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Summer / May 2012

Master OF Business Administration

Second Semester
Operations Research - (MB0048) Assignment Set- 2 (60 Marks)

Name Registration Number Learning Center Code Learning Center Name

: : : :

PAWAN KUMAR 571122876 01713 Apar India College of management & Technology (Delhi)

A. C. such as toys. Physical Models include all form of diagrams. A model aids the decision-making process as it provides a simplified description of complexities and uncertainties of a problem in a logical structure. There are two types of physical models: a. The objective of Operations Research is to provide a scientific basis to the decision-makers for solving problems involving interaction of various components of the organisation. Aackoff and Aruoff defined Operations Research as: “the application of scientific methods. Analog models Iconic models are primarily images of objects or systems. A model is an idealized representation or abstraction of a real-life system. represented on a smaller scale. techniques and tools to operation of a system with optimum solutions to the problems”. Some examples of mathematical models are allocation. We can also define Operations Research as “The use of scientific methods to provide criteria for decisions regarding man. graphs and charts. By nature of Environment: Models can be further classified as follows: . The variables are related by mathematical systems. Iconic models b. They bring out significant factors and interrelationships in pictorial form to facilitate analysis. These models can simulate the actual performance of a product. where 'optimum' refers to the best possible alternative. Mathematical or Symbolic Models employ a set of mathematical symbols to represent the decision variable of the system. A broad classification of OR models You can broadly classify OR models into the following types. B.Q1. They are designed to tackle specific problems. and replacement models. to work together for finding the best possible solution in the interest of the organisation as a whole. We can achieve this by employing a team of scientists from different disciplines. The solution thus obtained is known as an optimal decision. The most significant advantage of a model is that it does not interfere with the real-life system. Discuss different models available in OR. sequencing. Churchman. Analog models are small physical systems having characteristics similar to the objects they represent. The objective of a model is to identify significant factors that affect the real-life system and their interrelationships. machine. and systems involving repetitive operations”. Define Operations Research.

Probabilistic Models in which the input and output variables follow a defined probability distribution. such as the Games Theory. b. Y 2. Q2. Y 3 ≥ 0 . such as an EOQ model. By the extent of Generality Models can be further classified as follows: a. For example: Linear programming. X2≥0 Sol: Min W = 15Y1 + 10Y2 + 20Y3 Subject to 3Y1 + Y2 + 5Y3 ≥ 4 Y1 + 2Y2 + 2Y3 ≥ 5 Y 1. For example: You can use the sales response curve or equation as a function of only in the marketing function. Specific Models on the other hand are models that you can apply only under specific conditions. D. Deterministic model in which everything is defined and the results are certain. Write dual of Max Z= 4X1+5X2 Subject to 3X1+X2≤15 X1+2X2≤10 5X1+2X2≤20 X1.a. General Models are the models which you can apply in general to any problem. b.

adding a dummy row and applying Hungarian method. M2) arbitrarily.Q3. O1 – M1 O2 – M3 O3 – M2 10 09 16 . Row reduction matrix Operations O1 O2 O3 O4 M1 10 9 15 0 M2 15 10 16 0 M3 12 9 16 0 M4 11 12 17 0 Optimum assignment solution Operations O1 O2 O3 O4 M1 [0 ] x 1 M2 5 1 M3 2 M4 1 3 x [0 ] x [0 ] x x x [0 ] Hungarian Method leads to multiple solutions. Solve the following Assignment Problem Operations O1 O2 O3 M1 10 9 15 M2 15 10 16 M3 12 9 16 M4 11 12 17 Since the number of rows are less than number of columns. Selecting (03.

Q4. . the total project duration is regarded as a random variable. PERT was developed in connection with an R&D work. and to identify the minimum time needed to complete the total project. Therefore. Some key points about PERT are as follows: 1. Explain PERT Program (Project) Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) is a project management tool used to schedule. Determine the critical path. It is an event-oriented network because in the analysis of a network. associated probabilities are calculated so as to characterize it. Determine the proper sequence of the activities. organize. Construct a network diagram. emphasis is given on the important stages of completion of a task rather than the activities required to be performed to reach a particular event or task. Estimate the time required for each activity. O2 – M3. 2.O4 – M4 00 ------------------------TOTAL 35 Therefore. It is basically a method to analyze the tasks involved in completing a given project. 4. and coordinate tasks within a project. It helps in pinpointing critical areas in a project so that necessary adjustment can be made to meet the scheduled completion date of the project. PERT is normally used for projects involving activities of non-repetitive nature in which time estimates are uncertain. 3. the optimum assignment schedule is O1 – M1. O3 – M2 AND O4 – M4. it had to cope with the uncertainties that are associated with R&D activities. especially the time needed to complete each task. PERT planning involves the following steps:      Identify the specific activities and milestones. In PERT. Update the PERT chart as the project progresses. Therefore.

a1n. A2. Suppose A chooses the course of action where αi is maximum. . a12. α1 is the minimum gain of A when he plays A1 (α1 is the minimum pay-off in the first row. Explain Maximini . Also each player would expect his opponent to be calculative. This is the maximum pay-off in the j th column.. … . Then the maximum of the row minimum in the pay-off matrix is called maximin. player A would like to maximize his profit and player B would like to minimize his loss. You will find corresponding to A’s play A1. a1n. The minimax is β = min j { max I (aij) } If α = β = v (say). if A plays A2. The minimum of the column maximums in the pay-off matrix is called minimax. … . . … . However. then the game does not have a saddle point. Then.. Suppose player A plays A1. then his minimum gain is α2. the maximin and the minimax are equal and the game is said to have saddle point. his gain would be a11.) Similarly. he would minimise his maximum loss. Then. Let α1 = min { a11. … . a12. the minimum gains are the row minimums α1.minimax principle Solving a two-person zero-sum game Player A and player B are to play a game without knowing the other player’s strategy. Bn. If α < β. Am. The maximin is α = max I { min j (aij) } Similarly.Q5. the least pay-off in the second row. The maximum loss to B is when Bj is βj = max i ( aij ). when B plays. . accordingly B’s choice would be B1. αm.B2. α2.

The value of the game is ars. s) is the saddle point. Let A1. Let B1. (r.Saddle point In a two-person zero-sum game. The corresponding position is the saddle point. … . 3. If the maximin occurs in the rth row and if the minimax occurs in the sth column. It is called the value of the game. . Solution to a game with saddle point Consider a two-person zero-sum game with players A and B. v = ars is the common value of the maximin and the minimax. if the maximin and the minimax are equal. Then. Here. Hence. Note: If a game has saddle point. the player’s strategy is pure strategy. The value of a game is the expected gain of player A. … . when both the players adopt optimal strategy. The saddle point of the game is as follows: 1.Bn be the courses of action for player B. Let (r. Note: However. the game has saddle point. A2. if none of the pay-offs is circled or boxed. the suggested solution for the players is mixed strategy. the game does not have a saddle point. The minimum pay-off in each row of the pay-off matrix is encircled. that pay-off is the value of the game. s) be the saddle point. Saddle point is the position where the maximin (maximum of the row minimums) and minimax (minimum of the column maximums) coincide. the position (r. The suggested pure strategy for player B is Bs.Am be the courses of action for player A. B2. The maximum pay-off in each column is written within a box. the suggested pure strategy for player A is Ar. s). If any pay-off is circled as well as boxed. 2.

For a given supply at each source and a given demand at each destination. transportation Maximize or Minimize: Z = c1X1 + c2X2 + --. 2. Optimization refers to the maximization or minimization of the objective functions. 2. The LPP is a class of mathematical programming where the functions representing the objectives and the constraints are linear. Transportation Transportation model is an important class of linear programs. m. the model studies the minimization of the cost of transporting a commodity from a number of sources to several destinations. If bi is the available amount of resources i.+ a1nXn ~ b1 a21X1 + a22X2 + --. bi and aij are interpreted physically as follows. Xn ≥ 0 Where. …. 2. You can define the general linear programming model as follows: B. 3. 3 ---. X2. Linear Programming Linear Programming Linear programming focuses on obtaining the best possible output (or a set of outputs) from a given set of limited resources.+cnXn Subject to the constraints. where aij is the amount of resource i that must be allocated to each unit of activity j.. each of which requires b j (j = 1. the “worth” per unit of activity is equal to cj.Q6. 2…. bi and aij (i = 1. Note that.. . Write short notes on the following: A.. ≥ (greater than) or = (equal). The transportation problem involves m sources. a11X1 + a12X2 + --.. 2… m) units of homogeneous product and n destinations. 3 ------. each of which has available ai (i = 1. in terms of the above formulation the coefficients cj. n) units of products.+ amnXn ~ bm and X1. j = 1. cj. Here ~ is either ≤ (less than). ……………….n) are the decision variables.n) are constants determined from the technology of the problem and Xj (j = 1.+ a2nXn ~ b2 am1X1 + am2xX2 + --.

j = 1. i = 1. -------------. The standard mathematical model for the transportation problem is as follows . n With all XIJ ≥ 0 A necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of a feasible solution to the transportation problem (2) is: m ∑i=1 ai = n∑j=1 bj . 2. The cost cij of transporting one unit of the product from the ith source to the jth destination is given for each i and j. m and n∑j=1 bj. -------------. 2. The objective is to develop an integral transportation schedule that meets all demands from the inventory at a minimum total transportation cost. m ∑i=1 ai = n∑j=1 bj (1) The condition (1) is guaranteed by creating either a fictitious destination with a demand equal to the surplus if total demand is less than the total supply or a (dummy) source with a supply equal to the shortage if total demand exceeds total supply. 3. 3. It is assumed that the total supply and the total demand are equal. The cost of transportation from the fictitious destination to all sources and from all destinations to the fictitious sources are assumed to be zero so that total cost of transportation will remain the same.Here ai and bj are positive integers. Then objective is to Minimize Z = Subject to m m ∑i=1 n∑j=1 CIJ Xij (2) ∑i=1 ai. Let Xij be number of units of the homogenous product to be transported from source i to the destination j.