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Lesson Schedule Unit 1 WATER TECHNOLOGY Objective To make the student conversant with the need and methods of treating water for industrial and domestic purposes


Topics to be covered


Introduction Sources of water Possible impurities Way of Entry


Property Hard and Soft Water Types of Hardness : Permanent and Temporary Hardness Units of Hardness Expression of Hardness in terms of CaCO3 equivalence Alkalinity Types of alkalinity


Measurements Complexometric determination of Hardness Determination of Phenolphthalein and Methyl Orange alkalinity




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Water For Industrial use Requirements Disadvantages of using hard water in boilers (or) Boiler Problems 1. 2. 3. 4. Priming and Foaming Scale and Sludge Boiler Corrosion Caustic Embrittlement


Softening methods - Internal conditioning Phosphate conditioning method Calgon conditioning method Carbonate conditioning method Colloidal Conditioning method


Softening methods - External conditioning Demineralization Process


Desalination Reverse osmosis


Domestic Water Treatment Chlorination Ozonation UV treatment


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INTRODUCTION Water plays an important role in our daily life. 70% of the earth is covered by water, out of which 97% is in oceans and hence saline (not usable) 2% is locked as polar ice caps (not available for use) only 1% is available as surface and ground water (Usable)

Usable Sources

Surface water (River, Lake Etc)

Undergro Surface water (river,lake ,sea etc) Underground water (Well, Spring etc)

Though the ground water is clear, it contains dissolved salts, hence not pure. Surface water contains dissolved salts, dissolved gases and suspended impurities. • Water is used as a raw material for some industries and agriculture • It is an essential commodity for cooking , washing etc (Domestic purpose)

Surface and Underground water are normally used for Domestic and industrial purposes. Hence they must be free from impurities and fit for using

salts of iron. Calcium and Magnesium bicarbonates Sodium and potassium salts Hardness and alkalinity Chemical Dissolved gases O2. taste Turbidity Dissolved salts and Sulphates. Some insoluble minerals undergo reaction and forms products which dissolve in water. For example anhydrous Calcium sulphate is converted to Calcium di hydrate and olivine is converted to serpentine . CO2. Chlorides. odour. bacteria Non potable Way of Entry Rain recharges both surface and underground bodies. minerals. vegetable and animal matter manganese etc. fine clay and silica. When water flows it collects impurities like dissolved salts.VSG & KY Page 4 9/10/2008 Possible Impurities in surface water Impurity Type Example Property affected Physical Colloidal and Suspended Fine clay. Colour. H2S Acidity Biological Micro organisms Fungi. decomposed matter.

Temporary Hardness Permanent Hardness .VSG & KY Page 5 9/10/2008 • CaSO4 + 2H2O -----------------► CaSO42H2O • Mg2SiO4 + xH2O --------------► Mg2SiO4xH2O Olivine Serpentine • 2Fe2S3 + 2H2O + 15O2 --------------► 4FeSO4 + 2H2SO4 ferric ferrous sulphide sulphate Action of dissolved CO2 • CaCO3 + CO2 + H2O --------------► Ca(HCO3)2 • MgCO3 + CO2 + H2O --------------► Mg(HCO3)2 Insoluble carbonates are converted to soluble and hardness producing bi carbonates Hard and Soft Water The property of water which prevents it from lathering is called Hardness Water which does not produce lather with soap solution. but produces white precipitate is called hard water and which produces lather readily with soap solution is called Soft water.. 2 C17H35COONa + Hard water ▬▬► (C17H35COO)2Ca / Mg ↓ + 2Na+ soap white scum Soap + Soft water ▬▬▬▬► Lather Types of Hardness Hardness may be of two types viz.

The most economic and common method of treatment is heating with soda (sodium carbonate) for example CaSO4 + Na2CO3 ▬▬▬► CaCO3 ↓ + Na2SO4 . It cannot be removed by boiling. which can be removed by filtering. It can be removed only by Chemical treatment. Ca (HCO3)2 ▬▬▬► CaCO3 ↓ + H2O + CO2 Ca (HCO3prolonged )2 ▬▬▬► CaCO3 ↓ + H2O + CO2 prolonged ∆ Mg (HCO3)2 ▬▬▬► Mg(OH)2 ↓ + 2CO2 ∆ prolonged Mg (HCO3)2 ▬▬▬► Mg(OH)2 ↓ + 2CO2 prolonged Permanent Hardness or Non-carbonate Hardness (NCH) or Nonalkaline Hardness(NAH): This is caused by the presence of chlorides and sulphates of calcium and magnesium.VSG & KY Page 6 9/10/2008 Temporary Hardness or Carbonate Hardness (CH) or Alkaline Hardness (AH): This is due to the presence of bicarbonates of calcium and It can be removed by mere boiling magnesium. The bicarbonates are converted into insoluble carbonates and hydroxides.

Wt 50) Formula for calculating hardness in terms of CaCO3 Wt. of hardness producing substance . of Hardness producing substance present in water (in mg) x 50 Equivalent Wt. of Hardness producing substance present in water (in mg) x 100 Molecular Wt.07o Cl Expression of Hardness in terms of CaCO3 Equivalents (Importance of calcium carbonate equivalents) Hardness is expressed in terms of CaCO3 Equivalents because i) ii) it is most insoluble salt obtained in water treatment Molecular weight is 100 ( Eq. = 1000 g = 1000000 mg = 106 mg Hence 1ppm = 1mg / L 1ppm = 1mg/L = 0.1oFr = 0.VSG & KY Page 7 9/10/2008 Units of Hardness i) Parts per million (ppm) or Milligram per litre (mg/ L) ii) Degree French (oFr) iii) Degree Clark (oCl) ppm : 1 part of CaCO3 equivalent hardness in 106 parts of water mg/ L : 1 mg of CaCO3 equivalent hardness in 1 L of water Weight of 1 L of water = 1 Kg. of hardness producing substance OR Wt.

what is its calcium hardness in terms of CaCO3 equivalent? Hardness in = Wt. Wt. of Ca2+ = 40 / 40 X 100 =100 ppm . of hardness producing Ca2+ terms of CaCO3 -----------------------------------------------.VSG & KY Page 8 9/10/2008 Differences between hard and soft water Hard Water Soft Water Contains Ca and Mg salts Does not contain Ca and Mg salts Does not produce lather with soap Produces lather easily with soap Soap is wasted and cleaning quality is decreased Cleaning quality is not decreased Boiling point elevated. Wt.X Mol. If a sample of water contains 40mg of Ca2+ ions per litre. more time and fuel for cooking Less fuel and time required for cooking PROBLEMS BASED ON HARDNESS 1. of CaCO3 Mol.

of MgSO4 = 120 / 120 X 100 = 100ppm 4. of Ca (HCO3)2 = 81 / 162 X 100 = 50 ppm 5.63 ppm . Calculate the hardness of a sample of water containing 81 mg of calcium bicarbonate per litre of water. A water sample contains 73 mg of Mg(HCO3)2 per litre. of Mg (HCO3)2 = 73 /146 X 100 = 50 ppm 3. of hardness producing Mg (HCO3)2 terms of CaCO3 -----------------------------------------------. Wt. Calculate the hardness in terms of CaCO3 equivalent.X Mol.Wt.of hardness producing MgCl2 terms of CaCO3 -------------------------------------------.X Mol. of MgCl2 = 50 / 95 X 100 = 52. of hardness producing Ca (HCO3)2 terms of CaCO3 -----------------------------------------------.of CaCO3 Mol. of hardness producing MgSO4 terms of CaCO3 -------------------------------------------.of CaCO3 Mol. Hardness in = Wt. Wt.Wt. A water sample contains 120 mg of MgSO4 per litre.VSG & KY Page 9 9/10/2008 2. Hardness in = Wt. Calculate the hardness in terms of CaCO3 equivalents.X Mol. of CaCO3 Mol. Wt. Hardness in = Wt.X Mol. Wt.Wt. Wt.of CaCO3 Mol. A water sample contains 50 mg of MgCl2 per litre. Calculate the hardness in terms of CaCO3 equivalent? Hardness in = Wt.

Calculate temporary hardness and total hardness of a sample of water containing Mg(HCO3)2= 7. Hardness due to MgCl2 = 50 / 95 x 100 = 52. MgCl2 = 21.6ppm and = 50 ppm.3 x100/ 146 = 5 162 40.VSG & KY Page 10 9/10/2008 6.5ppm .9 ppm Total Hardness = Temporary hardness + Permanent Hardness = 30 + 32.9 = 62.75 50 Molecular Weight Amount equivalent to CaCO3 in ppm 146 7.6 ppm Hardness due to MgSO4 = 120 /120 x 100 = 100 ppm Total Hardness = 52.9 = 32. Solution Name of the hardness producing salt Mg(HCO3)2 Ca(HCO3)2 CaSO4 MgCl2 NaCl Amount in Ppm 7.6 + 100 = 152. Temporary Hardness = Mg (HCO3)2 + Ca (HCO3)2 = 5 + 25 = 30 ppm Permanent Hardness = CaSO4 + MgCl2 = 10 + 22. Express the hardness in terms of CaCO3. A sample of water contains 50mg of MgCl2 and 120mg of MgSO4 per litre.75 x 100 / 95 = 22.5 x 100 / 162 = 25 136 13.5 13. Ca(HCO3)2 =40.3ppm .9 NaCl does not contribute any hardness to water.6 ppm.6 21.3 40. hence it is ignored. .6 x 100 / 136 = 10 95 21.9 ppm 7. CaSO4 = 13.75ppm .

while the weak HCO3▬ has a pH >7 < 8 (7-8).3 ( in acidic medium it is pink and in alkaline medium it is yellow) OH▬ can be detected using phenolphthalein only. During the determination of alkalinity. Qualitative and Quantitative estimation of alkalinity Aim: To determine the type (quality) and amount (quantity) of alkalinity present in the given water sample. The working range of phenolphthalein lies between pH 8 to 10 and that of methyl orange is pH 3. CO32▬ + H+ ▬▬► HCO3▬ + H+ ▬▬► CO2 + H2O Hence for effective determination of both CO32▬& HCO3▬ the choice of indicator should be Methyl Orange. CO32▬ or / and HCO3▬ .4 to 11. Requirements: Water sample . acid is taken in burette and water sample is taken in the conical flask. While both CO32▬& HCO3▬ cannot be completely detected by phenolphthalein . The choice of indicator depends on the pH of the alkaline substance.VSG & KY Page 11 9/10/2008 ESTIMATION OF HARDNESS BY EDTA For experimental determination refer your Lab Record and class notes Alkalinity Alkalinity of water may be mainly due to the presence of anions such as OH▬. Both OH▬ and CO32▬ have a pH value > 8.

. (ii) & (iii). The possibility of OH─ and HCO3─ ions existing together is ruled out as they combine immediately to form CO32─ ions. Experimental Procedure: Pipette out a known volume of water (say20 ml ) sample into a clean conical flask and add 2-3 drops of phenolphthalein indicator. OH─+ HCO3– NaOH + NaHCO3 CO32─ + H2O Na2CO3 + H2O On the basis of same reasoning. all the three OH─.VSG & KY Page 12 9/10/2008 Standard Acid (normal) solution Indicators – Phenolphthalein and Methyl Orange Principle: The determination of alkalinity is based on the following reactions: i) [OH ] + [H+] → H2O (Phenolphthalein – pink to colourless) ii) [CO32─] + [H+] → [HCO3─] (Phenolphthalein – pink to colourless Methyl orange yellow) iii) [HCO3 ] + [H+] → H2O + CO2 (Methyl orange yellow to pink) The titration of the water sample against a standard acid up to phenolphthalein end point marks the completion of reaction OH ▬ (i) & partial neutralization of CO32▬ (ii). CO32─ and HCO3─ ions cannot exist together. Titration of the water sample upto methyl orange end point marks the complete neutralization of all the ions as shown by reactions (i).

of CaCO3(50)X 1000 = ---ppm Volume of water sample Methyl Orange alkalinity in terms of calcium carbonate equivalence M = V2 X Strength of acid (N) X Equivalent Wt. add 2-3 drops of methyl orange indicator and continue the titration till the pink colour reappears. Calculations: Let the volume of acid consumed up to phenolphthalein end point be V1 ml and the total volume of acid consumed up to methyl orange end point be V2 ml Phenolphthalein alkalinity in terms of calcium carbonate equivalence P = V1 X Strength of acid (N) X Equivalent Wt. of CaCO3(50)X 000 =--. At this point all the alkaline substances would have been neutralized and the water sample becomes weakly acidic. Then to the same solution.-ppm Volume of water sample Relation between P & M Case I : Alkalinity is due to HCO3─ only P=0 ( ie on adding phenolphthalein the water sample is colourless) The titration is carried out with methyl orange indicator HCO3▬ + H+ ▬▬► CO2 + H2O Amount of HCO3─ = M .VSG & KY Page 13 9/10/2008 Titrate against standard acid solution till the pink colour disappears. This indicates the complete neutralization of hydroxide and partial neutrallisation of carbonate to bicarbonate.

VSG & KY Page 14 9/10/2008 Case II : Alkalinity is due to CO32─ only M CO32▬ + H+ ▬▬► HCO3▬ + H+ ▬▬► CO2 + H2O P P M = 2P (or) P=M/2 Amount of CO32─ is 2P Case I I I : Alkalinity is due to OH─ only On adding phenolphthalein the water sample is pink After phenolphthalein end point if MO is added the solution immediately becomes pink indicating that the water sample is already weakly acidic The titration is carried out with phenolphthalein indicator P=M Amount of OH▬ is = P .

CO32▬ + H+ ▬▬►H2O + HCO3▬ + H+ ▬▬► CO2 + H2O pH > 8 pH < 8 MO P when P > M/2 (or) 2P > M <P Let the acid consumed for partial neutralization that is phenolphthalein end point be P And the acid consumed for complete neutralization be M ( P + MO indicator) Acid consumed by HCO3▬ only = Total ▬ Phenolphthalein end point = M▬ P Amount of CO32▬ = twice that consumed for bicarbonate = 2 (M ▬ P) We Know that total alkalinity M =.VSG & KY Page 15 9/10/2008 Case IV : Alkalinity is due to OH─ and CO32─ M OH▬ .CO32▬ alkalinity + OH▬ alkalinity Substituting the value of CO32▬ = 2 (M ▬ P ) M = 2 (M ▬ P) + OH▬ alkalinity OH▬ alkalinity = M ▬ [2 (M ▬ P )] = M ▬ [ 2M ▬ 2P] = M ▬ 2M + 2P = ▬ M + 2P Amount of OH▬ = 2P ▬ M .

VSG & KY Page 16 9/10/2008 Case V: Alkalinity is due to CO32─ and HCO3─ M CO32▬. HCO3▬ + H+ ▬▬► HCO3▬ + H+ ▬▬► CO2 + H2O pH > 8 P pH < 8 MO CO32▬ ▬▬► HCO3▬ = P Amount of CO32▬ = 2P Total alkalinity M = CO32▬ + HCO3▬ M = 2P + HCO3▬ Amount of HCO3▬ = M ▬ 2P Relation between the P and M values and the quality and quantity of ions present is summarized in the following table: Case 1 Alkalinity(ppm) P=0 OH─ CO32─ HCO3─ P=M/2 P=M P P>M/2 P<M/2 Case 2 Case 3 Case 4 Case 5 2P─M 2(M─P) - 2P - 2P M - - - M─2P .

• Scales are produced in the utensils • Hazardous to health as it forms calcium oxalate crystals in urinary tracks Washing Due to salts of Ca & Mg Bathing Due to salts of Ca & Mg Cooking Due to hardness causing salts like Ca & Mg Drinking Due to Calcium ions . • Wastage of soap and water • wastage of soap and water • Elevation in boiling point.VSG & KY Page 17 9/10/2008 Disadvantages of Hard Water (Limitations of Hard water) Purpose Disadvantage Responsible salts DOMESTIC USE • Does not lather well. Hence more fuel and time is required.

nitrates. • Does not give smoothness or glossy appearance • Affects crystallization. • Corrosion and Caustic embrittlement • Priming and Foaming Due to hardness causing salts like Ca & Mg and iron & Mn salts Textile Paper Due to salts of Ca & Mg Sugar Due to sulphates. alkali carbonates Laundry Due to Mn & Iron salts Due to salts of Ca & Mg Dissolved gases Steam generation in Boilers Oil .VSG & KY Page 18 9/10/2008 INDUSTRIAL USE • Coloured spots on fabrics • staining of cloth • Affects colour. makes sugar hygroscopic. • Colour/ Stains on the cloth • Requires more soap and water • Scale and Sludge formation.

. Impurity Effect in boiler Oil Foaming Dissolved gases O2 / CO2 and dissolved salts like MgCl2 Corrosion Mg(HCO3)2. If hard water is fed directly into the boiler it leads to the following boiler troubles which reduce the efficiency of the boiler.VSG & KY Page 19 9/10/2008 BOILER FEED WATER Water fed into the boiler for the production of steam is called boiler feed water. MgCO3 Sludge is formed which decreases the efficiency of Boiler. CaSO4 Scales are formed which decreases the efficiency of Boiler Priming also occurs MgCl2 . MgSO4. Ca(HCO3)2.Mg(OH)2. REQUIREMENTS OF BOILER FEED WATER Boiler feed water should be free from hardness producing substances. CaCl2 .

MgCO3 Due to presence of salts like Mg(HCO3)2. slimy. a saturation point is reached and all the dissolved salts precipitate out.VSG & KY Page 20 9/10/2008 BOILER TROUBLES SCALE AND SLUDGE FORMATION: In boiler. when the volume of water decreases. water is converted to steam. Depending on the physical and chemical nature of the impurity (salt) it may form a loose. Ca(HCO3)2. CaCl2 .Mg(OH)2.adhering precipitate (Sludge) or hard strongly adhering precipitate (Scale) Sludge Scale Loose. CaSO4 Disadvantages Low thermal conductivity hence wastage of fuel Wastage of fuel Occasional entrapped between scales Decrease in efficiency of the boiler . slimy non adhering precipitate Hard. non. adherent coating Due to presence of salts like MgCl2 . During this process. MgSO4.

Removed by scrapping. wire brushes etc. Steam containing droplets of liquid water is called wet steam.VSG & KY Page 21 9/10/2008 Choking of the pipes Lowering of boiler safety Prevention and Removal By using softened water By dissolving in acids like HCl. The process of wet steam formation is called Priming. Priming is caused by Presence of large amount of dissolved solids High steam velocity Sudden boiling Improper boiler design Priming can be prevented by Using treated water Controlling the velocity of steam Fitting mechanical steam purifiers. H2SO4 By blow down operation By applying external and internal treatment. Maintaining low water level Good boiler design . PRIMING & FOAMING Priming: When steam is produced rapidly in boilers the steam velocity suddenly increases and some droplets of liquid water are carried along with steam.

oxygen can be reduced by adding hydrazine / sodium sulphite N2H4 + O2 ▬▬► N2 + 2H2O 2Na2SO3 + O2 ▬▬► 2Na2SO4 D.O. Boiler corrosion is due to presence of Dissolved oxygen Dissolved carbon dioxide Dissolved salts like magnesium chloride i) Dissolved oxygen: When water containing dissolved oxygen is fed into boilers the following reaction occurs corroding the boiler material (rust formation) 2Fe + 2H2O + O2 ▬▬► 2Fe(OH)2 ↓ 4Fe(OH)2 + O2 ▬▬► 2 [ Fe2O32H2O] Prevention methods for removing dissolved oxygen(D. This process is called foaming.O. . reduces surface tension of water forming bubbles which do not break easily in boilers giving a foam appearance.): D. Foaming is caused by Presence of oil & grease Presence of finely divided sludge particles Foaming can be prevented by Adding coagulants like sodium aluminate.VSG & KY Page 22 9/10/2008 Foaming: Oil or any other polymeric substance present in boiler feed water. O. Boiler Corrosion: Boiler corrosion is decay of boiler material by chemical or electrochemical attack of its environment. ferrous sulphate etc. can be removed by mechanical deaeration method.

Salts like magnesium and calcium chloride undergo hydrolysis at high temperature to give HCl. MgCl2 + 2H2O ▬▬► Mg(OH)2 ↓ + 2HCl Fe + 2HCl ▬▬► FeCl2 + H2 ↑ FeCl2 + 2H2O ▬▬► Fe(OH)2 ↓ + 2HCl MgCl2 can be removed by internal conditioning external conditioning .VSG & KY Page 23 9/10/2008 iii) Dissolved carbon dioxide: When water containing bicarbonates is heated. Presence of HCl is more damaging due to chain reaction. carbon dioxide is evolved which makes the water acidic. Ca(HCO3)2 CO2 + H2O ▬▬► CaCO3 + H2O + CO2 ▬▬► H2CO3 Prevention methods for removing dissolved carbon dioxide: By treatment with ammonium hydroxide: 2NH4OH + CO2 ▬▬► (NH4)2CO3 + H2O Can be removed by mechanical deaeration method along with oxygen. iv) Dissolved MgCl2 : Acids produced from salts that are dissolved in water are mainly responsible for the corrosion of boilers. It leads to intense local corrosion called pitting corrosion. This is detrimental to the metal. which corrodes the boiler.

kerosene. Na2CO3 + H2O ▬▬► 2NaOH + CO2 2Fe + 4NaOH ▬▬► 2Na2FeO2 + 2H2O Caustic embrittlement can be prevented by Using sodium phosphate instead of sodium carbonate during internal conditioning Adding chemicals like tannin. In high pressure boilers sodium carbonate (used in carbonate condition) decomposes to give sodium hydroxide. SOFTENING METHODS Internal Conditioning: Internal conditioning is treating the water after feeding into the boiler. The objective of internal conditioning is to convert scale forming precipitate to sludge forming precipitates which can be removed by blow down operation. This NaOH flows into the minute hair cracks of boiler material and dissolves surrounding area of iron as sodium ferroate. lignin to the boiler water which seals the tiny air line cracks.VSG & KY Page 24 9/10/2008 Caustic Embrittlement: ( type of boiler corrosion) It is the cracking of boiler metal. Method Carbonate Phosphate Calgon Colloidal Agent applied Sodium Carbonate Sodium Phosphate Sodium hexa meta phosphate Tannin. This makes the boiler brittle and leads to cracking. Agar-Agar .

CaCl2 + 2PO43.VSG & KY Page 25 9/10/2008 Carbonate conditioning: Scale forming salt like CaSO4 present in the water adheres more strongly this can be prevented by precipitating Ca as CaCO3 which gives raise to a loosely adhering scale . On dissolving calgon in water it dissociates as Na2[Na 4 (PO3)6] ↔ 2Na+ + [Na 4 P6O18] 2▬ 2CaSO4 + [Na4P6O18] 2▬ ▬▬► [Ca2P6O18] 2▬ ↓ + 2Na2SO4 (adhering) (non-adhering) Phosphate conditioning: Impurities make water alkaline. Calgon conditioning The chemical constitution of calgon is Sodium hexametaphosphate Na2[Na4(PO3)6]. Depending on pH of water mono / di / tri phosphate is used for treatment. CaSO4 + Na2CO3 ▬▬► CaCO3 ↓ + Na2SO4 Disadvantage / Limitation: Applicable only for low pressure boiler Causes caustic embrittlement and corrosion in high pressure boilers as the unreacted Na2CO3 will be converted to NaOH and CO2. The phosphate reacts with calcium and magnesium salts forming non-adhering precipitate which can be removed by blow down operation.▬▬► Ca3(PO4)2 ↓ + 6Cl▬ . by adding Na2CO3.

. EXTERNAL CONDITIONING: Removal of hardness producing salts from the water before feeding into boiler. Ion Exchange resins are insoluble cross linked long chain macro polymer with micro porous structure and the functional groups attached to the chains are responsible for the ion exchanging properties. The equipment contains a cation exchanger and an anion exchanger. tannin. The external treatment can be done by the following methods. converting into loose deposits which can be easily removed. TDS is as low as 10 ppm and the water can be used even in high pressure boilers Demineralisation of water is done in an ion exchanger.VSG & KY Page 26 9/10/2008 Colloidal conditioning: In low pressure boilers scale formation can be avoided by adding organic substances like kerosene. Lime Soda process Zeolite Process Ion Exchange Process / Demineralization process / de-ionisation process Ion Exchange or Deionisation or Demineralization Process Dimeralised water is soft water but soft water is not demineralised water Deionisation process removes all the anions and cations present in the hard water. agar-agar etc. They get coated over the scale forming precipitates.

VSG & KY Page 27 9/10/2008 Cation Exchanger: Resins containing acidic functional group (▬ COOH. Cation exchange resin is represented as RH + Anion Exchanger: Resins containing basic functional groups (▬ NH2 ) or quaternary ammonium groups are capable of exchanging their OH▬ ions with other anions of hard water. Anion exchange resin is represented as ROH ▬ . ▬SO3H) are capable of exchanging their H+ ions with other cations of hard water.

ROH▬ + Cl▬ ▬▬▬► RCl▬ + OH▬ 2ROH▬ + SO42▬ ▬▬▬► R2SO42▬ + 2OH▬ H+ and OH. which removes all the anions like chlorides. This water is known as demineralised water or deionised water. it can be regenerated by passing a solution of dil. HCl or H2SO4. and equivalent amount of OH▬ ions are released from the column. Magnesium from it and equivalent amount of H+ ions are released. sulphates etc.ions combine to form water H+ + OH▬ ▬▬▬► H2O The water coming out is completely free from cations and anions. R2Ca2+ + 2H+ ▬▬▬► 2RH+ + Ca2+ ( washing) . 2RH+ + Ca2+ ▬▬▬► R2Ca2+ + 2H+ 2RH+ + Mg2+ ▬▬▬► R2Mg2+ + 2H+ The cation free water is then passed through an anion exchange column. which removes all the cations like Calcium.VSG & KY Page 28 9/10/2008 Process: The hard water is first passed through a cation exchange column. Regeneration: when the cation exchange resin is exhausted.

NaOH can be used. R2SO42-▬ + 2OH▬ ▬▬▬► 2ROH▬ + SO42▬ (washing) Advantages of ion exchange process: Highly acidic or alkaline water can be treated The water obtained will have very low TDS (< 5ppm) Disadvantages of ion exchange process: The equipment is costly Resins are expensive Turbid water cannot be used because it reduces the efficiency of the process Water containing Fe / Mn cannot be treated since it forms stable compound with the resin and regeneration of such resins fails DESALINATION OF BRACKISH WATER Water containing dissolved salts with a salty taste is called brackish water.VSG & KY Page 29 9/10/2008 Similarly for the exhausted anion exchanger dil. Commonly used desalination methods are Electro-dialysis . The process of removing extra common salt from saline water is known as desalination.Ion selective membranes are used Reverse Osmosis Freezing Distillation . It cannot be used for drinking purpose.

This process of reversal of osmosis is called reverse osmosis.colourless and odourless . Advantages: The life time of the membrane is high. Membrane can be replaced within short time It removes all types of impurities Water obtained by this process is used for high pressure boilers Process is used for converting sea water into drinking water.) The natural osmosis process can be reversed by applying pressure higher than the osmotic pressure on the concentrated solution side. DOMESTIC WATER TREATMENT Requisites: Drinking or potable water should be • Clear. This will force the fresh water to move from concentrated to dilute side across the semi permeable membrane.VSG & KY Page 30 9/10/2008 REVERSE OSMOSIS: ( super filtration or hyper filtration. The membranes used are cellulose acetate. Sulphone etc. Polyamide.

0 TDS < 500 ppm Free from disease causing microorganisms Free from Pb. Cr. Fe etc.VSG & KY Page 31 9/10/2008 • • • • • • • turbidity not > 10 ppm Free from objectionable minerals & dissolved gases pH ~ 7.5 – 8. As. Hardness < 125 ppm . Mn.

colour & odour by passing through sand filter Process: Disinfection Aim : To remove pathogenic micro organisms by treating with Cl2 / UV Storage & Distribution .VSG & KY Page 32 9/10/2008 Potable water / Domestic water / Municipal water Treatment Raw Water from river / lake / pond / well Process: Screening Aim : To remove large debris. and floating particles by passing through b ars / rods Process: Sedimentation Aim : To remove suspended solids by retaining water in settling tanks Process: Coagulation Aim : To remove colloidal impurities by adding chemicals such as alum Process: Filtration Aim : To remove any residual solids.

• The chemicals added for killing the bacteria are called disinfectants. • It is done in Sand filters. • The commonly used coagulants are alum. due to retention of impurities in the pores. dried and reused. Disinfection: • Disinfection is used for destroying pathogenic micro organisms. sodium aluminate and ferrous sulphate. • When the process becomes slow the top sand layer is scrapped off and washed with water.VSG & KY Page 33 9/10/2008 Screening: The bar racks and screens are used to remove floating particles like leaves. Alum: Al2(SO4)3 + 6H2O ▬▬► 2Al (OH)3 ↓ + 3H2SO4 Sodium aluminate: NaAlO2 + 2H2O ▬▬► Al (OH)3 ↓ + NaOH Filtration: • Filtration is used to remove any residual solids remaining after sedimentation. plastic. • The precipitate is removed by gravitational sedimentation. • The suspended particles settle down at the bottom due to gravitational force • The retention period in sedimentation tank ranges from 2-6 hours depending on the quantity of suspended impurity Coagulation / Flocculation: • Chemical coagulation and flocculation are used to produce a flocculent precipitate that encapsules the colloidal and suspended solids in the water. . about 5m deep. Sedimentation: • Water is allowed to stand undisturbed in settling tanks. wood pieces etc. • During filtration the sand pores get clogged. • The water is passed through a bed of fine sand placed over coarse sand layer and gravel.

reducing substances and free ammonia in raw water. leaving behind mainly free chlorine. etc. formatio n begins. • The chemical reaction produces hypochlorous acid a germicide which destroys the germs. which possesses disinfecting action against pathogenic bacteria. Fe2+.) Cl2 Chloramines consumed b y broken down reactio n with & converted organic to nitrogen matter. If gas which NH3 is leaves the present.VSG & KY Page 34 9/10/2008 Disinfection can be carried out by following methods: • Boiling • Bleaching powder • Chlorination • Chloramines • Ozonation • UV treatment Bleaching powder: • About 1kg of bleaching powder per 1000 kilolitres of water is mixed and water is allowed to stand for several hours. CaOCl2 + H2O ▬▬► Ca (OH)2 + Cl2 Cl2 + H2O ▬▬► HCl + HOCl Germs + HOCl ▬▬► Germs are killed Break-point chlorination Break point chlorination is addition of just sufficient amount of chlorine to oxidise organic matter. system chloramine Breakpoint. The “Breakpoint”…another look Chlorine is reduced to chlorides by easily oxid izab le stuff (H2 S. .

Chloramine: ClNH2 + H2O ▬▬► HOCl + NH3 Ozonation: Ozone is highly unstable and breaks down. liberating nascent oxygen. eyes and mucous membrane In some cases leads to stomach dysfunction Very Sensitive to pH Liquid or Powder Acceptable for Hard Water Inexpensive Sensitive to Organics And has to be preserved 120° F. O3 ▬▬► O2 + [O] [O] + Germs ▬▬► kills the germs .VSG & KY Page 35 9/10/2008 Chlorination: Chlorine gas is used Cl2 + H2O ▬▬► HCl + HOCl Germs + HOCl ▬▬► Germs are killed Chlorination Advantages Disadvantages Broad Spectrum Corrosive Kills Spores and Phage Irritating to Skin.

Some by products formed during ozonation are carcinogenic .manganese and iron Ozone in excess is not harmful. It also removes hydrogen sulphide . It simultaneously removes colour. since it is unstable and decomposes into oxygen No detrimental environmental impact Disadvantage: Expensive method hence not used for municipal water supply No residual disinfecting effects to keep water disinfected to customer Lesser solubility in water compared to chlorine so special mixing technique has to be employed Potential fire hazards and toxicity issues are associated with ozone generation.3 ppm dosage is injected in a sterilizing tank.VSG & KY Page 36 9/10/2008 • Nascent oxygen is a powerful oxidizing agent. • 2 . • 10 -15 min contact time Advantages: Ozone has a greater disinfection effectiveness against bacteria and viruses compared to chlorination. odour and taste without giving any residue.

This inactivates the cells and prevents their multiplication. No continued effect) • Costly if electrically powered UV lamps are used • The colloidal suspension has to be removed by filtration before subjection to UV treatment since they absorb UV light and reduce the amount of radiation available for disinfection. Thus destroy them completely and effectively The advantages of UV disinfection • • • • • • disinfection without adding chemicals does not change the taste minimal maintenance immediate treatment without the need for holding in tanks low power consumption Inexpensive if sun rays are used as UV light source Disadvantages • No residual disinfecting ( ie. • UV light from mercury vapour lamp is capable of destroying all microorganisms within a short time of 10 -20 seconds thereby disinfecting water. .VSG & KY Page 37 9/10/2008 Ultraviolet light treatment • UV light method of disinfection is economical for disinfecting water only in a small scale. Mechanism of action • The UV light disrupts the DNA in the microorganisms.

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