Energy Efficiency

High rise apartments in Darwin

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Hence there is urgent requirement for the methods which can be employed in order to enhance energy efficiency. The importance of the buildings as the major consumer for energy is even higher for the countries which are in developing phase such as China and India (Breukers. technology used for building construction and changes in energy resources etc (Dietz. . Some of the important factors which decide the usage of energy in high rise apartments includes demographic conditions. 2009). lifestyle. Energy requirements in the developing countries are still at much lower levels as compared to developed countries due to highly advanced tools and equipments which are used in developed countries. economic development in the area.Introduction Buildings in any country contribute for the 40% of the energy consumption hence leading to the main source for energy consumption for the country. 2007). The energy consumption for the building construction has reached to a alarming rate and needs to be handled carefully in order to save energy wastage. As per WBSD reports building constructions have been identified as among five major resources for energy consumption (Diesendorf. The aim of the present report is to analyse the energy consumption which goes into high rise apartments especially in Darwin which are the major source of energy consumption. 2009). As per the estimates presented by International energy agency (IEA) energy consumption for building construction stands at 40% of the overall energy production and the same is expected to rise to a level of 50% of overall energy consumption by year 2030 if the similar trends in building construction continues. These methods would be recommended in order to implement in the current age buildings for achieving higher energy efficiency. It is important to tackle the problem for usage of energy in construction of building as it can contribute up to a large extent for the climate change and energy usage. In present age technology and knowledge are the important tools in order to tackle reduction in energy usage and improve energy efficiency for construction of buildings. There are varying segments in building construction which makes usage of energy with varying characteristics. Further after analysis of the energy consumption in high rise buildings methods would be devised in order to save energy wastage in high rise apartments.

Urbanisation and . 2000). Indian energy consumption data would catch the Japan’s energy consumption figure by year 2030 and in the meantime energy consumption trends in Europe and Japan would remain flat. Japan and European countries have been considered as the major energy consumption countries. 2002). India. It has been observed that energy requirements are much higher for the European countries as well as for United States of America for both residential as well as commercial segment. A comparison of these building has been shown along with categorisation of residential and commercial buildings. The major source of energy for India and China would include biomass and coal while in most of countries energy resource would be mainly electricity.Analysis of energy usage for high rise buildings The figure below represents the analysis of energy consumption for six major countries around the world which consist of three developing and three developed countries (Allen & Jano. Brazil and China have been included in order to represent the energy requirements in their buildings as these are among the top developing countries around the globe while among developed countries USA. As per the above estimations energy consumption in India and China are growing rapidly and the same would be equivalent to some of the developed countries like USA and European countries by the end of year 2030 (Hopkins. Energy comparison have been given from the level of year 2003 to year 2030 so as the show the increase/decrease in energy utilization which would occur in year 2030 as compared to year 2003 levels of energy consumption. Figure 1: Energy usage for high rise apartment in different countries As evident from the above figures different countries have varying requirement for the energy consumption in high rise apartments (Carmen. 2008).

In order to analyze major resource of energy consumption in the various countries can be identified as given below: Figure 2: Showing the usage of various energy resources in different countries As shown above the major sources of energy in India and China are Biomass and petroleum while electricity constitutes only a small portion for overall energy consumption in India and China (Yan and Stellios. Factors affecting energy consumption in Darwin Energy efficiency factors in high rise apartments vary according to different factors such as the type of building. locality in which building has been made.development are the main factors which contribute to the usage of electricity as the main resource for energy usage. Also another major attribute which differentiate the requirement of energy for building is the quality standards which are referred for the construction of building. While for developed countries such as Japan and Europe the major source of energy constitutes natural gas and electricity which are the renewable sources of energy. geography and climate of the surrounding location. 2009). There is wide difference between requirement of the energy for developing and developed country as the major difference is contributed by the retrofitting existing building and construction of the new buildings (Lee & Guerin. China has emerged as the major country which is making use of the coal as the source for the energy consumption. 2006). Some of the major factors which change the energy requirements and reason for variation in requirement of energy can be given as below: .

In developed countries such as the Europe and USA most of the tools and devices comes with high level of technological advances and hence consumes very less energy (Otterpohl.  Technological development: Development of high technology in the field of household equipments and other tools has lead to energy efficient techniques. Lifestyle in Darwin is suitable for energy efficient techniques to be utilised by various citizens living in high rise apartments. Hence energy consumption would be higher in case of the less economically developed countries as fuel inefficient devices would be higher. For city like Darwin there is high economic development and people are having high awareness regarding various devices and equipment used in the homes which are having high energy saving capacity. 2004). Changes in lifestyle have initiated the era of various tools and equipments which consume lot of energy and improved lifestyle has created the need for energy consuming equipment. . Japan is among one of the leading country which has developed various equipment and devices with very low level of energy consumption in them.  Lifestyle changes: Changing lifestyle has emerged as the major trend for the energy consumption. While people with lesser educational background and less income level would use less number of equipment and these equipments would be energy inefficient due to less technological up gradation.  Environmental conditions: Environmental conditions are very different from the nearby localities and most of the time Darwin is hot city with high humidity for 6 to 8 months in a year. Demographical factors: As per the demographic factors requirement for the energy consumption sources would vary.  Economic development: Economic development is another important factor which is essential for energy consumption as the consumers which are highly economically developed would tend to purchase equipments that are technology advanced and would consumer lesser amount of energy due to energy efficient techniques (Simpson. People with high educational background and in younger age would tend to make highly advanced technical tools and equipment which would consume higher amount of energy. Usage of these tools and equipment is higher for developed countries in comparison to developing countries. 2002).

Business community poses the serious challenge for transforming from lesser energy efficient devices to more energy efficient devices by giving high resistance as they are afraid from danger of hampering their business with the usage of newly developed devices and tools which would be developed in order to save the energy. The EEB research report conducted in order to know the technology adaptability in order to identify the technical factors for implementation of technology so that energy can be saved in the high rise apartments have found out that there are serious knowledge gap in the professionals. Corporate conviction and personal commitment is the final factors which work as strong barrier for the usage of energy efficient devices for high rise apartments. Another major barrier which comes in the development of methods for energy efficiency devices and tools for high rise buildings includes lack of technical know-how for development of methods for saving energy. 2008).Barriers to energy efficient devices usage The usage of energy efficient devices is an important measure which needs to be taken so as to improve the overall energy consumption around the world. There . 2007). Acceptance of newly developed methods for energy saving would be useful only when the business community would understand the methods as their sustainable competitive advantage. Also people are not able to understand personally potential benefits which would be offered by the newly developed tools and techniques. This act as the major barrier among the professionals as it would lead to lesser efforts so as to save the energy for buildings and development of energy efficient devices. 2005). Corporate are even difficult to convince for the usage of these newly developed equipment which are considered to have high energy efficiency (Katz et al. There is an inherent tendency among the building professional around the globe in order to underestimate the contribution of savings in energy through improved methods in building while there is tendency to overestimate the cost which goes into making efforts for implementing energy efficient devices (Fuerst & McAllister. Even final users which can implement the higher fuel efficient devices are not aware that from where to seek advice in order to have higher fuel efficiency in their buildings. Third barrier which have come into existence for implementation of energy efficient methodology for high rise apartments include acceptance from the business community for the energy efficient techniques (Jeffrey et al.

is requirement of high level of commitment from the side of both users and government authorities so that there is initiation of the trend for lower energy consumption pattern. Government should take initiative in order to implement energy efficient methods for high rise apartments by implementing a method for giving rating. One of the important construction technique involves usage of the undulating high thermal mass concrete ceiling which are highly efficient and . Buildings which are not energy efficient should be asked to implement various energy efficient methodologies and efforts should be made in order to make sustainable source so that commercial building are able to generate power which they are consuming. Solution to energy wastage in high rise apartments in Darwin One of the probable solutions for the high energy consumption problem in the high rise apartments in Darwin can be in form of green engineering which is the main source of energy saving technique. Methods for proposing reduced energy consumption in high rise apartments Architects and technology leaders around the world have collaborated around the world in order to develop the methods so as to reduce the requirement of energy in high rise apartments. Some of the important developments in field of reduction of energy requirement of high rise apartment would include the below mentioned techniques:  Construction techniques: There are several construction techniques which would be helpful in order to improve energy efficiency for the high rise apartments. The best possible technique for the energy saving can be in form of designing process for the high rise apartments in Darwin city. During the construction and initial design phase various elements of energy efficiency should be utilised and each and every process for construction of building and maintenance should be analysed deeply in order to implement best possible solution for construction design. Personal commitment would be involved only in case when the energy efficiency methods have high impact on the personal life of the people and stakeholders involved in proposing energy efficient methodologies. For various commercial building located in Darwin government should initiate a method in order to give rating based on the energy efficiency.

2008). Hence a self sustained model can be built in the high rise apartment so that energy requirements for the building can be meet through energy production within the building only (Hegazy. Green roof top method for energy efficiency would help in implementing energy efficiency by using the heat from sun thereby it act as coolant for the building as well as it acts as the main source of oxygen generation for the high rise buildings (Allen & Iano. All these benefits account for more than 14% energy savings for the high rise apartments. reduction in energy demand and better cooling mechanism in the buildings etc (Fuerst & McAllister.  Green roof top: Green roof top is one of the latest and most effective ways to implement the high energy efficiency in the high rise apartment. Solar panels are the main source for meeting such energy requirements.  Solar shading: Another issue of energy consumption comes in order to implement cooling system for the ceiling and windows. Along with shower towers for high rise apartments glare control are also utilised which help in maintaining high energy efficiency in comparison to other devices and equipments used for energy control in the high rise buildings. These solar panels are used in order to power the facades of louvers and power collected with the help of solar panels would be utilised in order to suffice various routine work energy consumption in the building. The main advantage of using the shower tower is minimum amount of energy consumption within shower towers for cooling water and air with the help of shower towers.  Shower towers: Shower towers are among the lower energy consumption devices which have been designed keeping in mind the requirement of energy for the high rise apartments. Hence this way double energy efficiency can be achieved with the help of implementing wind turbines and green roof tops.  Solar panels: Solar panels are another important source for improving energy requirements for the high rise apartments. 2009). One of the remedy for . natural light. during the day time these turbines would help in generation of electricity while during the night time these turbines are utilised in order to purge air.e. Shower towers are used in order to cool the water and air inside the building. 2002). Along with these green roofs top roofs mounted wind turbines are also used which have dual functioning i.have many benefits which include proper air circulation.

Such business model would make use of the non fossil fuels such as the solar and wind so that it can fulfil energy requirement as well as it can address various climatic requirements (Jeff et al. while 87% consumption can be saved in form of gas and 72% can be saved in form of coal and other energy resources (Fedrizzi. The first principle of zero net energy would include cutting the overall demand for energy consumption in the high rise apartments. energy production and sharing energy. On an average the energy requirements can be reduced by implementing above mentioned techniques by 42% per month. The main objective in the zero net principle would include production of energy . Further if we look at the analysis of the energy consumption methods and saving obtained through usage of these techniques then more than 82% of electricity consumption can be reduced. 2008). Production of energy for the building would be sufficed with the help of various solar panels and solar shading so that equivalent amount of energy can be produced so as to fulfil energy requirement for the building.implementing energy efficient system for this would be usage of the solar shading which can be implemented on interior as well as exterior side of the building which would act as the automatic night purge window for acting as coolant with high energy efficiency system. The main purpose in such projects would be to address the demand side of the energy while less levy to the production side of energy and for production side overall emphasis should be just to suffice the energy requirements of the building only. Energy requirement are reduced with the help of utilising more energy efficient tools and equipment. Implementation of the above mentioned methods for high rise building would help in saving lot of energy per day. There are three major principles which are accounted in the zero net energy that include cutting demand for energy in buildings. 2009). Mission zero net energy for buildings EEB has developed a methodology in order to have zero net energy consumption for buildings. Second principle for zero net energy includes production of energy with the help of local source. Zero net energy principle leads to the production of energy as well as consumption of energy so that overall energy requirement for the building would become zero.

To encourage the usage of elements which are important in order to produce energy and suffice the energy requirement locally To create infrastructure as per the energy efficiency guideline quoted by EEB In order to implement the energy efficiency some of the important factors which need to be considered are demographic factors. Conclusion Energy efficiency is the major agenda for the current age high rise apartments as there is wide need for energy efficient buildings in the current generations. lifestyle changes and technological changes etc.with the help of local sources of energy such as solar panels and solar shading so that locally energy can be generated so as to suffice the needs for energy in the high rise apartment (Hopkins. Some of the factors which are important for energy efficiency are shower tower. There are varying needs for energy efficiency in developed as well as developing countries. 2002). Recommendations Some of the major recommendations which can be implemented in countries so that higher energy efficient mechanism can be implemented are given as below:     Energy efficiency improvements should be acted as legal requirement for the countries so that overall energy requirements can be reduced in the country. . Third principle in the zero net energy in the share of energy by developing the buildings and infrastructure in such a way that buildings which generates additional amount of energy can share their energy with other buildings so that intelligent infrastructure grid can be created which can work on energy sharing and capable of sufficing needs through own source only. Some of the major factors which affect the energy consumption are demographical factors. economic development. green roof top and solar panels etc. lifestyle changes and economic developmental changes.

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