URL Commercial? Type of site Yes Crowd funding


Available language(s) English Launched April 28, 2009 (previously known as KickStartr)

Kickstarter is a crowd funding website for creative projects.[2] Kickstarter has funded a diverse array of endeavors,[3] ranging from indie films, music, stage shows and comics to journalism, video games and food-related projects.[4] People cannot "invest" in Kickstarter projects to make money. They can only "back" projects in exchange for a tangible reward or one-of-a-kind experience, like a personal note of thanks, custom T-shirts, dinner with an author, or initial production run of a new product[5].

Kickstarter launched on April 28th, 2009 by Perry Chen, Yancey Strickler, and Charles Adler.[6] The New York Times called Kickstarter "the people's NEA"[7] and Time named it one of the "Best Inventions of 2010"[8] and "Best Websites of 2011".[9] Kickstarter reportedly raised $10 million funding from backers including NYC-based venture firm Union Square Ventures and angel investors such as Jack Dorsey, Zach Klein and Caterina Fake.[10] The company is based in Manhattan's Lower East Side. Andy Baio served as the site's CTO until November 2010, when he joined Expert Labs.[11] Lance Ivy has been Lead Developer since the website launched.[12]

One of a number of fundraising platforms dubbed "crowd funding,"[13] Kickstarter facilitates gathering monetary resources from the general public, a model which circumvents many traditional avenues of investment.[14] Project creators choose a deadline and a goal minimum of funds to raise. If the chosen goal is not gathered by the deadline, no funds are collected (this is known as a provision point mechanism).[15] Money pledged by donors is collected using Amazon Payments.[16] The platform is open to backers from anywhere in the world and to creators who are permanent US residents of 18 years of age or older, with a US address, US bank account, a US state-issued driver's license, and a major US credit or debit card.[17] The company announced it would open up to creators in the UK in July 2012.[18] Kickstarter takes 5% of the funds raised.[19] Amazon charges an additional 3–5%.[20] Unlike many forums for fundraising or investment, Kickstarter claims no ownership over the projects and the work they produce. However, projects launched on the site are permanently archived and accessible to the public. After funding is completed, projects and uploaded media cannot be edited or removed from the site.[21] There is no guarantee that people that post projects on Kickstarter will deliver on their projects, use the money to implement their projects, or that the completed projects will meet backers expectations, and Kickstarter itself has

Kickstarter been accused of providing little quality control.[22][23][24] Kickstarter advises sponsors to use their own judgment on supporting a project. They also warn project leaders that they could be liable for legal damages from sponsors for failure to deliver on promises.[25] Projects can also fail even after a successful fund raise when creators underestimate the total costs required or technical difficulties to be overcome.[22][26]


On June 21, 2012, Kickstarter began publishing statistics on its projects.[27] As of August 22, 2012, there were 68,224 launched projects (3,772 in progress), with a success rate of 44.01%. The completed successful projects had raised a total of $275 million.[28] The business has grown quickly in its early years. In the year 2010, Kickstarter had 3,910 successful projects, $27,638,318 pledged, and a project success rate of 43%. In 2011, the corresponding figures were 11,836, $99,344,381 and 46%.[29] February 9, 2012 saw a number of landmarks set by Kickstarter. A dock made for the iPhone designed by Casey Hopkins became the first Kickstarter project to break a million dollars pledged. A few hours later, a project by computer game developers Double Fine Productions to fund a new adventure game reached the same figure having been launched less than 24 hours earlier, and finished with over $3 million pledged.[30] This was also the first single day in which Kickstarter raised over a million dollars in pledges.[31] On May 18, 2012, The Pebble E-Paper Watch raised $10,266,845 to become the most funded project in Kickstarter history.[32] In July 2012, Wharton professor Ethan Mollick and Jeanne Pi conducted research into what contributes to a project’s success or failure on Kickstarter. Some key findings from the analysis: Increasing goal size is negatively associated with success. Projects that are featured have a 89% chance of being successful, compared to 30% without. For an average $10,000 project, a 30-day project has a 35% chance of success, while a 60-day project has a 29% chance of success, all other things being constant.[33] The ten largest Kickstarter projects by funds raised are listed below. Among successful projects, most raise between $1,000 and $9,999. This proportion drops to less than half in the Design, Games, and Technology categories. However, the median money raised for the latter two categories remains in the four-figure range. There is substantial variation in the success rate of projects falling under different categories. Over two thirds of completed dance projects have been successful. In contrast, fewer than 30% of completed fashion projects have reached their goal. Most failing projects fail to achieve 20% of their goals and this trend applies across all categories. Indeed over 80% of projects that pass the 20% mark reach their goal.[28]

Creators categorize their projects into one of 13 categories and 36 subcategories.[34] They are: Art, Comics, Dance, Design, Fashion, Film and Video, Food, Games, Music, Photography, Publishing, Technology and Theater. Of these categories, Film & Video and Music are the largest, accounting for more than half of Kickstarter projects between them and having raised the most money. These categories, along with Games, account for over half the money raised.[28]

To maintain its focus as a funding platform for creative projects, Kickstarter has outlined three guidelines for all project creators to follow: 1. Creators can fund projects only; 2. Projects must fit within one of the site's 13 creative categories; and, 3. Creators must abide by the site's prohibited uses, including charity and awareness campaigns. Kickstarter has additional requirements for hardware and product design projects. These include[35][36] • Banning the use of photorealistic renderings and simulations demonstrating a product; • Limiting awards to single items or a “sensible set” of items (e.g. multiple light bulbs for a house);

Kickstarter • Requiring a physical prototype; and • Requiring a manufacturing plan. The guidelines are designed to reinforce Kickstarter’s position that people are backing projects, not placing orders for a product. To underscore the notion that Kickstarter is a place that creators and audiences to make things together, creators across all categories are asked to describe the risks and challenges a project faces in producing it[37].


Notable projects and creators
Several creative works have gone on to receive critical acclaim and accolades after being funded on Kickstarter. The documentary short "Sun Come Up" and feature documentary "Incident in New Baghdad" were each nominated for an Academy Award;[38][39] contemporary art projects "EyeWriter" and "Hip-Hop Word Count" were both chosen to exhibit in the Museum of Modern Art in 2011;[40] filmmaker Matt Porterfield was selected to screen his film Putty Hill at the Whitney Biennial In 2012;[41] author Rob Walker's Hypothetical Futures project exhibited at the 13th International Venice Architecture Biennale;[42] musician Amanda Palmer's album "Theater is Evil" debuted at No. 10 on the Billboard 200[43]; designer Scott Wilson won a National Design Award from Smithsonian’s Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum following the success of his TikTok + LunaTik project;[44] and approximately 10% of the films accepted into the Sundance, SXSW and Tribeca Film Festivals funded projects on Kickstarter.[45][46] Numerous well-known creators have used Kickstarter to produce their work, including: musicians Amanda Palmer,[47] Daniel Johnston,[48] Stuart Murdoch[49] and Tom Rush;[50] filmmakers and actors Bret Easton Ellis,[51] Colin Hanks,[52] Ed Begley, Jr.,[53] Gary Hustwit,[54] Hal Hartley,[55] Jennie Livingston,[56] Mark Duplass,[57] Matthew Modine,[58] Paul Schrader,[59] Ricki Lake,[60] Whoopi Goldberg[61] and Zana Briski; authors and writers Dan Harmon,[62] Kevin Kelly,[63] Neal Stephenson,[64] and Seth Godin;[65] photographers Spencer Tunick[66] and Gerd Ludwig;[67] game developers Tim Schafer[68] and Brian Fargo;[69] designer Stefan Sagmeister;[70] animator John Kricfalusi; Star Trek actor John de Lancie and comedian Eugene Mirman .[71]

Top projects by funds raised Ten largest successfully completed Kickstarter projects by total funds pledged
Rank Total USD Project name Author Category % funded 10,266 Backers Closing date Link


10,266,845 Pebble: E-Paper Watch for iPhone and Android 8,596,475 OUYA: A New Kind of Video Game Console

Pebble Technology


68,928 2012-05-18 [72] 63,416 2012-08-09 [73] 17,744 2012-08-25 [74] 87,142 2012-03-13 [75] 61,290 2012-04-17 [76] 9,522 2012-09-01 [77] 44,161 2012-09-14 [78] 38,276 2012-04-29 [79]



Video Games Games



3,429,236 Reaper Miniatures Bones: An Evolution Reaper Miniatures Of Gaming Miniatures 3,336,371 Double Fine Adventure Double Fine and 2 Player Productions InXile Entertainment



Video Games Video Games Technology Video Games



2,933,252 Wasteland 2


6 7

2,437,430 Oculus Rift: Step Into the Game 2,229,344 Planetary Annihilation - A Next Generation RTS 1,836,447 Shadowrun Returns

Palmer Luckey Uber Entertainment Inc

974 247


Harebrained Schemes LLC Video Games



1,464,706 Elevation Dock: The Best Dock For iPhone 1,254,120 The Order of the Stick Reprint Drive Casey Hopkins Design 1,952 12,521 2012-02-11 [80] 14,952 2012-02-21 [81]



Rich Burlew



Project cancellations
Both Kickstarter and project creators have cancelled projects that appeared to have been fraudulent. Questions were raised about the projects in internet communities related to the fields of the projects. The concerns raised were: apparent copying of graphics from other sources; unrealistic performance or price claims; and failure of project sponsors to deliver on prior Kickstarter projects. Cancelled projects include: • Eye3 camera drone helicopter for unrealistic performance promises, photos copied from other commercial products, and failure of creators to deliver on an earlier Kickstarter project.[82] • Mythic: The Story of Gods and Men adventure game for copying graphics from other games and unrealistic performance promises; the creator had raised $4,739 on an $80,000 goal before canceling the project.[83] • Tech-Sync Power System for failing to provide photos of the prototype and sudden departure of project creator.[84] • Tentacle Bento, a card game intended to satirize Japanese school girl tentacle rape comics, after being criticized in the online media for having inappropriate content.[85] • In May 2011, a New York University film student raised $1,726 to make a film, but plagiarized another film instead. The student publicly apologized and the issue has since been settled.[86][87]

Patent dispute
On September 30, 2011, Kickstarter filed a request for declaratory judgment against ArtistShare and Fan Funded which owns U.S. patent US 7885887 [88], "Methods and apparatuses for financing and marketing a creative work". Brian Camelio, the founder of ArtistShare, is named as the inventor on the patent. KickStarter said it believed it is under threat of a patent infringement lawsuit by ArtistShare. Kickstarter asked that the patent be invalidated, or, at the very least, that the court find that Kickstarter is not liable of infringement.[89][90][91] In February 2012, ArtistShare and Fan Funded responded to Kickstarter's complaint by filing a motion to dismiss the lawsuit. They asserted that patent infringement litigation was never threatened, that "ArtistShare merely approached KickStarter about licensing their platform, including patent rights", and that "rather than responding to ArtistShare's request for a counter-proposal, Kickstarter filed this lawsuit."[92] The judge has ruled, however, that the case can go forward. ArtistShare has since responded by filing a counterclaim alleging that Kickstarter is indeed infringing its patent.[93]

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"Giving Book Readers a Say" (http:/ / online. wsj. com/ article/ SB10001424052702304441404577483192246426550. html). The Wall Street Journal. . [66] Laster, Paul (February 16, 2012). "Spencer Tunick: On Stealing Cameras, Controversy, and Kickstarter" (http:/ / the99percent. com/ articles/ 7140/ Spencer-Tunick-On-Stealing-Cameras-Controversy-and-Kickstarter). The 99 Percent. . [67] Ismael Ruiz, Matthew (March 19, 2012). "Kickstarter: How the Web Is Helping Photographers Fund Their Work" (http:/ / www. popphoto. com/ how-to/ 2012/ 03/ kickstarter-story-behind-crowd-funded-sensation). Popular Photography. . [68] Netburn, Deborah (March 13, 2012). "Double Fine Raises $3.25 Million on Kickstarter for New Game" (http:/ / articles. latimes. com/ 2012/ mar/ 13/ business/ la-fi-tn-double-fine-kickstarter-32-million-pledged-20120313). Los Angeles Times. . [69] Orland, Kyle (March 15, 2012). "Interplay's Brian Fargo Finds Fan Funding for Wasteland Sequel" (http:/ / arstechnica. com/ gaming/ 2012/ 03/ interplays-brian-fargo-finds-fan-funding-for-wasteland-sequel/ ). Ars Technica. . [70] Drumm, Perrin (September 12, 2011). "Best of Kickstarter, 9/12: The Happy Film" (http:/ / www. sundancechannel. com/ sunfiltered/ 2011/ 09/ best-of-kickstarter-912-the-happy-film/ ). Sundance Channel. . [71] McGlynn, Katia (July 12, 2011). "Eugene Mirman Comedy Festival Using Kickstarter to Fund Awkward Party BUs, Sex Pit & More" (http:/ / www. huffingtonpost. com/ 2011/ 07/ 15/ 2011-eugene-mirman-comedy_n_898736. html). The Huffington Post. . [72] http:/ / www. kickstarter. com/ projects/ 597507018/ pebble-e-paper-watch-for-iphone-and-android?ref=category [73] http:/ / www. kickstarter. com/ projects/ ouya/ ouya-a-new-kind-of-video-game-console?ref=live


[74] http:/ / www. kickstarter. com/ projects/ 1513061270/ reaper-miniatures-bones-an-evolution-of-gaming-min [75] http:/ / www. kickstarter. com/ projects/ 66710809/ double-fine-adventure [76] http:/ / www. kickstarter. com/ projects/ inxile/ wasteland-2 [77] http:/ / www. kickstarter. com/ projects/ 1523379957/ oculus-rift-step-into-the-game [78] http:/ / www. kickstarter. com/ projects/ 659943965/ planetary-annihilation-a-next-generation-rts [79] http:/ / www. kickstarter. com/ projects/ 1613260297/ shadowrun-returns [80] http:/ / www. kickstarter. com/ projects/ hop/ elevation-dock-the-best-dock-for-iphone [81] http:/ / www. kickstarter. com/ projects/ 599092525/ the-order-of-the-stick-reprint-drive [82] Evan Ackerman “Update:Eye3 Drone Officially Too Good to be True”, IEEE Spectrum January 31, 2012. (http:/ / spectrum. ieee. org/ automaton/ robotics/ diy/ update-eye3-drone-officially-too-good-to-be-true) [83] Adrianne Jeffries. "This Is What a Kickstarter Scam Looks Like" (http:/ / betabeat. com/ 2012/ 04/ this-is-what-a-kickstarter-scam-looks-like/ ). Betabeat. . [84] Adrian Jeffries, “When Kickstarter Goes Wrong: Were 419 Backers Almost Taken for a $27,637 Ride?”, BetaBeat, September 15, 2011. (http:/ / www. betabeat. com/ 2011/ 09/ 15/ when-kickstarter-goes-wrong-were-419-backers-almost-taken-for-a-27637-ride/ ) [85] Kirk Hamilton “Creator of ‘Satirical’ Tentacle-Rape Game Apologizes”, [[Kotaku (http:/ / kotaku. com/ 5911214/ creator-of-satirical-tentacle+ rape-game-apologizes)], May 17, 2012] [86] Tanzer, Myles (May 9, 2011). "NYU Tisch Student Makes Plagiarized Film To Win Festival Prize After Raising $1,700 On Kickstarter · NYU Local" (http:/ / nyulocal. com/ on-campus/ 2011/ 05/ 09/ nyu-tisch-student-makes-plagiarized-film-to-win-festival-prize-after-raising-1700-on-kickstarter/ ). NYU Local. . Retrieved June 23, 2011. [87] Sam Biddle. "NYU Film Student Plagiarizes His Way to Kickstarter Fame" (http:/ / gizmodo. com/ 5800006/ nyu-film-student-fraud-plagiarizes-his-way-to-kickstarter-fame). Gizmodo. . [88] http:/ / worldwide. espacenet. com/ textdoc?DB=EPODOC& IDX=US7885887 [89] Sarah Jacobsson Purewal (October 5, 2011). "Kickstarter Faces Patent Suit Over Funding Idea" (http:/ / www. pcworld. com/ article/ 241160/ kickstarter_faces_patent_suit_over_funding_idea. html). PCWorld. . Retrieved October 6, 2011. [90] Eriq Gardner (October 4, 2011). "KickStarter Seeks To Protect Fan-Funding Model From Patent Threat" (http:/ / www. hollywoodreporter. com/ thr-esq/ kickstarter-patent-fan-funded-artistshare-243632). The Hollywood Reporter. . Retrieved October 15, 2011. [91] "Crowdfunding-sites verwikkeld in patentstrijd [Crowdfunding sites involved in patent battle]" (http:/ / www. nuzakelijk. nl/ innovatie/ 2633248/ crowdfunding-sites-verwikkeld-in-patentstrijd. html) (in Dutch). NUzakelijk. October 5, 2011. . Retrieved October 22, 2011. "Het gaat om de website Kickstarter die een patent van website ArtistShare ongeldig wil verklaren. Kickstarter ontving verschillende verzoeken van ArtistShare-oprichter Brian Camelio om een licentie op zijn patent te nemen." English translation: "The website Kickstarter wants that a patent from the ArtistShare website be declared invalid. Kickstarter received several requests from ArtistShare-founder Brian Camelio to take a license on his patent" [92] Eriq Gardner (February 16, 2012). "Hollywood Docket: Comedy Club Documentary Lawsuit; Michael Jordan vs. 1st Amendment" (http:/ / www. hollywoodreporter. com/ thr-esq/ hollywood-docket-comedy-club-documentary-michael-jordan-291872). The Hollywood Reporter. . Retrieved March 23, 2012. [93] Jeffries, Adrianne (May 14, 2012). "Kickstarter Wins Small Victory in Patent Lawsuit With 2000-Era Crowdfunding Site" (http:/ / www. betabeat. com/ 2012/ 05/ 14/ kickstarter-artistshare-fan-funded-patent-lawsuit/ ). BetaBeat. The New York Observer. . Retrieved May 17, 2012.


External links
• Official website ( • 37 Saddest Failed Kickstarters ( at BuzzFeed

Article Sources and Contributors


Article Sources and Contributors
Kickstarter  Source:  Contributors: 2001:16D8:EEAB:0:7DD2:1AB4:E0E8:1A73, Agent 86, Ahaigh9877, Ajcarts, Allthingsonline, Argumentum Ad Stultitiam, Avantenor, BGyss, Bashome, Blueflashlight, Bossivecwall, CharlesC, Chris857, Chronos Sk, Classicalecon, Coq Rouge, CrowdFunding-Reviews, Dagko, Dajagr, Dandv, Daniel Yasar, Danlev, Dantheman, Darwin-rover, Dasfreedomfighters, Deeceeo, Dialectric, Dropvolley, DuctTAPEcapital, EagleTusk, EclecticEnnui, Edcolins, Elomir42, Elonex777, Eugene-elgato, FeralDruid, Fishting, Flucian, Frogacuda, Gargaj, Gary King, Gary13579, Gavin.perch, George Ponderevo, Gogo Dodo, Goodoldpolonius2, Headphoney, Hops Splurt, Illuminate88, Jaixar, Jake Nelson, JamesBWatson, Jamesrand, JameySharp, Jamiew, Jannw, Jedcohen, Jeffutz, JohnnyMrNinja, Jonathan O'Donnell, Jonathandeamer, JorWat, Jtle515, Kaganmerkin, Kgagne, Kollision, Korger, KoshVorlon, Kozuch, Lithorien, Logictheo, Loki racer, Lotje, Luisedgarf, Macelope, Marlzbrooke, Marsupilami (DE), MauriceLopes, Maverik-ita, Meaning of Lif, Mecredis, Michaelmas1957, Micru, Mika1h, Milliams, Mortense, MrBonesWildFire, Noommos, Nowa, Orangemike, OsamaK, Ottawahitech, Peter cohen, PinoEire, Piraterabbit, Qafsiel, Racklever, Raven42, Rianne.lourie, Rjwilmsi, Rvanarsdale, Salavat, Salty!, Sandstein, Senkoshai, Shabidoo, ShadowzNova, Smalleditor, SoWhy, Ssilvers, Steel1943, SteveBaker, SteveFoerster, Steven Walling, Tassedethe, Tedder, TheMonkeyTail, Thumperward, Tktru, Tomdo08, Tripfromfacade, UAwiki, VinCubed, WaendchenWand, Waxpancake, Whitecroc, WikHead, Wiki4jeffy, WikiWookie, Wikistuttgart, XDanielx, Zeomox, 269 anonymous edits

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
File:Kickstarter logo.svg  Source:  License: Trademarked  Contributors: User:Imalipusram, User:Imalipusram

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