. radius is half of copper and half of German silver. Its resistance is '003. get the actual heat absorbed per second. and the heat per '0014 amp. determine another the E. which = 102 . the total heat absorbed per second = the joule heat produced. at 16. calculate the magnetic moment of the rectangle. therefore the current is In the complete diagram the current flows clockwise. through the galvanometer. The heat 6 given out per ampere second = '0512 x 84 x 331 x 10~ joules 3 = 1 42 x 10~ . of a bismuthplatinum circuit with the and 100 be given as G5(H) microvolts.F. and. 4. long are joined is together to form a rectangle 4 by 1 cm. F. A copper and an iron wire eacli 5 cm. This shows that it goes from German silver to copper at 100 C. 1*4 milliamperes. get 1'02 x 10~ joules = 102 ergs. but the difference of temperatures of junctions is '1. In the copper wire the heat given out is 4 ergs.= 2 x 10~ 6 joules = 20 ergs. Of course this heat =. 279. Ex.190 and Ex. . 5 the current in amperes. 5. at about the temperature of the room. To We Ex. be 12300.. The Peltier heat absorbed at 100 per ampere second is 373 x (100 + 221) x (0512 + "0095) lO' 6 = "00727 joule. The difference is 84 the difference between mean temperature and neutral point is 58 + 221 The E. the E. = = The ( 0512 + 0095) is 1 x 84 x 279 = 1400 microvolts nearly. is that of a circuit with terminals at 100 and 16. Find the two Peltier effects and the two Thomson effects per unit current for a copperiron circuit. If the rectangle is at a temperature near 15.F. between . resistance ohm. If its terminals. 265 The two wires are connected to one another directly at 100. 3. Ex. the current show that the flowing from the bismuth at the hotter junction. thermoelectric height of bismuth over platinum at 50* is (M. (2) with terminals at 200 and 300 C. Their joint resistance 012 ohm. the temperature difference is 84 and the mean absolute temperature is 273 + 58 = 331. (1) with terminals at and 100 C. = 2 x 10" 6 joules = 20 ergs.58 .
Abnormal Metals. circuit. The graph for nickel is the diagram. Deduce a formula (linear) for the relative thermoelectric height. of a platinum and a platinumiridium with one junction at zero centigrade. have the same kind of graph. But in the case of iron.266 THERMOELECTRICITY. is given as 737 and 1571 microvolts respectively when the other junction is at 500 and 1000.M. and express the height for bismuth by a graph and formula as in 241. It has three nearly straight Other magnetic metals portions. 7.F.F.M. joined by short curves. o . thermoelectric height. the shown in 248. between and t C. The E. and a formula for the E. Ex.
) = //(/.F. then the neutral points for P  E= and jfiT b (t l (.M. But a thermal couple of platinum and a platinum iridium alloy can be used up to the melting point of platinum. It is a question for experiment whether the usual formulae hold at such high temperatures. in this circuit But + pq/(p = {i 4.M. Compound Wires.THERMOELECTRICITY. junctions at temperatures h(0 &} proportional to the temperature difference. when melting begins the physical properties alter. and IC+qc = E. 2G7 one being at a uniform thermoelectric height h above the other. be the temperatures of the junctions. Then the E. and this compound wire connected to a wire of L of resistance L Let c and c' lie c + c' m L.} (/ *f.M. by Kirclioff's laws.Suppose wires of P and Q of resistances p and q to be joined in parallel. Q and L. 25O. by the single L wire and the parallel P and Q Hence the apparent E.q) = resistance of the circuit formed wires. and L.M.F. will have E. if V and /. = .*. t.+ pc = E. the currents in P and Q and C Then.F. of a circuit of these metals. with and 0'. IC.M.Mi + ')i .  /. Such circuits are very exact and convenient measurers of temperature.)(/' .F. Let the thermoelectric heights two metals P and Q over a third metal L be given by + &^> a + Vt. in the L and P circuit = E say of a ' . Alloys have often a low melting point and = . {Hp I + q)+pq}O= Eq + E'p. . + PQ!(P + Q)} c= ( E(i + E 'v)l(p + f rt Now and * . + >. in the L and Q circuit = E' s&\ 1 . within the limits for which the lines are straight.F.
773. 200.M.M. 6 the varying temperature of the junction. roots is often inadmissible. To find A and Since = 30. is a quadratic function of either temperature ( 245). Let be the E. are used for temperatures of furnaces. f  2 h + hb So that the gradient of the compound wire..268 Hence where THERMOELECTRICITY Eg + E'p = b^Vp_ _ ~ ~ p+ q p + q ti W* T = (g + P*o)/(^ + q). of a circuit is strictly proportional (within the limits of application of the formulae) to the difference of temperature. = when 6 = 0. as platinum. Thermal couples of highly refractory metals. we have = Ad + B&~. quadratic equation for the other temperature.M. of which one of the If we can measure temperatures with a . assuming the metals not abnormal. Such a graph would rapidly give the temperature for every E.4 375.the other junction is at 100 and 200. 200 and E E E E B . with E and 6 as ordinate and abscissa. It is 35 when the junction is heated in a flame.F. is (bq + b'q)/(p + q) where j? q has any Hence given two metals we can combine positive value.M. The other root and obviously negligible.M. The E. One junction is kept at units. 45 so that put 6 = 100. Keep one junction at a and the observed E. little more difficulty. whence Solving for A = +400005. will give a fixed temperature.F.F.M. We have seen ( 249) that if two wires (natural or artificial) have parallel thermoelectric diagrams. 30 45 = = 100 A + 10000 J3. standard quality. = between freezing and boiling Instead of solving this quadratic. we could have constructed a graph from the given data. Find the temperature. C. the E. the two wires have their thermoelectric diagrams not parallel. 251. Thermometry. the E. It is naturally easier to get a compound wire whose line is parallel to the lead line or copper line than it is to prepare a reliable alloy of perfectly : . . say 0C. and iridium platinum alloys. B = . is 30 and 45 when . the equation 35 = 3750  000750 3 is we have point.F.F. relative to any metal L. in arbitrary Example.. them to get what is practically another metal of any chosen intermediate slope.00075. For.F.
UNITS. of time units in the time. etc. A Numeric is a number. Thus. involuWhen tion. They are definable as ratios.. 252. number and the number 253. and the units retained are denned in terms of one another by the simplest possible * Angles and Absolute Temperatures are also numerics. and are the same in all systems of units. Every physical quantity has its value expressed by a numeric and a unit. Unit is a selected standard quantity of the same kind as the physical quantity whose value is expressed. and a cubic foot are both units of volume. this is only a contracted way of expressing that the number of space units in the space traversed the product of the = of velocity units in the velocity. The operations of multiplication. There is no necessary conIt is even possible nection between units of different kind. rational or irrational. Thus a gallon to have different units of the same kind. Systems of Units. Units. 269 . we write the dynamical equation A Space = Velocity x Time. if a charge be given as 5 coulombs.* positive or negative. can only be performed with numerics. a coulomb and an electrostatic unit of charge are both units of quantity of electricity.CHAPTER THEORY OF XIV. 5 is a numeric and coulomb is the name of a unit of charge. integral or fractional. But in order to simplify formulae superfluous units are abolished where possible.
therefore is Similarly the new unit volume is L* old units. L is the mass (in old The new unit density is such that 3 so it is a density M/L S in terms of units) of a volume L the old unit. the systematic unit of energy. is THEORY OF UNITS. free magnetism. . because it can be . set of units called a System.270 relations. New units that have dielectric power or permeability. other fundamental units are adopted if necessary. Change of Units. in such a Let us alter the fundamental way that the new units of length. l It therefore is LT~ old units of velocity. The new unit area is the area of a square of side L. condensing the definitions. M . Fundamental Units. In physics. The new unit velocity has to be new unit length per new M ( 253). seemed fundamental drop out of use when they can be expressed in terms of other units thus the calorie is not regarded as a fundamental heat unit. units. we have area of a square of unit side Unit area = volume of a cube of unit side volume = such a density that there is unit mass density in unit volume = velocity = such is a velocity that described in unit time unit space is acceleration = such an acceleration that unit velocity gained in unit time and so on. The new unit acceleration produces a velocity LT~ old 2 units in a time T hence it is LT~ old units. In dynamics. and time are L. so in terms of the old units it is that velocity with which a distance L is described in time T. such as units of electric charge. expressed as a simple multiple of the erg. mass and T times the old units. A which satisfies these conditions In all systems. 255. 254. the units chosen as fundamental are those of length. unit time l . it 2 old units of area. mass and time.
the force / between two point changes q and q' is given by . = . hence the new unit a is multiplied by x therefore a is its dimension in terms of The same definition applies length. mass and time. . b If the new unit be L" Tc old units.0 force. 256. then the unit of acceleration is multiplied by LT~\ The new unit force is that force which (in old units) gives It therefore LMT~" old acceleration LT~' to mass M. the new unit force would be the weight of old units of old units of muss. T 1. Unit of Electric Charge. 2. in Paris. In the above formula. to any other fundamental units that have to be adopted. Dimensions of Force. If we had defined unit force as the weight. then L 1. : The . It illustrates the fact that the dimensions of a quantity do not depend on the nature of the quantity. b. Hence the dimensions of force are 1. Dimensions. continent. Let us define the unit of force as that which gives unit acceleration to unit mass. and therefore would be The dimensions of force would therefore be 0. In any medium. M = = 257. 271 be M way c every new dynamical h T unit can old units of the same kind. 258. a. and T. c definition is as follows If one only of the fundamental units be altered. of unit mass. This system is preferred on the in length. the indices are called the Dimensions of the unit considered in terms of the fundamental units of length. and we multiply the length unit by x leaving the mass and time units only x. similarly for b and c. Jf unaltered. 1 and units.THEORY OF In the same a expressed as L UNITS. by multiplying it by x and the definition of the derived unit involves that it shall be multiplied by x r then r is the dimension of the derived unit in terms of the fundamental unit considered. If the fundamental units be multiplied by L. mass and time. 1. M = M M but on the way its unit is defined.
q'. and Jc the dielectric /= shall define the units of charge and of dielectric constant in terms of one another. in terms of the correThen the equation sponding units of another system. . mass. . Let the units of length. must be satisfied when these other units are used. = = = = Hence MLJT. charge.= Q*/KL 2 . is where r constant. T. Induction and Flux. * This agrees with 7 if Jc = 1 for air. [Induction] = \M L~ T~ l The surface integral of the Induction is got by adding together a number of products each of which is an induction multiplied by an area. Q. r q q' This each qq'/lcr* is = clearly satisfied K = ML/T . time. Q. k. 259. and 2 therefore when / L. M. Unit of Field. q. Hence its dimensions are [Flux of Induction] = [Jlfi L"\ T~ K$ x l L"] Its dimensions are therefore the same as the dimensions This agrees with the fact that the surface of charge. [Field] = \MLT~* I M L T~ l Induction hence is the product of field by dielectric constant. Hence the dimensions of field are symbolically represented by dividing those of force by those of charge thus. integral of the induction over any closed surface is equal to the charge within it.272 THEORY OF UNITS. the distance apart. by the condition that We in every consistent system of units. and dielectric constant be L. r 1. 1c K. using square brackets to denote a unit. * by the system of values /. Field is defined as force per unit charge.
THEORY OF UNITS.
more
.
260. Other Units. briefly. Current
[Current]
[Potential]
= charge per
l
Other units may be considered
unit time,
[3/a
= = = =
[JIT*
L$ T~ K$/T] =
L$ T

A'
\.
[Energy per unit Current]
[Capacity]
[Resistance]
[Charge /Potential]
[Potential/Current]
= [L K]
= [L~
l
TK~
l
],
etc,
261. Unit KT. Pole. Let m be the strength of a pole, then 4/irm lines of force originate from it. Pole strength is not therefore analogous to point charge, since 4?r</ lines of induction, or 4<Trq k lines of force, originate from a
charge
q.
lines of force, or the pressure perpH 2/87r. So when the pendicular to them, is Hit/Sir pole strengths of a system are given, and therefore the lines of force are determined, all the forces exerted are proportional to the value of p. for the medium. Therefore the force exerted by m on m' at a distance r is pmm'/r*. Hence unit pole is that which exerts on an equal similar pole at unit distance a force I//*. For the present, we leave undefined. for the unit of permeability we deduce as in Using
The tension along
=
/u,
P
253 (replacing
K by P'
1
)
[Magnetic Pole]
 M* fJ
T~>
r~
.
From a pole /w, 47ri lines of force hence the number of lines' per unit area of a diverge, m V\ concentric sphere of radius r is 4iwi/4irr 2 Hence Field Pole strength /(Distance)
262. Other Units.
=
=
/.
[Field] J/l Ai
7'' /'*.
Similarly Induction
..
= Field
=
X
/A
[Induction]
J/i L'l T~* /'
Flux = Induction x area =
M. PH.
I.
M$L*T~
/'.
1 '^
274
Evidently also
THEORY
otf
UNITS.
[Magnetic Moment]
=
[Pole x Length]
=
M% L% T~
j
l
P~*
[Strength of Magnetic Shell]
=
[Magnetic
Moment
Area]
263. Current, and Belated Units. The current in a circuit is equal to the strength of the equivalent shell, hence its dimensions are the same, therefore
[Current]
[Charge]
[Potential]
= M% L$ T~ P~i = [Current] x T = M* L* P~i = [Energy Charge]
l
f
or
[Potential]
[Capacity]
[Resistance]
[Inductance]
= = = = =
[E.M.F.]
[J/
=
7
7
[Flux/7
]
if
T
2
Pj]
as before.
[Charge/Potential]
[E.M.F. /Current]
= [T 2 L~ P= [L T~ P].
l l
1
].
[E.M.F. /Rate of Change of Current]. [E.M.F. x Time/Current] = [LP] etc.
definitions
264. Comparison of the Systems. Using different of unit charge, we have reached different
258, 263. expressions for its dimensions in For a really scientific system the units are identical.
Hence, equating them,
..
PK
when we change from one system to another, we cannot alter the units of permeability and dielectric power independently, for they are connected by an equation.
So that
265. Electrostatic and Electromagnetic Systems. Let k be the dielectric power of air, and p the permeability of air, in our standard system of units.
THEORY OF
If
UNITS.
275
to another system by multiplying these units dielectric power of air becomes k'K, and the permeability of air becomes /i/P.
by
K and P, the
we pass
Suppose the units of mass, length, and time to be the centimetre, gram, and second. If we alter to the electrostatic system (defined by the fact that the permeability of air is 1) k/K and the units of length, l, mass, time are unaltered. Hence the electrostatic unit charge
=
Kk;
=
J/i
L\ T~* K\ = /Fold
units.
In the same way if we change to electromagnetic units, defined by the convention that the permeability of air is 1,
hence the electromagnetic unit charge
= M$L* T~ P* =
l
l/v//Tokl units.
Hence
Electrostatic Unit Charge
/

Electromagnetic Unit Charge
266. Velocity of Light. By many experiments it has been shown that the electromagnetic unit charge (absolute) U x electrostatic unit charge, where U = 3 X 10 !0
=
=
velocity of light,
either exactly or to a very close approximation.
Hence
That is, the units of charge only agree if we adopt such units of Tc and that the product of permeability and dielectric power of the standard medium air (or nit her
JJL
vacuum)
=
1
r
square of the velocity of
light.
be taken to represent the number of times an Ex. 1. If electromagnetic unit charge contains an electrostatic one, show that for I*>UMIthe ratio Electromagnetic unit/ Electrostatic unit is 1 /
U
U
tial
and
or E.M.F., U tor capacity, for inductance.
(.'
for current, I/
U
for resistance
276
THEORY OF
UNITS.
Using E.S. units throughout, the E.M. unit charge is the charge The E.M. unit potential is the potential to which the E.M. U. unit charge, i.e. the charge U, must be raised to do unit work ; it therefore is a potential l/U. The E. M. unit capacity is the capacity of a condenser in which a charge 7 has potential 1/C/"; it therefore is 2 The E.M. unit current is a flow of units of charge per The E.M. unit resistance is a second, it therefore is a current U. resistance in which a potential difference l/U" gives a current U; it is l/U". The E.M. unit inductance is the mutual inductance of two coils such that a change of current per second of units in primary produces an E.M.E. of l/U in secondary; it therefore is
U
.
U
U
= I and = 1] the E.S. unit of that [taking a slowness and the E.M. unit is a velocity. The dimensions are [L~ l TK~^ and [LT~ l P]. Neglecting and P these are [1 7 LT~ l ] and [LT~ l ] as required.
Ex. 2. resistance
Show
K
P
is
K
Ex.
3.
Show
is
E.M. unit
that the E.S. unity of capacity the reciprocal of an acceleration.
is
a length and the
Ex. 4. A long stream of bullets is sent from a machine gun, with velocity v at the rate of n bullets per sec. If e be the charge
of each in electrostatic units, find
the
equivalent
current
in
is nev electrostatic units. electromagnetic units = 10 nev/U coulombs. as above.
coulombs. The current
It therefore is
Of course
U=
nevjU
3 x 10 10
CHAPTER XV
CORPUSCULAR THEORY.
267. Units Employed. Iii this chapter we shall always imply the electrostatic system of units for charges, etc. Consequently the electromagnetic unit of charge will be called a charge of magnitude U (U=3 X 10', see 265), the E.M. unit of potential is a potential 1/U, a coulomb is U/1Q, a volt is 10s / U If E be the charge carried in electrolysis by 1 gm. of hydrogen, its value is given in 80 as 96500 coulombs. We* shall therefore have
= ^.
E=
=
There
is
96500 U/10 290 x 10 14
.
no need for greater accuracy, since the corpuscular data have not, as yet, been found certainly within
1
per cent.
268.
The Discharge
in Rarefied Gases.
At moder
ately low pressures, of the order of a centimetre of merAt cury, the discharge (if any) is a column of light.
lower pressures, below a millimetre, the column is seen to consist of alternate bright shells and dark spaces. Beginning from the kathode, each shell is of lower potential than the next one. Each can be regarded as a kathode in relation to the shell that follows it, or as an anode to the
one that precedes it. The first dark space, extending from the kathode to Tlio in'xt, the first shell, is called the Crookes Space. extending from tho first bright shell to the noxt, is
Faraday's. As the rarefaction
is
increased,
277
the Crookes space
278
CORPUSCULAR THEORY.
extends until, with sufficient exhaustion, it reaches to the walls of the bulb. Such a bulb is called a Crookes Bulb. The glass bounding the Crookes space is rendered incandescent.
Crookes
Faraday
Striated
Column
Kathode
Anode
,
Fig. 128.
A
"
shadow
small object (a mica cross) within the bulb casts a " on the glass, within which there is much less
converge to its centre of curvature. A solid placed at this point shows the most intense phosphorescence.
phosphorescence, precisely as though rays proceed from the kathode in straight lines. These rays must be partly If the kathode be a (or wholly) stopped by the object. considerably extended surface, the rays proceed from it normally. If therefore the kathode be concave, the rays
Kathode Rays.
The
properties
of
be exhibited by a bulb as in Fig. 129.
K
the rays may is the kathode
;
Anodel
Fig. 129.
A
and B are two screens with narrow slits at E and F. These determine a narrow pencil of kathode rays EOF.
carries. this limitation be abandoned the orbit would bo a parabola. a current nqv (electrostatic units) towards the kathode. tile) under a force constant l We . mass m. and velocity of We shall particles which form corpuscles. for we should have a particle moving (like a projecin magnitude and direction. perpendicular to the velocity. for reasons suppose them to have and 270. and r is therefore large and uniform. As the force Xq is path will no longer be a straight line.CORPUSCULAR THEORY. The /3 the kathode rays will be called to carry a charge (negative) q electrostatic units. 269. from C to D. The j8 Corpuscles. can be verified. Let C and D in Fig. the will be curved = Xq. (1) need here only consider the case where the path is If nearly straight. under graphed from the side. which appear later. the charge per unit length is nq. the charge which passes in one second any section of the pencil (say the screen B) is The pencil nqv. If there be n such corpuscles per unit length of a pencil of rays (produced as in 268). 129 be two parallel plates and let them be charged to a given potential difference so that there may lie an electrostatic field acting upwards in figure. Effect of Electric Field. D de The ray EFO is impinging along its whole length on molecules of gas in the tube and therefore produces a certain amount of phosphorescence enabling it to be photoThus its straightness. v. As each corpuscle is negatively charged. 279 is C and are parallel metal plates whose purpose scribed later. normal conditions. shall show that the properties of the kathode rays can be explained by supposing them to consist of small particles negatively charged and travelling with a very high We velocity. therefore. but with a radius of curvature r p such that wi //. the force on it will be X Xq downwards.
and thereLet its magnitude be field act H fore H/ U electromagnetic units. and suppose it perpendicular to the plane of Fig. of the methods employed by J. or nqv/U^ E. the curve of a corkscrew. Then the forces due to and are equal and r2 and r say. J. Values of m/q and we have v.M. Thomson was to measure the deflection 00' x produced by the magnetic field. Hence the force acting on unit length is in direction and of magnitude Hnqv/U 2 The force per corpuscle 2 It would bend a ray. pencil is equivalent to a current nqv E. the orbit is a curve whose curvature is everywhere the same. ranging up to 3Z7/10 or 9 x 10 cm.280 CORPUSCULAR THEORY. per sec. and then to adjust the electric field until the spot of One = phosphorescence produced on the glass was brought back to 0.S. i.e. into a curve whose radius of curvature is rz . (4) OO' = x = . given by mv"'/r z = Hqv/U*. H (1) 272. Effect of Magnetic Field. Dividing equation (2) by (3) whence v is found if r and r2 be observed and and X be known. Let the magnetic perpendicular to the rays. If plane. The value of q/m can be got from (1) and (2) by elimil H nating v. it is an arc of a circle. contrary. . If not plane. in electrostatic units. (2) If is large and constant. units Its direction is OE. If the length FO be s. 129 and away from the reader. 271. The values of v are different in different tubes and different intensity of discharge. originally is therefore Hqv/U straight. evidently s/2r. ( 269). The DC . it is a helix. but v is of the order 9 Z7/10. units. hence r Equation (3) } = H = X becomes = X IP I II.
The magnetic field is 9 x 10 9 electrostatic units. and r = 3 x 10". 27 X. which can l>e reduced to volts per cm. The electric field is therefore '03. in absolute E. . Let the potential ditt'erenre U. If q/m = 6 x 10 17 and cnce of potential between the kathode and the greater part of the bulb is about 2250 volts. approximate value of q/m 17 is 5*3 x 10 1. fi x 3 x 10' 3 x 1O show tliat the ditlVrEx. Here S = hence r 10. and the electromagnetic field. light. If q/m = 6 x 10 . 1 ' 9 (3x 10 2 ) 03 6 x 10 17 500 By (2). hence r gives is 281 U. . units and let n . and therefore it could be produced between two plates a cm. 3. long through a millimetre. the Let C be the current. field. Then C = </. If' m = <> x 10 17 .CORPUSCULAR THEORY.M. Reducing to the we get more familiar electromagnetic units by dividing by 3 x 10 This is about two thirds the earth's resultant magnetic '3.5 amp. number of corpuscles which pass per The kinetic energy is E = nwr. found. Hence sec. units. and r = onetenth the of velocity find the electrostatic field. by multiplying by 300. and equation 1. l H . is carried by a current of 1()~ 5 amperes.10 " 500 = 9 x 10". H= q U = ^ r L6 x 10 17 . x = 1/10 500.= ' l {) ti <] 2 x 1Q 8 = x 10 17 ' > fi Now = ergs. Ex.I" absolute . 10. calculate how much kinetic energy per sec.I . = 10~ E. substituting for q/m = v*/rX = XU*/rH*. An Ex.C = Byd). 2. apart by a potential difference of volts. E G" ~ = l '2 m r. (5) 17 . = 8/2. units of current = 10~ 3 x 10' and K Hence C 3 x 10 4 E.S.S. necessary to deflect a pencil 10 cm.
Professor J. OX OY XO OX 273. Identical Nature of all ft Corpuscles. It 274. by a strong electric and a magnetic field. Atomic and Corpuscular Charge. The preceding paragraph. Ex. both parallel to the same direction show that the electric deflection is parallel to . It was re garded as practically certain that q would turn out to be identical in magnitude to the charges e carried by an atom of or Cl. but electric fields ( 270) seemed to produce no effect. difficulties are able. 5. and the examples in it. assuming q/m constant. 75 to volts we multiply by and we get 2250. Corpuscles in a Crooks tube are incident perpendicularly are perpendicular at on a plane XOY. Thomson and others have made most careful experiments on these lines. and the magnetic is parallel to OY. and Hence V= To reduce Ex. or by any monovalent ion. = 5 '3 x 10 17 and v = 27 x 10 9 find the magnetic If qjm which will make the corpuscle describe a circular path of radius 5 cm. in which and The corpuscles are then deflected simultaneously coordinate axes. 4. Ex. y} reached by the corpuscles for different values of v. 6. units (electrostatic). H . It was early established that the /3 corpuscles are all of the same kind. The work done on this should = the kinetic energy gained = each corpuscle %mv. If they be called x and y. With the data of Ex. is Vq. the material of the electrodes. find the locus of the point (x. 4 find the electric field which would produce a curved path of radius 5 at the place where the field is normal to the path. This was because the rarefied gas in the bulb was a fairly good conductor. J. and the intensity of the current. independent of the nature of the gas.282 CORPUSCULAR THEORY. but the practical very great and at first were nearly insuperwas comparatively easy to study the effect of magnetic fields ( 271). in electrolysis. Hence q and m are constants [but see 289291]. suggest methods by which qjm can be found with more or less exactness. field 1 2 * = 19 x 1018 = q 2 6 x 10 17 300.
given a higher result. Physical and Chemical Constants (1911). which is 9650 absolute E. Thomson in 1897) was 2'3 x 10 17 but nearly every later experiment has The value in Kaye and Laby. 2.S. units. of a gas at normal temperature and pressure is 6'1 X 10 19 Calculate from this the mass of a ft) . calculate the number of molecules per c. is An atom is half this. Meyer (Kinetic Theory of Case number of molecules per cubic cm. hence the charge on each r i i r\\ n 261 x 10" = 214 x 102 x 01 x 274).M. is equivalent to 5316 x 10 17 . hydrogen atom. Ex. and of a corpuscle.. weighs 9 x Hr gm.cm. 283 Now 1 gin.cm. it M= follows that e/M = 9650 x 3 x 10 10 = 290 x 10'*. X 10" ". is Hence the mass of a corpuscle the lightest atom known. about 1 1800 of that of The first determination of e/m (J. = = 5 '3 x 10 17 . The answer is 201 x 10 "/2 x 4'7 x 10" l  2'8 x 10 . If mass of a hydrogen atom.S.CORPUSCULAR THEORY. estimates that the Ex. it is 4'7 Taking a more recent estimate of the electronic charge. of hydrogen carries a charge of 96500 coulombs. . total charge for 1 gm. hence its charge is The cubic cm. Hence a molecule weighs 90 x 10YGl x 10 19  148 x 10* gm. With same data. or 9650 X 3 x 10 10 E. 1. . A c. Whence by division M/m = 5300/29 = 1800. and 1 atmo5 sphere pressure) weighs 9 '0 x 10~ gm. . For the corpuscle. The ( 261 x 10 10 cubic cm. find the electronic charge. contains 2 x O'l x 10 atoms. units. <t 1 normal gas. and the mass of a corpuscle 41 14S x 10V2 x 1800 = x 1<) 2K gm. of hydrogen is 29 x 10" E. e/m = 53 x 10 17 . of hydrogen at normal conditions (0 C. taking the value q/m and putting q e. J.> . units A :> ' 1 1 . * Ex. that 3.
By using a magnet to divert the kathode stream to fall on a small thermopile it is found that h absolute units of heat (ergs) are conveyed per second. by passing between and through the atoms of which it is composed. V= . partly into Rontgen rays ( 283). the phosphorescence observed on the walls of the bulb and along the path of the kathode rays ( 268). A moderate thickness of lead is almost impermeable but aluminium is very permeable indeed.D. Note that nearly the whole change the kathode. Of course the penetration gradually destroys their energy. Find v if V is 2500 volts. Different forms of matter oppose a resistance to the motion which is more or less. The corpuscles can therefore penetrate matter. J ir. but not exactly. The energy destroyed in a collision is transformed partly into visible forms of light. show that If e. N h'c = mvz /2e. Hence dividing. strikes an atom it usually penetrates it without much loss of kinetic energy. . V volts. between the anode and kathode is m and v are connected by the approximate relation eV = 15Qmv~. 4 could be used the same way. Show this gives a relation between v and e/m. whence the e/m ISO* 3 result. combined with equation (1). hence the work each corpuscle is e F/300. If corpuscles impinge per second. give reasons later for supposing that a ft If it corpuscle is enormously smaller than an atom. largely into invisible light. their kinetic energy is h = %Nmv*. even in its solid form. proportional to their shall t We 275. .e. = = 5 '3 x 10 7 13 . . 5. CORPUSCULAR THEORY. and e/c. The current is c electrostatic units. D. done on gained Since = of potential takes place near in absolute units is F/300. 4.284 Ex. and . 2500. the P. of t The result. This = the kinetic energy The P. gives a value The result of Ex. i. Penetration of Matter by ft Corpuscles. The current is c = Ne. x 10 M v = 3 x 10 9  Ex. density.
i enough. filtered out by passing through cottonwool. >:. or other. These rays do the . because the electrons are too large to go through . These corpuscles may be said to drift.CORPUSCULAR THEORY. 276. . Apparently. but still has reasonably high velocity and can be sorted out rapidly attach to itself a . by various stimuli (such as the incidence of ultra violet light on a metallic surface). must also be produced for it is obvious that whenever a negative corpuscle separates from an uncharged molecule. 277. Gases loaded with electrons can have them entirely This is not. however. one should use a glass bulb with an aluminium end for they get through aluminium fairly easily. or through electric fields opposing its motion. The differences are only that it is very much smaller and that it carries a It diffuses. per sec. not extend many centimetres in the atmospheric air outside the tube for the velocity of the corpuscles is gradual Iv diminished by collision with air molecules. outside a vacuum bulb. which we shall call a corpuscles. Lenard detected rays outside Crookes bulb which were prolongations of the Crookes rays inside. it behaves almost like an ordinary gaseous molecule. The nature of the a corpuscles is considered later. It then becomes a charged complex. a charged electron can attract and . Other free bodies positively charged. number of uncharged molecules. but can negative charge. like any other gas. Lenard Bays. When a /3 corpuscle has lost its excessive velocity through collisions with molecules. it must leave an equal positive charge somewhere . be collected in any region of space by a feeble electric field. which is heavier than an ordinary molecule and diffuses slower. But they are by no means inert even an uncharged hydrogen molecule has an average velocity of about 2 x 1C 5 cm. These represent the relatively few To study them corpuscles which pass through unstopped. Drifting Electrons. if at normal temperature. of course. Free /3 corpuscles of small velocity can be produced in any gas. because they have not the enormous directed velocities met with in Crookes tubes.
But certain agencies (see 277) ionise gases. 280. fields. made conducting and then left to itself. even when fully ionised. In gases in their normal state there are hardly any charged ions. have a tendency to seek each other out and coalesce into neutral bodies. i. however.g.e. into ordinary gaseous molecules. dilute HC1) which is not exposed to an electric field. ve electricity flows conto the field. ft charges by carriers. An motion contrary to its direction. the ions (H+ and 01 ) move aimlessly like ordinary molecules and exert an osmotic pressure of exactly the same. drifting with considerable velocity and attracting one another. Thus a gas. These drift under the influence of electric In an electrolyte (e. Conduction of Electricity. The conduction is due to the transport of f and corpuscles. The current will not affect a galvanometer. kind. as above. and consequently gases hardly conduct at all. But one can find the leakage between a metal disc con . Measurement of Conduction in Gases. There is evidence. and therefore proportional to the conductivity itself. which are a and free or loaded. sides of 278. and therefore a small excess of 279. The positive and negative carriers or ions. molecules.286 a filter. that none of the usual electromagnetic methods are of any use. loses its conductivity at a rate proportional to the number of ions present. ously in all directions if there be electric field slightly assists which travel promiscuno electric field. but because their charge makes them drift to the any narrow channel. that positive trary travelling ions may exist. In electrolytes we have seen that conduction is due to the transport of ve ve and f charges by atoms or molecular aggregates called irons. and adhere. CORPUSCULAR THEORY. with uncharged believed that electricity is In metals it is carried almost entirely by ft corpuscles (negative). and they then show conductivity. Loss of Conductivity of Gases. The conductivity is so small in a normal gas.
or kept at a different potential. . and the current is 1/3000 E. calculate the current carried by the air. unit is 1/3 x 10 10 E. }the ions can reach one plate or the other in a time too short for them to be appreciably diminished in number so that JV reach each plate per second. the gas were ionised at start. 1 below.S. can therefore describe the current as 1/9 x 10 E. in Ex. i. by Let 277 half of them are any of the agencies described in ve ve and half are If the field be exceedingly strong.13 amperes. and a parallel plate earthed. units. by a sensitive electroscope consists of a gold leaf repelled 1." . and the electroscope would then be nearly uncharged.M. 1/300 E. the air be continuously kept ionised to the same extent. units. However. possible depends only on the ionising power of the agent. how would the current alter with the time? As the current carried does not depend on the potential difference and only depends on the carriers available. A The potential falls one volt. and the capacity is six hence the charge that escapes per minute is 6/300 = 1/50. be the number of ions produced per second. Ex. 287 nected with an electrometer. but not kept ionised ? The carriers would be destroyed both by acting as conductors ami by coalescing with the opposite kind. travel across is inversely proportional to the Held which urges them. . Hence conduction would cease after a time. units. then no current is carried. What would happen if. An E. 3. If the electrostatic capacity of the electroscope be six and the fall of potential be one volt per minute. N . 1. the time which it lasts before it combines with one of the opposite kind. and a charge f. i. the current would remain sensibly constant for nearly 500 minutes. and the electroscope were originally charged to 500 volts. 2.e. in the above example.per minute. a limit would be reached when the potential difference reached For the time taken by the carriers to certain degree of weakness. (if it be considerable). or 1/3 x 10 y coulombs.e. For method see Ex. If. We 1:t Ex. the leaf is read by a microscope on a scale calibrated in volts.\Ne reaches the kathode while ^Ne reaches the anode. The disc of the electroscope leaks across an air gap to another disc which is earthed. The position of fixed metal plate to which it is connected. and becomes inert. .S. Ex. units per second. or 12 = 11 x 10.M. Thus the current is ^Ne.CORPUSCULAR THEORY.S. If this time exceeds the lifetime of a carrier. 1/9 x 10 . independent of the area of the Thus the greatest current plates or their distance apart.
or can be directly found by weighing the cloud. and a more extreme super.saturation causes deposition on the positive particles likewise. The Absolute Charge and Mass of a Corpuscle. to the descending cloud an electric field of magni. There is formed. if it be produced within a closed space. the vapour pressure is dimin ished. is f ira into drops can be determined.288 281.cm.. water vapour per cubic cm. as in the previous paragraph Apply and their velocity of fall w be observed. but the temperature also falls (because the is adiabatic) to such an extent that the diminished pressure is too great for saturation.saturated water vapour. volume or mass of the drop. The CORPUSCULAR THEORY. or its mass in 3 But the whole mass of the water formed grams. 2ga?/9/3 [g hard to measure. either by simply weighing the cloud or. Let the positive corpuscles be separated from Let water the negative ones by means of an electric field.cm. M N = m= = = . which only very slowly deposits on the water surface and the sides of the change vapour no cloud We vessel. Let the super. If the air space be suddenly increased by lowering the water level. Now the volume of each drop in c. and f Tra M/m number of corpuscles per c. it becomes saturated with water vapour. by calculating from the change of vapour pressure the amount of water which must have been precipitated.saturation permitted. have been deposited on the negative ones. Number of Corpuscles in a Given Space. if ft be the coefficient of viscosity of air.saturation be controlled so that only the of condensed The mass negative corpuscles are affected. and thus a is found. since there is nothing to deposit water on. the drops will fall with a sensibly uniform The rate of fall w is not velocity w 981]. If perfectly dustfree air be left in a closed vessel in contact with pure water at any temperature.free air contain ions. Let a radius of each 3 water drop. a sufficient supersaturation causes deposition to take place on the negative corpuscles. 282. can be calculated from the degree of super. By a formula due to Stokes. But if the dust. . have clear super.
units). find the radius and mass of a water drop which descends at the rate of "04 cm. we get the mass of a hydrogen atom. and knowing the charge carried by a gram of hydrogen. hence = 23 x 10' 1 x 981/74 = 305 x 10'". .S. Hence the mass m of the 10 47 x 10. or even three. . ft units. the negative charge per corpuscle. If the coefficient of viscosity of air be 00017. is found from 5*3 X 10 17 the equation e/m Assuming that the corpuscular charge e is also the charge of a monavalent atom in electrolysis. Ex. J. M. contains a negative corpuscle of charge e* Hence an upward force Xe acts on each drop.CORPUSCULAR THEORY. If the cloud was rendered stationary by an electric field of 74 units (E. tude 289 Each drop (E. Thomson gave the earliest reliable measurements. 2. 10 290 x 10 14 /4'7 x 1C = 616 x 10. J. directed downwards. while a hydrogen atom carries hydrogen atoms in a gram is the charge 2 '90 x 10 U Hence the number of . A gram of hydrogen carries e. 8 = '00017 but w = 2</a /9/3./53 corpuscle is x 10 17 = 89 x 10~ 2S .3 . mean derived from the latest results (Kaye and Laby) is X = = X m = m . Hence a.). per second. 1. Ex. ing or diminishing X. The mass = *ira = x 9 x 00017/2 x 981 giving a 23 X 10". find e. .S. and the cloud is the weight of the drop suspended quite stationary if Xe The cloud can be made to rise or fall by increas%Tra?g. A e = 47 x lO" 10 E. PH. and these behaved rather differently.= 3 O4 = 000177. * It corpuscles was found that a few drops contained two. If be the mass of a corpuscle. I. we then By observing w we find a and by observing find e. . Evidently e x 74 = 23 x 10" 11 x e g. 2 Here w = 04. The mass of a hydrogen atom 1/616 is x 10 23 = 162 x 10~ 24 .S.
being caused by the corpuscle striking gaseous molecules but they originate most abundantly in Fig. of Ex. assuming ira~p' = v. owing to the shortness of the waveseries. They are not regularly reflected or refracted. and are therefore not supposed to consist of travelling charged particles. The mass of a cubic cm. the "mean free path" of a gaseous molecule between encounters with other molecules assuming that ira~p = v where a is radius of molecule. already been alluded /3 283. Ex. As is well known. Ex. They originate from every portion of a Crookes or Lenard stream. and v is the volume per molecule. find the mass of a globe of water which descends at the rate of 1 cm. They are given off whenever a corpuscle. in air and the electric field which will make it" ascend at this rate. the Rontgen rays appear to be either very short trains of waves or. 5. . strikes matter. . But while light travels in a long series of similar waves.290 CORPUSCULAR THEORY. moving with a sufficiently high velocity. 2. Ex. and is 9 x l<r 6 /l62 x 1CT 24  56 x 10 iy . These have to. . The number of atoms of hydrogen is got by dividing by the mass of an atom. Estimate the number of molecules per cubic centimetre any gas at normal pressure and temperature from data of 282. similar to light waves. 1. Find also p'. of hydrogen is 9 x 10~ 5 gm. The natural hypothesis is that they are disturbances in the ether. 6. isolated disturbances. more likely. Find the number of molecules of a gas in a mol. per min. . the mean free path of a corpuscle between encounters with the molecules of a gas. They are not deflected by any electric or magnetic field. The number is the same as for hydrogen. 4. With data as in Ex. Bontgen Bays. Ex. The number of molecules is half this. 129) where the rays strike a from the point (as solid. 7 Bays. 3. 7. . = 28 x 10 19 . Assuming that the radius of a gaseous molecule is 10~ 8 compare the volume of the molecule itself to the volume per molecule in a gas at normal temperature and pressure. Find p. Xrays. Take the gas at normal temperature and pressure.
none can yet say that it is fully The a corpuscles of radium are probably helium justified. in various cases. . and helium atoms. 4. Hence they can be used in surgery to examine the bones and viscera of a living person. Hence UjHr = 'e/mv = t 8 rays. If an a corpuscle be a charged hydrogen atom. Their velocities and ratio m/e can be observed in the same way as for the /3 rays but with more diffiThe velocities are much smaller (about 108 cm. 1. Consequently for a rays. r = 7 7 x 10 .CORPUSCULAR THEORY. t Ex. 284. But for eV = 150 Mir 2 = 2'9 x 10 14 hydrogen e/m 150*?.. is either the same as for sec. and phosphorescent screens.) a hydrogen atom or twice or four times as great. hydrogen molecules. is . Canal Rays. for a 2. Ex. being much more penetrative than B corpuscles. which travel towards the kathode. Precisely as in Ex. of 2500 volts ? 274. = 53 U r = 10*. The molecule of helium is a single atom. They consist of positive elecIf the kathode trons. and 1 S x 10. Taking e'm = 2'9 x 10 x 10 17 v = 3 x 10 9 for rays. These are harder to detect in vacuum. by a magnetic The radius field. They easily traverse a considerable thickness of matter. though they occur as universally. or a Rays. rays. calculate which . . and most affected . . In fact. atoms with charge 2e so that m/e is twice that for hydrogen. be a short metal hollow cylinder.D. and stream backwards behind the kathode.= 29 X 2500 x 10" . tubes than Crookes radiation. and m/e. 291 they affect photographic plates. .for the curvature of path is 60 times as jjrent in 2'9 X 10 6 * The atomic weight of Helium is 4. per culty. .* But. many of these will rush down the cylindrical canal. likely as this may be. people have spoken of three types of a electrons as hydrogen atoms. . of curvature of path is produced by a r field of // (electro magnetic) units given by mv/r = Jfei'/i ". what velocity is given to it by a P.
This explains why it is so much harder to make experiments on the magnetic deflection of canal rays than on that of kathode rays. But the ft corpuscles appear to owe their existence to the violent impact of the much more massive a corpuscles against the kathode. 130). field . and the emerged stream can be analysed by a powerful magnetic to ( perpendicular plane of figure. or a rays. and 5 '5 x 10~ 2 for j8. considerably more to the right. the radiation is hindered in all directions Eontgen radium the bottom of but one. or ft rays.] Ex. identified Crookes. y which have since been with Canal. and If a little be put at a narrow fissure in a block of lead (see Fig. 285. stream deflects the posiFig. tube the ft In a Crookes corpuscles are much more obvious than the a ones. Radioactivity. The p rays are more affected but the difference is not very great. Function of the a Corpuscles. the negative cur284) very slightly to left (see Ex. and carry practically the whole discharge in virtue of their greater velocity. and toThis wards observer). of the three kinds called Ordinary radium sends out rays a. 130. If part of the kathode be screened. 110 Crookes radiation originates from the screened portion. tive current. . the latter case. and leaves the 7 rays undeflected. 2. ft. rent. rays. 3. 286. the curvature is still smaller. [For the other rays in which e/m is half or quarter as large.292 CORPUSCULAR THEORY. Are a or rays more affected by electric fields ? Here the curvature is proportional to e/mv z = 2 '9 x 10~ 2 for a.
Radium bromide is generally used. cannot l>e applied to corpuscles. or by testing their The first process. any motion of the body moves the as well. from true radium. utilising the fact that the earth attracts equal masses equally at the same place. from which the emanations have been removed is (see 295).i bullet travelling in air.ij.* . . It is distinguished the first emanation. medium will Hence a produce rather less acceleration force applied to a bullet in air than if it acted on tho bullet in vacuo. If therefore equal forces be applied to different masses. y rays were properties of radium. and Radium A. Hence masses are compared either by weighing. and that the mass of an object is the same whether it be at rest or in motion with any It is not practicable velocity. If the bullet is travelling at an more air with it. It is therefore axiomatic that two identical objects have double the mass of one of them. and do not depend on anything else. D. which lead to the equation. Mass and Inertia. tt. of course. . it mass is increased. the effects of these forces (measured by the accelerations produced) are inversely as the masses. In particular. fundamental principles of mechanics.CORPUSCULAR THEORY. 288. 203 The names /?. Apparent Failing Case of Dynamical EquaIf we have a body moving in a medium. e. Air is a compressible gas. Acceleration = Force/Mass. to compare masses of different objects by dividing them into identical parts which can be counted. "ordinary radium" signifies the usual aggregate of radium proper. and its effective enormous speed. Mass is generally defined as Quantity of Matter. many differences between the motion of a bullet in the air and of a corpuscle through the ether. carries There are. ether appears to U* Its state of chemical composition or mechanical The phase immateiial. tions. first used in describing the 287. The second process depends on the inertia. C. . the effects do not depend on the velocity already possessed by the mass acted upon.
This has a certain self inductance L. or simply the electric inertia. J. have given formulae suitable for high speeds. Electric Inertia. that the longitudinal.294 CORPUSCULAR THEORY. about 289. where m' Le z and can be called the apparent extra mass due to the charge. apparent mass of a corpuscle increases at high speeds.mechanical kinetic 2 Hence the total kinetic energy is energy is Mv A . and their difference is m' becoming infinite when v due to different assumptions made and the different meaning attached to m'. These formulae agree qualitatively. quite incompressible. then m f m'. Force = acceleration x m. while sound waves in gases and liquids are But there is this resemblance. J. Theory shows that the apparent mass ought to become infinite when the velocity v that of light. is equivalent to a portion of an electric current ev. m= M m M+ . and others later. = tions of the ether. . to be m > 2 e2 "TOT* Thomson. and electrical inertia m'. at low speeds. = =M 29O. Instead of considering mowhich we know nothing definite. Calculations of the Electrical Inertia. Call it m. so that m' we of the speed. . Suppose a corpuscle to have mechanical mass or inertia is independent M. The apparent inertia defined by the dynamical equation suppose = U . moving with j3 corpuscle. . Thomson calculated the electrical inertia. of charge velocity v. On the supposition that the corpuscle is a small sphere of radius a. consider the electrical phenomena to which they are equivalent. e and mass M. its charge being in a superficial layer of uniform surface density. and the vibrations which it transmits are transverse. and therefore has kinetic energy JL(ey) 2 whilst its. The total inertia is the sum of the mechanical and electric inertia.
and the m observed is constant at low The observed m at higher speeds was speeds call it mQ expressed as a multiple of m thus m/m was tabulated as Kaufmann . For comparison. . is electric. he calculated the electrical mass m' according to one of the formulae which expressed it as a function of v. it represents a great scientific advance for two apparently different properties are reduced to one. lsr. = = 47 x 10"'. mechanical mass is either zero or at least very small. investigated the values of e/m for radium fl Of course e is an corpuscles of different high velocities. . Ratio of Mechanical to Electrical Mass. 274) and can be considered constant. 291. . a function of v. Hence the phenomenon of mass is due electrical phenomenon of selfinduction. Hence fylaU = 1/53 x 10 17 l . 1/53 x 10 But assuming Thomson's formula ( 290) 292. Radius of the = . approaching U or 3 X 10 10 The value of m/e for any speed v can be expressed as a multiple of the sensibly constant value of m/e for such low speeds as are found in a Crookes tul>e (about Z7/10). we should conclude that the mass of a m M corpuscle is altogether electrical. = If the whole mass (3 Corpuscle. '27*2 the value given for m'e in then m'je 17 for slow speeds. we get a x l(r 3 .CORPUSCULAR THEORY. The ft corpuscles emitted by radium can have very high speeds. Putting and r= e 3 x 10 ". absolute constant. 295 We have seen how to find v and mle ( 272. It was found that and m' altered in the same ratio It is inferred that the (within small experimental errors). Assuming it zero. . (as is probable). entirely to the If this be true . e .
App. . 3 282) by f . a different value of a (The Ether of Space. The density of the corpuscle. of practically no mass. Practically the whole inertia or mass of the atom is supposed to belong to its negative corpuscles. Of course this makes the unverified assumption that the mass belongs to the portion within the radius a. this cloud. Provisional Idea of the Nature of an Atom. Since ether pervades everything (and in fact is everything). The distances between corpuscles are enormous compared to the corpuscles themselves in fact the cor" bees in a puscles within an atom have been likened to cathedral. The positive electricity of an uncharged atom it is not concentrated is equal in quantity to the negative on corpuscles but diffused uniformly over a more or less Within spherical positive cloud. : . Of these.28 see . as Oliver Lodge has pointed out." The estimates given ( 292) of radii of atom and corpuscle are in ratio of the order 10 5 1 (one and a half miles to an inch a kilometre to a centimetre) These ideas must not be regarded as facts. . of a hydrogen The radius atom is about 10~ 8 . consequently the corpuscles have constant periods independent of ampliThe corpuscles are assumed not to travel separately tude. 293. the attraction on a corpuscle is towards the centre and proportional to the radius. there are roughly 1800 in the case of a hydrogen atom ( 274) and more for other atoms in the ratio of their molecular weights. = 34 x 10 10 . (like the different planets of the solar system) but to form a set of chains or series. the particles in each chain following one another in an orbit that can be regarded as circular. this calculation gives an idea of the order of magnitude of the density of the He obtains a larger result by using luminiferous ether. If they should ever be confirmed they are sure to be also very . . its density cannot be less than that of the densest thing known. But. 2). and since it is incompressible.296 CORPUSCULAR THEORY. . got by dividing the mass (89 x 10. so evidently the corpuscle is very much smaller.
seconds be the average lifetime of a radium atom as T radium atoms. moving corpuscles. and therefore y rays. We 295. Chlorine can annex a corpuscle and is the negative monovaleut element in HC1. detach a ft corSlow puscle. Unstable Atoms. Radium. The quantity of radium present is multiplied . would probably not be detected. or may not. . An atom liable to lose one (3 corpuscle can obviously act as a monovalent An atom liable to annex a corpuscle is positive element. We have seen that even a hydrogen atom is a very complex structure. the great majority are stable but a few (supposed not to exceed 8) are more loosely connected and may be temporarily lost. of such second N/T will turn into emanation. 294. Of the corpuscles. in every this means that. and AT/T acorpusoles are emitted.CORPUSCULAR THEORY. Thorium] so nearly approach instability that they occasionally break into simpler forms. Some of the experimental evidence that exists belongs to Optics [e. if produced. pinge on matter. and chlorides generally. If rapid /3 corpuscles are liberated. travelling at a high speed. " have seen that " ordinary radium gives both a and ft corpuscles. Chemical relationships are thus governed by the number of disposable corpuscles.g. An atom of radium can spontaneously give off an a corpuscle: it then Lot alters into a substance called Radium Emanation. or an a corpuscle. N . An atom so altering may. But it can part with five or perhaps seven corpuscles and is the positive element. The atoms of elements of great atomic weight [Uranium. monovalent negative. It is exceedingly difficult to deduce from these theories any mathematical consequences which can be experimentally tested. Transformations of Radium. 297 much modified. the Zeeinan Effect of a magnetic field on the spectrum of an element]. in the compounds of chlorine and oxygen. there must also be y imrays for these originate wherever swift ft corpuscles . with valency 5 or perhaps 7 as a maximum.
becomes halves its quantity in 3 minutes. losing an acorpuscle. Radioactivity^ as under : Radium A. so T= 1200/693 = than T. For equilibrium. Radium A. = within the radium salt does not readily escape consequently ordinary radium consists of radium with emanation and later derivatives. the emanation . Radium Emanation Radium A . The emanation less give off an a corpuscle. Time to be half transformed. Its atom can spontaneously . It can be separated by dissolving and heating the radium salt. 1 by \JT ill each second log (1 1/T) halved in a time = which a quantity from observation. is destroyed as fast as it is produced . The changes are tabulated [from Rutherford. becomes Radium B with a time constant 21 minutes. there5'5 days. The emanation atom. fore T l = Its average lifetime Tl is much Its quantity halves itself in 3'8 days. This Product. Rays. therefore Quantity of emanation Quantity of radium proper ~T7~ Quantity of emanation Quantity of radium ~~ 3'8 ~ _ T _ " l 1 T i~200Tx~365 110000* The emanation is only occluded. 1700 years roughly. losing an acorpuscle. The emanation produced 3'8/'693 its logarithm decreases by 1/T. The time in log2 r (I/ T) of radium halves itself has deduced and is about 1200 years [Rutherford]. is a gas.298 CORPUSCULAR THEORY. and the quantity of radium is '693T.
296. or a thousand kilograms = 1U' gin. . Hence 1 "" (1/2)'/ t = = 1/10 6 . and therefore F and G. : As Radium (so far) is only in a nearly fixed ratio 1 220. or 400..000 years. it will be a few days before the emanation and A. If Radium were not a product of some body with a much longer life. in how long time would a ton of radium become a gram ? A ton almost = a tonne. 1. a mere trifle compared to the age of the earth. and a fortiori to that of the universe. . tion. each constituent is produced as fast as destroyed and therefore every product is present in quanBut if the emanatity proportional to its time constant. Other Radioactive Substances. quite certain. D are in steady quantity. etc. and is A Ex. But it is It is possible that all atoms are unstable.CORPUSCULAR THEORY. If the quantity of radium is halved in 1*200 years.000 years. and one would have to wait many years before the quantity of E. The time constant and the nature of the rays are the same for both. mass of radium equal to that of the earth would reduce. Uranium. found in Uranium it ores. The radioactive substance Polonium is possibly not a member of a distinct series. Polonium show properties like Radium. 1200 log 10 /log !: _>  241 MIO. be removed and we start with radium proper. It" the time be t years. to a practically equal muss This time is of Radium Gr. the quantity is halved f/ 1*200 times. in about 150. that their average life is very long compared even with that of Uranium. Actinium. Thorium. 299 In old radium. it would be hard to account for its presence on the earth in measurable quantities. inferred [Rutherford] that Radium is a transformation product of Uranium. C. but the same as Radium F. It is suspected that Radium G is lead. and that the average lifetime of Uranium is about 220 times that of Radium. in most cases. B. and a single gram of radium. stopped sensibly increasing.
If a gram of ordinary radium is enclosed in lead so thick as to prevent the escape of a corpuscles.000. . If the earth's mass be 6 this take to reduce to a ton ? Evidently t tons. F. double the hydrogen atom. Ex. and that the average lifetime of a radium atom is 1700 years. per second. D . Ex. up to G. E. If we suppose energy = Jmv2 show this 9 implies an average velocity of about 2 x 10 cm. of course. 3. 2. and four positive corpuscles. how long would = 1200 {log 6 + 21}/log 2 = 87. x 10' 1 Ex. Note. Ex. How long would it take for a ton of pure uranium to diminish to a gram ? How much radium would be present in the ton of remaining matter ? If the atomic weight of radium is 226. is Ex. are neglected because alters so slowly that they would not be apparent for several years. Assuming that each atom gives ultimately 4 a corpuscles. find the average energy given to each corpuscle as a multiple of the corpuscular mass. 5. Z>. but not of ft. that the resultant of all the changes is that radium * proper becomes radium D. find the loss of weight per year of a gram of ordinary radium as a result of emission of a corpuscles. show that the radium accumulates a positive charge. * Later changes. and the a corpuscle 4.300 CORPUSCULAR THEORY. G) produces heat energy at the rate of 100 calories (nearly) per gram per hour. Find the rate at which charge is accumulated per year. It is found that ordinary radium (practically free from 6.
Proportional to bc/(br 8. 2.1/14tOr '0415. With figure of Ex! 3 the potentials at A and B are each V = the mutual energy 2. '184. v 3 + 1 : v'3  1. the force 1/1407T or 47.'094.r is given the quadratic in 45. 4.5 24 E = v 2 = . E = '053. 4 25/16. and = common = 40/log I'l = 420. 5.  2 fe + V(c* Ex. for the potential is zero. 1/6407T = '0005. 2. hence 1/4 = In F at B = . 130. Ex. 3. Densities in 6 would 00044. E = 1/4  ergs. Ex. Tat B or (. In 7. 34. 0608 dyne. = '0407. where . 0142. be altered by In 7. or 373 : 1. 145\ 2. log {c  a2 24. 6.'. 56.l/5?r = . nearly 25 to normal. 6. 462. Ex.ANSWERS.{5/24 + 5/74 . 139. Ex. In 8. '0436 at mid 1. = 1 56. In 9. + + is \ 2QF and Q = 1. 13. E = 5/24 . 3. 24. 146. Ex. Ex.1/196 = 1O. 9. '104. 1. E = 3/32 .'06438. 7. 3. 7. 5. {2/5  2/5 V5} = "221. "00023 "0322 dyne. 0. This is is l>y = 4 63. 217. The charge on the earthed 5/48 sphere is neglected. '0621 dyne. 0291.1/14! and E . 1/lOr = 10/343 35/24 + 3S/74 'OSSl'dyne. 0. 301 . quantities. . Of course the logarithm The result logarithm X 2'303. + cr + fee) and two similar 2 2 . 5.177 1. .' = .5/74 +114 = 212. 89. . In 10. 3. 3. 4 v'3 perpendicular to points. 3/32 dynes. *7. 21.4. OA. Ex. Napierian. Ex. 11. 0318. 1/16 dyne. '212. '566 at centre: 9. 5. Charges are 9/10. 4 log {(fie ax)/bx}. 0. 3.'204.
. 6. specific conductivity 5. the never 15.000 ohms. 117 ohms. Ex. Ex. = 111. cm.4. 17. = angle = 2?r/3 a = each side. 1'14 volts. 1O. Ex. Divide by atomic . 00073. . Potential . 2'5 volts. 286. 181. 4. Fields 1. 15. dynes. 131. 7. 14'4. '31 amp. 3. 105. 87*6 cm. . 11. 4. 5. Let n = distance of point considered Then the potential 2irc (1  z/ Vz* = number + r 2 ). 171 ohms. '074 Ex. 221. 2c TT . 6'29 ohms . 3. 3f ohms. 0080 amp. Ex.: MO + ^O = "00074.F cos 8f(H + F sin 6). Ex. 14. 124. 0111 amp. 138.wt. . 167. hence molecular con= '143. 143. 10. Ex. 7*999 gm. 12 turns. 110. 1732. Ex. (3) 0015. 00283. 6.cm. 4. r c = current. 94. '29 . 4. 1840. If = 2. 3 amp. M/C&.2. 6. '145. . Ex. 4. X = 2M cos 6/CO*. 132. Ex. 16. 53 amp. 3 amp. + . 162 volts. 37*2 = Potentials = 0. Ex. weight of NaCl we get '0037. Ex.50 to data in previous questions . 5. </> F= > JP. 12. = 7847 dynes. A fourth as great. 175. . 150. 157. 11. '218 (practical unit). amp. 18. 1O. (1) 101. 10 turns. Solid of sides. 145. potential = 2?rc/3. we infer it is in practical units and must be reduced to absolute units by multiplying by 10~ 9 Hence the = 1430 X 10~ 13 This = 2 X 10~ 3 X q(u n v }/F. 173. (2) 50. 9. 162 c. Ex.ncos~ l V rz ' ia?jr cos Ex. '445 amp. dynes. 113.302 ANSWERS. Molecular wt. 159 cm. '00012 amp. 7. 14.. 95'9 microhms. 140. 1'32. If If formula is tan can = 90. At nearly 42 40' to meridian. This is enormous compared ductivity = '0643 X 111 f. 2. Ex. 13. 12. from each corner.
4 . 4. 6. per sec. 157<X>. 1/220 jrm. . 188. Ex. 6. 197. Ex.ANSWERS. 6. 5.500. 178. 50 x 10~ 3 . <>47 at .bln. Ex. parabolic. 154 per sec. . 5. a v 4. Period multiplied by 1013. Ex. . 159 : 185. x 10. Ex. 6. = 2'9 x 10". " 2'7 x lo crftrs 1(V. 227. 6. 230. 3100.95 64 9 f <X)2f. from disturbance. 201. 6. "308 per period. 190./ v y. 00301. 7. . 5.9'S. 00025 Joule. .3. Nearly 1. 7. initial 1. '0314 8. Ex.a field . . 303 Ex. 112 x 10. calories per sec. 00006 calorie. 315 x K)' . 9. 5. . Ex. 306 E. '227 volt. units ' . 105 X 10~ 5 Henries. 27>>.E. '020 volt. Ex.000.. Ex. 187. 12'6 x 10 H 6. Multiplied by 195.S. (absolute units). 6. 2/xMw w 2 /a.. 4. 493 cm. 9. . 7. 5E/22G x 1700 where 10 units per year. ijiii x 1('. 12 volt volt. 2/j. the heats produced per second in ergs are 37900.4 211. 3'17 x l(r\ Ex..000 yr. 1377 + 0003887. 2TrcrfjL/(i.F. KT 7 . 9'2 x 10'.z Nr'n. x v ir y Ex. 3. 1T3. E = = 1/3SOIX). 198. 3. 634 Ex. "86 M. If unit current be an ampere.< 4. 2irn^n. 4. 16 x 10coulombs. Ex. 5. units.M. 8 sec. Mass  As 1 to 870. 530. Divided by 57.S. 6'11 x 10. 10.bln^/n. dynes. 6'4 x 10 . per 1 gin.3 395 x . Kicks would be euual Ex. . 317 x 10.43600.~/a. 272. 204. 296.. if r be radius of the section of 7. 3. and locus is 282. 5. iron wire 8. Ex. This 5. . 5. 1 39 x !<)' K. 2/j. 9.b. "0222 volt. 1 247. The mean velocity is about 2'3 x .
. 187 Ampere. 111 of galvanometer. 77 hours. 266 Absolute charge and mass corpuscle. . 160 Amplitude. 61 AyrtonMather galvanometer. 74 Apparent contact potential ference.. 252 Alternating current dynamos. 294 permeability and susceptibility. 89 Bosscha net. 65 Calibration of electrometer." 134 of conductor Brush discharge. 92 extra mass. an equipotential surface. 21 Bridge wire. 105 British Association method for standardising the ohm.. Boundary conditions trics. 150 temperatures... 182 Battery resistance. unit ohm. 93 304 Callendar. 266 Alternate E. . 152 . 169 Angle of lead. 117 Bifilar suspension. 270 (see )3 Units) unit of current. 227 Actinium. 88 Ballistic constant by condenser discharge. 183 Anchor ring wound uniformly. 89 Board of Trade unit. Azimuth. and Griffiths.F. 5. T.A. 255 Anode. 288 electrometer. correction for decrement. 78 turns. .. 282. 60 . 50 Alloys. structure of. 255 Aluminium. O. 178 Ayrton and Perry.. anions. 172 Back electromotive force. 111 . resistance. 118 .INDEX. galvanometer. 52 of a Atom. 284 Ammeters. 299 Aepinus condenser. 99. of dielec 43 theorem. 89. Armatures. 94 Corpuscles. 227 "Broadside on. . 44 Arrhenius.. 285 a Rays. 151 . 120 . 224. 65 dif Bunsen. 129 Bismuth. 279. a Corpuscles. 231 B. . 295 B. 291 Abnormal metals. 92 Arc.M.. 165 Ampere's law. 234 Cadmium cell.. 269 unit. 113 . 296 Average square..
120 96 . .. 67 Conversion of energy.. 77.. inductances. gradual 211 rise at make. 198 resistance units. 18 . 49 . . units. 297 Choking coil.. Conductivity. 234 Cylinder uniformly electrified. 91. 100 of a solution... 225 Chrystal. with tem perature. and E.. 286 . 190. 250 Cylinder transversely magnetised. 46 . rotating. Clark Maxwell. 183 Corrections of magnetometers. 92 standardised. . 48 the earth. . space. 77 Common cells. 79 . 186 condenser Condensers.F... 24 . 136 proof for electricity. 274 .. .INDKX. 118 . 277 Cross section of tubes of force.M. 106 Cavendish experiment. 270 Charge and mass of p corpuscles. PH. found of of of of by discharge.. 55 Conduction in solutions. 282. 44.. 279. Charged complex.. 99 . 285 282 Charges. 24 Coefficient of . 280. 92 Commutators. 21. 282. Condensing electroscope.. . 26. mutual induction. . . 187 accumulator. 152 Commercial units. E.. proof of Coulomb's Law. 227 . 72.. 193 Comparison of condensers. of monovalent . 30 Cylindrical condenser. 7 potentials.. . 144 Coulomb. M. 65 Circuit of finite size. 24 Change . 210 netometer. 78 simple bodies. Compound magnet. Calorie. 87 Copper electrolytic cell.. 194 E. . 92 cell. Clark . 44. I. 292 . 288 ion. 185 . 1 on electrophorus. . magnetism. 59 Convection discharge.. 267 Canal rays.S. telegraph wire. 289 Corrected amplitude.. 190 in parallel. 121 proof by magstrict . 160 Coulomb's Law.. in series.. Coercive power.... cell. 18 Current balances.... 74 of electricity. 63 Chlorine valency. 95 Capacity. Conductors. ... in parallel. 283 Corpuscular charge. fields. . 44. 149 Composition of . 251 Coil constant.. 4S Compass. 10 Daniell. 132 . . Crookes. comparison.. 163 .. Compound Condenser keys. 87 Corpuscles... 24 torsion balance: electric. magnetisation. 291 Candle power. .iM. . of flux.. . 173 . 152 Contact electrification. 238. 207 selfinduction. . 2 14 217 Cyclic constants. 195 Carey Foster. 89 . . 49 . Constants of galvanometers. 270 305 wires. . 3 magnetic.
44. . . 46 .. 91 of a silver chloride cell. 30. electrostatic.. of .M. 211 Earth's capacity." 135 of Energy. 248 . induced. 74 reactions. 274 unit charge. 203 Demagnetising force. 42 distribution on a con. 70 Electrification by friction. 148 Direct current dynamos. 88.. . . . 187 of a Daniell cell. 285 Dynamical units. 87 a Earth inductor. impulse. wind. 35 . 201 "End . 251 Density of the corpuscle. 22 Disturbance of balance of Wheatstone net. . 270 Dynamometer. 55 Electrostatic and electromagnetic units. in rarefied gases.. 89 . 21 tem. 106 two resist Dimensions of units. 255 Discharge . 259. 62 Electroscopes.. 254 Dyne. 298 E.. 236 Dielectric power or constant.. fundamental units. 31. heating by Daniell cells. 68.. 149 Diamagnetism. Electromagnetic energy.M. 204. 91 E. 88 found by condenser dis. charge. 65 Electrical machines. 84 Deposition of water on corpuscles.. 244. on. 6 E.. 288 Determination of magnetic moment. . flatiron. 175 Electrolytes. 143 INDEX. . 96 inertia. . ferromagnetic sys ductor is entirely superficial.. luminiferous ether.. 41 . condenser. 15. 296 . nation. 5 Electrometers. 203 Earthed conductors. 108 Doublets.. 286 Electrolytic cell.M. 97 Delezenne circle. 111 Difference between ances. 141 Drifting electrons. 42 Disposable corpuscles. Electric field. 248 two circuits. 62 Electrodynamometer. 72 Electrometer. current.306 Deflection magnetometers. 173 Dynamos... 46 .. 52 Electromotive force. etc.. 78 local field. 124 Electric displacement. per unit volume. 294 .. .I.. 297 Dissociation factor. 187 Displacement. resist 277 through large ance. 72 Emanation.. 127 Deviation. 82 Distribution. 92 thermal circuit. 75 . 263 to decompose water. units. 142. to calibrate... 231 molecular expla. 222 . 271 Dip needle.F. 15.. 34. 296 Depletion of solution. 283 Electrophorus. 6 . 249 magnetic field. 201 Electronic charge.
. Helmholtz. lines per unit area. 134 energy. 170 Galvanometer of variable sensitiveness. and induction. .. 287 Grove cell. 123. 244 Field. 13. 152 Galvanometer.. .. 76 . density.. 134. 42 ... 100 Galvanometer coil.. thermoelectric height. 39 Equivalents. 182 Function of the a corpuscles. just outside conductor. 21 . of induction. 270 surfaces and lines. 46 in a solenoid. electrostatic. conduction in.. 76 Heat produced per second portional to the sqimn 90. 277 Galvanometer resistance. 198 of force. 153 F= 47nr. 48 . mag248 Equation of the lines of force of a short magnet. 51 262 Graphs. 296 Eudiometer. 28") Flux.. tubes. . Gram 230 137. . 7. 6. 76 of representation Graphical magnetic energy. 7 rays. 139 Geometrical construction for lines of force of magnet.. due to short magnet. due to simple magnet. 198 Ferromagnetic substances. 5. 14 . 140 Gilbert. 23 . 292 Fundamental i units.. 168 . 5 Greatest current possible.SO 75. . 286 Gauss. 7 Forces on conducting surface... direct reading. 98. . 14 Faraday's law. 55 . of an infinite plane disc. 241 Gold leaf electroscope. definition of. 18 . lines. 154 Gases. 290 Galvanometer. 10. 67 Extensions of Ohm's Law. 229 and induction. for equipotentials of magnet. 185 Faraday condenser. ballistic constant. 258. H. 272 = the number of Maxwell ... tangent. 91 pro <>t" the current. 135. 15 Geometrical construction .. 139 netic.. 250 of Graphical representation Peltier and Thomson effects. 241 Gauss's theorems. 7 . 75 t . 77. magnetic. 23 Farad. j 307 Free oscillations. 70. moving coil. 93 Heats of formation nnd reaction. section of. 228 of a point charge. 141 molecule. 182 Erg.. 88 Ether of space. 124 Equi potentials for parallel cylinders. 26 . 137 Equipotential lines of simple magnet. 180 Friction. 172 Galvanometer. 272 . 259 Gravitation constant (</). 177 Force. 166. 92 H Cl. zero within conductor. Fluxional notation. 170 Galvanometer constant.INDEX. Energy per unit volume. 61 Frictional machines. space. 117 153 Galvanometer. Filtering out electrons.
73 Ions. 12. 74 Limit of potential difference.M. 175 Kew magnetometer. 28. 251 5. 41 Insulation of electroscope. 198. 291 Helmholtz galvanometer. 272 Induction. 202 Inertia. 220 Inductances. 203 . 285 Lenz's law.. Iron ring. 294 Ideal simple magnet. 125. 22. 85 lonisation. 42 . 154 Heterostatic use of electrometer. 7 Intrinsic pressure. magnetic. 93 circuit. 189 ... comparison. 101 Induced charge on hollow conductors. 87.. 244 Induced distribution.. 33. 42. Joule. 175 current balance. 205 Loss of conductivity of gases.. magnetic. 123125 . Induced E.. 95 Inch. 74 . through gases. 80. 89 Kinetic energy of kathode stream. 230 Inductance. 5 Kelvin current balance. 281 Kirchoff. SQseq. Impedance.286 Lumsden net. 238 Irreversible processes. 256 k. 284 Leakage. 289. Magnet in uniform field. 259. 242 Irrationality of magnetisation. 225 Impulsive E. 66 magnetic. 85. 88." 150 . 30. 210 Inductance and capacity. . 100. 68 Inductor. 70 Lines of force. 34 Insulating media. 89 .. thermoelectric. seq. 53 Images. 165 Helium atoms. 140 Lodge. 217 Induction.. 66 Lead. 92 Leibig. 113 .F. Pb. 286 Leclanche. 53 Hydrogen atom. 198 Leyden jar. 57 of condensers. Lord. 77. 175 Kelvin. . 208. 208 Induced magnetisation.308 INDEX.. 125 Idiostatic use of electrometer. earth.F. 241 field. 22. 293295 Insulated sphere. 17. 65 Lenard rays. 42 Kathode. 201 Incandescent light. 228 Inductive machines.. rays. comparison. angle. 178. 145 Kilowatt. 175 effect. 74 Kaufmann. . 89. 225 Lane. 214 Lag.M. electrostatic. . 238.. 195 Intensity. 126 Magnetic "bearing. 180 Logarithmic decrement due to induced currents. 257 Helical coil. 84. 59 Ionic velocities. 255 Lead. 283. Height. 278 Rations. hour. 23 Induced currents. 44 Lightning. 103. 296 Hysteresis.. 296 Logarithmic decrement.
121 Newton's fluxional notation. 197 .. 42 in Ozone. 208 Permeability. moment 169 121 of corpuscles in a given space. inductance former. 37 . 100 Neutral point. molecular explanation.. 118 Poggendorff net. 288 . 202 matter. . 128. 262. 103 Mass. 242 . netic. 94 Metals. 138. 1 Point pole. 100 Microammeter. 94 Oscillation magnetometers. 248 151. Number of a solenoid. 165. 142 Oscillation of magnet in a magnetic field. 12( Points. Oersted.. 231 moment and axis. 161. 296 of currents..D. 280 . 228 Magnetisation induced on bar. current 94. 256. 44 Peltier effect.67.F. 173 Mi Hi voltmeter. 289 269 Numeric. 278. potential. 288 Ohm's law.241 Mance. 283. 231. 17U] Nature of an atom. 242 Phosphorescence. 186 Microvoltmeter. induction. 178 Mol. 65. 101 Mean square. 237. 170 Mutual energy.. inductor. 101 Metal filament lamps. Magnetometers. 90 Molecular conductivity. action on /3 corpuscles. 177 Nickel. 173 Microfarads. . Magnetic . 207.. . 279 Pith ball electroscope. 149 . 77. 227 of j8 corpuscle.. 241 Ohm. 237 P.. . HH> Point charge. 309 . 256 . 194 Mho. 263 Penetration of matter by fi corpuscles. ~>5 thermoresistance Platinum meter. currents. 40.. conduction in. shells. 8. plates. field. . 127 126.. 266 Nitrogen.. 67 Maxwell's method. Network of conductors. 284 Period of galvanometer altered by viscosity. 23S Moment. . 81 . . 293 .. 183 Period of simple harmonic motion. absolute. 241 Parallel cylinders.. number of cells. 45 Paramagnetism.. energy 160 of.. molecules per given space of a gas.M. . 230. 85 Maximum with given 14.. )> Point charges.INDEX. 76. 34 Moments of inertia. 231. North magnetism. 286 Method of mixture. 142 Magnetomotive force. 128 Masson. currents network. 129 Moving coil galvanometers. 173 M. 113 Maxwell lines and tubes. Napierian logarithms t<> deduce from common logarithms. compound magnet. 245 of trans ferromag .. 165. 178 Mesh currents. 173 Milliammeter.
292 rays. deposition. 217 Quadrant electrometer. 88 Reversibility. series or in .310 INDEX. .. 177 Ratio of mechanical to electrical mass. 227 Simple harmonic motion. 19 Rectilinear current.. 240 Reluctances in parallel. 161 doublet. 94 Resisted harmonic motion. constant throughout every conductor. 5 Power.. magnet. direct measureof . 292. 98 difference of zinc and copper.. 163 a uniform shell. 109. 292 Radium. 207 Prismatic compass. 162 Refraction of lines. 92 . 125 Rontgen. 111 262 Robison's magnets. 8 . 25 Potentiometer. or a Potential. 281 due to a point charge. 211 Proof ball. 240 Resistance. 179 Resolute of field. 89 Practical units. 105 Rectangular array. 299 Polygon of magnetic moments. 103. 221 Shadow of cross. 290. Rate of change. 131. 297 A. ment. 278 Short magnet. minimum. 298 Pound. 112 cannot be a maximum. 52 Primary circuit. 125 Sine magnetometers. 206 of a conductor. G. 292 Rotating magnetic field. of platinum. 238 lines of force. measurement. 19 of of of of magnetic. 165 . 52 Radioactive substances. . 118 .. 150 Production of current.. 295 Selfinduction. B. 155. at any point in empty space. Recording magnetometers. 207 comparison. 137 Silver chloride cell. 43 Regions of constant potential.. 9 gradient. 7 Resultant electromotive force. 20 Reluctance. 77 Pressure perpendicular to the Saturation. 207 Ruhmkorff coil. 296 of the ft corpuscle. 21 difference = current x resistance. 284. 123 a circular coil. 126 Postoffice box. 56 Second law of thermodynamics. 99.. . 87 Reversible production or disappearance of heat in a wire. 148 Polonium. . 295 . Resistances in series. 298 Radius of a hydrogen atom. 256 Secondary circuit. field. T. 92. 299 Radioactivity. 143 Solenoids. 157. 141 uniformly charged sphere. 61 drop at kathode. Self inductances. 178 . 253 Rutherford. 94 . 218 a solenoid.
Source of the field energy.. 89 reluctance. 46 . 241. 41. E... Velocity of corpuscles. 192. jar. 240 Transformations of radium. 297 Vector addition. . 117 Viscosity. 62 Standard . 90 Voltmeters. magnetic. W. 262 Thorium.. uniformly magnetised. 134 wire. 89. 257 Thermodynamics. rule. 77. efficiency. and circuit. light. sphere. 241 Unitary lines. integral. 299 Time constant of radioactive substances.INDEX. 210 Ultra violet light. 258 formulae. magnetic induction. 231 Suspension of horizontal magnet. .M. SS cell.. 129 inductive capacity. 130 Systems of units. Volt. 269 flux. 259 . 133. 3 . S Voltu. 2SO. Temperature 118 power. 6466 Specific conductivity and resistance. 192 Unstable atoms. 2SS . 297 Transformer.F. SO * of air.F. 291 . 161 Uniformly charged sphere. 263 . 54.. cells. 58 Thomson 261263 89 Sir William (Lord Kel. 121 Sparks. 13 Tension along the lines of force. 209. 256 Thermoelectric diagrams.M. . 152. 273 field. height. 245. 8(1 Thermometry by thermoelectric currents. 268 Thickness of surface films.. balance . Supermagnetising Surface films. 25 . magnetometers. 143 coefficients.M.M. 15 Susceptibility. Unit capacity..F.. 240 Sphere. reluctance. 51 Stokes. 273 charge. 272 272 66 M. 92 inductances. 311 Torsion balance. experiments. 58 force. 126 Velocities of ions.. 61. S. 122 81.. 297 Valency.. 153 ... 269 . 269 of capacity.. 297 Uranium. Theory Thermal of units. 288 Strength of magnetic Uniform shell. 7. 23. 181 231. 223 South magnetism. 252. 253 Transient currents. 285 shell. 298 effect... 241 pole. 244 magnetised 231 72. 257 E.. E. 172 . 275 Very small resistance. 233 Splashing. 79 . Total flux. 55. 115. E. vin).. 161 Stress in electric field. 6 current. 51 Units. 74. second law. 241 Tangent galvanometer.
241 Weber electrodynamometer. Zeeman effect. 165. 249 Wattmeters. . CAMBRIDOK.. Work expended in magnetising a system. 102. ferromagnetic. 86 Wimshurst machine. 89 Wattage. 105 net. 65 Watt. 92 PRINTED AT THE BURLINGTON PKES8. Wind. 297 Zinc chloride. Wheatstone bridge. 174. 87 . 290 102.. 104 Whetham. 174 71 INDEX. . 68.312 Water dropper. 176 Weber. 174 Xrays. 5.
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