aAli Pacha

Ali Pacha

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Title: Ali Pacha Author: Alexandre Dumas, Pere Release Date: August, 2001 [Etext #2753] [Yes, we are about one year ahead of s chedule] [Most recently updated: December 10, 2001] Edition: 11 Language: English Character set encoding: ASCII Project Gutenberg's Etext Ali Pacha, by Alexandre Dumas, Pere ****This file sho uld be named alpac10.txt or alpac11.zip***** Corrected EDITIONS of our etexts get a new NUMBER, alpac12.txt VERSIONS based o

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time. Hart and may be r eprinted only when these Etexts are free of all fees." If you are interested in contributing scanning equipment or software or other i tems. was gradually tumbling to pieces. no royalty is due. the ancient eastern part of the Continent.] [Project Gutenberg is a T radeMark and may not be used in any sales of Project Gutenberg Etexts or other m aterials be they hardware or software or any other related product without expre ss permission. Money should be paid to the: "Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation. such as that of Djezzar Pacha. who at his pleasur e made kings and destroyed kingdoms. Please contact us beforehand to let us know your plans and to work out the details.] *END THE SMALL PRINT! FOR PUBLIC DOMAIN ETEXTS*Ver. there were wider spread reb ellions which attacked the constitution of the Turkish Empire and diminished its . Whilst Western Europe in turn submitted and st ruggled against a sub-lieutenant who made himself an emperor.10/04/01*END* This etext was produced by David Widger <widger@cecomet. and getting parcelled out amongst bold adventurers who skirmished over its ruins.[2] Honor the etext refund and replacement provisions of this "Small Print!" st atement. WHAT IF YOU *WANT* TO SEND MONEY EVEN IF YOU DON'T HAVE TO? Project Gutenberg is dedicated to increasing the number of public domain and li censed works that can be freely distributed in machine readable form. please contact Michael Hart at: hart@pobox. or royalty free copyright licenses. like mummies which preserve but the semblance of life. Without mentioning local revolts which produced only short-lived stru ggles and trifling changes.com [Portions of this header are copyright (C) 2001 by Michael S. or that of Passevend-Oglou Pacha. public domain mate rials. pere ALI PACHA CHAPTER I The beginning of the nineteenth century was a time of audacious enterprises and strange vicissitudes of fortune. wh o refused to pay tribute because he thought himself impregnable in his citadel o f Saint-Jean-d'Acre. The Project gratefully accepts contributions of money. of administration. If you don't derive profits.net> CELEBRATED CRIMES VOLUME 7 (of 8) Part 1 By Alexander Dumas. who planted himself on th e walls of Widdin as defender of the Janissaries against the institution of the regular militia decreed by Sultan Selim at Stamboul. Royalties are payable to "Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation" the 60 days following each da te you prepare (or were legally required to prepare) your annual (or equivalent periodic) tax return. [3] Pay a trademark license fee to the Foundation of 20% of the gross profits y ou derive calculated using the method you already use to calculate your applicab le taxes.

destitution and revolt wer e equally beyond their power to cope with. It naturally therefore ca me to pass when Sobieski. similar in result . and dammed its course with all their might. if not one of the mos t brilliant. Anarchy and disorder re igned from one end of the empire to the other. Inexorable conquerors and insatiable masters. and was powerless to arrest it. they would listen to nothing. But. In the case of the peasants labour came to a stand-still. bred on conques t alone. Like ignorant farmers. and his sole aim was to acquire and increase a power of which h e was both the guiding influence. But in proportion as their needs increased on the one hand. as fatalistic when cond emned to a state of peace as when they marched forth conquering and to conquer. Unconsciously imitating the Roman Senate. with one hand they flog ged their slaves and with the other plundered them. leaving the whole burden of their support on conquered peoples. descendant of the Prophet and distributor of crowns. so did their resources diminish on the other. they rapidly ruined their vast and rich empire by exorbitant exactions. The Osmanli race. and which. who considered themselves born to comm and. and. They were never glutted. that the Osmanli warlike instincts recoiled upon themsel ves. The grasping exactions of the tyrant dominant body prod uced nothing from waste lands and armed mountaineers. nothing on a level with their greed. His nature contained t he seeds of every human passion. whose long resistance to the suzerain power preceded and br ought about the regeneration of Greece. which raised Servia to the positio n of a free state. had set bo unds to the wave of Mussulman westward invasion. bef ore long. the Sublime Porte needed money. must be supplied. The haughty descendants of Ortogrul. Each population took the steps best suited to its po sition and character. On both sides arose a determined resistance. of Mahomet Ali. This explains his whole temperament. powerless and shelterless. Few m en have understood themselves better or been on better terms with the orbit of t heir existence. all the same.extent. others violence. the Turkish Divan put up the empire for sale by public auction. He foresaw it. seeing victory forsake them. as b efore his time Charles Martel had saved it on the plains of Poitiers. and the end and object. Pacha of Janina. The mountaineers planted the mselves like rocks in a torrent. who exhaust fertile fields by forcing crops. and that peace imposed new and different labours on those who no lon ger triumphed in war. Nothing was superior to thei r insolence. proved good for nothing when conquest failed. at least one of the most singular in contemporary history. bent like reeds before the storm and evaded the shock against which they were unable to stand. his actions were merely the natural outcome of his character confronted with circumstances. and he devoted all his long life to their devel opment and gratification. who made his pachalik of Egypt into a kingdom . b ut without ever seeking to aid it. the wants of a magnificent sultan. He was not on e of those men who place their lives and services at the disposal of any cause i ndiscriminately. and finally that of the man whose. in proportion as it reflects the manners and ideas of the time and country in which he has lived. fell back upon tyranny. and all that was left for tyranny to govern was a desert enclosed by a wall. some chose inertia. different in method. The inhabitants of th e plains. who saved Christianity under the walls of Vienna. in that of the hill folk open war broke out. Vainly did reason expo stulate that oppression could not long be exercised by hands which had lost thei r strength. so the figure of Ali Pacha stands out. and definitely fixed a limit wh ich it should not pass. Ali's own will counted for nothing in this important movement. Ali Tepele ni. From the middle of the eighteenth century Turkey had been a prey to the politic al gangrene of which she is vainly trying to cure herself to-day. history we are about to narrate. and n ever relaxed their extortions. and as the personality of an individual is all the more striking . All employments were sold to the highest . they cowered down in magnificent listlessness. and to do this. amongst them that of Czerni-Georges. will dismember her in the sight of all Europe. Their oppressed subject s soon found that they must escape at any cost from oppressors whom they could n either appease nor satisfy.

His an cestors were Christian Skipetars. brave. When they had nothing better to do. and the skilful robber quoted as an example to the children by the father of the family. Thessaly . Marshal Schullemburg. They had therefore to set quickly to work. To this end. and where the manners of ancient Laconia prevailed. so that the inhabitants of the empire might be divide d into three classes--those who were striving to seize everything. having repulsed th e enemy with loss. who defended the island. and Upper Albania. they never rested from combat except in an armed peace. not long since masters of the w orld. pachas. and that war was their element. because the people were gi ven to fighting for their bread. And as there was no other law than their master's pleasure. less strong. on the other from the ancient Macedonians. beys. It must be admitted that the memory of this murder must ha . each man his gun on his shoulder. canton against canton. carrying off. the delegate of imperial power delegated in his turn. the nature of the country was mountainous and inaccessible. sometimes in league with these against the sul tan. the dalesman was often the prey of the mountaineer. and his ancestry certainly cannot be traced farther back than the end of the sixteenth century. as in many other parts of Turkey. and religiously guarded a st ate of disorder bequeathed by their ancestors. cadis. and. who became Mussulmans after the Turkish invasi on. Thus all the s cience of administration resolved itself into plundering as much and as quickly as possible. took Mouktar prisoner on Mount San Salvador. they felt the blood of warriors flow in their veins. flocks. This w as the normal and regular life of the population of Epirus. and that he descended from an ancie nt Anatolian family which had crossed into Albania with the troops of Bajazet Il derim. the Albanians were above all soldiers.bidder. in 1716. which always assured the first pl ace to the most valiant. the post might be lost before its cost had been recovered. Lower Albania. v illage against village. de Pouqueville tha t he sprang from a native stock. T he pashas had great difficulty in collecting tribute. crossed with Norman adventurers brought eastwards by the great movement of the Crusades. so ther e. took no interest in affairs at all. each family its fortified stronghold. ministers of every rank. Each tribe had its military organisation. and the favourite dish was always a stol en sheep. Every man was esteemed in proportion to his skill and courage. where he was in charge of a signalling party. perished in the Turkish expedition against C orfu. They spent their money in the capital. hu ng him without trial. It was amidst men and manners such as these that Ali Tepeleni was born. and not an Asiatic one. Its inhabitants were poor. watching the opportunity to trespass over pasture limits. and clerks of every class had to buy their posts from their sovereign and get the money back out of his s ubjects. Mouktar Tepeleni. It was in the mountain districts where were preserved the recol lections of Scander Beg. his grandfather. often even house against house. or mowed their neighbours'. The Albanians proudly called this anarchy liberty. the deeds of the brave soldier were sung on the lyre. and those who. Sometimes at feud with one another. was no other guarantee than his caprice. having nothing and hoping for nothing. they tilled their fields. was also less active and bold. and recuperated themselves in th e provinces. those who wer e trying to save a little. as he pretended. the crop. sometimes rebelling agai nst the government their sanjaks. Descended on the one side from the unconquerable Scyth ians. Whether Mahomedans or Christians. or pastured their. on similar conditions. and a m an's chances of making a good match were greatly enhanced when he acquired the r eputation of being an agile mountaineer and a good bandit. Village feasts were held on the booty taken from strangers. Albania was one of the most difficult provinces to manage. Thesprotia. other agents to seize for him and for themselves all they could lay their hands on. But it is made certain by the learned researches of M. and there. and with a barbarity worthy of his adversaries. He boas ted that he belonged to the conquering race. it should be noted.

the subject of this history. He therefore solicited and obtained the hand of Kamco. and the old mountaineer lost in t he town part of what he had made on the hills. Vizier of Serat. the s on of the slave. daughter of a bey of Conitza. sons of the wife. he gave up free-booting. holding the rank of beys. His or igin was no legal bar to his succeeding like his brothers. in which they took a final refuge. forced to leave hom e. CHAPTER II Ali thus at thirteen years of age was free to indulge in the impetuosity of his . This marriage atta ched him by the ties of relationship to the principal families of the province. and afterwards with a daughter. but the mother of the youngest. in which his brothers. patrolling highroads and lanes. he found himself a wealthy man an d chief of a warlike band. whose name it bore. and I retaliate by keeping them at home for ever. penetrated the streets unresisted. After some years of this profitable business. of which he became chief ago. Although his fortune placed him altogether above small gains and losses. They had to keep a large stud of horses. This innocent exercise of his tas te was not to the fancy of his neighbours. waited till they wer e inside it. among others to Kourd Pacha. bore his fate like a brave man. all commodities were cheap. he marched for Tepelen. probably to keep his hand in. After a few years. Veli had by his new wife a son name d Ali. with a great ret inue of servants and men-at-arms. who was descended from the illustr ious race of Scander Beg. and consequently to incur heavy expenses. it enjoyed an income of six thousand piastres. thus they constantly found their revenue inadequate. and brawls and fights recommenced in fine style." said he to those arou nd him. had barricaded themselve s. were born of the same mother. He at once besieged them. Notwithstanding the injunctions of Mahomet. The latter. This was a large fortun e in a poor country. and established himself i n the town. which soon closed his career. But the Tepeleni family." In a few moments he was his father's sole heir and master of Tepelen. Arrived a t the summit of his ambition. or plundering all whom he encoun tered. Veli could not entirely give up his old habits. and then set fire to the four corners. The family was one of the richest in the town of Tepelen.ve had the effect of rendering Ali badly disposed towards Christians. my brothers drove me out of doors. The most natural means of raisi ng it which occurred to them was to diminish the number of those who shared it. t he ancient Aous. was a slave. But finding himself rich enough to m aintain more wives and bring up many children. holding for ransom. and drove him out of the house. with his gun on his shoulder and his yatag han in his belt. "See. he desired to increase his credit by allying himself to some great family of the country. He had already a son by a slave. Veli. therefore the two elder brothers. combined against Veli. two of whom. and a daughter named Chainitza. and ot her perquisites. Ire spite of his intentions to reform. soon forced the gates. had to maintain a state like that of the great financ iers of feudal Europe. so that he h ad no reason to fear dying without an heir. Mouktar left three sons. Fortune did not always favour him. he continued to amuse himself by raiding from time to time sheep. forewarned. equal to twenty thousand francs. attacking. and pursued them to a tent. goats. and presented himself before the paternal house. He became a freebo oter. which he reached unsuspected. he sought consola tion in wine. Salik and Mahomet. a lawful wife. crossed the river Vojutza. He surrounded this tent. who s oon presented him with another son. and determined to levy exactions on others to compensate him for the losses incurred through his brothers. Vexations soured his temper and i njured his health. "they cannot accuse me of vindictive reprisals. He died in 1754. where. Judging that the moment for vengeance had arrived.

Success justifies everything. possibl y in sympathy with the majesty of nature. As obs tinate as intractable. now grown into a man. when he died. not o nly her blood. treasures. It was only in his youth. he felt aroused in him a need of perso nal grandeur which nothing could satiate. in short what t ime has realised and still promises. she abandoned the veil and the distaff. Then. should strik a blow against their independence. and when he thought himself free from the co nsequences. bold. breathing out his nervous energy through every pore. inhaling the wind. Ambiti ous." she was never tired of telling him. since she has made me both a man and a viz ier. In vain his father sought to calm his savage temper. but as soon as his eyes were clos ed. "for my father. scaling precipices. if they threatene d him. under pretext of maintaining the rights of her children. Possibly he learnt in the midst of every kind of danger to brave everything and subdue everything. but also her character. and took up arms. that he became more manageable. she made herself all po werful in Tepelen. From his early youth he had manifested a mettle and activity rare in young Turks. "I owe everything to my mother. During the lifetime of her husband. any use. at eas e about the interior of her family. Learnin one day that Ali had started on a distant expedition with his best soldiers. he even consented to lear n to read. He cons tantly deluded him by fresh tricks. with th object of putting her out of the way the first convenient opportunity. revealed to me the secret of my destiny. haughty by nature and self-restrained by education." Kamco did not confine herself to words. some by presents. and promised everything that w as required. and everything is permissible to him who has the power to do it. and to whom in return he gav e all his affection. left me nothing but a d en of wild beasts and a few fields. My imagination. she assiduously cultivated the germs of ambition. t . he set at defiance all efforts and all precautions. Scarcely out o f the nursery. she seemed only an ordinary woman. conquered by fear. defying the tempests. she employed every means to increase th e fortune of her beloved son and to make him a power. inflamed by the counsels of her who has given me life twice over. others by various favours. and that when you find yourself str ong enough to take it from them. Renouncing all the habit of her sex. for the point I have now reached is not the limit of my hopes. whom she attached to her. he spent his time in climbing mountains. she directed her attention to the exterior. service. used to declare that his succ ess was entirely his mother's work. and inflicted the most rigorous persecutions on such as remai ned hostile to her. he broke the door or jumped out of the window. whose idol he was. wandering through forest s. aft er his father's death. vindictive. he maltreated him with gross violence." he said one day to the French Consul. With their aid. but only to break his word the first opportunity. it is yours. to please his mother. fearin lest this terrible woman. made a secret alliance against her. She coll ected round her her husband's old partisans. hardiho od. who had died before him. If Kamco had so strong a liking for Ali. rolling in snow. If th ey shut him up. aided by her son. "My son. "he who cannot defend his patrimony r ichly deserves to lose it. whom she feared. Her first care was to pois on the children of Veli's favourite slave.character. He had a tutor sp ecially attached to his person and charged to supervise all his actions. and vengeance which already strongly showed themselves in the young Ali. palaces. she gave free scope to the violent passions which agitated her bosom. Remember that the property of others is only theirs s o long as they are strong enough to keep it. when he reached the zenith of his greatness. it was because she found in him." Ali. Thenceforward I saw nothing in Tep elen but the natal air from which I was to spring on the prey which I devoured m entally. he pretended to comply. nothing was of. I dreamt of nothing else but power. and she gradually enlisted all the lawless and adventurous men in Toscaria. g e e g But the inhabitants of the two adjacent villages of Kormovo and Kardiki. and restrain his vagabond spirit.

coward! go spin with the women in the harem! The distaff is a better w eapon for you than the scimitar! "The young man answered not a word. "go. When he grew to manhood. he had co mmenced life in the fashion of the heroes of ancient Greece. they only emerged at night to pass into the arms of the men who had won them by lot the previous morning. sanguinary passions. fixing her distracted eyes upon him. he had long practised op en pillage. has it that he found in the ruins of a church a treasure which enabled him to reconstitute his party. at the end of which a Greek of Argyro-Castr on. and from the age of fourteen years he had acquired an equal reputation to that earned by the son of Jupiter and Maia. and took them back to Tepelen. retired to hide his humiliation in the bosom of hi s old friend the mountain. with fair hair and blu e eyes. an d returned to Tepelen." sister. was moved with pity and pardoned him. Ali got off with a m ild captivity in the palace of his powerful relative. He selected from his old band of brigands thirty palikars. but their beauty sav ed their lives. and devoted h erself to household duties. A worthy son of his father. and suff icient evidence to justify their execution was not wanting. Whilst they were hanging his com rades. and worked with all his might to pla ce himself in a position to keep his word. ransomed the m for twenty thousand piastres. but Ali w as not the man to surrender his life so easily. enabled him to collect a considerable force for am e xpedition against Kormovo. He was accosted by his mother and gue. It was proposed to put them to death. but. The whole body of bandits was condemned to death. and resumed his plundering operations. pale with fati with cries and tears. He employed his fortune and influence in collecting a formidable guerilla force . The country flattered itself that at length it was fre ed from its scourge. and passed into Thessaly. He marc hed against it at the head of his banditti. where. will no Ali. in whom this sight and this story had aroused. and Kamco added.hey surprised Tepelen under cover of night. promis ed a vengeance proportioned to the outrage. richer and consequently more esteemed than ever. a persuasive voice. into the service of the Pacha of Negropont. whose thirst for vengeance had been disappointed by his defeat. His plundering expeditions added to his mother's savings. moved by compassion for their horrible fate. he employed his time in brigandage on the highways. by the universal outcry of the province. as their bouloubachi. who since her return from Kardiki had altogether withdrawn from public life. always thirsting for the marvello us in the adventures of heroes. stealing sheep and goats. But he soon tired of the methodical life he was obliged to lead. but found himself vigorously opposed . This state of things lasted for a month. Shut up all day in prison. plundered a great number of villages. Malicovo. one of the two towns he had sworn to destroy. he extende d his operations. following the example of his father Veli. At the time of which we are speaking. Thence h e raided the Pindus chain of mountains. But he himself has contrad icted this story. seeing at his feet a comely youth. excusing himself on account of his youth. where he had a warm reception from Ka mco. Kurd Pacha soon found himself compelled . The popular legend. Ali had just returned. "My ill enjoy no peace till Kormovo and Kardikil destroyed by longer exist to bear witness to my dishonour. shame. deeply wounded by these reproaches. and was obliged to save himself and the rest by flight . son! my son! my soul w thy scimitar. lost part of his force. He sent against him a division of troops. who heaped benefits upon h . their captors preferred to revenge themselves by licentiousness rather than by murder. They told him what had taken place. named G. and carried off Kamco and her daught er Chainitza captives to Kardiki. stating that it was by the ordinary methods of rapine and plun der that he replenished his finances. to take active measures against this young brigand. the capital of Central Albania and r esidence of the governor. and entered. or leader of the group. and rage. which defeated him and brought him prisoner with his men to Berat. he threw himself at the feet of the pacha and begged for mercy in the nam e of his parents. "Go!" said she. He did not stop till he reached Tepelen. and eloquent tongue. and in whose veins flowed the s ame blood as his own. and promising a last ing reform. The pacha.

It seemed as if this marriage were destined to wean Ali forever from his former turbulent habits and wild adventures. did not run the risk of braving it. He appeared amen able to these good influences. Stephano Pic colo. supreme judge over Turkey i n Europe. Ali's disposition was too much like that of his father-in-law to prevent him fr om taking his measure very quickly. Capelan. The Divan sent orders to all the pachas of Northern Tur key in Europe to instantly march against the insurgents and quell the rising in blood. He accordingly made the most pl ausible remonstrances against the inefficacy and danger of such a resistance. had just raised in Albania the standard of the Cross and called to arms all the Christians of the Acroceraunian Mountains. This union. on the contrary. did all he could to emb arrass the movement of the imperial troops. who wished to succeed to both the government and the wealth of his father-in-law. notwithstanding. happy on both sides. To . the ruling passion of viziers. He was not only accused of the gravest offences. but proofs of them we re forwarded to the Divan by the very man who had instigated them. former escap ades to be forgotten. Not only did he keep the promise he had made to live quietly. had to take refuge in the unexplored caves of Montenegro. and being of marriageable age.im. a high position and great influence. he sought and formed an alliance with the daughter of Capelan Tigre. was summoned to give an account of his conduct before the roumeli-valicy. Confident in his courage. Pacha of Delvino. who res ided at Argyro-Castron. at the instigation of his son-in-law. who had summ oned him. gave him. An adventurer named Stephano Piccolo. whilst if he obey ed the orders of the roumeli-valicy he would find it easy to excuse himself. There could b e no doubt as to the result of the inquiry. an d further emboldened by his remoteness from the capital. He soon got on good terms with him. waiting for an opportunity to denounce him and become his successor. If Emineh. But the family into which he had married afforded violent contrasts and equal elements of good and mischief. In this manner he soon assumed a distinguished and honourable r ank among the beys of the country. turbulent. his father-in-law. determined not to leave his pachalik. and without openly making common cau se with the insurgents. was a model of virtue. therefore. an emissary of Russia. and. When the struggle was over. and their chief. ambitious. and attaching to himself. was a composition of every vice--selfish. the pacha. believing in his reformation. Capelan. Ali taking the threat seriously. did all he could to conci liate the man whose anger he dared not kindle. a great number of friendly d isposed persons. and was certain to bri ng on his head a storm against which he was powerless to cope. Tha t was not in accordance with the plans of Ali. After som e years. as Ali had foreseen. putting under obligation all his neighbours. Capelan. Instead of obeying the orders of the Divan and joining Kurd Pacha. who had no sus picions of his son-in-law's duplicity. with one of t he most accomplished women in Epirus. and bitterly to repent his past errors. and did all he could to urge him into the path of rebellion. For this opportunity he had not long to wait. only giving him to under stand that he had no more mercy to exp ect if he again disturbed the public peace. who in cessantly implored the restitution of her dear son. through the services he rendered them. To refuse to plead was tantamount to a confession of guilt. Capelan's object in giving his daughter to Tepeleni was to enlist him among the beys of the province to gain independence. the generous pacha restored him his liberty. he rendered them substantial aid in their resistance. conquered and dispersed. and ente red into his schemes. but by his good conduct he caused his. and did all he could to lead him into the paths of probity. and moved by the prayers of Kamco. The c unning young man pretended to enter into the views of his father-in-law. fierce. Th ey were. h is wife. the Pacha of Delvino gl oried in setting law and authority at defiance.

where he had been summoned to appear. Now was the time for my friends to triumph and for my foes to tremble. and establish himself on a firm footing' against possible accidents. I set to work at the head of my partisans. the unfortunate pacha consented to go to Monastir. but were interrupted by a piquet of m y men. then . who was easily alarmed on her father's account. "and brought no important change in my position . Ali saw the danger. and their goods amongst my followers. I s et about a plan for destroying them at one blow. The numerous e nemies of Tepeleni. I myself supplied the plan of the con spiracy. for a siesta in a neighb ouring wood. as confiscated to the sultan. whose res entment they had cause to fear. sought and found the means to ob viate it. This disappointment kindled the wrath of the ambitious Ali. bent on my destruction. but I held no title or Government employment of my own. He sequestered all the property of his predecessor. Soon after I had left. who was unmarried. exulting in their suppos ed victory. it is true. which was adopted. and caused a goat to be pinioned an d muzzled. for wh ose support they had hopes. which he held under Capelan. crying ' Ali Bey is dead. Ali further employed the innocent Emi neh. and formidable foes . I allowed t he commotion to run its course and reach its height. for my own safety. who unexpectedly emerged from a copse where I had posted them. covered with my cape. This alliance secured to him the gover nment of Tigre. experien ced. and from that moment I could call the town of Tepelen my own. which they entered. had drowned their prudence and their courage in floods of wine. I should have saved mu ch time and pains. He mus t put himself in a state of security against the dangers he had lately. strong in the justice of my cause. A confidential servant of mine suggested to my enemies the idea of surprising me and assassinating one there. and before sunrise had exterminated the last of my enemies. and where he was immedi ately arrested and beheaded. and thus deprive d Ali Tepeleni of all the fruits of his crime. which its perpetrator intended for a mere crime. The murder of Capelan. I had devoted friends. and fi red a volley at the goat. whom I must put out of the way. soon made common cause under the new one. He soo n formed a plan." . "They ran up to make certain of my death. I was an important partisan. But when the former were at the depth of their d istress and the latter at the height of their joy. Ali's schemes had succeeded. who had throughout shown himself devoted to th e sultan. I recognised the necessity of establi shing myself firmly in my birthplace. I then returned ho me by a roundabout path. But that was not sufficient. and fastened under the tree. silent under the administration of the late pacha. But the moment was not favourable for putting his projects in train. Overcome by the reasoning o f his son-in-law and the tears of his daughter. and Chainitza. I preceded my adversaries to the place where I was accustomed to repose. was nominated Pacha of Delvino in place of Capelan. I appeared upon the scene. riotous with joy. and they w ere obliged to return to Tepelen. so as to indicate which wer e my friends and which my foes. and ended by devising one with which I ought to have commenced my career. proved a huge blunder. which he himself described to the French Consul in the followin g words:-"Years were elapsing. and strongly supported. the conspirators arrived. their houses. his own sister. On the day agreed upon. I distributed their lands. after hunting. Had I done so. now we are free!' This news reached my harem." said he. He succeeded in making a match between Ali of Argyro-Castron. but both his ambition and his cupidity were frustr ated. Bey of Argyro-Castron. Ali. "I was in the habit of going every day. and.give more effect to his perfidious advice. He swore vengeance for the spoliation of which he considered himself the victim. and I heard the c ries of my mother and my wife mingled with the shouts of my enemies.

after having for some time quietly studied him. to denounce him. as the price of this crime. His acting was so consummate that even Chainitza. and the fratricidal bargain was concluded. But. thus leaving Soliman in lawful and peac eful possession of all his brother's wealth. But Ali did not look upon the suzerainty of a canton as a final object. he tempted him to kill the pacha. As she lay. He had allied himself to Ali of Argyro-Castron to get rid of his enemies. knowing that he had nothing more either to fear or to hope for from that side. drew a pistol from his be lt and blew out his brother's brains. fearing th e consequences if she carried out her threat. her life was spared. Reports even exceeded the truth. and several times pr oposed to her to poison her husband. he began to plot against his supplanter. thought h e discerned in him the man he wanted. But the truth soon leaked out from the ly ing shrouds in which it had been wrapped. who wa s a kind husband and to whom she had borne two children.A less ambitious man might perhaps have remained satisfied with such a result. i n the scene of an awful crime. and having free access to the person of their victim. Ali made. but to employ it as a base of operations. Ali pronounced the marriage concluded. The young wife had soon c onsoled herself in the arms of her second husband for the loss of the first. When he saw that she wa s his dupe. But Ali was once more deprived of the fruit of his bloody schemes. far from being discourag ed. to a fit of cerebral apoplexy. once free from them. pretended deep repentance. as she had no rights and could hurt no one. The assassins published the death of the pacha. whose character nearly resembled that of Tepeleni. and declared her his wife. The latter. could not fail in their object. a sign to Soliman. Thus was celebrated this frightful wedding. he took good care not to openly attack a man stronger than himself. destined in the sequel to cut a tragic figure in the history of the Tepeleni family. Chainitza ran at the sound. and threatened. offering him. the horrible nature of which guaranteed their mutual fidelit y. and he had not made himself master of Tepelen to limit hi mself to a petty state. and she was eventually mar ried to a bey of Cleisoura. and her son by him presently died suddenly. if he persisted. beside the corpse of a man who a moment before ha d been the husband of the bride and the brother of the bridegroom. who covered her with his cloak. Appearances certainly justified these suspicions. One day. begged forgiveness for his wicked plans. and gained by stratagem what he could not obtain by violence. so often begun and so often interrupted. he recommenced with new boldness and still greater confidence the work of hi s elevation. he directed his attention to another. was deceived by it. who well knew her brother's subtle character. sole mas ters of the secret. the sanjak of Delvino was conferred. The two conspirators. The honest and straig htforward character of his brother-in-law afforded an easy success to his perfid y. not upon him. and p ublic opinion implicated Chainitza in a crime of which she had been but the witn ess. He began by endeavouring to suborn his sister Chainitza. Soliman . repulsed his suggestion s with horror. and spoke of his brother-in-law in terms of th e warmest affection. but up on a bey of one of the first families of Zapouria. As for the little girl. his whole inheritance and the hand of Chainitz a. who dearly loved the pacha. as is usual in Turkey. and saw her hu sband lying dead between her brother and her brother-in-law. taking advantage of a moment when he was unobserved. Notwithstand ing all his intrigues. but only as a means to an end. Her cries for help were stopped by threats of death if she moved or uttered a sound. Ali. but she. and retired for it to be consummated. He took advantage of his i . attributing it. when they were both received by the pacha in private audience. only reserving for himself the long coveted sanjak. Soliman accepted the prop osals. The pacha had a brother named Soliman. He forgot neither his v indictive projects nor his ambitious schemes. As prudent in execution as bold in design. fa inting with grief and terror.

Ali.ncreasing influence to ingratiate himself with the new pasha. he sent e xcuses for inability to pay his respects to a man whom he was accustomed to rega rd as his father. one day. all prostrated t hemselves terror-stricken. who takest my life!" At the sound of the tumult which followed the assassination. a man in any position of responsibilit y is condemned almost as soon as accused. little suspecting that his protege had become his accuser and was preparing to become his executioner. in the name of the merciful and compassionate God. and t he murder declared legal. covered with blood. preparing himself to go vern the one when he had got rid of the other. received him with more tenderness than ever. which were accepted. Lor . Selim's bodyguard. for a number of years. whose head he seized as a trophy. which contain by day the mattresses spread by ni ght on the floor for the slaves to sleep upon. here is his imperia l command. and flew to Delv ino to seize the prey which was abandoned to him. Under the gloomy despotism of the Turks. where it broke into a thousand pieces . Selim. At the hour fixed. There he acquired complete knowledge of t he details of the pachalik and the affairs of the pacha. of accusing a man who had been his benefactor. and thus at the same time gained the benefit of crime and the credit of virtue. running up. after ordering the decapitation of Selim. equally advantageous for both th e bordering provinces. instead of gaining for the pacha the praise and favours w hich he deserved. himself offered him a pipe-and cof fee. At the receipt of the firman of execution he leaped with joy. They assembled. surrounded by assassins. and begged him to come for a moment into his apartment. and the Greek archons to meet at the palace. whose confidence he doubted. Ali immediately perceived the pacha's error. the right of felling timber in a forest near Lake Reloda. Ali skilfully prepared the consummation of the crime which was for ever to draw him out of obscurity. he let it fall on the floor. his ruin is certain. and was so success ful in insinuating himself into his confidence. and whose sole means of government was terror . and if he is not strong enough to insp ire terror. Ali received at Tepelen. The noble Selim. who fell. an order to get rid of the pacha . where he had retired t o more conveniently weave his perfidious plots. and the sight of the fatal diploma. met him. and lodged him. and. sought to renew and preserve friendly commercial relations with the purveyors of the Magnificent Republic. so common in the East. he lamented. Ali rose from his sofa with a depressed air. and crying with a menacing voice. as heretofore. "I have k illed the traitor Selim by the order of our glorious sultan. he concealed assassins in one of the cupboards without shelves. Under the shadow of this hos pitable roof. This wise conduct. Masking his ambi tious designs under the veil of religion and patriotism. as one of his commercial transactions with the Ve netians. a better neighbour and an abler politician than his predecessors . ordered the cadi. in his den unciatory report. rendered him suspected at a court whose sole political idea wa s hatred of the name of Christian. feigning illness. trembling. the beys. found Ali erect. This was the signal. the old man ar rived. The assassins sprang from their retreat and darted upon S elim. and of a desire to deliver to the infidels all the province of Delvino. had sold them. The in vitation being accepted." At these words. Selim. then. and the advantage which he himsel f could derive from it. in his palace. "And it is thou. He went every morning to pay his court to th e pacha. holdi ng in his hand the firman displayed. the necessity under which he found himself. the sacred hymn of the Fatahat was sung. that he was received into the pa lace and treated like the pacha's son. The sanjak of Delvino was bounded from Venetian territory by the district of Bu throtum. as a loyal subject and faithful Mussulman. to prepare the official account of the execution of the sen tence. my son. But instead of putting the cup in the hand stretched t o receive it. exclaiming. Ali immediately took advantage of this to denounce the pasha as guilty of having alienated the territory of the Sublime Porte. like Caesar. after seating him in his place. kissed the hem of h is robe.

His death sentences always fell on beys and wealthy persons whom he wished to p lunder. which usually judged o nly after the event. the possession of which. by ma king him master of Epirus. on the country which he wished to obtain. order was reestablished from the defiles of the Perrebia of Pindus to the vale of Tempe a nd to the pass of Thermopylae. who. destined to be even mor e unfortunate than his father. relating his prowess to all comers. Mustapha. He came to terms with the same Armatolians whom he had for merly treated so harshly. and some money to the min isters to gain their support. A few days afterwards. while Thessaly flourished . splitting them up into small b ands whom he could deal with at his pleasure. In his eyes the axe was but an instrument of fortune. taking with him. the sanjak of Thessaly. groaning under both extortion and rapine. just ified the ideas which were entertained of the capacity of Ali Pacha. and showing travellers his palace courtyard festooned with decapitated hea ds. quite incapable of struggling against so formidable a rival. the Divan awarded to Ali Tepeleni. He laid violent hands on all whom he caug ht. and let them loose. provided with arms and ammunition. as a hostage. vainly filled the a ir with their despairing cries. Impatient o f celebrity. the seat of his government." These steps were prudent.d of the world. With two important commands. it was necessary to dispose of the pacha a lready in possession. Soon the whole region echoed with sto ries of devastation and pillage. and his enemy sp eedily conceived and put into execution a plan intended to bring about the fulfi lment of his desires. employed the few troops he had in oppressing the inhabitants o f the plains. Fortunately for Ali." said he. CHAPTER III Having governed Thessaly in this manner during several years. "water sleeps. or Christ ian militia. These exploits of the provost-marshal. and whilst his credit increased at court. and drove the rest back into their mountains. he took good care himself to spread his fame. the murderer left the palace . making presents to the sultan's officers who came into his govern ment. Ali hoped that the Divan. unable to repel the incursions of th ese mountaineers. His first act of authority was to exterminate the bands of Armatolis. and with this strong force at his back. and completely devoted to him. He never struck for the mere pleasure of stri king. but envy never does . and the numerous victims of his proscriptions only perished to enrich him. which infested the plain. to amuse the sultan and the mob. amplified by Oriental exaggeration. At the same time he sent a few hea ds to Constantinople. or Provost Marshal of the roads. But what chiefly tended to consolidate his power was the treasure which he c easelessly amassed by every means. where he speedily acquired great influence. with the title of Derven dgi-pacha. This latter dignity was conferred on the condition of his levying a body of four thousand men to clear the valley of the Peneus of a multitude of Christian chiefs who exercised more power than the officers of the Grand Seigneur. and the executione r a tax-gatherer. When they had sealed up the effects of the victim. Ali found himself in a position to acquire the province of Janina. The new pacha took advantage of this to enlist a numerous body of Albanians ready for any enterprise. as a reward for his z eal for the State and religion. seeing that Epirus lay desolate. he re paired to Trikala. son of Selim. would enable him to crush all his enemies and to reig n supreme over the three divisions of Albania. But before he could succeed in this. The pacha. "For. the latter was a weak and indolent ma n.

dignified by them wi th the name of "Liberty. and Janina occupied this position. which for a time diver ted the course of his political manoeuvres. when a family incident occurred. but ordered them most especially. from whom she had endured the last horrors of slavery . and the very persons who had been foremost in vowing hatred to the son of Kamco and who had sworn most loudly that they would die rather than submit to the tyrant. to carry out her last wishes faithfully. and preferring a slower and safer way to a short and dangerous one. Ali and Chainitza joined hands. founder of the Tepel-Eni an dynasty. the resu lt of a life of depravity. some day. Now a pilgrim can only be sent a s proxy to Mecca." and who thought themselves independent in proportion t o the disturbance they succeeded in making. Ali. Consequently there was a general outcry at the news of Ali Pacha's nomination. The best mode of carrying out this terrible and self-given pledge was that Ali should resume his plans of aggrandizement exactly where he had left them. seei ng their property daily ravaged. before long. she despatched messen ger after messenger. who had an enthusiastic admiration for anarchy. and there was no difficulty in obtaining their recall." or conquest. Each lived retired as if in a mounta in castle. For a long time his mother Kamco had suffered from an internal cancer. But further investigations disclosed that even this last resource ha d been forcibly taken from a Christian. or offerings be made at the tomb of Medina. and over the inanimate remains of th eir departed mother swore to accomplish her dying behests. they were relegated to the old castle on th e lake. and after long hunting. He started. as soon as possible. inherited from their great-grandfather. thoug ht they had found the correct thing in a small property of about fifteen hundred francs income. Breathing unutterable rage and pronouncing horrible imprecations against Heaven. He suc ceeded in acquiring the pachalik of Janina. ap . to bestow the Government provinces or towns affectin g to despise the authority of the Grand Seigneur on whomsoever succeeded in cont rolling them. It ordained some special assassinations . a nd to count as nothing people who were useless to them. The brother and sister made a careful examination of the family estates. and it was unanimously agreed that a man whose character and power were alike dr eaded must not be admitted within the walls of Janina. His tactics succeeded. It was an old custom. After having long given way to their grief. and the idea of a pious pilgrimage and a sacred offering had to be given up. Kamco ended by commandin g them to send in her name a pilgrim to Mecca. not choosing to risk his forces in an open battle with a warlike population. mentioned sundry villages which. which was granted him by the Porte u nder the title of "arpalik. Feeling that her end drew near. after advising her children to remain united. summoning her son to her bedside. who had expired in her arms an hour previously. began by pillaging the villages and farms belonging to his most powerful opponents. who should deposit an offering on the tomb of the Prophet for the repose of her soul. entrust himself with the gover nment of both provinces. Then. and found only his sister Chainitza mourning over the body of their mot her. at the expense of legitimately acquired property duly sold for the purpose. As for the pachas. to exterminate the inhabitan ts of Kormovo and Kardiki. under pain of her dying curse. and swore to pursue withou t ceasing and to destroy without mercy all enemies of their family. and impending ruin if hostilities continued. They then agreed to atone for the impossibi lity of expiation by the grandeur of their vengeance. It was principally inhabited by Albanians. would. were to be given to the flames. natural to the w arlike habits of the Turks. Having perused these last i njunctions. Kamco had commanded her ch ildren. to enrich their soldiers. and only went out in order to participate in the quarrels of his fact ion in the forum. but arrived t oo late.under his own administration. Ali and Chainitza read together the document which contained these commands. The pilgrimage came first under consideration.

made no difference to Ali. Already possessing great riches. for the throne of their fathe r. exchanging t he prison to which his nephews were now relegated. Ali promised whatever they asked. Ali's first care. he. inexorabl e in execution. offspring of his wife Emineh. occurred also the death of the Sultan Abdul Hamid. Established in his position by this double investiture. a Christian among the Greeks. analyse causes. known by the name of Skipetars. he made everywhere partisans by fl attering the idea most in vogue. Knowin g that he must make friends to supply the vacancy caused by the destruction of h is foes. whose hatred he was well aware of. violent. and privileges which ha d been conferred on him. But if he constantly changed both opinions and language when dealing with subordinates whom it was desirable to win over. wholly ignorant. Mustapha and Mahmoud. although a foreign one to the capital. he enriched with the spoil the Albanian mountaineers in his pay. immovable in resolution. and nothing prev ented his profiting by the advantages of his position. and whose plots he dreaded. both fully grown and carefully educated i n the principles of their father. he is Cesar Borgia reborn as a Mussulman. confirmed the Pacha of Janina in the titles. This change of rulers. he neglected no means of acquiring popularity. with wh om he drank to the health of the Holy Virgin. a skilful but despised ra ce. was to annihilate the beys forming the aristocracy of the place. He ruined them all. and of Provost Marshal of the Highway. Ali t . were confined in the Old Seraglio. and entered the town by night. by turns insolent. a materialist with th e Bektagis who professed a rude pantheism. as is amply shown in the expansion of his greatness and the exercise of his powe r. he maintained a lar ge body of warlike and devoted troops. whose talents he could use without having to dread their influence. there stood by his side two sons. While th us endeavouring on one side to destroy the power of his enemies by depriving the m of both authority and wealth. Ali applied himself to the definite settlement of his claims. Age had as yet in no way impaired Ali's strength and activity.plied themselves to procure peace. whos e two sons. His first proceeding was to appear before the cadi. or s upple according to circumstances. Without faith in God. and on the other to consolidate his own by estab lishing a firm administration. humble. An uncultivated but just and penetrating mind enabled him to comprehend facts. offices. Messengers were sent secretly to Ali. In the same year in which he arrived at this dignity. This man. As influential aids both to his reputation for general ability and the terror of hi s' arms. always and entirely logical in his egotism. however. he had by a sort of logical sequence formulated an inflexible pl an of action. on whom he conferred most of the vacant employments. an d the lesson of no single event had been lost upon him. and his authority as ruler. dis trusting all around him. by a singular innovation. added to and mixed with them an infusion of Orthodox Greeks. offerin g to admit him into Janina if he would undertake to respect the lives and proper ty of his new allies. A fervent disciple of Mahomet when among fanatic Mussulmans. loving and thinking only of himself. he is the incarnate ideal of Florentine policy. and as a natural con sequence of his active and practical character. audacious in design. He was now fifty years of age. which every day saw increasing under his management. banishing many and putting others to death. had succeeded in divining. once master of Janina. Mouktar a nd Veli. really the desire and obj ect of Ali's whole life. he united the offices of Pacha of two tai ls of Janina. and as his heart never interfered with the deductions of his roug h intelligence. in also realising Macchiavelli. the peaceful Selim. the Italian prince converted into a satrap. despising men. B ut much too prudent to allow all the power to fall into the hands of a single ca ste. of Toparch of Thessaly. and antic ipate results. not only of the ideas of history but al so of the great names of Europe. whom he compelled to register and proclaim his firmans of investiture. and was at the height of his intellectual development: experience had been his teacher. merciless in vengeance.

in accordance with the custom of the country. goats. and cattle were then shared. Having thus annihilated the nobles. Ali resolved to turn his arm s against Kormovo. to whose apathetic disposition a state of war was disagreeable. The plunde r. At the foot of its rocks he had. Thus the implacable pacha had a twofold wrong to punish. to who m he even often advanced money. and the good and gentle Emineh laid proposals of peace before Ibrahim Pacha. Ibrahim. and the victors received their prizes from the hand of their chief. slaves. where war is merely an excuse for brigandage. and even the tiles of the houses. and during thirty nights Kamco and Chainitza had endured all h orrors of outrage at the hands of its warriors. he himself led the chorus in the Pyrrhic and Klephtic dances. hanging peasants. was worth a decisive victory to Ali. The inhabitants. both si des contented themselves with burning villages. demanded and obtained a truce to settle the conditions. All who did not escape by flight perished by the sword in the darkness. This vengeance. overwhelmed with terror. joined to the recital of a massacre which ranked as a glorious exploi t in the eyes of this savage people. and Kormovo. considered as the lowes t of the four tribes composing the race of Skipetars. of sheep. and then sold as slaves. so long as it did not interfere with his pr ivate authority. and lambs roasted before enormous fires. and the Tapygae. In order that all surrounding him might participate in the joy of his success Ali gave his army a splendid festival. or by the hand of the executioner the next morning. who had adopted the policy of opposing alternately the Cr oss to the Crescent and the Crescent to the Cross. all Islamites. and he knew that in an absolute government no conviction can hold its own against the power of gold. echoed like thunder from valley to valley a nd mountain to mountain. profiting by experience. the ceremonials of warriors and of robbers. nai ls. forgiveness for all. in youth. instead of deciding matters by a pitched battle. Of unrivalled acti vity. and carrying o ff cattle. w as suddenly attacked and taken. who descended into the plains at the head of their unconquered troops. a double vengeance to exact. cantons. the successor and son-in-law of Kurd Pacha. experienced the di sgrace of defeat. whole districts. Bey of Avlone. submitted without striking a blow. called out an army composed of Skipetars of Toxid. a . the women interposed betwee n the combatants. windows. Also. However. were impaled on spits. torn with redhot pincers. and whether convicted or merely accused. and his name. in which all the nobles of the province not yet entirely ruined were compelled to assist. he called in the aid of treachery. Thos e who had offered violence aforetime to Ali's mother and sister were carefully s ought for. actual rewards for some. doors. He was bent on having no enemies who could really injure his power. Arrived at the citadel. and. but obtaining no satisfaction. and slowly roasted between two fires. but he also pensioned the most influential minis ters. sleeping on the faith of the treaty. antique games of archery and wrestling were celebrated . promised an amnesty. which were then all surrendered to the fla mes. the women were shaved and publicly scourged. O bsequious towards the Sublime Porte.owards his superiors had one only line of conduct which he never transgressed. Towns. he negotiated. He compl ained and negotiated. and ranking as the refuse of the army. carried off into the mountains of Acroceraunia. could not see wit h indifference part of his province invaded by his ambitious neighbour. Mohammedan only in name. This time. only too happy to make peace with so formidab le an adversary. deceived the multitude with plausible words and lulled to sleep the watchfulness of the Divan. Ali. summoned to his aid the Chris tian chiefs of the mountains. made of the d ebris of the ruined city. and gave the command to his brother Sephe r. This wa s exactly what Ali expected. As is generally the case in Albania. he not only paid with exactitude all dues to the sultan. There was no lack of wine.

informed of this by letters which Ali wrote to the Pacha of Berat demanding t he fugitive. disposed of the single witness to be dreaded. so that this odious conspiracy turned only to Ali's discredit. They were his wife Zaidee. who roused against him the allied Christians of Thesprotia. But t he latter was not likely either to concern himself as to what others said or tho ught about him or to be disconcerted by a failure. for a quack who undertook to poison Sepher Bey on condition of receiving forty purses. Sepher Be y. He sent to Zagori. who could not hope to corrupt them. with wh om the court of Berat was packed. whose object and plots she easi ly divined. secretly sent to Ibrahim. When all was settle d. foremost among whom rank . the latter resolved to get rid of them. warned him that his wife intended to poison him. to avenge his friend Sepher Bey. whose position gave them great influence. commended his skill. already the wife of Ibrahim. whom she had always loved. But if Ibrahim was weak and indolent. But the instant the wretch left the seraglio in orde r to receive his recompense. but the marriage which seal ed the treaty was barely concluded before a fresh quarrel broke out between the pachas. In a c ountry like Turkey. and his brother Sepher. A famil y alliance was arranged. where to suspect a woman is to accuse her. desired to obtain yet more. But closely allied to Ibrahim were two pers ons gifted with great firmness of character and unusual ability. Wishing now to ruin the woman whom he had formerly tried to corrupt . when he was anticipated by Ibrahim Pacha. As both were inimical to A li. and accusation is synonymous with condemnation. Having in the days of his youth been intimate with Kurd Pacha. and displayed his own friendship for the victim! Not content with this. He simply turned his machinat ions against his other enemy. writing in the same style to his agents at Constantinople . Ali. Ali at one blow discharged the debt h e owed him. a district noted for its doctors. which we re considered as the marriage portion of Ibrahim's eldest daughter. He took the letters. Before long he made a pretext out of the scandal started by himself.nd who was only too happy to conclude a fairly satisfactory negotiation. the poisoner fled. but really as pledges for his silence when the crime should have been accomplished. insinuated himself into his c onfidence. he had been obliged to fly the country. who had no difficulty in clearing herself. In thus punishing the assassin. such a calumny might easily cause the death of th e innocent Zaidee. Ali sought to turn his former crime to the success of a new one. aided by the emissaries of All. Ali had endeavou red to seduce his daughter. It was hoped that this peace might prove permanent. and took the supposed runaway into his service. Ali thanked him for his zeal. apparent ly as hostages for the good behaviour of their husband and father. As soon as sympto ms of death appeared. he was seized by the executioners and hurried to th e gallows. who became t he wife of Ali's eldest son. wh o had been in command during the war just terminated. and presented himself at Janina to receive the reward of his crime. Mouktar. the miscreant set out for Berat. and arranged matters this time so as to avoid a fa ilure. The traitor made skilful u se of the kindness of his too credulous protector. and everywhere where there was any profit in slandering a family whose ruin he desired for the sake of their possessions. and ref erred him to the treasurer. he was also confiding a nd generous. having wrung such important concessions from the weakness of his ne ighbour. and who warned him against the writer. and gave him poison inst ead of medicine on the very first appearance of indisposition. thought that a man persecuted by his enemy would be faithful to him self. Anonymous let ters. he said. Being discovered by the latter in the act of scaling the wall of his harem. This he mentioned regu larly in conversation. in order to be able later to marry Ali Pacha. became his trusted physician and apothecary. in virtue of which Ali retained his conquests. he endeavoured to again throw suspicion on the wife of Ibrahim Pacha. and was immediately accused by Ali of evasio n. and prepared to take up arms in order. whom he accused of being jealous of the influence which Sepher Pacha had exercised in the family. and his wife and children were arrested as accomplices and detained. to his wife.

to be cemented by a marriage. Al i summoned his nephew in order to entrust with him the wedding gifts. but notw ithstanding his wound the young bey defended himself vigorously. After several battles. Skilful in concealing t ruth under special pretexts. and strangled without any pretence of trial. who should lay down his arms before entering the hall now set apart for public audience. the Bey of Clerisoura. and a letter was found in a pocket which Ali had himself just placed there. over whom he had great influence. This news spr ead terror through the city and the palace. But her joy was not of long duration. by her first husband. and composed an apology attested by a judicial declaration by the cadi. declaring that he had killed in self-defence a villain who endeavoured to assassinate him. and that the assassin was still at large. Scarcely had the trap-door closed behind him when a pistol ball. and that there must bean extensive conspiracy against Ali's life. and when his guards entered he showed the bruises he had received and the blood with which he was covered. only reached by a ladder. when suddenly it was announced that a shot had been fired upon Ali. He had accomplished his mission satisfactorily. since the death of Sepher Bey. and Ali released some prisoners in order to show his gratitude to Providence for having protected him from so horrible a crime. and he fell. the death-groan wa s again to be heard amidst the songs of the marriage-feast. The whole palace rejo iced. Ali called fo r help with loud cries. and announced that henceforth he would receive only one person at a time. like the first. which purported to give the details of the pretended conspiracy. and ascended the ladder fu ll of hope. Ali. and finding his hands insufficient. trusted t hat the feud between the two families was now quenched. The virtuous Emineh. The festival began on his arrival towards the end of November 1791. Ali gave out that the cause of his known dislike to this young man was that the latter. had severa l times fought in hostile ranks against him. in which his enemies had the a vantage. Murad took this as a sign of favour. and finally concluded a treaty offensive and defensive. but they declared search was useless. but sprang up and attempted to fly. It was a chamber built over a vault.ed the Suliots famed through Albania for their courage and their love of indepen dence. attached to Ibrahim Pacha by both bloo d and affection. he also was immedi ately seized. struck his nephew in the face with it. thanks were rendered to Heaven by one of those sacrifices of animals still occasionally made in the East to celebrate an escape from great danger. This nobleman. As Murad's brother was seriously compromised by this letter. although his nephew by marriage. After having for several days received his couriers in this sort of dovecot. caused by the devotion of Murad to his patron. and thought herself at t he summit of happiness. Spies were everywhere employed. The pacha. and joyfully acknowledged the congratulations of his friends. The latter complained of being surrounded by enemies. which he gave up readily. the young Veli Bey. felled hi m to the ground. eager to finish. Thi s fresh alliance was. Ali issued from his hiding place and sprang upon him. seeing her son Veli united to the second daughter of Ibrahim. and entered by a sort of trap-door. broke his shoulder blade. and everyone dreaded being seized as the guilty person." in wh ich capacity he was charged to conduct the bride to Janina and deliver her to he r husband. The daughter of Chainitza. and completed his bloody task. become the special object o f Ali's hatred. He presented himself at the time arranged. caught a burning log from the hearth. He ordered the bod y to be searched. who had on ly escaped by a miracle. and had already continued several days . Ali began negoti ations with Ibrahim. This accomplished. fir ed from a dark corner. and from whom nothing could detach him. had. He received congratulatory visits. had married a certain Mur ad. Therefore the amiable Ibrahim made use of the marriage treaty to arrange an honourable reconciliation between Murad Bey and his uncle. the guards at the foot of th e ladder demanded his arms. and appointed the former "Ruler a the Marriage Feast. a nd was received by Ali with all apparent hospitality. in which the . uttering terrib le cries.

in his drunken fury. looked on with s atisfaction. Emineh. Fear soon enge nders corruption. the unhappy Suliots mu st succumb. sometimes in order to traverse the streets by night in search of the lowest pleasures. It was indeed a reign of terror. slain several persons. t the possessions of his brother was declared accursed. the companion of his childhood and confidential friend of his w hole life. His sons. body of soldiers.memory of Murad and escorted by a strong o brothers. Ardent in everything. and spent her life in th e recesses of the harem. praying as a Christian both for the murderer and his vi ctims. as usual. affords a rest to eyes wearied with the contemplation of so much wickedness and treachery. Ali. among others h is sword-bearer. Veli chose a different course. issued from her seclusion and cast herself at Ali's feet. which like a desert oasis. While he strengthened by every means his authority from within. life. Realising the Marquis de Sade as his f ather had realised Macchiavelli. and gave himself u p to sensuality. it was just that the injured should inheri his would-be assassins. was at firs t beaten everywhere. Mothers cursed their fruitfulness. was compelled to submit to what he could not prevent. honour. sometimes penetrating by day into churches and private hou ses seeking for young men and maidens remarkable for their beauty. nor family were safe. and tea ring with his nails the forms he had caressed. and subjects are speedily tainted by the depravity of their ma sters. Dru nkenness was the speciality of the eldest. Ali lost in her the guardian angel who alone could in any way restrain his viol ent passions. As for Emineh. because. he had. sooner or later. The people of Janina saw with hor ror more than one woman in their midst whose nose and ears he had caused to be c ut off. which seemed to herald a terrible future for hi mself. and regaine d the advantage. brought treason to his aid. who was without rival among the hard drinkers of Albania. he missed no op portunity of extending his rule without. and had then turned into the streets. each in his own manner. and women their beauty. following in his footsteps. Gifted with the hereditary violence o f his family. In 1803 he declared war against the Sul iots. The latter. whose independence he had frequently endeavoured either to purchase or to overthrow. commissioners. it is said that from the date of this catastrophe she separated herself almost entirely from her blood-stained husband. It became evident that. and then so ught in new vices compensation for the happiness he had lost. Foreseeing the horrors which their defeat would entail. and finding himself at the mercy of hi s enemy. touched with co mpassion. kept also scandalous households. who were then carried off to his harem. he delighted in mingling together debauchery an d cruelty. Grieved at first by the withdrawal of the wife whom hitherto he ha d loved exclusively. and protested onl y by tears against these crimes. and seem ed to dispute preeminence in evil with their father. although ten thousand strong. Thus was exterminated the only family capable of opposing the Pacha of Janina. in the midst of this atrocious saturnalia to encounter th is noble and gentle character. neither fortune. considering a demoralised race as easier to govern. Finally. he endeavoured in vain to regain her affection. Mouktar. He raised he . or which could counterbalance his influence over the weak Ibrahim of Berat. he assumed vari ous disguises. Ali then. he carried debauchery to a monstrous exte nt. and his amusement consisted in biting the lips he had kissed. and as if his palaces were not large enough for his desires. and who was reputed to have emptied a whole wine-s kin in one evening after a plentiful meal. were sent to seize the property of the tw said the decree. It is a relief. The army sent against them. abandoned by his brave defenders.

dressed as a salad. perhaps. and would awake. and her women hastily intervened a nd carried her away. and produced a not less deep impression on the mind of her murderer. fled in disorder to a Greek convent called Zalongos. discouraged by t reachery. The unfortunate tribe divided into two pa rts.r. he listened as if touched and wavering. they joined han ds. of mercy. exclaiming. beheld t he terrible carnage which destroyed their defenders. until she named the Suliots . But the gate was soon broken down. These were all taken and brought to Janina. and the most original among t hem had the privilege of themselves carrying out their inventions. women. Emineh's spectre pursued him in hi s pleasures. the other towards Prevesa. and the unhappy Suliots massacred to the last man. The women. but fell to the ground overcome with terror. which. the mother of his children. Emineh fell into violent convulsions. CHAPTER IV In December. and their sufferings were the first adornments of the festival made for the army. who. The treaty gave them leave to go where the y would. but being refused admittance. having had their noses and ears cut off. and the recollection afflicted and tormented him. Terrified by the noise. worn by famine. It was his wife. doomed to live surrounded by evil. An heroic resolution spared them this infamy. she threatens me!--Save me! Mercy!" For more than ten years Ali never dared to sleep alone. and at the sight of her in furiated husband. and. entered Parga in full view of the cut-throats sent to pursue them. their own mountains excepted. and chanting their national songs. and charged by a numerous body of Skipetars. Henceforth their only prosp ect was that of becoming the slaves of those who had just slaughtered their husb ands and brothers. terrified by a sudden and unexp ected attack. Ali gave orders for the destruction of both. and mother of Mo uktar and Veli. As the song ended. There were still some Suliots left in their country when Ali Pacha took possess ion of it. Its destruction seemed imminent. they uttered a prolonged and piercing cry. Thu s perished the daughter of Capelan Pacha. Her death caused universal mourning throughout Albania. Every soldier's imagina tion was racked for the discovery of new tortures. children. There were some who. The Parga division was attacked in its march. She spoke of. One young man was scalped until the skin fell . the one going towards Parga. were obliged to capitulate. filled with fury. seated her beside him. yet remained virtuous an d good. Less fortunate was the Prevesa division. protecte d by this military formation. generosit y. but instinct suddenly revealed to t he ignorant mountaineers the one manoeuvre which might save them. placing old men. Ali shuddered befo re the dread of a murder. he seized a pistol and fired at her. and shortly expired. and inquired as to her wishes. whose tents had been pitched on the summit of a lofty rock. whom he saw lying at his feet. wife of Ali Tepeleni. He saw her. he knocked and called. in the council chamber. and cattle in the midst. in the hours of night. moved in a solemn dance round the rocky p latform. and cast themselves and their children down into the profound abyss beneath. Then. "my wife! my wife!--It is my wife!--Her eyes are angry. in his anger he broke open the door. She was not hurt. He rose in the night and went to Emineh's apartment. They formed a square. For the first time in his life. he heard her. were compelled to eat them raw. the Suliots. decimated by battle. notwithstanding the treaty.

and the sons avenged themselves by abandoning the ir father in the hour of danger. and overwhelmed her with presents and favours. arrested at the same time fifteen ladies belonging to the best Christian families in Jan ina. There was in Janina a woman named Euphrosyne. until at length a lance was run through his body and he was cast on the funeral pile. at on a blow which was both to enrich himself and increase the terror of his One night he appeared by torchlight. accompanied by his guards. she sought to disarm one by gratifying the other: she collected her money and jewels and laid them at Ali's feet with a look of supplication. softened by her charms. Th ey were then confined in a dungeon.back upon his shoulders. Ali. She was a lready the mother of two children. took the opportunity to denounce his ow n wife. a niece of the archbishop. and shortly after the death of Emineh. Many were boiled alive and their flesh then thrown to the dogs. named Nicholas Janco. The father wounded his two sons by turns in their tenderest affections. and regretted the money they squandered. had he started before his wives complained to Ali that Euphrosyne usur rights and caused their husband to neglect them. soon sincerely loved her. and ord ered her to come to his palace. A Wallachian. The unhappy Euphrosyne. and ha nded her also over to the pacha. and that her husband's life was in danger. where they spent two days of misery. who was on the point of becoming a mother. who complained g his sons' extravagance. marrie d to one of the richest Greek merchants. whose active wickedness nothing s eemed to weary. at Euphrosyne's house. when Mouktar became enamoured of her. and hatred. to spare a mother whos e conduct had been otherwise irreproachable. and the ge ntle prayer of Christ no longer wakes the echoes of Suli. The thi rd night. But her tears and pleadings produce d no effect on Ali. a . too exhausted to endure to the end. and his wife s urrendered herself to Mouktar. All agreed that th ere was no escape. Euphrosyne. If it were certain that there was no hope for the unhappy Euphrosyne. summoned a family council to decide what should be done. one trust ed that she might at least be the only victim. which you restore. the executioners appeared to conduct them to the lake where they were to perish. "Can you give back the heart of Mouktar. expired by the way. to the prison of the seraglio. discord. the masters sowed among the mselves distrust. professing to follow the advice of some severe reformers who wished to restore decent morality. This demoralisation brought bitter fruits for all alike: the subjects endured a terrible tyranny. and noted for wit and beauty. as guilty of adultery. which you have stolen?" Euphrosyne besought him by his paternal feelings. on account of the jealousy of his terrible rival. But Ali. at once guessing his obj ect. taking pos session of the rich offering. These unfortunate women were brought before Ali to undergo a trial of which a sentence of death was the foregone conclusion. who. another d ismal drama was enacted in the pacha's family. who ordered her to be taken." said he. The scandalous libertinism of both father and sons had corrupted all around as well as themselves. for the sake of his son whose love had been her misfortune and was now her only crime. Knowing his cruelty and avarice. then beaten round the court of the seraglio for the pa cha's entertainment. "These things are only my own property. Scarcely ped their reatly of ce struck name. loaded with fetters and covered with a piece of sackcloth. He fled the city that same night. During the course of this war. From this time the Cross has disappeared from the Selleid mountains. Things were in this positio n when Mouktar was obliged to depart on an important expedition.

for no one could imagine that Ali would peacefully renounce so im portant a government as that of Thessaly. seizing one of his pistols. "Euphrosyne!" he cried. who was weak and gentle in charact er and accustomed to obey her implicitly. "said the pacha. the government of Thess aly was withdrawn from him. and obtained it. who fell d ead at his feet. where her tomb. and then. alike outraged by their father. but rode till his horse fell dead by the lake which had engulfed Euphrosyn e. and. Go. He paid no attention to them. she herself took charge of all the arrangements. taking a boat. However. he went to hide his grief and rage in his own palace . Chainitza arrived safely at Trikala. calmed down. But a day was to come when the brothers." Mouktar retired as submissively as if he had just received pardon for some seri ous crime." he remarked to his messenger. and found no better consolation than to spend the night with Veli in drinking and debauchery. Elmas. the man who a moment before was furiously raging and storming against his father. covered with white iris and sheltered by a wild olive tree. "I shall take no notice of your anger. among them a splendid pelisse of black fox. He sent letters of congratulation to the latter as well as magnificent presen ts. Mouktar. and was burie d in the cemetery of the monastery of Saints-Anargyres. and Chainitza herself was charged to deliver both gifts and messages. with a bitter smile. the sultan sought by underhand means to diminish his power. Elmas Bey. When the ceremony she so ardently desired took pl ace. son of Suleiman and Chainitza. to everybody's astonishment. "My son is pacha! and . sent an ord er to Mouktar to appear before him at once. fired it at the messenger.--"Euphrosyne. remember what I have said. he galloped towards Janina. you ca n come and ask for orders. extending his murderous hand to be kiss ed as soon as his son appeared. "He will not kill you. her soul had already e scaped from its earthly tenement. but in fu ture never forget that a man who braves public opinion as I do fears nothing in the world. is yet shown. Chainitza. You can go now. when your troops have rested from their march. Her body was found the next day. would plot and carry out a terrible vengeance. he dissembled so skilfully th at everyone was deceived by his apparent resignation. and faithfully delivered the messages with which she had been entrusted. wearing the black f ox pelisse. and the inhabita nts of all the villages he passed fled at his approach. Not daring openly to attack so formidable a vassal. and applauded his magnanim ity. He requested Elmas Bey to honour him by wea ring this robe on the day when the sultan's envoy should present him with the fi rman of investiture. "My son is pacha!" she cried in the delirium of joy. but. fully as ambitious as her brother. and obeyed. was proclaimed. His guards followed at a distance. could not contain her delight at the idea of governing in the name of her son. to show that this was not done in enmity. "Come hither. as if overwhelmed by this imperious message. Mouktar was returning from his expedition when a courier from his brother Veli brought him a letter informing him of these events. He opened it. behold thy first victim!" Springing on his horse. which had cost more than a hundr ed thousand francs of Western money. And. However. Ali. in fact.nd when she was flung with the rest into the dark waters. the p rovince was entrusted to his nephew. when he provided his sister with a brilliant escort to conduct her to the c apital of the province of which he had just been deprived in favour of his nephe w. and acknowledged as Governor of Thessaly in her pres ence. She asked her brother's permission to go to Trikala to be present at the installation. the Porte began to take umbrage at the continual aggrandisement of the Pacha of Janina. caring little for passion which evaporated in tears and cries. and under the pretext that Ali was becoming too old for the labour of so many offices.

The pelisse. who.my nephews will die of envy! "But her triumph was not to be of long duration. had yet in reserve a more precious gift than any of the other s. and we are only weak children. seemingly always ready both to crown Ali's crimes with success and to fulfil his wishes. My father is dead. Ali. had conve yed the dreaded disease to the new pacha. This climax roused the suspicions of many persons. the pacha took the girl in his arms. Continu al lethargy. carefully impregnated w ith smallpox germs taken from a young girl suffering from this malady. and having discovered the abode of the gang. She found Ali apparently in such depths of grief. who should replace. Ali. not knowing whom to blame for her misfortune. and even efface the me mory of the beloved Emineh. and at break of day attacked the village suddenly with his whole force. threats. and the Porte. whose mother was a Georgian slave. convulsive sneezing. and show me thy mother and thy brothers. thoughtfu l of his own interests. kissing his hands. but. while sending to Ali the firman which restored to him the government of Thessaly. child: I am this terrible vizier. no! you are good. to mingle her tears with those of he r brother. consented to his resuming t he government of Thessaly. my child. behold where he hangs at the door of our co ttage! But we have done nothing to rouse the anger of our dreadful master." "Oh no. set out for the place attended by a strong escort. at once set his spies to work." "Well. It was a village called Plikivitza. took care to send one of his own officers to Trikala. seeing t hat all attempts against him only caused misfortune. and said: "O my lord! I implore thee to intercede with the terrible vizier Ali for my mot her and brothers. an d curses. Fortune. not having been inoculated. Suddenly a young gir l of great beauty made her way through the tumult and sought refuge at his feet. The grief of Chainitza at her son's death displayed itself in sobs. feverish eyes. Having arrived in the evening. My mo ther is a poor woman who never offended anyone. "Thou hast come to the wrong man. which. they sh all be spared. and answered her with a gentle smile. She answered with a look of mingled innocen ce and terror. which she bathed with tears. she was actually tempted to pity him. Ali's gift had accomplished its purpose. Aden Bey. ordered him to seek out and destroy a society of coiners who dwelt within his jurisdiction. aided by the caresses of her second son. soon betokened a serious illnes s. Ali immediately ordered the chief to be hun g at his own door and the whole population to be massacred. she hastened to lea ve the scene of it. The Porte. and this seeming sympathy soothed her distress. But the public voice. Thou hast saved their lives. to administer justice in the place of his deceased nephew. delighted to. prove his zeal by a service which c ost nothing but bloodshed. astonished. Ali. S ave us from him!" Touched in spite of himself. Elmas began to feel strangely languid. Salik Bey. The coiners were seized in the act. from the ramparts of Janina. and returned to Janina. that of a good and beautiful wife. he spent the night in taking measures to prevent escape. announced to Epirus the birth of a nother son to Ali. be comforted." . that instead of sus pecting. you will be our good lord. A few days after his installation. died in a few days. was stifled by the thunder of th e cannon. alread y discussing the causes of the death of Elinas. asked who she was.

"Dost thou not know me?" he asked. he succeeded in getting the pachalik of Morea bestowed o n Veli. and I who speak am he!" The old woman stood overwhelmed with astonishment. who assured her a pension of fifteen hundred francs for th e rest of her days. "that forty years ago a young man asked fo r shelter from the foes who pursued him? Without inquiring his name or standing. "Have mercy. saying that they ought not to be encumbered with dom . who repaid his mercy with boundless love and devotion. He ordered her to be brought before him. and gave orders for them to be sent to Janina in company with the maiden." said the pacha. overcome with joy. he did not neglect the advancement of his so ns. thou dost not really recogni se me. Let us mention one trait of gratitude shown by Ali at the end of this expeditio n. This new alliance with a family he had so often attacked an d despoiled gave him fresh arms against it. Thy wishes were heard. and cruelty. having nothing to los e but her life. t he son of Chainitza. and was told there was an old infirm woman of that name in great poverty. But as in placing his sons in these exal ted positions his only aim was to aggrandise and consolidate his own power.And as she knelt at his feet. his intrigues." And he collected the members of her family. and when he was able to go forward thou didst stand on th y threshold to wish him good luck and success." The woman looked at him wonderingly. he again invaded that of his neighbours on every pretext. Basilessa. and on hearing it appeared surp rised and thoughtful. Acarnania. Mtolia . and shared thy scanty food with him. "Dost thou remember. "that if thou knowest me. Not content with the vast territory which owned hi s sway. great Vizier. Sh e came and prostrated herself in terror. whom he had convinced of his devotion t o the Emperor Napoleon. and give her in marriage to his nephew. thou shalt dwell wit h me henceforth. giving them officers of his own choosing. Phocis. or to entice them into some snare with greater ease. Compelled by a storm to take ref uge in a miserable hamlet. Ali raised her kindly. whether by being enabled better to w atch the pasha's sons. imagined that even that would be taken from her. By the aid of the French Ambassador. not understanding his words in the least. the country ravaged. he h imself ordered their retinues. "Basilessa. he resumed his tyranny ." she replied. and even their furniture as pledges. Whilst he thus married his nephew. were by turns occupied by his troops. "I see. When th ey departed to their governments. and dressed his wounds. who. and the inhabitants decimated. he kept their wives. thou didst hide him in thy humble house. and that of Lepanto on Mouktar. and his record of good deeds is then closed. She departed calling down bl essings on the pasha. he raised her and asked her na me. as if trying to recall lost memories. At the same time he compelled Ibrahim Pacha to surrender his last remaining daughter. their children. for the yo ung man was Ali Tepeleni. Suddenly he asked if a woman named Nouza dwelt in the village. Queen! it is a name of good augury. "Basilessa. But these two good actions are only flashes of light illuminating the dark hori zon of Ali's life for a brief moment. Returned to Janina." answered the poor woman. he inquired its name." continued Ali. Aden Bey.

and thus to ext ort money from me. He also made use of this opportunity to get rid of people who displeased h im. This accursed kapidgi-bachi has come hither bringing certain pa pers signed with my seal. May Allah grant me the means of proving my innoce nce. I swear by the Pr ophet. Arrived at Janina. but I will avenge myself whatever happens. hoping in the end to make himself independent. to examine into the case and try the delinquent. Ali." The unhappy Greek grew pale and strove to answer." or plenipotentiary. intending to use them to my discredit. to do as I tell thee. which compromises me in the eyes of my master the sulta n and of all good Mahommedans. The Sultan Selim immediately. I cannot deny it. and who is there to dread when I protect th ee? Is it the kapidgi-bachi? he has no authority here. He determined to obtain ti me. but the writing is not that of my secr etaries. Ali was not strong enough to throw off the mas k. and yet could not deny such overwhelming evidence. thou shalt go before the tribunal when I tell thee. I pray you to grant me a few days in order to clear up this iniquitous mystery. I have thrown twenty as g ood as he into the lake! If more is required to reassure thee. thy children shall be as mine. Henceforth thou shalt be as my son.estic establishments in time of war. my son. and to obtain recogniti on as Prince of Greece. and the day is arrived when thy fortune shall be made. and I intend this tim e to escape without being plundered except for the sake of a good servant like t hee. that no harm shall come to thee from him. sent to Janina a "kapidgi. consi dered how he could legally escape from this predicament. Ali endeavoured to consolidate it permanently ." said he. He spent some days in m aking plans which were given up as soon as formed. and that thou didst seal them with my seal. by my own and my sons' heads. "that I appear guilty in the eyes of His Highness. "What fearest thou. This s eal is. whom he made secretary to his son Veli. and in return for my benefits I require on e small service. "he sends me away in order to rob me. who was sitting at a window in the palace. B e ready. who had been alternately both t ool and enemy. and the seal must have been obtained and used to sign these guilty lett ers in order to ruin me. my house shall be thy home. but really in order to despoil him more easily of t he considerable property which he possessed at Janina. professedly as a pledge o f reconciliation and favour.bachi. A mysterious and unforeseen incident betrayed this to th e Porte. Turkey just then being at open war with Eng land. Therefore. pretending to be engaged in a secret inquiry. then. my son?" resumed Ali. Of money I have already given too much. of a certain Ismail Pacho Bey. until his fertile genius at l ength suggested a means of getting clear of one of the greatest difficulties in which he had ever found himself. in order to gi ve them due weight and importance. he addressed him thus: "Thou knowest I have always shown thee favour. and furnished actual proofs of his treason in letters confirmed by Ali' s own seal. and declare before this kapidgi-bachi and the cadi that thou hast written these lett ers attributed to me. pointing ou t Ali. "No wonder. although everything seems against me!" After this conference. "The wretch banishes me. He had entered by degrees into secret negotiations with all the great powers o f Europe. certainly mine. Sending for a Greek whom he had often employed. "Speak. and beware of mentioning this matter to any ." he cried. Pacho was not deceived." Continually increasing his power. this officer placed before Ali the proofs of his understandi ng with the enemies of the State. am I not thy good master? Tho u wilt be sure of my lasting favour. a nd showed his resentment openly. and I shall die content if I can procure his destruction at the price of my own. which is as pure as the rays of the sun. among others.

to whom he said. and publicly thanked Allah for this gre at good fortune."--"And this seal?"--"It is that of my master. May all enemies of our glorious sultan p erish even as he!" A report of what had occurred was immediately drawn up."--"It is enough: thou canst withdraw. but he profited yet more by a second revolution which caused the deaths both of Selim. it is the work of a man in the pay of the implacable enemies of the Sublime Porte. "Well. and had neither the will nor the power to attack one of his most powerful vassals. came to the throne in troublous times." said he. He was answered by a burst of congratulation. a busing the confidence of my master. who was succeeded by his ne phew Mustapha. who had their orders." Turning round. He is in my power. and. Free from pressing anxiety. in order that all may be accomplished according to our mutual wishes. hatched between the discontented pachas and the Engli sh agents. and the trembling Greek appeared in the midst of a solemn silence. "Knowest thou this writing?" demanded the cadi. who had just finished his examination. to assist matters still further. This fortunate change in his position brought Ali's pride a nd audacity to a climax. a Tartar brought him news of the deposition of Selim. drownin g his voice with their shouts. As he entered the court. Ali Pacha. "the guilty author of this plot aimed at me is no more. and also secured the favour of the Divan by considerable presents. both internal a nd external. his installation. Ali hastened to send as a proof of his devotion. who was next invested with the scimitar of Othman. and of Mustapha whose downfall th ey intended. at. Ali sprang up in delight. t hrew himself at his feet." sai d Ali. he made a sign to his guards . the Greek undertook the false swearing required. the pacha presented himself before the judges and inquired the result of thei r investigation. and that Selim only professed to believe in his innocence until the day should arriv e when the sultan could safely punish his treason. after much bloodshed. and I have given him hopes of pardon on condi tion of full confession. "thou shalt have thy reward." Uneasy as to the success of his intrigue. "It is good. assuring him that all had gone well. dismissed him with a thousand assurance s of protection.one. who occasionally allowed me to use it to sig n his orders. and t hat the light of truth may purify their minds?" The tribunal was soon assembled. shortly broke out. appeared to ha ve again received him into favour. in order that they may hear the guilty man's deposition. This execution finishe d. Ali. and then requested the presence of the sultan's envoy. than tempted by his promises. the Greek. and. and confirmed both him and his sons in their of fices and dignities. assured the pacha of his favour. and who instantly seized the unhappy Greek. with much emotion: "I have at length unravelled the infernal plot laid against me. Will you then summon the cadi. in the midst of great p olitical upheavals. But Ali knew well that this appearance of sunshine was entirely deceptive. He sought therefore to compas s the latter's downfall. when Ali was presiding at the artille ry practice of some French gunners sent to Albania by the Governor of Illyria. delighted. I ordered him to be hung without waiting to hear your decision. whom the promoters wished to reestablish on the throne. hung him in the courtyard. A conspiracy. and made common cause with his enemies. Mahmoud II. yielding to the advice of his councillors. Ali sent the kapidgi-bachi a gift of fifty purses. which he accep ted without difficulty."--"How does it come to be placed at the foot of these letters?"--"I did this by order of my chief. Ali was approaching the Hall of Justi ce." More terrified by dread of the pacha. and who is a Russian agent. He received with evident satisfaction the million piastre s which.--"It is min e. and one day. The sultan. he determined to carry out . from whose wrath in case of refusal there was no chance of escape. He really did profit by this change of rulers. the judges and ecclesias tics of the town.

CHAPTER V After taking possession of Argyro-Castron. which till then had flowed incessantly. and therefore brothers of Ali. and also their possessions. Saleh Bey. started for Chenderia. At the gate of the town they encoun . committed suicide at the moment when. in order to r eceive assurances of the pacha's pardon and friendship. having no food for themselves or their cattle. w as to be occupied by the victorious troops. her second son. intimidated by the general misery and unable to stand alone. They were to be received with the honours du e to their rank as free tenants of the sultan. the common peopl e. as Ali was accustomed to travel w ith a very numerous suite. On these conditions a quarter of the town. foreseeing the fate which awaited their friends. he had them conveyed. he stopped at Libokhovo. Wha t passed in the long interview they had no one knew. he explained this breach of faith by declaring that the hostages had atte mpted to escape. but were obliged to yield to famine. to a Greek convent on an island in the l ake. The day of vengeance not having fully ar rived. cut off recently by wickness. stopped as if by magic. consented to capitulate. which was converted into a prison. were to go to J anina as free men. whose intentions as to the fate of th is unhappy town were irrevocably decided. The appointed time arrived. where his sister had reside d since the death of Aden Bey. One of the principal chiefs. T he besieged. whence the town of K ardiki was plainly visible. Even the n umber of soldiers he took excited no surprise. Ali's soldiers took possession of the quarter assigned to them. Ali led h is victorious army against the town of Kardiki. unarmed. After a month's blockade. in virtue of w hich seventy-two beys. defended themselves bravely. and fully armed. knowing they had no mercy to hope for. Feasting and dancing. heads of the principal Albanian families. the mosques were f illed with people praying for deliverance. whose inhabitants had formerly j oined with those of Kormovo in the outrage inflicted on his mother and sister. in number six hundred and seventy. loaded with chains. who were wearing mourning. Ali received the seventy-two beys with all marks of friendship when they arrive d at Janina. which he had long coveted. but it was observed that Ch ainitza's tears. received an order to attire themselve s as for a festival. they embr aced each other as if parting for ever. agreed to all that they asked. Ali. their lives and their families we re to be spared. and treated them magnificen tly for some days. The other inhabitants of Kardiki. did not cease after his departure. and his wife.a project which had been the dream of his life. having contrived on some pretext to disarm them. were to be treated as friends a nd retain their lives and property. Next day at daybreak Ali despatched an usher to summ on all the male inhabitants of Kardiki to appear before Chenderia. begun in Ali's honour. But soon. a castle built on a rock. and solemnly sworn to on the Koran. The popular credulity was satisfied by this explanation. and no one doubted the good faith of the pacha when he announced that he was going to Kardiki to estab lish a police and fulfil the promises he had made to the inhabitants. and her women. He spent the night at Chenderia. The Kardikiotes at once divined that this injunction was the precursor of a ter rible vengeance: the whole town echoed with cries and groans. He lodged them in a palace on the lake. and their chiefs. After three days' journey. in pursuance of th e treaty. began to cry for mercy in the open streets. and then the men. A treat y was signed by both parties. b eing Mohammedans.

"The discord which has divided us for so many years has allowed children not bo rn at the time of our dissension to grow into men. others ventured to demand mercy. then. Then he ordered them away. Ali for some time silently enjoyed the pleasure of seeing his ancient enemies l ying before him prostrate in the dust. and. and saw that they. "Speak. I have lost the pleasure of w atching the development of the off-spring of my neighbours and the early friends of my youth. They fell prostrate before the pacha. but I hope shortly to repair th e natural results of our melancholy divisions. and I will reward you magnificently. rode towards the caravanserai. he called them to him. Alone. flattered. reassured t hem. the epaired gaily to the caravanserai. of their games. At the foot of the steep descent he mounted his horse. which the black-cloaked battalion received with applause. ach other for having ever doubted his good faith. but we serve thee as soldiers and not as executioners. then as the pacha. Passing from the depths of despair to transports of joy." said he. which had just been closed by his order. to which he replied with gracious smiles. he rode twice round it. "I am ready to listen to your demands and to satisfy them. some preserved a sullen silence. heaping blessings on the pacha.tered a troop of Albanians. and ordered them to assemble ring caravanserai. "O Pacha!" said he." he cried. Ali imagined they were consulting as to what recompense should be required as the price of such deed. Soon they arrived in the dread presence of Ali P acha. repeated his order. with tears in his eyes. their early friendships. returning to the gate. Ali t . t heir wives an children. spoke familiarly of the days of thei r youth. attended by his courtiers. or threatened them. they indignantly flung down their arms. in a neighbou of reconcilia Kardikiotes r and blaming e Ali was carried down from Chenderia in a litter. Grouped in formidable masses around him stood several thousand of his fier ce soldiery. "I will now entrust the duty of exterminating the foes of my race. Avenge me." At these words. who celebrated his clemency in pompous speeches." Then the Mirdite leader came forward and threw back the hood of his black cloak . The unhappy Kardikiotes realised their utter helplessness. He then desired them to rise. and. sons. where he wished to give them a banquet in proof tion. he pulled up his horse. and which increas ed in number as they proceeded. and in silence. and. and we will fight them to the death. and pointing to the young men. Distinguishing some of hi s old acquaintances. and of bestowing benefits on them. "Slay them!" he cried in a voice of thunder. who followed as if to escort them. signing to his own bodyguard to attack the building . with a roar. were completely at the mercy of their implacable enemy." A confused murmur rose from the ranks. looking Ali boldly in the face. calling on the Christ ian Mirdites who served under his banner. friends of his heart. followed by his troops. "To you. implored him to grant them a generous pardon. called them brothers. In vain he h arangued. "thy words are an insult. t he Mirdites do not slaughter unarmed prisoners in cold blood. The guards remained motionless in surprise and horror. Release the Kardik iotes. and with all the fervour which the utmost terror could inspire. give them arms. brave Latins." He then made them splendid promises. said.

and spurred his horse to the top of a neighbouring hill. terrified. Some ran frantically hither and thither in this enclosure with no sh elter and no exit. where the triumphant and implacable Chainitza awaited them. fathers. and signed to the pacha to seat himself. Ali gave th e signal by a pistol-shot. dis daining the ordinary forms of etiquette. . and intended to shelter herds of buffaloes. The latte r. he reached that of Ali. governor of the castle of Janina. or food to be given to the women and children of Kardiki. and a general fusillade followed. She then stripped them. no delay. in hope of either escape or vengeance. gathered them into a crowd to be driven to Libokovo. The guards on beholding him remained stupefied and motionless. whose last hour had com e. the prisoners. open to the sky. After an hour of firing. he paced slowly through the various apa rtments. brothers and sons. Ali put them all to death when he re turned to Janina. His vengeance was indeed complete. and universally bel oved and respected for his many virtues. wounded. Ali addressed him with the utmost respect. who were then driven forth into the woods either to die of hunger or to be devoured by w ild beasts. only to be flung back by eithe r scimitars or muskets. when a certain Athanasius Vaya. they began to be heard in th e town. Ali mechanically obeyed.hought himself betrayed. and having violated the wome n and children. while others went to inform the pacha. until. the pacha was enjoying the repose of a satiated tiger. with no usher to announce him. and waite d in solemn silence to hear the reason of this unexpected visit. and endeavoured even to kiss his right hand. claim ing their share in cruelty and debauchery. now occupied solely by a heap of corpses. and a favourite of the pacha's. the n the most devout prostrated themselves. The caravanserai where they were shut in was square enclosure. t he better to enjoy the spectacle. The Christian Mirdites and the Mohammedan guar ds knelt together to pray for the miserable Kardikiotes. But as. informing posterity that six hundred Kardikiotes had there been sacrificed to the memory of his mother K amco. who was followed by a crowd of silent courtiers. were astonished to behold Athanasius Vaya and his troop appearing on the top of the wall. advanced at the head of the scum of the army. and when s he had sufficiently enjoyed their misery they were again handed over to the insu lts of the soldiery. When the shrieks of death ceased in the enclosure. crowded one upon another f or shelter. but no one dared hinder the venerable man. Some tried to climb the walls. The prisoners having heard nothing of what passed outside. covered it with his man tle. Chainitza finally published an edict forbidding either clot hes. words of pardon were on his lips. Yussuf hastily withdrew it. Terrible cries echo ed from the court. who walked calmly and solemnly throug h the astonished attendants. and offered to carry out the death sentence. They did not long remain in doubt. Fear was nea rly taking the place of mercy. vene rated as a saint by the Mohammedans on account of his piety. and looked around with doubt and mistrust. and joyfully narrate d to them the massacre of their husbands. and placed over the gate an inscription in letters of gold. It was a terrible scene of despair and death. she compelled the women to cut off their hair and to stuff w ith it a mattress on which she lay. gave him f ull authority to act. a gloomy silence descended on the place. For him there existed no antechamber. whose illeg itimate son he was supposed to be. At length they arrived at their desti nation. entered Ali's sumptuous dwelling for th e first time. filled with a horrible satisfaction. an indignant and threatening voice reached him even in the recesses of his palace. shelter. At every ha lt in this frightful journey fresh marauders fell on the wretched victims. As to the seventy-two hostages. Ali applauded his zeal. rose hastily from the divan and advanced to meet the holy sheik. The Sheik Yussuf. whose impiety by no means saved him from superstitious terrors. Ali forbade any burial rites on pain of death. struck down by bullets. The assassins spread themselves through it. until they fell. a Greek schismatic. As after the taking of Kormovo.

plunged into a drunkenness which simulated pleasure. with the eldest daug hter of Veli Pacha. and arrived at the threshold of t he palace. and rising. carried boldly off whatever they could lay their han ds upon. dirty and impudent jugglers invaded private houses. and seating himsel f on a dais raised above this base crowd which trembled at his glance. alone preserved his equanimity. Allah has heard their cry. or at least do not sink me to Gehenna with your curses!" "There is no need to curse thee. abbots. were compelled to drink. Ali apparently thinking to raise himself b y degrading his more respectable subjects. on the nineteenth day. Troops of brutal soldiers drove workmen from their labour w ith whips. Every guest was expected to bring to the palace gate a gift in proportion to his means. Pacha of Scodra. "Thine own crimes bear witne ss against thee. because she had for dowry whol e villages in that district. Ali returned to his apartment sad and downcast. judge thee. and then reproached him for hi s injustice and rapine. and wine ran in floods at tables prepared i n the palace courts. an d stalked out of the apartment without another word. with such vivid eloquence tha t his hearers dissolved in tears. and fifteen hundred guests assembled for a solemn banquet. smoked before huge braziers. songs. about the details of which there seemed t o be as much mystery as if he had been preparing an assassination. gave the signal to begin. All at once. as if trying to drown their misery. Ali saw the general demoralization with pleasure. and on the first opportunity resumed his usual mode of life. and pretending that they had orders from the pa cha to display their skill. the air resounded with firing. and himself hastened with them to overtake the sheik. in terror. Day and night these spectacles succee ded each other with increasing rapidity. Ali. loaded wit h meat. were seen on all the roads driven to the court by peasants under the guidance of their priests. and gilded horns. flocks and herds. Ali resol ved to crown the feast by an orgy worthy of himself. especially as it tend ed to the gratification of his avarice.Yussuf desired him to listen with all attention. The pacha appeared in all his glory. and many days elapsed before he could shake off the depression caused by this scene. The occasion was the marriage of Moustai. At his voice. surrounded by his noble attendants and courtiers. But Yussuf deigned no answer. and foot officers watched to see that no one forgot this obligation. demanded a thousand pieces of gold. the holy man turned his back on him. But soon he felt more asha med of his inaction than of the reproaches which had caused it. Immediately after the announcement of this marriage Ali set on foot a sort of saturnalia. . called the Princess of Aulis. cried with terror: "Alas! my father. He then grew pale. ecclesiastics generally. c ries. the bazaars and public places. as if by a sudden inundation. and punish thee eternally. whose name do you now pronounce? Pray for me. put them in a white satin p urse. He caused the galleries and halls of his castle by the lake to be decorated with unheard-of splendour. music. and the roaring of wild beasts in shows. Tremble." answered Yussuf. though much dejected. until at length the sheik accused him of having caused the death of Emineh. At length. his treachery and cruelty. for the time is at hand! Thine hour is coming-is coming--is coming!" Casting a terrible glance at the pacha. The populace. Enormous spits. vice plunged into its most shameless diversions. He will summon thee. the very scum of the earth appeared to spread over Janina. and compelled them to join in the entertainments. shook off the dust of his feet against it. Disorderly bands of mountebanks fr om the depths of Roumelia traversed the streets. B ishops. and to take pa rt in ridiculous and indecent dances. imploring him to rec all his threats. with fleeces dyed scarlet. Ali.

and five of the assassins.and the wine-steeped wings of debauchery outspread themselves over the feast. and prostrating himself at his feet. and the guests clung together in terror. Then. Not knowing i n her despair which way to turn. the wife of his son Veli Pacha: Having vainly attempted to gratify it after his son's departure. A man stood at the entrance of the hall. had just arrived in the plain of Janina. He obtained timely help. As Ali reflected how the storm he had raised could best be laid. Zobeide flung he rself at his feet. out to him. when suddenly the noise ceased. being supposed responsible for the conduct of his sons' families. she wrote to Ali. all evil passions wer e at their height. revealed the whole terrible truth. promised that all should be made right. his lips trembled. and entreating her to control h erself and keep silence. entreating him to visit the h arem. Al l tongues were at their freest. Ali acknowledged his guilt. he was informe d that the ruler of the marriage feast sent by Moustai. and was not a man to be taken unawares. his agitatio n betrayed him. pleaded th e violence of his passion. taken red-handed. at once sent his grand-daughter. they were simply sewn up in sacks by gipsies and thrown into the lake. mixed wit h confused memories of her own. he hastened with his news to the son. The sixth was the messenger whose arrival with the news had caused such dismay at Ali's banquet. and demanded Pacho Bey's help. which was readily promised. an old enemy of Ali's. clothed in torn and blood-stained garments. vowe d vengeance. pale. and the unhappy Zobeide remain ed in ignorance of her misfortune until she found she was pregnant. This matter disposed of. was attacked in broad daylight by six emissaries sent from Janina. and that his adversary for the p resent was safe. he had recourse to drugs. Now for the subject of the message. As everyone made way at his ap proach. and had enca mped with his escort of eight hundred warriors at the foot of Tomoros of Dodona. Pacha of Scodra. were at once hung without ceremony in the marke t-place. This done. furious. the muscles of his forehead contracted alarmingly. he easily reached the pacha. Ali was able to attend to his hideous family tragedy. Pacho Bey. whom Veli ha d just promoted to the office of sword-bearer. wept with his victim. to rece ive the young bride who should reign in his harem. He was Yussuf Bey of the Delres. He began by effecting the disappearance of the women whom he had been compelled to make his accomplices. however. He vainly endeavoured to smile and to look as if nothing had happened. his eyebrows met in a terrible frown. he himself led the executioners into a subterranean p art of the castle. presen ted a letter. and wildeyed. But Ali had been warned. he absolutely refused all entreaties to enter the town . Dreading some treachery.law-giver having hitherto contemplat ed the possibility of so disgraceful a crime. and Pacho Bey learnt all its detail s from the spies he kept in Janina. disordered. the Princess of Aulis. Delighted at the prospect of avenging himsel f on the father. speechless with grief. and he was obliged to retire. and bein g indignantly repulsed. no. compelled to obey the pacha from fear of death. and Ali seeing that it was useless to insist. As head of the family. he had a right to enter. But the story was already whispered abroad. all imaginations ran wild. half-a vowals from her women. where they were beheaded by black mutes as a reward for their . CHAPTER VI Ali had long cherished a violent passion for Zobeide. after desiring a herald to announc e that he wished the banquet to continue. and the cause of the dismay it produced. Veli Pacha. Neither the pra yers nor tears of Zobeide could induce him to give up the intention of effacing the traces of his first crime by a second even more horrible. When he appeared. Ali opened and rapidly perused it.

Ali meaning to spare neither . furious. who concluded his bargain. and sou ght to assassinate him. was seized and strangled by the black mutes who ha d just beheaded the gipsies. and the unfortunate Ayesh a. After a few skirmishes . joining in the massacre. and the French gr enadiers descending rapidly from the height. The pacha's fleet succeeded no better than his army. but found time to desp atch a message to Moustai Pacha of Scodra. under his son M ouktar." or cap tains of a thousand. the nobles of that day were on their guard. Issuing from the Gulf of A mbracia. a jealous and c ruel woman. and content with having sown the seeds of dis sension in his enemy's family. The packet was seized. on hearing this. his work done. he wrote to Veli that he might now send for his wife and two of his children. and a careful examination disclosed its nature. where the rebels had taken refuge. Steel and pois on were used up. had rebelled against him and allied itself to Parga. accused her daughter-in-law of complicity. He was a fit subject for the experiment. they must inevitably have surrendered had they been left to themselves. w hose escape when lately at Janina still rankled in his mind. Having thus got rid of all who could bear witness t o his crime. it was intended to attack Parga from the sea. and Ali's troops. Ali found it. and a considerable number of killed and wounded. The mother of Moustai. who had garrisoned the citadel. leaving on the field four "bimbashis. that his vengeance should overtake him even at the ends of the earth. a small Christian town on the coast. had sufficient wisdom to seek safety in flight. hitherto detained as hostages. was enclosed and sealed in a cylindrical case. and cutting off all hope of escape from that side. which. Pacho Bey. One of the many adventurers with whom Janina was filled penetrated to the pacha 's presence. to the great satisfaction of Ali. first seized Agia. a poor monk of the order of St. Yussuf had his arm blown off. It provided an excuse for hostilities. for. according to custom. informing him of the catastrophe. A li. This was not precisely easy. though shortly to become a mother. in short. and who. Agia. Mouktar entered the town. Ali feared to attack him openly. As Yussuf was dange rous both from character and influence. distrusting equally the treachery of the f ather and the weakness of the son. Meanwhile he fell back on Yussuf Bey of the Debres. and was successfully blown to pieces. and though the Parganiotes fought bravely. who succeeded in causing a miscarr iage. and hast ened to make use of it. wholly ignorant of the real object of his mission. offered him a s consolation a chance of invading the territory of Parga. and sent to Yussuf Bey by a Greek . Ali heard with delight. In the dungeons of the castle by the lake. where they only found a few old men to massacre. but replied that he must see it in action before purchas ing. and which he greedily coveted. But they had soug ht protection from the French. vowed. and warning him to keep good guard. exposed to a thousand dangers of this kind. for having boldly refused a sacrilegious simony proposed to him by Ali. and then marched on Parga. the only place in Epi rus which had hitherto escaped his rule. and another way had to be sought. and died in consequence. He prepared a false firman.obedience. Basi l was slowly dying. charged the Turks with so much fury that they fled in all directions. When this letter arrived. Yussuf's letter was received by Moustai just as a similar infernal machine was placed in his hands under cover to his young wife. Fortune having frustrated Ali's schemes concerning Moustai Pacha. expired in agony from the effects of poiso n. He then sent a doctor to Zobeide. and offered to sell the secret of a powder whereof three grains wou ld suffice to kill a man with a terrible explosion--explosive powder. Opening it without suspicio n. only guilty of being the innocent instrument of her grandfather's treachery. and that the innocence of Zobeide woul d confound a calumniator who had dared to assail him with such injurious suspici ons.

But a few shots fired from a small fort dispersed the ships. where a courier.. Athanasius Macrys by name. apparently in continuation of a regular c orrespondence between them. Once in his palace. instead of corrupting his enemies with gold. looking out on the calm blue sea which lay before his win dows. The English immediately sent a messenger to Colonel Nicole. who fell head-foremost into the trap. it anchored close by the palace. The old officer had acquired the esteem and frien dship of the pacha. he sought to weaken them by division. and besought him by various powerful motives to surrender Parga." on account of a journey he had once made to Mecca. ordering them to spare the women and children of Parga. Wi thout further delay he ordered his attendants to mount. He took good ca re to complete his treason by allowing the letter to fall into the hands of the chief ecclesiastics of Parga. but this time. and could scarcely articulate the order to return to Prevesa. Ali awaited news at Prevesa. Athanasi us Macrys. Seeing that the tone of the letter was in perfect accordance with the former friendly relati ons between their French governor and the pacha. and although it was now long since they had met. "May Allah grant the pacha long life! The Parganiotes have escaped the sword of His Highness. and announced that his troops were in possession of the lower part of Parga. he perceived his fleet doubling Cape Pancrator and re-entering the Ambraci an Gulf under full sail. offe . Ali prepared his plans accordingly . Filled with anxiety." "It is the will of Allah!" murmured the pacha. they were convinced of the form er's treachery. Ali. He was a Greek of Galaxidi. had spent six months at Janina with a brigade of artill ery which General Marmont. he gave way to such fury that all arou nd him trembled. a shot from which killed Ali's admiral on his quarter-deck. He sent messengers to his generals. he st ill had the reputation of being Ali's friend. All at once. Ali gave him a purse of gold. then commanding in the Illyrian provinces. But the result was not as Ali had hoped: the Parganiotes resumed their former negotiations with the English. "But Parga. had brought him oranges gathered in the orchards of Parga. Ali changed countenance. "May your misfortune be upon us!" his attendants answered. an d started triumphantly on the Roman road to Nicopolis. and publicly proclaimed his success. demanding frequently if it could be true that his troops were b eaten. CHAPTER VII The French commander Nicole. sent off at the beginning of the action. had for a time placed at Ali's disposal. His j oy was redoubled when a second messenger presented two heads of French soldiers. whose leisure he had often amused by stories of his campaign s and various adventures. and above all to take strict charge of the plunder. and a barque manned by sailors from Paxos pursued them. He was approachin g the arena of Nicopolis when a third Tartar messenger informed him of the defea t of his army. took refuge in plots and treachery. entered his carriage. Arms having failed. preferring to place their freedom i n the hands of a Christian nation rather than to fall under the rule of a Mohamm edan satrap. surnamed the "Pilgrim. intended for his harem. and on hailing the lea ding ship a speaking trumpet announced to Ali the death of his admiral.. He wrote a letter to Colonel Nicole.the garrison nor any male inhabitants over twelve years of age. prostrating th emselves. whose head sank upon his breast in dejection. of whi ch he promised him the governorship during the rest of his life. in which he thanked the colonel for his continued af fection. as usual. Parga!" cried Ali..

1817. be ginning to be formidable. And as Ali's agents onl y arrived at the sum of 56. The latte r lamented bitterly.750. overwhelming them with favours. careful ly watching them all the while. when they admitted the British troops. Ne ver before had any such compact disgraced European diplomacy. which remained deaf to th eir cries. owing to the treachery of a woman who admitted an Engli sh detachment. The result of this valuation was that the indemnity granted to the Christians was reduced by the English to the s um of 276. but he was not so easily discouraged. Their correspondence was intercepted. the British standa rd floated over the Acropolis of Parga. and appealed to Christian Europe. when a letter f rom the Lord High Commissioner. which degenerated into a shameless orgy . honours. The latter was still smarting under his recen t disappointment. its grat eful inhabitants were enjoying a delicious rest after the storm. negotia tions with Ali Pacha were resumed. can gold give us a country and the t ombs of our ancestors?" Ali Pacha invited the Lord High Commissioner of Great Britain. who had formally promised. she was dete rmined that the Ottoman Empire should remain intact. includin g private property and church furniture. to a conference at Prevesa. whose intentions he guessed. they reckoned on powerful assistance from Russia . In the midst of this drunken hilarity the Turk and the Englishman disposed of the territory of Parga. the English Consul at Patras. that Parga should be classed along with the seven Ionian Isles. Above all." they said. The Bourbons again reigned in France. and gave warning of the evils which were to burst on the unhappy tow n. the cit adel was taken at night. He give a banquet for the Lord High Commissioner. on its sur render. But Ali Pacha fascinated the English agents. However. and he end eavoured by means of his agents to rouse the Parganiotes against them. made the slightest hostile movement. "--And the English were compelled to yield it! Trusting to the word of General Campbell. and feasts. instead of the original 500. accustomed hithert o to regard Turkish encroachments as simple sacrilege. they demanded the rights which had be en guaranteed them. and that the Greek navy. On the 25th of March. which stipulated the complete and stipulated cession o f Parga and all its territory to. But England had already begun to dread anything which could increase either th e possessions or the influence of this formidable power. to the general astonishment. a few days later. and the Greeks built a thousand hopes on an event which changed the basis of the wh ole European policy. a treaty was signed at Constantinople by the British Plenipotentiary. With these objects in view. at which the commissioners had estimated Parga and its territory.000. In the name of their ancestors. undec eived them. the Ottoman Empire. "Parga! I must have Parga. and the next day.000. It had been hoped that Ali's avarice wo uld hesitate at this high price. that they should always be on th e same footing as the Ionian Isles. must be destroyed. The latter then informed the Parganiotes th at the indemnity allowed them was irrevocably fixed at 150. a final conference was held at Buthrotum between Ali and the Lord High Commissioner. notwithstanding the solemn promise made to the Parg aniotes. The colonel returned a decided refus al. agreeing that a fresh estimate should be made on the spo t by experts chosen by both English and Turks. to arrange for the sale of the lands of the Parganiotes and discuss the conditions of their emigration. and threatened to blow up the place if the inhabitants. a lasting blot on the honour of Englan . and shaken by a suppressed agitation. Soon there arrived at Jani ne Sir John Cartwright. addressed to Lieutenant-Colonel de Bosset. All Greece was then profoundly stirred by a faint gleam of the dawn of liberty.075 sterling. Above all.ring honourable conditions of capitulation. and complained of the exorbitant price of 1.500 . "have we asked to sell them? And even if we received their value. Sir Thomas Maitl and. and to all overtures answered only.000! The transaction is a disgrace to the egotistical and venal nation which thus allowed the life an d liberty of a people to be trifled with. "They will buy our lands.

in their iniquitous treaty. tore open the tombs. alone estimated at two hundred thousand guineas. But the lovely country might have been inhabited by phantoms. In the midst of plains ripening for a ric h harvest were 80. ornaments. the Christians demanded the signal of departure. and landed at Parga by the light of the funeral pyre. and with assurances that the sa crifice would be at once consummated unless Ali's troops were held back. and all must be left. others took handfuls of earth. informing them that the pacha's army was marching t o take possession of the territory which. even as Jeremiah by the fall of Jerusalem. The gen eral endeavoured to console and to reassure the unhappy people. when suddenly a terrible cry echoed from street to street. quiet as death. He implored them to have patience. no less uneasy than the English garrison. With naked daggers in their hands. Each was silently m arking the door of the dwelling destined so soon to shelter an enemy. even to the Host! Two days more. Meanwhile. t he ancient guardian of their citadel. A messenger. and to kill themse lves to the last man. an d collected the bones and putrefying corpses. Church. standing in t he crimson light of the flames which were consuming the bones of their ancestors .000 square feet of olive trees. the whole population hastened to fall prostrate before the Virgin of Parga. The sun shone in cloudless azure. the English standard on the castle of Parga was hauled d own. The next day passed in mournful silence. At sunset on the foll owing day. and then proceed ed to the outposts. must be abandoned for eve r. inspired by this sublime m anifestation of despair. the ships int ended to transport them arrived. Terrified and despairin g. pyxes . as if fearing to be deprived of them. tapers. with a red cross. had by this treaty all become Mahommedan property. Even the very dust belonged no more to the wretched inha bitants. the air was balmy with the scent of orange trees. A mysterious voice. only hands raised to heaven and brows bent to the dust met one's eye. The English had sold everyt hing. and scattering on the shore. by May 10th. Instantly they rushed to the graveyards. He was received with ill-concealed indignation. informed the Lord High Commissioner of the terrible threat of the Parganiotes. if the infidels dared to set foot in the town before the a ppointed hour. 1819. for the Turks had been perceived on the heights overlooking the town. but both were soon confirmed by a proclamation of the Lord High Commissioner. The beautiful olive trees were fel led. reminded them that the English had. torches. Some filled little bags with a shes withdrawn from the funeral pile. forgott en to include the ashes of those whom a happier fate had spared the sight of the ruin of Parga. the last of the Greek poets. and after a night spent in prayer and weeping. improvised a hymn which expresses all the grief of the exiles. of pomegranates and citrons. an enormous funeral pyre arose. and then turning their weapons against the English and themselves. they were forbidden to take a fruit or a flower. They had left their dwellings at break of day. traversing silent streets in which armed men stood at each d oor only waiting a signal before slaying their families. Xenocles.d! The Parganiotes at first could believe neither in the infamy of their protector s nor in their own misfortune. and which the exiles interrup ted by their tears and sobs. the people of Parga vowed to slay their wives and children. a nd they answered by pointing to the approaching Turkish army and bidding him has ten. the priests might not remove either relics or sacred images. proceeding from the sa nctuary. and the Turkish officers. He arrived at last and commenced negotiations. while the w omen and children picked up pebbles which they hid in their clothing and pressed to their bosoms. and armed English soldiers superintended the em . crossing the sea in all haste. accompanied by G eneral Sir Frederic Adams. He started at once. end eavoured to collect some relics of their country. and in the general excitement the orders of the English chief were defied. promised to wait till the appointed hour . The fields were then in full bearing. May 9.

Not perceiving any pract ical result of their labours. It was not enough for Ali merely to put to death those who displeased him. Under various p retexts the money promised them was reduced and withheld. decorated with costly armour and covered with the richest of Oriental carpet s. Ali hated his fellow-men. His dreams were dreams of blood. he endeavoured to defy both the reproaches of his conscience and the opinion of the multitude. and Ali shuddered at th e prospect of Al-Sirat. and vainly he sought refuge in chambers glittering with gold. If. faithful to the poetical and mocking genius of them ancestors. would relate some fresh anecdote of cruelty. and. he overheard some b lind singer chanting in the streets the satirical verses which. and often regretted his inability to destroy all those who would have cause to rejoice at his death. saying. now. in order that he might hav e the pleasure of passing over their heads each time he left his apartments or r eturned to them. Thus closed one of the most od ious transactions which modern history has been compelled to record. would bid him repeat his verse s. which the Turks hailed from afar with. or suspended in the most secret parts of his palace. The th ought of eternity brought terrible visions in its train. and old age had laid the burden of infirmity upon him. h e caused the arrest of both Ibrahim Pasha. by chance.barkation. an d sought to encounter criticism with bravado. it is only with the deeds I have sometimes failed to carry out. He would have liked to leave no survivors. the Greeks frequently composed ab out him. and the guilty pasha buried his face in his hands an d shrieked aloud for help. In the retire ment of his fairy-like palace by the lake he could enjoy voluptuous pleasures to the full. narrow as a spider's thread and hangi ng over the furnaces of Hell. He was surrounded by magicians and soo thsayers. A Koran was hung about h is neck as a defence against the evil eye. and for no possible reason but that of hatred. The Parganiot es were landed in Corfu. that awful bridge. he consulted omens. in order to avert evil influences. and confined them both in a dungeon purposely constructed under the grand staircase of the castle by the lake. applauding him. ferocious cries. and frequently he removed it and knel t before it. by the help of which he hoped to asce nd to the planets and discover the Philosopher's Stone. in order to prolong the agony. the laboratory to be burnt and the alc hemists to be hung. therefore new tortures had to be constantly invented. and demanded talismans and charms from the dervish es." Sometimes it was the terrors of the life after death which assailed him. Sometimes. Consequently he sought to accomplish as much harm as he could during the time which remained to him. who was bound to a stake in the presenc e of his sister. a Christian accused of having tried to blow up Janina by introducing mice with tinder fastened to their tails . where they suffered yet more injustice. leading onwards a vast proce ssion of mournful phantoms. who had already suffered so much at h is hands. "Go . but only loaded with powder. until destitution comp elled them to accept the little that was offered. He ordered a complete chemical laboratory from Venice. adorned with arabesqu es. ashamed of his weakness. He ceased to joke about Eblis. as did Louis XI before the leaden figures of saints which adorned h is hat. he ordered. the Prince of Evil. which he had either sewn into his garments. remorse stood ever beside him. Through the magnificence which surrounded him there constantly passed the gale spectre of Emineh. and his son. the form of punishment must be constantly varied in order to produce a fresh mode of suffering. let them understand that I stop at nothing in order to overcome my foes! If I reproach myself with a nything. and destroyed by a cannon placed six paces off. add that to thy tale. and engaged alche mists to distill the water of immortality. and sa nk by degrees into profound superstition. Now it was a s ervant. But already seventy-eight years had passed over his head. guilty of absence without leave. The satrap of Janina had arrived at the fulfilment of his wishes. let thy hearers know what I can do. which a Mussulman must cross in order to arrive at the gate of Paradise. he would order the singer to be brought.

Ali maintained several carriages for himself and his family." he said. upsetting each other. As he possessed several palaces in Janina at a considerable distance from each other. the other remained on the ground with a broken leg. at Ramadan. When they got there. One day he chose to speak Turkish to a Maltese merchant who came to display som . exposed to sun . he r emarked to one of the officers of his escort. whilst I smoke my pipe and laugh at your condition . and considerin g this sufficient. they usually had to wait for another hour. Every year. striking right and left with their batons. while the Albanians. "If I had a theatre. they were suddenly informed that they must go to some other palace. no matter whence they came. To avoid being jolted." which I have to deal. with the result that in summer o ne was choked by dust. carrying a bag of money. "I would allow no one to be present at performances except my own child ren. which really benefitted no one. and one day having to go out in heavy rain. cast themselves down from the palace roof. took no further trouble about them. followed by Albanian soldiers armed with staves." He could not understand why Western sovereigns should permit their subjects to enjoy the same conveniences and amusements as themselves. but allowed no one else to share in this prerogative. fortunate if they were not sent off t o a third place of meeting." There was no end to the mystifications which it amused the pacha to carry out w ith those who approached him. Were I to hang a cri not deter even his own brother from steali an old man burnt alive. sol emnly convoking on their own heads all misfortunes which might possibly befall h im. The rabble one man who does it successfully. and I am the His conduct perfectly corresponded to his ideas. T he pacha meanwhile sat at a window enjoying the spectacle. two gipsi es devoted their lives in order to avert the evil destiny of the pasha. pretending to en force order. quarreling. at the opposite end of the town. but these idiotic Christians do not know how to uphold their own dignity. the one at which a distribution was to take place was each day publicly a nnounced. who was shut up in the cage of Ali's favourite tiger a nd devoured by it. During these distrib utions. He rejoic ed in the public inconvenience. which he threw by handfuls right into the midst of the assembly. and in winter could hardly get through the mud. and uttering cries of terror and pain. One great feast-day. many women were always severely hurt. pushed into the crowd. while you will have the pleasure of following on horsebac k! You will be wet and dirty.into the powder magazine. and when the women had waited there for an hour or two. an eunuch appeared. But Ali contrived to change this act of benevolence i nto a barbarous form of amusement. Ali gave th em each forty francs and an annuity of two pounds of maize daily. stunne d and suffering. Ali replied:-"You do not understand the race with minal on yonder tree. The pasha despised the human race as much as he hated it. and. rain or cold. One arose with difficulty. an d some died from the blows they had received. he simply took up the pavement in Janina and the neighbouring towns. the sight would ng in the crowd at its foot. fighti ng. When the time at length arrived. and impartially appla uding all well delivered blows. a large sum was distributed in alms among poor women wi thout distinction of sect. If I had l the ashes and sell them. as the case might be. The women rushed to catch it. A European having rep roached him with the cruelty shown to his subjects. "How delightful to be driven throu gh this in a carriage. his son would stea can be governed by fear only. Then began a terribl e uproar.

jewels. handing Ali a letter. a w ealthy town with a Christian population. saying that he was no longer sufficiently wealthy to maintain so many slaves. An unexpected occurrence seemed. and for almost each individual of any rank. in o rder that by returning them in public they might appear to be making great sacri fices. After this examination he ordered all the ashes to be carefully sifted in hopes of recovering the gold in the tassels and fringes of the sofas. offer only the same amount as did the poor. mechanics. Hearing this. and in his right an old red cap. has permitted thy seraglio of Tepelen to be burnt. He sat. and whom he disposed of amongst his friends. followed by his treasure and a few women who had e scaped from the flames. Ali distributed secretly large sum s among poor and obscure people. Arta. all are destroyed! And it is thy youngest and best beloved son. however sma ll. he requested all who loved him to prove their affection by bringing help in proportion. to indicat e an evil omen for the pacha's future. was ravaged by the plague. holding in his left hand a villainous pipe of the kind used by the lowest people. so that richer and more distinguished persons could not." says the forcible Turkish proverb. As soon as he arrived at the place where his palace had for merly insulted the public misery. "Misfortunes arrive in troops. shut up his cases.e jewels. But a new decree proclaimed throughout Albania required them to rebuil d and refurnish the formidable palace of Tepelen entirely at the public expense. All was intact. Behind stood a Jew from Janina. thy beautiful furniture. costly stuffs. according to their distance from Tepelen. an d departed. Thy spl endid palace. bu t were obliged to present gifts of enormous value. and out of e ight thousand inhabitants. Ali watched him with the utmost calm. H e none the less continued his discourse without allowing anyone to translate wha t he said into Greek. followed by his guards. charged with the office of testing each piece of gold and valuing jewels which were offered instead of m oney. The Maltese at length lost patience. "Allah. without appearin g ill-disposed towards the pacha. silver plate. Yussuf turned and departed. in spite of the guards. being by the hand of Allah deprived of his house. whose hand kindled the flames!" So saying. and soldiers. furs. Ali has tened to send commissioners to prepare an account of furniture and lands which t he pacha claimed as being heir to his subjects. which he extended for the donat ions of the passers-by. He next proclaimed through the length and br eadth of the land. for. and as he went out told him. A few livid and emaciated spectr es were yet to be found in the streets of Arta. and fifty million s of francs in gold. and. at the outer gate of his r uined palace. such as servants. s till in Turkish. that. and n o longer possessing anything in his native town. He fixed the day of rec eption for each commune. crying wi th a triumphant voice. Fate soon provided him with a second opportunity for amassing wealth. whither these evidences of loyalty were to be brought. and a forerunner of disasters came to Ali Dacha. to come again the next day. for instance. In order that the inventory migh . he hastened to examine the cellars where his t reasures were deposited. "Fire! fire! fire!" Ali instantly ordered his horse. enclosed in a well over which he had caused a tower to be b uilt. During five days Ali received these forced benevolences from all parts. rode without draw ing rein to Tepelen. on a shabby palm-leaf mat placed. who punishes the guilty. cashmeers. arms. Salik Bey himself. who had forced his way in. seven thousand were swept away. each endeavoured to appear generous. covered with rags. the pacha's subjects hoped to be at peace. "Behold!" said he. No means of obtaining a rich harvest were neglected. in terror. One morning he was suddenly roused by the Sheik Yussuf. and the si lver from the plate and the armour. like the warning finger of Destiny. He was informed that the merchant understood only Greek and Italian. After this charity extorted from their fears. Ali then returned to Janina.

would sacrifice him with the usual Turkish indifference. At the end of an hour he encountered a Bulgarian monk. This business being settled. beate n. and learning after som e time that Pacho Bey had sought refuge with the Nazir of Drama. Pacho Bey assumed the latter's part. it became nece ssary to repeople it. and await me there. the clue to which had disappeared along wit h the owners. and clothes steeped in bubonic infection. accused of having hidden some valuable o bjects. he resolved to strike a last blow. who had taken h im into favour. A ship." The kapidgi-bachi made a sign of comprehension. He may appear at any moment. Hollow trees were sounded . despatched secretly from Prevesa. and the sultan's confidential messenger informed him that he was the bearer of a firman granted at the request of Ali Pa cha of Janina. the people they met in flocks. Arriving at the great Servian convent in the mountains whence the Axius t akes its rise. sheets. and it is advisable that he should not see you. Ali turned to another which had long been on his m ind. to whom he was charged with a n important communication. How can I serve him?" "By executing the present order. and placed her in a cottage. guessing a trap. desiring you to behead a traitor. With this object in view. and directed his course towards Drama. these unhappy beings were compelled to wash in the Inachus b lankets. posing as a merchant. who had only known him a short tim e. Again Ismail's lucky star saved him from the plots of his enemy. invited Ismail to come on board and inspect h is goods. driving before them all. he obtained admission under an assumed name. learning the ill-success of his latest stratagem. "Ali of Tepelenir. But feeling sure of the discretion of the monks. We have seen how Ismail Pacho Bey escaped the assassins sent to murder him. who crept into your service a short time ago. which it is well to ascertain at once. The archons of the town were arrested and tortured in the hope of discovering buried treasure. with whom he exchanged clothes--a disguise which enabled him to traverse Upper Macedonia in s afety. Ali. The captain. were interrogated. I shall re turn this evening. who asked him where he could find the Nazir. in revenge. women. fled in the opposite direction. He is my friend. These unfortunate colonists were also obliged to find money to pay the pacha for the houses they were forced to occupy. Craft will be necessary in this case. One of these magistrates. while Ismail. turned his wife out of the palace at Jan ina which she still occupied. where she was obliged to earn a living by spinning. and compelled to abandon the last remains of their property in order to save their lives. but go to Drama. named Pacho Bey. more sure and more terrible t han the others. Old men. Ali's emissaries overran the vil lages of Thessaly. Let no one suspect who you are. fled promptly. and for some time all trace of him was lost. was plunged up to his shoulders in a boiler full of melted lead and boil ing oil. clever. During a hunting party he encountered a kapidgi-bachi. and you can consider your errand as accomplished. and c ompelling them to settle in Arta. rich and poor alike. But he did not stop there. "Willingly I but he is not an easy man to seize being brave. sent you by the Divan. after a few days he explained his situation to them . fearing that the Nazir. Having thus decimated the few inhabitants remaining to the town. Ali. and a skeleton which wa s discovered still girt with a belt containing Venetian sequins was gathered up with the utmost care. As kapidgi-bachis are frequently bearers of evil tidi ngs. children. walls pulled down. or messenger from the su ltan. vigorous. which is only two hours distant. the most unlikely corners examined. while the collectors were hunting everywhere for imaginary hidden treasure. and cunning. accused the Nazir of con .t be more complete. arrived at the place of his retreat. and as the Nazir was at some distanc e. But the latter.

a Christian from OEtolia. who had already received him as a friend. apparently overwhelmed by terror and affliction. . While he yet hesitated between affection and revenge.niving at Paeho Bey's escape. Ali drove the confidant of his crimes from the palace. the death firman obtained against him became usele ss. saying that both the disguise and the journey were necessary to his safety. which as tonished the whole town. and was even . The master and t he instrument disguised their scheme under the appearance of a quarrel. This man was on the poin t of establishing himself in Russian Bessarabia. This was what Al i wanted. nearly connected with his enemy. chief assassin of the Kardikiotes. Pacho Bey. overwhelming him with insults. he s et his hand to the work. Once arrived there. in order the better to conceal the new plot he was conceiving against him. He had learnt what this unfortunate lady had already endured on his account. he would have sent him to the gibbet. he determined to brave the st orm and encounter Ali openly. begging him to obtain his admission among the lay brethren of his monastery. Arrived in Maced onia. of relations. As Pacho Bey's innocence had been proved in the exp lanations given to the Porte. Athanasius departed from Janina with all the demonstrations of utter despair. He enforced his words by the app lication of a stick. Athanasius Vaya. The only favour which Mouktar Pacha could obtain for him was a sentence o f exile allowing him to retreat to Macedonia. Endowed by nature with a noble presence and with masculine firmness. and declaring that were Athanasius not the son of his children's foste r-mother. and Ali affected to abandon him to his fate. But the latter easily justified himself with the D ivan by giving precise information of what had really occurred. however. Paleopoulo by name. On the way he encountered one of the itinerant friars of the great Servian convent. He could not fail to distinguish himself in the capital and to find an opening for his great talents. vainly entreating them to intercede fo r him. who profited thereby in having the fugitive's track followed up. Pacho Bey possessed also the valuable gift of speaking all the various tongues of the Otto man Empire. for he was allied to all the principal families. and in relating the histo ry of Athanasius as he himself had heard it. swearing that this time Ismail should not escape. Now that despair had put an end to uncertainty. went round to all the nobles of the town. was not easily deceived. who were either his old companions in arms. At the end of a terrible scene which took place in publ ic. who in his t urn lost no time in announcing to Pacho Bey that his compatriot and companion in misfortune was to be received among the lay brethren. and s oon got wind of his retreat. he assumed the habit of a monk. an d feared that she would suffer yet more if he took active measures against the p acha. a nd continued his route with the haste of one who fears pursuit. frie nds. Ali Pacha himself. and undertook a pilgrimage to Mount Athos. Delighted at the prospect of bringing back to the fold of the Church a man so n otorious for his crimes. told his doubts to the superior. through his wife. begged for the honour of putting it in to execution. to whom Ali imparted his pr esent plan for the destruction of Ismail. At this precise moment Heaven sent him a friend to console and aid him in his v engeance. The latter retarded the reception of Vaya so as to give Pacho time to escape and ta ke the road to Constantinople. the friar hastened to inform his superior. But his inclination drove him at first to seek his fellow-exiles from Epirus. he heard that she ha d died of grief and misery. and at once guessing that Vaya's real object was his own assassination . to whom he described his disgrace in energetic terms. when he met Pacho Bey and joine d with him in the singular coalition which was to change the fate of the Tepelen ian dynasty. and Vaya.

and Ali himself was sovereign prince in everything but the name. assuring him that before long Ali would certainly fall a v ictim to them. even from literary persons. and suc h titles as "Most Illustrious. His palace of Tepelen ha d been rebuilt at the public expense. who found in exile a safe refuge from his persecution. and the delight wh ich it caused him was much tempered by the escape of the Parganiotes. throug hout the empire. Meanwhile. Moldavia. it of course appeared easier to await the natural inheritance of Ali's treas ures than to attempt to seize them by a war which would certainly absorb part of them. he pledged his head that with twenty thousand men he would. took care to dwell on the immense wealth possessed by Ali. b ut he repaid himself five times over. died. To these financial considerations Pacho Bey added some practical ones. His sons and grandsons were provided for by important positions. provided him with a coat of . now become his property. millions might be recovered. At Vienna a poem was pointed in his honour. Paleopoulo. as in Turkey it is customary for the great fortu nes of Government officials to be absorbed on their death by the Imperial Treasu ry. and took no further trouble about him. arrive before Janina without firing a musket . and a French-Greek Grammar was dedicated to him. Ali's luxury was on a level with his vast riches. Thus left alone. The Grand Seigneur had sworn by the tombs of his ancestors to attend to the matter as soon as he was able. as upon a man whose lofty virtues and great exploits echoed through the world. who had established a most minute surveillance over hi s actions. which had brought upon Ali a disgrace from which he only escaped in consequence of the overwhelming political events which just then absorbed the attention of the Ottoman Government. and on the enormous sums diverte d from the Imperial Treasury. "Most Powerful. by gifts extorted from his vassals. having prophesied the approachin g Greek insurrection among his friends. Pacho Hey and his friend drew up a new memo rial. and was larger and more magnificent than b efore. The occupation of Parga did not crown his desires. a new object of greed. However good these plans appeared. he appeared to be ever ywhere present. By overhauling the accounts of his administration. and knowing the sultan's avarice. Janina was embellished with new buildings." were showere d upon him. elegant pavilions rose on the shores of the lake. followed at length by a formal refusal. he obtained only dilator y answers. Therefore. in short. they were by no means to the taste of the su ltan's ministers. and it was only requisite to remind him of his vow. and by the value of the Parga lands. and Macedonia. before taking any active steps in his wor k of vengeance. Ali. finding that his time was spent with ulemas and dervishes. A native of Bergamo. who were each and all in receipt of large pensions from the ma n at whom they struck. private or political. and was mixed up in every intrigue. But his ambition was not yet satisfied. Besides. and. There was no lack of flattery. the old OEtolian. CHAPTER VIII A career of successful crime had established Ali's rule over a population equal to that of the two kingdoms of Sweden and Norway. Pacho." and "Most Clement. on his scandalous exactions. imagined t hat he had ceased to be dangerous. affected to give himself up to the strictest observances of the Mohammedan religion. while Pacho Bey's zeal was commended. He had paid the English agents the price agreed on for Parga. thanks to them. He also kept an army of spies in Wallach ia. in spi te of Ali's troops and strongholds. Scarcely had he finished the conque st of Middle Albania before he was exciting a faction against the young Moustai Pacha in Scodra. learned in heraldry. Speaking as a man sure of his facts and well acquainted wit h the ground. and pledged Pacho Bey to persevere in hi s plans of vengeance.Paleopoulo reminded his companion in misfortune of a memorial presented to the Divan in 1812. Thrace.

preferring not to compromise his real power by puerile displays of dignity. "resembles a man wrapped in costly furs. made him a kapidgi-bachi. a title wh ich he affected to reject with indignation. and he contrived that both his own complaints and those of his clients. whom he k ept in his pay and regarded as his best support. much disgus ted. pirates.--tr ained in his own school. and helped not a little to excite Ali's ambition by their suggestions. and betook himself to the place of exile. and he fell a pre y to the most lively anxiety. They fell upon him as he was proceeding to the Mosque of Saint-S . renegades. A vizier. Pacho Bey. Ali thought to terrify hi s enemies by a daring blow. and it was hoped that. bear leaders. and the great Turkish families assembled round Pacho Bey and Abdi Effendi at C onstantinople." It was not long before Ali's enemies found an extremely suitable opportunity fo r opening their attack. by aiming. was at l east able to relegate Veli to the obscure post of Lepanto. a lion. Contine ntal Greece. Bohemian dan cers. who for the las t twenty years had been simply Russian agents in disguise. embracing three cubs. each. who. who lost no opportunity of interceding in their favour. representing. might cause him. and he disdained to imitate other st ates by raising a private standard of his own. Thus attacked in the person of his most powerful son. who would ruin him. as a commencement of better things. he said. Some of these men frequently saluted him as King. but he sits on a barr el of powder. and to employ him as a polit ical counter-balance to the hospodars of Moldavia and Wallachia. Already he had a consul at Leucadia accepted by the E nglish. at his death. Veli Pacha. at becoming a viz ier. who had been compelled by the ty ranny of Veli Pacha to fly from his country. resolved to profit by his influence to carry out their plans of vengeance on the Tepelenian family. pitying h is misfortunes. having sec ured Khalid Effendi as a partisan. encouraged him to declare himself hereditary Prince of Greece. had in doing so caused so much oppression that many o f the inhabitants preferred the griefs and dangers of emigration rather than rem ain under so tyrannical a rule. was obliged to obey. "Ah! if Heaven would onl y restore me the strength of my youth. These he sought to attach to hi s person as men who might some day be found useful. It was considered that Ali. already advanced in years. Therefore he did not place his hope or confidence in them. who. He quitted the new palace he had just built at Rapehan i. could not live much longer. one of the richest nobles of Thessaly. had establi shed himself as an intermediary for all those who came to demand justice on acco unt of the pacha's exactions. their real intention being t o use him as a tool in return for their protection. assassins. on a field gules. man y of the adventurers with whom the Levant swarms. would again fal l under the sultan's sway. and he lamented the foolish ambition of his children. but then apparent weakness was merely prudent temporising. for he did not allow the man y favours of fortune to blind him to the real danger of his position. and a crowd of prostitutes. bent on silently undermining Ali's influence. Comprehending at once the evil which this man. The news of Pacho Bey's p romotion roused Ali from the security in which he was plunged. it is said. coiners. I would plunge my sword into his heart ev en in the midst of the Divan. A great number of Greeks sought refuge at Odessa . now in some measure detached from the Ottoman rule. ha d found a refuge in Albania." The Divan granted all the concessions which Ali demanded. Ab out this time the sultan also admitted to the Council a certain Abdi Effendi of Larissa. which only requires a spark to explode it. The sulta n. who had for his own profit increased the The ssalian taxation fivefold. under the nominal suzerainty of the sultan." he was answered.arms. who as yet did not dare to act openly against the Tepelenian family. should penetrate to the ears of the sultan. and Veli. Meanwhile. emblematic of the Tepelenian dynasty. outlaws from every country. This was not all. He sent three Albanians to Constantinople to assassi nate Pacho Bey. The two new dignitaries. accompanied by actors. but in the adven turers of every sort and kind. he exclaimed. affecting ignorance of his projects of revol t and his intelligence with the enemies of the State.

where the rowers received him with acclamations. He shall appear before our tribunal naked and bare. whose name was struck out of the list of vizie rs. Ali became a prey to terrible anxiety. caught red-handed. persisted in imagini ng that he could. As he one day opened the Koran to consult it as to his future. notwithstanding these orders. As may be supposed. and the regard which had once been shown him changed with his fortunes. a single soldier rea dy to march on Albania. while all the neighbouring pashas received orders to hold themselves in readiness to march with all the troops of their re spective Governments against Ali." Ali closed the book and spat t hree times into his bosom. The Div an. the Hy . submission to such an order was about the last thing Ali contemplated. who had sworn to cut off the head of anyone who dared mention the name of Ali Tepelen in his presence. The in terview he sought was not granted. It set forth that Ali Tepelen. Without discontinuing the pleasures in which he was immersed. But both were alike useless. informed him that all hope of pardon was l ost.ophia. which says. and was placed in command of the whole expedition. on the day on which the sultan also went in order to be present at the Fr iday ceremonial prayer. "He doth flatter himself in vain. there was not at the beginning of April. Pacho Bey was named Pasha of Janina and Delvino on condition of subduing the m. He bade farewell to his wives. He was yielding to the most dire presentiments. the Divan caused the Grand Mufti to launch the thunder of excommunication against h im. his divining rod st opped at verse 82. and that he would. and fired several shots at him. As he failed to appear. arriving from the capital. However. castin g a look of sadness on the beautiful gardens where only yesterday he had receive d the homage of his prostrate slaves. xix. once again. havin g many times obtained pardon for his crimes. which he now saw for the third time since he had obtained it.. The sultan now ordered a fleet to be equipped. two months after the attempted assassination of Pacho Bey. The assassins. an d possibly dealt a fatal blow to the Ottoman Empire. but not before confessing that they were sent by the Pacha of Janina. and descended to the shore. were hung at the gate of the Imperial Seragli o. when his secretaries informed him that only the rod of Moses could save him from the anger of Pharaoh--a figurative mode of warning him that he ha d nothing to hope for. for no one even ventured to transmit them to the sultan . Ali had just arrived at Parga. did not close until the new moon of July. He was wounded. The sail was set to a favourable breeze. was to dis embark troops on the coast of Epirus. recapitulated all Ali's crimes. and Ali. counting on his usual luck. he cont ented himself with sending presents and humble petitions to Constantinople. but not mortally. Had Ali put himself boldly at the head of the movement which was beginning to stir throughout Greece. leaving the shore he was never to see again. as recalcitrant. where he hoped to meet the Lord High Commissioner Maitland. chap. and pronounced a sentence against him which wa s confirmed by a decree of the Grand Mufti. was now guilty of high treason in t he first degree. escape from his difficulty by the help of gold and intrigue. comprehending at last that so dangerous a man must be dealt with at any cost . He ordered his galley to be immediately prepared. that year. be placed under the ban of the Empire if he did not within forty days appear at the Gilded Threshold of the Felicitous Gate of the Monarch who dispenses crowns to the princes who reign in this world. As far back as 1808. when a courier. Ramadan. he might have baffled these vacillating projects. in order to justify himself. saying that he hoped soon to return. after Ramadan. But the time of prosperity had gone by . sailed towards Erevesa. But Ali. which. and left his seraglio. Receiving no answer to his overtures.

a native of Macedonia. and to consider the best means of freeing themselves from a tr aitor. He organised all these adventurers on the plan of the Armatous. p lacing a captain of his own choice at the head of each. continued to p ay their taxes. and where a large arm y could not subsist. having long oppressed them. warning them to abandon the cause of a rebel." said they. for matters became daily more serious. who every where maintained numerous and active spi es. whose wealth w as enormous. and occurred in May 1820. He p ersuaded Suleyman Pacha that the Greeks would help him to dethrone Ali. It is on ly necessary to make them believe. but the Greeks gave out that it was in order to protect themselv es and their property against the bands of brigands which had appeared on all si des. As an extra precaution. In repairing to the posts assigned to them. ambiguous phrases which were read by the Christians as a call to take up arms i n the cause of liberty. would not spend a penny in order to wage it. a general appeal to all Al banian warriors. and he was determined that they should learn the sentence of deprivation and excommunication fulminated against the rebel pa cha. He made. for whom they cherished the deepest hatred. The Mohammedan s were alarmed. for whose freedom he worked by underhand methods. the guardians of the passes were enjoined to slay without mercy any despatch-bearer not provided with an order signed by Ali himself. by companies. "The Greeks in arms. as thei r Prince. though anxious for war. all Hellas was up in arms. This was the beginning of the Greek insurrection. now sought to draw down on their country all the terrors of war. Mussulmans and Christians. On the other side. Nor were the means of seduction wanting to Ali. but he preferred to keep it in order to carry on the war which he t hought he could no longer escape. He introduced into the Greek translation which he was commissioned to make. They hate you. which is easily done. who had nothing to hope from the clemency of the Grand Seigneur. At the same ti me circular letters were addressed to the Epirotes. Ali's friends advised him to turn it to his own advantage. These measures were specially aimed against Sul eyman Pacha. and would have returned to him had he consented. now redoubled his watchfulness. who. and giving each company a special post to defend. and replaced Ali himself in the office of Grand Provost of the Highways. it is true. and it was not easy to corrupt some of the great vassals or dered to march at their own expense against a man in whose downfall they had no special interest. The Divan answered the petitioners that it was their own business to suppr ess these disorders. less for the sake of vengeance on Ali than to aid the cause of the Greeks. the Greeks. who had succeeded Veli in the government of Thessaly. and not a single letter entered Epirus witho ut being opened and read by his agents. Ali. However. whatever their religion. Suleyman's secretary was a Greek called Anagnorto. if he would proclaim the independence of the Archipelago. whose estates Ali had seiz ed. these troops committed such terribl e depredations that the provinces sent to Constantinople demanding their suppres sion. therefore. and who had fled with his family to escape further persecution. "want a chief: offer yourself a s their leader. and to induce the Klephotes to turn their arms against Ali. The Moreans bore him no enmity until he refused to help the m to freedom. then Vizier of the Morea. where only a guerilla warfare can be carried on. and abstained from all hostility. and to send to Janina under escort any tra vellers wishing to enter Epirus. extending from Mount Pindus to Thermopylae. In an instant. satisfied with having vindicated their right to bear arms in their own defence. At the news of this great movement.driotes had offered to recognise his son Veli. and to support him in every way. Ali hastened . that if they will suppo rt your cause you will embrace Christianity and give them freedom. alike attra cted by the prospect of booty and good pay. Of all possible plans this was the best adapted to his country. flocked to his standard in crowds." There was no time to lose. the sultan. but this feeling may change. He had becom e attached to the court party.

Archbishop of Arta. and deplore the faults which the difficulty of my posi tion has entailed upon me. and so also is the accumulation of treasure made in order to support the war. "O Greeks!" he said. There were assembled men of widely different types. and I knew that resistance would be impossible. Interrogate my actions. I understood the political hatred of the Ottoman Cabinet t oo well not to know that it would declare war against me sooner or later. and. alas! these evils have been the result of my enforced obedience to the cruel and perfidious orders of the Sublime Porte. our common enemies: it is yours. and those who have responded to my invitation are occupying important posts near my person. What pacha has ever treated yo u as I have done? Who would have treated your priests and the objects of your wo rship with as much respect? Who else would have conceded the privileges which yo u enjoy? for you hold rank in my councils. Abbas. I acknowledge. they will speak more fully than a detailed apology. Thus I have long since rec alled to my service a great number of Suliotes. "I might say the same of the Parganiotes. and uncle of the unfortunate Euphrosyne. and I have certain information that this propos al has been everywhere accepted with enthusiasm. to wh om the turban would have been more becoming than the mitre. who had been dragged thithe r by force. I am now more than ever delighted at being the friend of the Greeks. the old head of the police. seek to deny the evils with which I have afflicted you. and each time that I appealed to them to change their ways they answered only with insults and threats. and. and Porphyro. but. you w ould see them throw open the gates of Epirus to the forces of the sultan. Archbishop of Janina. To complete the reco nciliation. Ashamed of the part he was obliged to play. our common enemies. still bearing the marks of t he chains with which Ali had loaded him. Their bravery is . "examine my c onduct with unprejudiced minds. I have written to those who are still in exile. reunited under my standard. muc h astonished at finding themselves in company: the venerable Gabriel. if on one side I had to repel the Otto man aggression. however. and on the other to fight against the formidable Suliotes." Here Ali ceased. which the Divan has at length declared. who had presided at the execution of the Christian martyr. and both the police and the administr ation of my States are in your hands. I t is to the Porte that these wrongs must be attributed. for if my actions be att entively regarded it will be seen that I only did harm when compelled thereto by the course of events. and which ha s been specially obtained from the Turks. Strong in my repentance.to summon what he called a Grand Divan. will join me in comba ting the Osmanlis. This was a pers onal affair. which incessantly made me pay dearly for tranquillity. "As to the avarice of which I am accused. and if at this moment they still were occupying Parga. composed of the chiefs of both sects. You know that their town was the haun t of my enemies. I do not. decided on speaking. Mu ssulmans and Christians. then having caused a barrel full of gold pieces to be emptied on the floor. it seems easily justified by the cons tant necessity I was under of satisfying the inordinate cupidity of the Ottoman ministry. and in deed I also blame myself. he continued: "Behold a part of the treasure I have preserved with so much care. They constantly aided the Suliotes with whom I was at war. "My position with regard to the Suliotes allowed no half-and-half measures. Hav ing once broken with them. and you will see manifest proofs of the confiden ce and consideration which I have ever shown you. desiring them to ret urn fearlessly to their country. addressing the Christians. after long hesitation. I do not hesitate to address myself to those whom I have most grievously wounded. Ali. I was obliged either to drive them from my country or to exterminate them. The Suliotes will soon return t o their ancestral houses. the holy bishop of Velas. But al l this does not prevent my being aware that my enemies blame me severely.

and of Chamidae. Ali.a sure earnest of victory. but it was more frequently on horseback that he appeared among his labourers. Vizier of Scodra. Whilst the Ottoman vassals assembled only in small numbers and very slowly unde r their respective standards. Pacha of Widdin. Buthrotum. Some replied only by raising looks of despair to Heaven. Sderli. your children. Besides these. Argyro-Castron. Cleisoura. and to rule justly the brave nation associated with m y interests. mounted on siege-car riages. Parga. of th e brilliant victory gained by Passevend Oglon. sometimes in a carria ge raised into a kind of platform. of quite recent memory. and an enormo us quantity of munitions of war. Be rat. Paramythia. and seventy mortars. He had fortified and supplied with munitions of war Ochrida. the post o f the Five Wells. But his words were drowned by cries of "Lo ng live Ali Pasha! Long live the restorer of liberty!" uttered by some chiefs of adventurers and brigands. formerly given him by the English. who. Delvin o. Cannia. a nd drive the Osmanlis across the Bosphorus. sometimes in a litter borne by his Albanians. O primates! I call upon you to defend your rights. Premiti. shut up in his citadel with s eventy-two warriors. remained deaf to his invitations. announcing that in future he would consider them as his most fait hful subjects. a number of Congreve rockets. in order to have prompt news of the Turki sh fleet. for the most part in bronze. CHAPTER IX Yet next day. independently of the guns in position. he who had refused to slaughter the Kardikiotes. Ali addressed a circular letter to his brothers t he Christians. whose strength seemed to increase with age. Arta. Janina and its castles. A great number remained uncertain. . The Mirdite chief. forty field-pieces. sixty mountain guns . Often he sat on the bastions in the midst of th e batteries. Santi-Quaranta. He reminded them also. there were in the castle by the lake . so that Ali. which is celebrated in the warlike songs of the Klephts of Roumelia. others murmur ed their adhesion. knowi ng that Ismail Pacho Bey had boasted that he could arrive in sight of Janina wit hout firing a gun. declared t hat neither he nor any Skipetar of the Latin communion would bear arms against t heir legitimate sovereign the sultan. had seen collapse at his feet the united forces of four gre at provinces of the Ottoman Empire. and conversed familiarly with those who surrounded him. had been attained with the sentence of deprivation an d excommunication. May 24th. and we will shortly re-establish the Greek Empire. he endeavoured to establish a line of semaphores between Janina and Prevesa. inciting them to revolt. and orga nised insurrections in Wallachia and Moldavia to the very environs of Constantin ople. not knowing what to decide . Prevesa. He wound up by asking for soldiers. Avlone. Tepelen. but the Greeks having learnt the instabilit y of his promises." This discourse produced very different impressions on the Christian priests and archons. At the same time he sent me ssengers to the Montenegrins and the Servians. saw to everything and appeared everywhere. every day there collected round the castle of Jani na whole companies of Toxidae. Finally. These places contained four hundred an d twenty cannons of all sizes. said in his turn that he would not treat with the Porte until he and his troops should be within eight leagues of Constantinople. and that henceforth he remitted the taxes paid to his own family. recounting how the rebel pacha. the port of Panormus. of Tapazetae. commanded by twenty-two pachas. which was expected to appear on this coast. who were alm ost entirely annihilated in one day by the Guegues. He narrated the successes formerly obtained against the sultan by Kara Bazaklia. like himself. O bishops and priests of Issa the pr ophet! bless the arms of the Christians. 1820.

Mouktar and Veli. and brought only discouraging news. laid siege to Parga. only in order to share his danger. whose only quarrel was with his grandfather. or thought himself obliged. But m . which would afford shelter to the enem y and a point of attack against the fortresses in which he was entrenched. The fall of Parga was succeeded by that of Arta of Mongliana. This incident showed him that his authority was no longer paramount. all the inhabitants of Northern Albania. and thenceforth neither son would leave the neighbourhood of so excellent a father. and the other Berat. He was pr epared to make a good defence. In order to save app earances. recently appointed general-in-chief. Ali's sons. ostensibly on account of this disput e. had none the less. who valued its posse ssion far above its real importance. where was situate d Ali's country house. The fall of Parga made a great impression on the Epirotes. Mouktar. Soon he had other troubles to endure. and vowed that the one had left Lepanto. by whom he was well treated. and he was compelled to surrender at discretion. but when the sentence w as to be carried out the whole corps of artillery mutinied. Veli ha d been obliged. He was assured that the sultan. Ali had brought all his treasure to Janina. w ould merely be sent to an important province in Asia Minor. who had taken up arms. who had hitherto concealed their disaffection under an exaggerated semblance of devotion. had only noticed favourable dispositions. who had just made a tour of inspection in the Musache. One of his gunners assassinated a servant of Vela's. and of the post of the Five Wells. continuing their succe ss. had done so in order to aid his father. and though he had nev er loved his sons. Then came a yet more o verwhelming piece of news Omar Brionis. but was betrayed by his troops. having formerly despoiled of i ts wealth. When this resolution was known. of which he divined the motive only too well. Consequ ently a violent quarrel arose between them. being as signed the best cabin in the admiral's ship and given a brilliant suite. namely. The advice given by the sons to their father as to the manner of treating the M ohammedans differed widely in accordance with their respective opinions. who. They overwhelmed him with marks of affection. The Turks. and he began to doubt the fidelity of his soldiers. he suffered cruelly in discovering that he was not beloved by them. He was handed over to the commander of the naval forces. especially as to the wavering fidelity o f the Turks.Almost simultaneously. which both equal ly coveted. would show him favour. who opened the ga tes of the town. He was curiously mistaken. for these tribes hated Ali with a hatred all the deeper for being compelled to conceal it. but in reality on the subject of their father's inheritance. on the contrary. The arr ival of the Ottoman fleet further enlightened him to his true position. during which he had neither known how to moderate his resentment nor to foresee the possibility of any change of fortune. and were only in arms in orde r to repel aggression. and Ali ordered the murderer to be punished. which was held by Mehemet. with his treasures. Ali was by no means duped by these pr otestations. and deluded himself with the idea that the Chaonians. the pacha was compelled to allow them to ask for the pardon of the cri minal whom he dared not punish. He was induced to wr ite in this strain to his family and friends in order to induce them to lay down their arms. now ha stened to make their submission to the sultan. on destroying the town of Janina. and would even deal mercifully with Ali. Mussulma n and Christian alike. Veli's eldest son. had gone over to the enemy with all his troops! Ali then decided on carrying out a project he had formed in case of necessity. whom Ali. Ali rent his garments and cursed the days o f his former good fortune. the inhabitants thought only of saving themselves and their property from the ruin from which nothing could save their country. to evacuate Lepanto by superior forc es. arrived at Janina.

Those who escaped the Turks were stopped in the hill passes by the mountain eers rushing down to the>> rey. and Ghazi. per haps one half had escaped. his former servant with the ti tles of Vali of Epirus. and the women's apartments. which declared Tepelen Veli-Zade to ha ve forfeited his dignities and to be excommunicated. where s lavery awaited them." or "black. there were mothers who. Pacho Bey made his entry. wi th infants at the breast. even as did the Greeks of old in the temples of the gods. The place was immediately invaded by an unbridled soldiery. refused to return to th e castle. The town presented an equally terrible spectacle. A Marabout then cast a stone towa . The unhappy fugitives. and fled in all directi ons. de stitute of succour. confirmed by the Mufti. sword. shells. uttered a terrible cry. when Ali gave leave to the Albanian s oldiers yet faithful to him to sack the town. In some cases terror bestows extraordinary strength. Ali heard on the summit of his keep the acclamations of the Turks who saluted Pacho Bey. instead of helping or protectin g them. pointing out the places which must be burnt. The cupboards containing sacred vestments were broken open. But they were assailed on the way by peasants covetous of their bo oty. neither Christians nor Mussul mans were spared. houses. fell upon them. Of the thirty thousand persons who inhabited Janina a few hours previously. Nothing was respected. were given up to violence. taken thus between fire and. who. mosques. so were the tombs of the archbishops. and only thought of regaining their country and enjoying the fruit of their rapine. or Orthodox Mohammedans. he proclaimed aloud the firman which inaugurated him as Pacha of Janina and Delvino. directed the bombardmen t. the cadi r ead the sentence. and the only thing spared by the flames was t he gallows. where Greeks and Turks alike deposited their gold. But these had not fled many leagues before they encou ntered the outposts of the Otto man army. all were destroyed. Having pitched his tent out of range of Ali's cannon. covered on foot in one day the fourteen leagues which separate Janina from Arta.ost of them were only preparing to depart. having disfi gured themselves by gashes." which is bestowed on those cut off from the cong regation of Sunnites. which seemed to vomit fire like a volcano. of Victorius. and the altar itself was defiled with the blood of ruffians who fought for chalices and silver crosses. After this ceremony. jewels. which. only large numbers who held together could force a passage. and then raised the tails. The ruins of Janina were still smoking when. which soon presented the specta cle of an immense conflagration. seated on the great platform of the castle by the lake. libraries. and the trees by the roadside converted into gibbets . grenade's. Churches. emblem of his dignity. on the 19th August. All at on e the roar of a terrible explosion rose above the other s ounds. in which were interred reliquaries adorned with precious stones. and merchandise . The roads and passe s were strewn with corpses. adding an injunction to all the faithful that henceforth his name was not to be pronounced except with the addition of "Kara. Ali. hid themselves in caves. where they died of terror a nd hunger. intoxicated with plunder and debauchery. The murderers did not long survive their victims. plundered them. seized with the pangs of travail in the m idst of their flight. The Metropolitan ch urch. which remained standing in the midst of the ruins. did not survive their mothers. and by those of Janina who had sought refuge with them. death behind and slavery before. and drove them towards the camp. But others. forcibly entered. Some of the more courageous citizens endeavoured to defend their hous es arid families against these bandits. and a hail of bombs. after giving birth to babes. became the first obj ect of pillage. ba zaars. The Albanians. expired in the woods. And young girls. and the clash of arms mingled with cries and groans. and rockets carried devastation a nd fire into the different quarters of the town.

all threw him into the deepest melancholy. for all guard. and demanding fresh victims with loud cries. . demanded her de ath. and. could not possibly procure any before the end of October. dressed as if for a fete-day. and twice. p roceeded to enforce their scorn with well-aimed cannon shots. like hunters who stalk a deer. had warned them back. ending with the cry of "Long live the sultan! So be it!" But it was not by ecclesiastical thunders that three fortresses could be reduce d. But soon. represented to him that their fate was indissolubly linked with his. they prepared in silence to surprise the guards. saluting t hem with cannon-shot if they ventured near the edge of the lake. completed the cure. but no one dared attack her. the foe would be driven t o seek shelter at a distance. and prepared to burst it open. in spite of all that could be said. made with warmth conviction. The menacing form of Kamco had. but his soldiers. when lo! it ope ned of itself. clad in mourning. to whose protestations he at first refused any c redit. exten ding his hands to his soldiers. seeing him in this state. a warrior. which had forgotten its siege artillery at Constantinople . These representations. who had established an excellent school for gunners and bombardiers. ashamed of their terror. they attempted another attack. and twice they had returned u pon their footsteps. in residing in her cas tle of Libokovo. the beautiful Christian captive. it was sa id. Arrived on the platform of Libokovo. with whom she kept up a mysterious communication even beyond the portals of the grave. The sight of his own troops. All began to think that grief would bring Ali to the grave. The besieged. passed slowly before the Turks. listening for any s upernatural warning. pistols in her belt. by which time the ra ins would begin. watched over her safety. Superstition declared that the spirit of her m other. and that the Turkish army. now in the camp of Pacho Bey. and imploring them to slay him rather than aband on him. and concluding all was lost. and the enemy would probably be short of food.rds the castle. began to soothe the restless fever which was wasting Ali. it was therefore their interest to support his resistance with all their power. This noisy rhodomontade did not prevent Ali from being consumed with grief and anxiety. filled the air with their lamentations. in any case. His wives. two large dogs. while the rebel fl otilla. Nothing disturbed the silence and solitude save the bleatin g of flocks and the cries of birds of prey. already they had r eached the gate of the enclosure. believing the castle full of t hem. the fear of being for ever separated from his sons. on a mat at the door of his antechamber. He refused his food. and the anathema upon "Kara Ali" was repeated by the whole Turki sh army. clothed in black. appeared to several inhabitants of Tepelen. Moreover. They approached crawling. They also pointed out that the campaign was already advanced. forbidding them to lay hands on a sacrilegious woman. a carabine in her hand. and came atti red in the colour of the Prophet. The desire of vengea nce had urged some to brave these unknown dangers. At the same time his sister Chainitza gave him an astonishing example of courag e. whose punishment Heaven reserved to itself. Pach o Bey having proclaimed that all taken in arms for Ali would be shot as sharers in rebellion. brandishing bones of the wretche d Kardikiotes. who had now bee n his wife for some time. the thought of his grandson in the enemy 's hands. and they beheld Chainitza standing before them. and the gentle caresse s and persuasions of Basillisa. it being impossible to winter in a ruined town. and his sleepless eyes were constantly drowned in tears. This time no mysterious stranger speared to fo rbid their passage and with a cry they climbed the mountain. She had persisted. and supported by evidence. The population. whom she had cruelly oppressed. and sat for seven days with u ntrimmed beard. having replied with hootings of contempt to the acclamations of the besiegers. which were defended by artillerymen drawn from different European armies.

His imme nse treasures were the real reason of the war waged against him. and dare not to trouble me again. in order to become masters of them. when he heard of his s ister's conduct. it might be destroyed in a moment. and this plac e and the ground beneath your feet' will engulf you. But the latter. which took on b oard a monk. and added that he now sent them a part of the pay of which the traitorous Ismail wa s defrauding them. I have other means of destruction at command besides gunpowder. I will. The sum necessary for prese nt use was deposited in the powder magazine. on which was engraved these words. grant your pardon. Ali redoubled both his prudence and activity. Instead of a match. "neither my life nor my treasure will ever b e at your mercy. unworthy though you are. the remainder was enclosed in strong-boxes. Shortly after the plague broke out in these mountains. to whom he woul d communicate what more he had to say. r eceived him with the utmost cordiality: He assured the priest of his repentance. They then. but your mountains may yet at my command become the tomb of your wives and children. seduced by the brilliant promises of Dacha Bey. however. much astonished. He resolv ed to protect them from either surprise or conquest. as one going to execution. they may recom pense you for the losses which my brother's enemies have recently inflicted on y ou. Chainitza had distribute d infected garments among gipsies. remember that. and began to rally to discrown the old pacha's fortress. He was clothed in sackcloth. they found rolls of pap er enclosed in a wooden cylinder. which for a long time had enjoyed immunity from the guns of Janin a. and from that hour he appeared to regain all the fire and audac ity of his youth." she cried. "Open caref ully. Go!" She ceased. he redoubled his fire upon the Turks. and that the bombs thrown into their cantonment contained six thousand sequins in gold. He begged them to amuse Ismail by complaints and recr iminations. however. The Suliots were terrified. he was informed that Mouktar and Veli. he applied himself to the troubling those of his adversary. answered his fire wi th vigour. "It does not surprise me. the spiritual chief of the Suliots."Halt! ye daring ones. "I have long known t hem to be unworthy of being my sons. Feeling that the danger was pressing. while his gondola should by night fetch one of them. until they re marked that the bombs did not burst." The paper contained a truly Macchiavellian letter from Ali. Ali put to death the gipsies who had been employed about it. who had at length obtained some artillery. they we re to light three fires as a signal. Life is nothing to me. This labour lasted a fortnight. who scattered contagion wherever they went. proceeded to pi ck up and examine these projectiles. If they accepted his proposition. Their camp. a few days later. if driven to extremity. an d repeated the prayers for the dying." he observed coldly. and her would-be murderers fled terror. so that. was one day overwhelmed with bombs. speak no more of them. and have only received their deserts. Ali. When. While he thus set his own affairs in order. he contented himself with saying. Let one of you move a step without my permission. Ten thousand pounds of powd er are in these cellars. and henceforth my only children and heirs a re those who defend my cause. . which began b y saying that they were quite justified in having taken up arms against him. had surrendered Prevesa and Arg yro-Castron. and sunk in different parts of the lake. "We are indeed of the same blood!" cried Ali with pride. But depart this instant without a word. fina lly. and these might induce his own soldiers to rebel." And on hearing a report that both had been behead ed by Dacha Bey's order. The signal was not long in appearing. Ali despatched his barge. in order that the secret might remain with himself. "They betrayed their father. when. I will even allow you to take these sacks filled with gold." And to sho w how little it discouraged him. A great number of Suliots had joined the Ottoman army i n order to assist in the destruction of him who formerly had ruined their countr y.

his good intentions, his esteem for the Greek captains, and then gave him a pap er which startled him considerably. It was a despatch, intercepted by Ali, from Khalid Effendi to the Seraskier Ismail, ordering the latter to exterminate all C hristians capable of bearing arms. All male children were to be circumcised, and brought up to form a legion drilled in European fashion; and the letter went on to explain how the Suliots, the Armatolis, the Greek races of the mainland and those of the Archipelago should be disposed of. Seeing the effect produced on th e monk by the perusal of this paper, Ali hastened to make him the most advantage ous offers, declaring that his own wish was to give Greece a political existence , and only requiring that the Suliot captains should send him a certain number o f their children as hostages. He then had cloaks and arms brought which he prese nted to the monk, dismissing him in haste, in order that darkness might favour h is return. The next day Ali was resting, with his head on Basilissa's lap, when he was inf ormed that the enemy was advancing upon the intrenchments which had been raised in the midst of the ruins of Janina. Already the outposts had been forced, and t he fury of the assailants threatened to triumph over all obstacles. Ali immediat ely ordered a sortie of all his troops, announcing that he himself would conduct it. His master of the horse brought him the famous Arab charger called the Derv ish, his chief huntsman presented him with his guns, weapons still famous in Epi rus, where they figure in the ballads of the Skipetars. The first was an enormou s gun, of Versailles manufacture, formerly presented by the conqueror of the Pyr amids to Djezzar, the Pacha of St. Jean-d'Arc, who amused himself by enclosing l iving victims in the walls of his palace, in order that he might hear their groa ns in the midst of his festivities. Next came a carabine given to the Pacha of J anina in the name of Napoleon in 1806; then the battle musket of Charles XII of Sweden, and finally-- the much revered sabre of Krim-Guerai. The signal was give n; the draw bridge crossed; the Guegues and other adventurers uttered a terrific shout; to which the cries of the assailants replied. Ali placed himself on a he ight, whence his eagle eye sought to discern the hostile chiefs; but he called a nd defied Pacho Bey in vain. Perceiving Hassan-Stamboul, colonel of the Imperial bombardiers outside his battery, Ali demanded the gun of Djezzar, and laid him dead on the spot. He then took the carabine of Napoleon, and shot with it Kekrim an, Bey of Sponga, whom he had formerly appointed Pacha of Lepanto. The enemy no w became aware of his presence, and sent a lively fusillade in his direction; bu t the balls seemed to diverge from his person. As soon as the smoke cleared, he perceived Capelan, Pacha of Croie, who had been his guest, and wounded him morta lly in the chest. Capelan uttered a sharp cry, and his terrified horse caused di sorder in the ranks. Ali picked off a large number of officers, one after anothe r; every shot was mortal, and his enemies began to regard him in, the light of a destroying angel. Disorder spread through the forces of the Seraskier, who retr eated hastily to his intrenchments. The Suliots meanwhile sent a deputation to Ismail offering their submission, an d seeking to regain their country in a peaceful manner; but, being received by h im with the most humiliating contempt, they resolved to make common cause with A li. They hesitated over the demand for hostages, and at length required Ali's gr andson, Hussien Pacha, in exchange. After many difficulties, Ali at length conse nted, and the agreement was concluded. The Suliots received five hundred thousan d piastres and a hundred and fifty charges of ammunition, Hussien Pacha was give n up to them, and they left the Ottoman camp at dead of night. Morco Botzaris re mained with three hundred and twenty men, threw down the palisades, and then asc ending Mount Paktoras with his troops, waited for dawn in order to announce his defection to the Turkish army. As soon as the sun appeared he ordered a general salvo of artillery and shouted his war-cry. A few Turks in charge of an outpost were slain, the rest fled. A cry of "To arms" was raised, and the standard of th e Cross floated before the camp of the infidels. Signs and omens of a coming general insurrection appeared on all sides; there w

as no lack of prodigies, visions, or popular rumours, and the Mohammedans became possessed with the idea that the last hour of their rule in Greece had struck. Ali Pacha favoured the general demoralisation; and his agents, scattered through out the land, fanned the flame of revolt. Ismail Pacha was deprived of his title of Seraskier, and superseded by Kursheed Pacha. As soon as Ali heard this, he s ent a messenger to Kursheed, hoping to influence him in his favour. Ismail, dist rusting the Skipetars, who formed part of his troops, demanded hostages from the m. The Skipetars were indignant, and Ali hearing of their discontent, wrote invi ting them to return to him, and endeavouring to dazzle them by the most brillian t promises. These overtures were received by the offended troops with enthusiasm , and Alexis Noutza, Ali's former general, who had forsaken him for Ismail, but who had secretly returned to his allegiance and acted as a spy on the Imperial a rmy, was deputed to treat with him. As soon as he arrived, Ali began to enact a comedy in the intention of rebutting the accusation of incest with his daughterin-law Zobeide; for this charge, which, since Veli himself had revealed the secr et of their common shame, could only be met by vague denials, had never ceased t o produce a mast unfavourable impression on Noutza's mind. Scarcely had he enter ed the castle by the lake, when Ali rushed to meet him, and flung himself into h is arms. In presence of his officers and the garrison, he loaded him with the mo st tender names, calling him his son, his beloved Alexis, his own legitimate chi ld, even as Salik Pacha. He burst into tears, and, with terrible oaths, called H eaven to witness that Mouktar and Veli, whom he disavowed on account of their co wardice, were the adulterous offspring of Emineh's amours. Then, raising his han d against the tomb of her whom he had loved so much, he drew the stupefied Noutz a into the recess of a casemate, and sending for Basilissa, presented him to her as a beloved son, whom only political considerations had compelled him to keep at a distance, because, being born of a Christian mother, he had been brought up in the faith of Jesus. Having thus softened the suspicions of his soldiers, Ali resumed his undergroun d intrigues. The Suliots had informed him that the sultan had made them extremel y advantageous offers if they would return to his service, and they demanded pre ssingly that Ali should give up to them the citadel of Kiapha, which was still i n his possession, and which commanded Suli. He replied with the information that he intended, January 26, to attack the camp of Pacho Bey early in the morning, and requested their assistance. In order to cause a diversion, they were to desc end into the valley of Janina at night, and occupy a position which he pointed o ut to them, and he gave their the word "flouri" as password for the night. If su ccessful, he undertook to grant their request. Ali's letter was intercepted, and fell into Ismail's hands, who immediately con ceived a plan for snaring his enemy in his own toils. When the night fixed by Al i arrived, the Seraskier marched out a strong division under the command of Omar Brionis, who had been recently appointed Pacha, and who was instructed to proce ed along the western slope of Mount Paktoras as far as the village of Besdoune, where he was to place an outpost, and then to retire along the other side of the mountain, so that, being visible in the starlight, the sentinels placed to watc h on the hostile towers might take his men for the Suliots and report to Ali tha t the position of Saint-Nicolas, assigned to them, had been occupied as arranged . All preparations for battle were made, and the two mortal enemies, Ismail and Ali, retired to rest, each cherishing the darling hope of shortly annihilating h is rival. At break of day a lively cannonade, proceeding from the castle of the lake and from Lithoritza, announced that the besieged intended a sortie. Soon Ali's Skipe tars, preceded by a detachment of French, Italians, and Swiss, rushed through th e Ottoman fire and carried the first redoubt, held by Ibrahim-Aga-Stamboul. They found six pieces of cannon, which the Turks, notwithstanding their terror, had had time to spike. This misadventure, for they had hoped to turn the artillery a gainst the intrenched camp, decided Ali's men on attacking the second redoubt, c

ommanded by the chief bombardier. The Asiatic troops of Baltadgi Pacha rushed to its defence. At their head appeared the chief Imaun of the army, mounted on a r ichly caparisoned mule and repeating the curse fulminated by the mufti against A li, his adherents, his castles, and even his cannons, which it was supposed migh t be rendered harmless by these adjurations. Ali's Mohammedan Skipetars averted their eyes, and spat into their bosoms, hoping thus to escape the evil influence . A superstitious terror was beginning to spread among them, when a French adven turer took aim at the Imaun and brought him down, amid the acclamations of the s oldiers; whereupon the Asiatics, imagining that Eblis himself fought against the m, retired within the intrenchments, whither the Skipetars, no longer fearing th e curse, pursued them vigorously. At the same time, however, a very different action was proceeding at the northe rn end of the besiegers' intrenchments. Ali left his castle of the lake, precede d by twelve torch-bearers carrying braziers filled with lighted pitch-wood, and advanced towards the shore of Saint-Nicolas, expecting to unite with the Suliots . He stopped in the middle of the ruins to wait for sunrise, and while there hea rd that his troops had carried the battery of Ibrahim-Aga-Stamboul. Overjoyed, h e ordered them to press on to the second intrenchment, promising that in an hour , when he should have been joined by the Suliots, he would support them, and he then pushed forward, preceded by two field-pieces with their waggons, and follow ed by fifteen hundred men, as far as a large plateau on which he perceived at a little distance an encampment which he supposed to be that of the Suliots. He th en ordered the Mirdite prince, Kyr Lekos, to advance with an escort of twenty-fi ve men, and when within hearing distance to wave a blue flag and call out the pa ssword. An Imperial officer replied with the countersign "flouri," and Lekos imm ediately sent back word to Ali to advance. His orderly hastened back, and the pr ince entered the camp, where he and his escort were immediately surrounded and s lain. On receiving the message, Ali began to advance, but cautiously, being uneasy at seeing no signs of the Mirdite troop. Suddenly, furious cries, and a lively fus illade, proceeding from the vineyards and thickets, announced that he had fallen into a trap, and at the same moment Omar Pacha fell upon his advance guard, whi ch broke, crying "Treason!". Ali sabred the fugitives mercilessly, but fear carried them away, and, forced t o follow the crowd, he perceived the Kersales and Baltadgi Pacha descending the side of Mount Paktoras, intending to cut off his retreat. He attempted another r oute, hastening towards the road to Dgeleva, but found it held by the Tapagetae under the Bimbashi Aslon of Argyro-Castron. He was surrounded, all seemed lost, and feeling that his last hour had come, he thought only of selling his life as dearly as possible. Collecting his bravest soldiers round him, he prepared for a last rush on Omar Pacha; when, suddenly, with an inspiration born of despair, h e ordered his ammunition waggons to be blown up. The Kersales, who were about to seize them, vanished in the explosion, which scattered a hail of stones and deb ris far and wide. Under cover of the smoke and general confusion, Ali succeeded in withdrawing his men to the shelter of the guns of his castle of Litharitza, w here he continued the fight in order to give time to the fugitives to rally, and to give the support he had promised to those fighting on the other slope; who, in the meantime, had carried the second battery and were attacking the fortified camp. Here the Seraskier Ismail met them with a resistance so well managed, tha t he was able to conceal the attack he was preparing to make on their rear. Ali, guessing that the object of Ismail's manoeuvres was to crush those whom he had promised to help, and unable, on account of the distance, either to support or t o warn them, endeavoured to impede Omar Pasha, hoping still that his Skipetars m ight either see or hear him. He encouraged the fugitives, who recognised him fro m afar by his scarlet dolman, by the dazzling whiteness of his horse, and by the terrible cries which he uttered; for, in the heat of battle, this extraordinary man appeared to have regained the vigour and audacity, of his youth. Twenty tim

without foreseeing what the results might be. before whom he humbly bent his head weighed down with years and grief. and explained that in advising the Suliots to r etire to their mountains he had really only put them in a false position as long as he retained possession of the fort of Kiapha. and he could not help them. which might be . Foaming with passion. Ali allowed himself to be forced back into the castle by the lake. and. when appointed Grand Vizier and se nt to pacify Servia. to aid Ali Pacha in his revolt against the Porte." which h e declared he had never forfeited the right to use. and from the recesse s of his fortress he agitated the whole of Greece. why was he hastily despatched to Al eppo to repress a trifling sedition of emirs and janissaries? Now. he considered hi mself happy in his misfortunes to have dealings with a vizier noted for his loft y qualities. but the perfidious plots of His Highness's advisers. when he should have enjoyed the reward of his labours. and especially the Suliots. his powerful arm was to be employed against an aged man. he yet entertained the hope of shaking the Ottoman Empire. arrived before Janina. The insurrection which he had stirred up. how they had al ienated the public mind. Fate had declared against him. Subdued by this u naccustomed opposition. as well as of the pachas subordinate to him. artful and insinuating. The Seraskier replied in a friendly manner. But even this defeat did not discourage the fierce pasha. called Pacho Bey. scarcely arri ved in the Morea. and forbade that henceforth a person of the valour and intrepidity of the Lion of Tepelen should be described by the epi thet of "excommunicated. He then added that these rare merits had doubtless been very far fr om being estimated at their proper value by a Divan in which men were only class ed in accordance with the sums they laid out in gratifying the rapacity of the m inisters. their only aim being to seize his treasures. shot for shot. and as often was forced to recoil towards his castles. when Ali caused a salute of twenty-one guns t o be fired in his honour. instead of being entrusted with the government of this king dom which he had reconquered for the sultan." He also spoke of him by his title of "vizier. bearing a letter of congratulati on on his safe arrival. but to so arrange matters that they could easily detac h themselves again. he threaten ed to rush singly into the midst of his enemies. being driven by the infamous lies of a former servant. His troops which were attacking the intrenched camp found themselves taken between two fires. Otherwise. while his soldiers dispersed in various directions. at last threatened to lay hands upon h im if he persisted in exposing himself like a private soldier. ordered the military salute to be r eturned in Ali's honour. Reduced to extremity. His tent had hardly been pitched. having crossed the Pindus at the head of an army of eighty thousand men. which is the key of the Sellei de. receiving only refusals. He brought up his reserves.es he led his soldiers to the charge. was only reward ed for these services by being recalled without a reason? Having been twice Romi li-Valicy. and sent a messenger. He gave a mass of spec ial information on this subject. This letter. and the Mohammedans were beginning to t remble. Viceroy of Egypt--af ter the departure of the French. related the pillaging. His officers besought him to ca lm himself. Ali then plunged into details. but in vain. who might be brought back to their duty with less troubl e than these imprudent chiefs had taken to estrange them. Ali wrote that. and he also stated that he h ad only entered Epirus as a peace-maker. how they had succeeded in offending the Armatolis. how came it about that Kursheed Pasha. was calculated to m ake a deep impression on Kursheed. why. was spreading with th e rapidity of a lighted train of powder. chiefs of the Selleid. the conqueror of the Mamelukes. not indeed the autho rity of the sultan. was he re legated to the obscure post of Salonica? And. avarice. and imperious de aling of Pacho Bey. th e prince advised the Polemarchs. Kursheed's emissaries had just seized s ome letters sent by Prince Alexander Ypsilanti to the Greek captains at Epirus. when at length Kursheed Pasha. into resisting. Without going into details of the events which led to the Greek insurrection.

should be beheaded. Thirdly. and the apprehension of a rupture between the Porte and Russia. "Given at the castle of Janina. This information produced a different effect upon Ali to that intended by the Seraskier. a malad y he had never before experienced. MetzoAbbas by name." CHAPTER X This mixture of arrogance and submission only merited indignation. withou t annual re-investiture. to pay the expenses of the war and the tribute in arrears due from my Government witho ut delay. I deman d that Pacho Bey. With this object I offer--First. that of his subjects is to rem ain faithful. the pacha. the coast of Epirus. formerly in my service. at the age of eighty-one. From this principle we derive that of rewards and punishments. Being quite as cunning as Ali himself. if Ali wished. It was necessary to lay aside vain r esentment and to unite against these threatening dangers. no man worth anything could have abandoned him. He corrupted one of the chiefs of the garrison. which certainly did not mean dread of defection. the hopes of the Christians. Kursheed Pacha was. and would value such a result far more highly than the glory of subduing by means of the imposing force at his command. to raise Toxis and the Tapygetae in the latter's favour. he imagined that these overtures of reconciliation were only a proof of th e inability of his foes to subdue him. and although my services might sufficiently justify my conduct to all time. He heard from the messenger at the same time of the agitation in European Turkey. But this clemency appeared to have seduced also fo ur hundred Skipetars who made use of the amnesty and the money with which Ali pr ovided them. Kursheed profited by the truce to carry on intrigues against him. Thus the S eraskier's scheme turned against himself. charges and tribute due now and here after to the sultan. I nevertheless acknowledge that I have deserved the wrath o f the sultan. subject to the rights. and the cause of the public calamities which are afflicting the faithful of Islam. with permiss ion to return to their homes. and he sent the following propositions to Kursheed Pacha: "If the first duty of a prince is to do justice. supported as he seemed to be by almost supernatural courage. Having humbly implored his pardon. he would transmit them to Constantinople. 1821. and obey him in all things. These letters a messenger from Kursheed delivered to Ali. March 7. and that hostilities might be suspended. until the courier. could return. who obtained pardon for himself and fifty followers. but it suite d Kursheed to dissemble. if he could not inflict a terrible vengeance on their perfidy. Passing suddenly from the depth of despondency to the height of p ride. ready to consider favourably any propositions likely to lead t o a prompt pacification. assenting to such propositions being b eyond his powers. he being the real rebel.used to procure the freedom of Greece. and he perceived he had been deceived by Ali's seeming apathy. Secondly. Fourthly. Suffering from a violent attack of gout. Acarnania a nd its dependencies. and to sacrifice them to his own designs. sa id his messenger. I require that for the rest of my life I shall retain. was dail . as it is important for the sake of example that the treason of an inferior towards his superior should receive fitting chastisement. my pachalik of Janina. I demand amnesty and oblivion of the past for all those who have served me until now. He replied that. In fac t. They produced such an impression upon his mind that he secretly resolved only to make use of the Gree ks. I fear not to invoke his severity towar ds those who have abused his confidence. a valiant princ e whom he had always regarded as one of the strongest bulwarks of the Ottoman Em pire. And if these conditions are not accepted wi thout modifications. since he has raised the arm of his anger against the head of his s lave. I am prepared to defend myself to the last.

and Ali profited thereby to ascertain the smallest details of all that passed. "that these contemptible gossip-mongers should find listening at doo rs may become uncomfortable. His position threatened to become worse if the siege of Janina dragged on much longer. but at the end of an ho ur. Ali. There. despatched orders. Calm and imm ovable. He learned from his spies that the general's staff. T his greeting was due to Ali's chief engineer. proclaimed from the ramparts. Djiladin Pacha of Ochcrida. leaving three hundred dead at the foot of the rampart. and performed prodigies of valour. "It is enough! two men have ruined Turkey! "He then remained silent. A sudden apoplexy had stricken this beloved sister. and allowed his Mohammeda n soldiers to visit the enemy's outposts and confer on the subject of various re ligious ceremonies. The balls sung in the air. during which the Turks relax hostilities. Caretto. Observing the enemy's mo vements by the help of a telescope. greeting curious persons and new-comers after a f ashion of his own. the life of his councils. had scarcely entered the lodging assigned to him. sent as an envoy to Kursheed Pacha. Al i himself appeared to respect the old popular customs. being the last victim whom Chainitza had demanded from her brother. after a moment's si lence. having led a sortie. he gave signals to the soldiers who were still occupying part of the rui ns of Janina. where Kursheed was forming a battery. I have furnished matter enough for them to talk abo ut. the besie gers were compelled to give way and retire to their intrenchments. which news." Then. which will leave it considerable trouble to pacify. wh en he was visited by a bomb which caused him to leave it again with all haste. and vouc hsafed no explanation of this prophetic sentence. As soon as he was alone with Basilissa. Frangistan (Christendom) shall henceforth hear only of my triumph or my fall . who next day sent a whole shower of balls and shells into the midst of a group of Frenchmen. when the time of Ramadan arri ved. and threw up redoubts upon it. he remarked on hearing of the general rising of Greece and the Archipelag o.y carried to the most exposed place on the ramparts of his castle. and encouraged them by voice and gesture. he ordered the public criers to inform his soldiers of the insurrections in Wallachia and the Morea. Discipline was relaxed in Kursheed's camp. he gave audience to whoever wished to see him. he improvised means of counteracting them. an assault was decided on. Thus the chancellor of the French Consul at Prevesa." said Ali in a message to Kursheed. Ali's position was becoming daily more difficult. whose curios ity had brought them to Tika. caused there much dejection. his figure assumed fantastic and weird shapes. Illumined by the flashes of fire. carried on a litter because of his gout. and spread ing immediately in the Imperial camp. and a practicable tr ench of nearly forty feet having been made. whence he kept up an incess ant fire on the southern front of the castle of Litharitza. who was reserved by fate to perform th e funeral obsequies of the guilty race of Tepelen. "It is time. having entered his fortress amid the acclamations of his sol diers. and a species of truce ensued. "thou mayest take thy dead and bury them. he informed her with tears of the d eath of Chainitza. I give t hem up without ransom. in her palace of Libokovo. facing the hostile batteries. the bullets haile d around him. The Greeks were now everywhere proclaiming their independence. Ali did not on this occasion manifest his usual delight on having gained a succ ess. "The Pindian bear is yet alive. counting on the "Truce of G . She owed this special favour to her riches and to the intercession o f her nephew. the noise drew blood from the ears of those with him. and Kursheed fou nd himself unexpectedly surrounded by enemies. S ometimes he amused himself by. On this e xposed platform he held his councils. Ibrahim Pacha of Berat died of poison. The troop s marched out boldly. " said Ali. and as I shall always do when thou attackest me as a brav e man ought. where she remained undisturbed until her death." Then. and indicated to what p oints his guns should be directed. A few months afterwards. He seized the island in th e middle of the lake.

took advantage of the fact that the time of their engagement with Ali had elapsed same months previously. thinking that this event must have shaken the old lion's resolution. At the e nd of a quarter of an hour the wind dispersed the smoke." a tacit suspension of all hostilities during the feast of Bairam. refused to accept t he Ottoman ultimatum. which never rose abo ve idle display. Nevertheless he ordered Caretto to turn thirty guns agai nst the mosque. spared by the bombs. "that these rebels bear the sign of the Cross on thei r standards. he said. Beware lest you beco me the victim of their policy. was supposed to be ill. intended to repair to the chief mosque. according to reports spread by himself. spread yet more terror amid Kursh eed's soldiers." Ali understood the danger. caused by the besiegers' fire. and won by the Seraskier's br ibes. buying actually from the Kiaia himself a part of the provisions brought by him for the Imperial camp. The Guegue Skipetars. already overwhelmed by the horrible spectacle passing before the ir eyes. Ali from the height of his keep beheld the standard of the Cross waving in the distance. from the assembled thirty pieces. "Ali Pacha is yet alive! "cried the old Homeric hero of Janina. Kursheed was recompensed for the deception by which he had been duped by the re duction of the fortress of Litharitza. and was extinguish ed in grief when he found that a conflagration. choosing the Kiaia of Moustai Pacha: as an envoy. With a terrific noise. of Janina. and his words. and delivering up the fortress they defended.od. who had made good use of his time in replacing the stores lost in the conflagration. leaping with jo y. cannon. Troubles which broke. had until now been respected by both sides. sending often two in a day to Constantinople. in the quarter of Loutcha. when it became known that Ali. from w hence as many were sent to him. passing from mouth to mouth. It was to be feared that this handful of men might also become a prey to discou ragement. had commenced. the Moham medan Easter. Instantly. he gave the signal. Kursheed. the mosque crumbled together. You are now only an instrument in their hands. with the large cypresses which surrounded the building blazing as if th ey had been torches lighted for the funeral ceremonies of sixty captains and two hundred soldiers. and the rising had become a revolution. h ad consumed part of his store in the castle by the lake. am id the cries of pain and rage of the crowd inside crushed in the ruins. The delight whic h Ali first evinced cooled rapidly before this consideration. This building. As soon as he was sure that the whole of the staff had entered the mosque. and terrified into a renewal of devotion. and not likely to give trou ble on so sacred a day. The rebellious Greeks were bent on attacking K ursheed. Ali. As soon as these negotiations." said he. which would have turned all Kursheed's army. and might surrender their chief to an enemy who had received all fugit ives with kindness. It is possible that the Greeks might not have prevailed against an enemy so formidable and a brain so fertile in intrigue. Henceforth Ali's force consisted of only six hundred men . out at the moment of the rupture of the negotiations proved that he foresaw the probable result. pa ssed over to the enemy. badly paid. recommenced negotiations . weakened b y fasting. who composed the ga rrison. mortars and howitzers. The insurrection promoted by the Vizier of Janina had passed far beyond the point he intended. and disclosed a burning crater. there issued a storm of shells. to solemnise Bairam by discharges of artillery. The Greek insurgents dreaded such an event. This state of things lasted mare than three week s. But so simpl e an idea was far beyond the united intellect of the Divan. Kursheed filled t he roads with his couriers. "Reflect. he would have pardoned Ali on condition of again bringing Hel los under his iron yoke. wearied out by the long siege. gr enades and cannon-balls. who gave Ali a remarkable wa rning. hitherto detained before the castle. intending. Almost on the same day. and had the sultan be en better advised. loo .

Use your best efforts to accomplish this. h e had for some months past refused to pay his defenders. with their commanders Tahir Abbas and Hagi Bessiaris. Falle n to the lowest rank. to win over the Toxide Skipetars. and enormous forces now threatened Janina. The only. Kursheed was obliged to produce firm ans from the Porte. Therefore they hastened to send to their former enemy. and take alive Ismail Pacho Bey. with them. now t heir ally. his servants. should be depo sed. perhaps not unrea sonably. that those by whose aid he might triumph would some day become his mast er. and Ismail Pacho Bey was so lemnly deposed. he resigned t he plumes of office. He contented himself wi th informing his captains of the insurgents' offer. the mortal enemy of my family. he was soon thrown into prison. whose courage every day gains a higher value in my eyes. which he has laid waste before our ey es. "No. were removed. his foresight was equally at fault with regard to the cowardice of hi s sons. and whether the latter believed all this. his soldiers forsook him. and that he should. The defection of his troops was not less fatal. He feared also. "old serpents always remain old serpents: I distrust the Suliots and their friendship. Kursheed.se upon themselves. All the Skipetar Agas hastened to place themselves under Ku rsheeds' standard. His last letter to the Suliots opened the eyes of his followers. And when some of them besought him to at least receive two or three hundred Palikars into the castle. and the author of the evils and frightful calamities which h ave so long oppressed our unhappy country. actuated by private motives different from those which he gave publicly. be transferred t o Asia Minor. All Epirus awaited the denoument with anxiety. He long deceived himself with the idea that the English. and Kurs heed profited by the discontent Ali's conduct had caused. when they received the following letter from Ali Pacha: "My well-beloved children. and his treasures. the other. so far as to see that in this struggle he was merely an instrument in procuring the freedom of a country which he had too cruelly oppressed to be able to hold even an infer ior rank in it. emblems of his authority. towards Janina. as well a s the Toxidae. and his avarice increasing with the danger." said he. that the life of their old vizier should be respected. it will strike at the root of the evil. his servants followed suit. I desire to info rm you that this my fortress is impregnable. would never allow a Turkish fleet to enter the Ionian Sea. their personal enemy. the Greeks of the Selleid were advancing. and he only understood t he bearing of the Greek insurrection which he himself had provoked. but under the influence of a sort of polite modesty these were at least anxious to stipulate for the life of their vizier. and my treasures shall reward your Palikars. where he only blamed Fate for his misfortunes. who had sold Parga to him. The tails. testi fying to the good treatment they had experienced in their exile. The first condition was faithfully adhered to by Kursheed. declaring that if Ali Tepelen submitted. and made the sultan tremble in his capital. service I require of your courage is. as also his harem. my former servant. Ali might have enlisted all the adventurers with w hom the East was swarming. and telling them that he was confident that bravery such as theirs required no reinforcement. the Suliots retired to their mountains. I have just learned that you are preparing to despat ch a party of your Palikars against our common enemy. Mistaken on t his point. Letters from Ali's sons were shown to the Agas. Ali saw himself surrounded by enemies thirsting for his wealth. But the a ged pacha clung passionately to his treasures. and that I can hold out against him for several years. the royal promise g iven to his sons should be kept. Had he been less avaricious. that you sho uld reduce Arta. or whether they merely sought to satisfy their own co . who only made two conditions: one." Ignorant of Ali's decision. that Ismail Pacho Bey. assistance which he declined to accept. and allowed to finish his days in peace." Furious at this mystification.

Caretto refused to renounce his rel igion. But the besiegers. Beneath was an immense natural ca ve. they henceforth thought only of inducing their rebellious chief to su bmit. precious articles. Caretto could not forget that he owed hi s life to the master who now only repaid his services with the most sordid ingra titude. The desertion of Caretto was soon followed by a defection which annihilated Ali 's last hopes. had his cup not been filled with mor tification and insult. proved decisive. No one had served him with greater zeal. the gates simulta neously to the enemy. to the opposite camp. he thinking them so compromised that they would not venture even to accept an amnesty guaranteed by the mufti. He received the bread of charity. a kind of mausoleum. given them in advance. with a broken arm. an d as a refugee is only valued in proportion to the use which can be made of him. suffering from a disastrous epidemic. in which he had stored ammunition. One single man yet baffled all the efforts of the besiegers. Tahir Abbas accused the woman b efore the cadi of sacrilegious intercourse with an infidel. and th ey frankly embraced the cause of the sultan. like another Archimedes. but when they came within hearing. Ali. whose charge it was to keep guard ove r him. also a shelter in which he retired to sleep wh en exhausted with fatigue. Although reduced to the direst misery. s o that Ali. and Ali kept him concealed in a place of safety. When he had first come to Epirus. Finally. but only Nekibi suffered death. he shared h er fate. Acting under Ali's orders. opened all. whence he produced him in the time of need. He calmly allowed them to occupy the entrance. became a nxious to retain him. bristling with cannon. fearing a trap. of solid masonry. He ascertained that the Neapolitan was passionately in love with a Mohammedan girl named Nekibi. and both would perish at the stake. and no longer equa l to the necessary labour in defence of the place. by refusing their pay. Caretto let himself down by a cord fastened to the end of a cannon: He fe ll at the foot of the rampart. Every n ight these Skipetars who could cross the moat betook themselves to Kursheed's qu arters." He had taken care to demolish everything which could be set on fire. Caretto." It was a sort of fortified enclosure. He had become nearly blind through the explosion of a cartri dge which had burnt his face. could expect. advanced very slowly. if he refused to deny his God. The garrison of the castle on the lake. reserv ing only a mosque and the tomb of his wife Emineh. Eluding the vigilance of Athanasius Vaya. This place was his last resort. provisions. . had time to gai n a place which he called his "refuge. In this cave an apartment had been made for Basilissa and his harem. He was received as well as a Christian from whom t here was now nothing to fear. crumbling from th e hostile shells. whose phantom. She could only escap e death by the apostasy of her lover. The chief e ngineer. The garrison which had given him so many proofs of devotion. began to d esert as soon as they knew the Toxidae had arrived at the Imperial camp. and he did not seem distressed at beholding the castle in the hands of his enemi es. deliver their hostages. meanwhile he forb ade anyone to pass beyond a certain place which he pointed out.nsciences. after announci ng an eternal repose. had ceased to haunt him. who had long prepared against very sort of surprise. which surrounded the private apartments of his seraglio. and thence dragged himself. who re turned his affection. he demanded by one of his s ervants that Kursheed should send him an envoy of distinction. and the tr easures which had not been sunk in the lake. recognising his ability. eight months' pay. called the "Women's Tow er. overr un the ramparts. he was despised and forgotten. disc ouraged by his avarice. count the cannon which were on the platforms. whom Ali seemed anxious to offend as mu ch as possible. still carried terror into the midst o f their camp. Caretto was withdrawn from execution. but without incurring any expense. it is even possible that a ma n of this type would have died at his post.

It could be reached only by means of three doors. He never took his eyes off Ali. whic h they had so rashly occupied. and in the neighbouring mo sque was quartered his garrison. those who have betrayed me.Kursheed. it is Kursheed. presented it to the keeper of the wardrobe. was entrusted only to him and to Ali." To this Kursheed's envoys made answer that without doubt these terms would be c onceded. uttering involuntary cries of terror. be ing wearied of the weight of his weapons. consisting of fifty men. Alongside of this was the harem. If within an hour thy soldiers are not withdraw n from this castle which has been treacherously yielded to them. invited them to descend w ith him into the cavern. He showed the m also his bedroom. but that the whole castle. However. There he showed them more than two thousand barrels of powder carefully arranged beneath his treasures. He smiled at their fears. Return to the Seraskier. and of th e brilliant end to which I aspire. whichever way I look. accompanied by his keepe r of the seals and other persons of quality. He then begged them to seat themselves. will all perish together: two hundred thousand pounds of powder can destroy all that . and assured them that. his garrison. which had formerly bent beneath his authority. my friend. to Asia Minor. or wherever I am sent. "I mean what I say. the secret of which was known to no one but himself. but could I. Ali received them with all ceremony . making as if to turn it towards the powder magazine. resolve to live on terms of equality among those whose absolute master I h ave been? Thus. his whole army in short. drawing forth his watch. Let a pardon. "The rest you have seen. The Seraskier then deputed his keeper of the wardrobe. be given me. so hear my last resolve. who watched over the fire." he said . and a number of valuable objects which adorned this slumbering volcano. the only spot remaining to him of all Greece. after the usual compliments had been exchanged. Ali presented one of his most devoted followers to the e nvoys. and. and added that he sho uld like even a more terrible funeral than that which they had just ascribed to him." The envoys gazed at him with stupefaction. he would capitulate. whom I desire to follow me to the tomb--a sacrifice which will be worthy of my renown. was a youth in appearance as gentle as his heart was intrepid. his army. Life is not hing to me. and close to the powder. After this exhibition. My riches are the sole cause of the war w hich has been made against me. Ali drew a pistol from his belt. I will blow it up." he exclaimed. his remaining provisions. and his special duty was to be in readiness to blow up t he whole place at any moment. whom I have long regarded as my brother. imagining that. to which he only responded by pressing his master's hand f ervently to his lips. "those who have come to visit me as friends. and. I might have ended it among the Greeks. being in the last extremity. and the lantern. all ready to bury them selves under the ruins of this fortification. was undermined. Ali listened without reproaching them for their treachery. Selim. sen t out Tahir Abbas and Hagi Bessiaris. near whic h a match was constantly smoking. which did not diminish when Ali furt her informed them that they were not only sitting over the arch of a casemate fi lled with two hundred thousand pounds of powder. he had only intended to relieve himsel f of some of them. and I will submit. I myself and my family. "but of this you could not be aware. my career is ended. who took turns with him in watching it. I will go to Constantinopl e." he observed. inquiring if he were ready to die. "I do not wish to drag down with me. a sort of cell richly furnished. and the envoys fell at his feet. The pacha gave him his hand to kiss. h is chiefs. sealed b y the sultan's hands. a powerless old man. I am attached to those who still surround me. "my word will be kept. Ali then touched his breast and forehead. warn him that if he allows one minute more to elaps e than the time specified. but simply observed that be wished to meet some of the chief of ficers. The things I should see here would no l onger be fitting for me to behold. and in one moment I can destroy them.

and th e whole army clamoured to break up the camp. that there was no longer any quarrel between himself and the commander-in-chief. if he liked. having crossed over with a score of soldiers. and this exercise of authority. wish ing to anticipate his objections. and bearing more than sixty signatures. and forget not that I am a man of my word. already aware of it. his countenance altered. he congratul ated himself on having come. as Au lic Councillor. even to his guardian w ith the lighted match. The following night. formally executed. Some days later. he saluted them graciously. became a subject of alarm for the besiegers. had been entirely refurnished. And as the besieged had provi sions for a long time. wh o encouraged him. to prove to the army. completely reassured him. he proposed to his Council to unite in signing a petition to the Divan fo r Ali's pardon. dismissing the messengers. Thus Ali and his fifty followers ca st terror into the hearts of nearly thirty thousand men. but that as it was natural an outlawed man should be on his guard. sent him by Tahir Ab bas. saying that before long there would be good news from Constant inople. observin g that he did not expect an answer until the soldiers should have evacuated the castle. and he ma de fresh presents to this officer. the keeper of the wardrobe advised hi m to seek an interview with Kursheed. Whilst awaiting the arrival of the firman of pardon which Ali was reassured mus t arrive from Constantinople without fail. every whiff of smoke. wh om he detested equally. and the letters he received appeared to mitigate his trouble. I give it thee. and breathed as though the storm had passed away. It was clear that such a meeting could not take place in the undermined castle.surrounds us. which he had constructed ther e in happier days. also his diamonds. Ali learned from him the disgrace of Pacho Bey. and also as the most distinguished veteran among His Highness th e Sultan's slaves. The proposition was accepted. he repaired at early dawn to Emineh's tomb. calling him several tim es. added that the object of this arrangement was. whom he hoped to corrupt. Ali might. and his endurance appeared to be gi ving way. As the reason far this step could not be concealed. During the two next nights he again thought he heard Emineh's voice. and might e ven arrange things on the same footing as in his citadel. a nd several chests of money. Leaning on a long Malacca cane. This deed. and concluded that his end drew nigh. He had Basilissa brought over. and the keeper of the wardrobe. ascending from near the ca stle." Then. and of Ismail Pliaga. imagined deadly mines ready to be fired everywhere. everyone. crowded together on the slopes of Janina. and it was proposed that the c onference should take place in this kiosk. was then shown to Ali. he heard the voice of Emineh. He sent rich presents to Kursheed and the principal officers. and when Ali. send to examine the place. Without stating his real plans. He was described in it as Vizier. whom in return he consented to pardon. who was greatly delighted. on which he offered a sacrifice of two spotted lambs. however. who had succeeded in inspiring him with confi dence. he saw the keeper of the wardrobe. Kursheed saw little chance of successfully ending his ent erprise. Ali appeared to hesitate at this proposal. He added that Kursheed would go to the conference attended only by members of his Divan. and Ali was therefore invited to repair to the island in the lake. The magnificent pavilion. The envoys had barely returned to the camp when Kursheed sent orders to abandon the fortress. when Ali's demand for pardon occurred to him. Two days passed without his thinking of anything but . found himself more at large than he did in his casemate. Every sound. might take with him such guards as he thought necessary. which was made to appear as a beginning of satisfaction offered him. Take this watch. as the surest guarantee which could be given him. and sleep forsook his pillow. exa ggerating the danger.

t hat on leaving the citadel he had charged Selim to obey only his own verbal orde r.procuring various necessaries. oaths were even taken on the Koran that no evil designs. he handed it to Kursheed's envoy. the Pindus range. Selim prostrated himself. at sight of the talisman. At length. on the morning of February 5th. that no written command. and continually drew his fingers through his beard. would prod uce any effect. and he did not despair of soon finding numerous pa rtisans in the Imperial army. "Go. Drawing a secret token from his bozom. an d offered meanwhile to send anyone Ali might wish to see. in which Ali's sagacity. and announce that th e sultan's firman. in ord er to fulfil what was required. and neither the Seraskier nor the firman appeared . and the lake castle was occupied by the tr oops of the Seraskier. and artifice struggled vainly against a decided line of action. and fell. the Impe rial standard displayed its blazonry. extinguished the match. who united in reassuring him and in giving him great hopes of success. show this to Selim. and you will convert a dragon into a lamb. saying . and never was deceiver more completely deceived. in the island. His pulse beat vi olently. at first uneasy. CHAPTER XI For a whole week all seemed going well. he profited by the permission to interview a large number of his old acquaintances. even though signed and sealed by himself. and the peaceful waters of the lake. The latter excused himself on the plea of illness. had lost all illusions. Stationed beside him. for the dignity of their sovereign. . He had begun to fo rm a net of intrigue to cause himself to be intercepted on the road when he shou ld be sent to Constantinople. but his countenance did not betray his mental trouble. Nevertheless. time passed on. the castles of Janina." And in fa ct. and his eyes were at length opened. that Al i. had at length arrived. were entertained. so long desired. He drank coffee and iced water several times. Ali. His security was so great that he loudly congratulated himself on having come to the island. his guards prepared their cartridges. surveyed by turns the camp. He replied hesitatingly. now employed in the Imp erial army. skill. Occasionally he glanced at his weapons. stabbed to the heart. At the same time the garrison withdrew. perhaps concluding that all his skill could no longer fight ag ainst Destiny. Their mutual wishes h ad been heard. incessantly looked at his watch. Ali. Thereupon a long argument ensued. should order Selim to extingui sh the fatal match and to leave the cave. yielding to the prayers of those wh o surrounded him. K ursheed sent Hassan Pacha to convey his compliments to Ali. that he yawned freq uently. and therefore he desired to repair himself to the castle. in order to show his gratitude and submission. New protestations were made t o deceive him. and he then began to inquire what caused the Ser askier to delay his visit. when. but it was desirable. no menta l reservations. Only on this condition could Kursheed deliver into Ali's hands the sultan's decree of cl emency. and that the rest of the garrison shou ld first display the Imperial standard and then evacuate the enclosure. Ali was alarmed. ended by rarely mentioning either the one or the other. their eyes fixed on the landing-place. he finally gave way. who rent the air with their acclamations. and as no difficulty was made in allowing them to go. It was then noon. and taking his fieldglass. It was noticed t hat he appeared at intervals to be lost in profound thought. and the n his eyes sparkled with the fire of youth and of courage. to visit him: The pach a immediately mentioned several of his former followers.

" "Then bow before th y destiny. and he allowed the Skipetars to render the last honours to their former maste r. was deposited in a coffin draped with a splendid Indian Cashmere shawl. Everything seemed sad and silent. wa shed and prepared according to the Mohammedan ritual." the epi thet bestowed on their sultan by the Turks in seasons of popular excitement. Ali. the guards hastened to escape by the wi ndows. according to custom. Thus ended the career of the dreaded Ali Pac ha. and several officers of the army. The cortege proceeded towards the castle. " Ali did not allow him to finish. adorned with the plumes Ali had worn in battle. roared like a bull with rage. all resistance ceased. "Hasten. but shots were fired at the kiosk from all sides. while Ali's shield. expressing aloud his wish that he himself might deserve a similar end. Omar Brionis. "I bring the commands of His Highness the Sultan. followed by the executioners. No one dared to face hi s wrath. bowed three times before it. and the animal covered with purple housings. The v izier. He no longer knew which way to turn. his hand upon the pistols in h is belt. the keeper of the wardrobe. on which was placed a magnificent turban. hi s sword. Never was seen greater mourning than that of the warlike Epirotes. Swift as lightning. and respec tfully kissed the beard. Terrified. rose to receive it. a second killed the keeper of th e wardrobe. what is it you bring me?" he cried to Hassan in a voice o f thunder. clung to a window. . "Let the j ustice of Allah be accomplished!" said a cadi. "I know them and revere them. firing at the same time. so as to be the first to per ceive any who might wish to enter. Ali sprang up impetuously. "will not be surrendered like the head of a slave. and various insignia. and four of his guard s fell dead beside him. and despatched to Constantinopl e. His head still preserved so terrible and imposing an aspect that those present beheld it with a sort of stupor. Seeing them approach. perceiving blood flowing from a wound in his chest. f or thy. Kursheed's sword-bearer entered. the body. At daybreak." The door opened. "run. he staggered. attended by a nu merous suite. to whom it was presented on a large d ish of silver plate. Kursheed's sword-bearer. head is demanded. and the guards. . who was still alive. hearing the noise m ade by the assailants under the platform. During the w hole night. accompanied by h earty imprecations uttered by the soldiers against the "Son of a Slave. . At these words the executioners s eized Ali. Kursheed ordered the he ad to be perfumed with the most costly essences. . they separated it from the body w ith many blows of a jagged cutlass. Kursheed. the various Albanian tribes watched by turns around the corpse. the Osmanlis forsook the pavilion." he cri ed to one of his officers. who were firing through the boards on which he stood.--knowest thou not t hese august characters?" And Hassan exhibited the brilliantly gilded frontispiec e which decorated the firman. Mehemet . let her not fall a prey to these infamous wretches. my friend. where. and strangle my poor Basilissa. and dragged him out into the porch . placing his head on one of the steps. To such an extent did the admiration with which Ali's bravery in spired these barbarians efface the memory of his crimes. A ball wounded him in the side. brought down several office rs. sat facing the doorway. another from below lodged in his spine. "Stand! ." he cried with fury. address thy prayer to Allah and to His Prophet.The kiosk which he occupied was connected with a wooden structure raised upon p illars. were borne on the saddles o f several led horses. make thy ablutions." These rapidly pronounced words were instantly followed by a pistol-shot which w ounded Hassan in the thigh. then fell on the sofa. drew near with gloomy countenances. and the wo men occupied the most remote apartments. by the beard. like the open-air theatres constructed for a public festival. his numerous weapons. The mane of his charger was cut off. impr ovising the most eloquent funeral songs in its honour. At five o'clock boats were seen approaching t he island. . and soon Hassan Pacha. "My head. .

who dispute th e possession of the soul of the deceased. from whom a surprise might have been feare d. treas urers. and despatched it secretly to Constan tinople. a priest approached to listen to the supposed conflict between the good and bad angels. in order to compel them to disclose where the rest might be concealed. When the grave had been filled in. When he at length announced that Ali T epelen Zadi would repose in peace amid celestial houris. who. found the whole population of that town and the neighbouring hamlets ass embled to meet him. and assured her of the su ltan's protection. an officer appointed to render the proper salutes. rendered a military salute. His sword-bearer Mehemet. She threw herself at his feet. until it arrived at Consta ntinople. had it not been supposed that th eir riches were great. but her honour." Having sent magnificent presents to Kursheed.The Selaon-Aga. Fearing a similar fate. a fixed charge was at length made for i ts gratification. caused Ali' s head to be en closed in a silver casket. ending with these words: "This is the Head of the above-n amed Ali Pacha. was escorted by th ree hundred Turkish soldiers. The guns were fired at long intervals. acted as chi ef mourner. I t remained exposed to view in the house of the Mussulman Veli Aga whilst the esc ort partook of refreshment and changed horses. profiting by the night spent by the Epirotes in mourning. Mahmoud II turned his attention to Asia Minor. until the Supreme Porte should decide on her fate. a greater coward than a woman-slave born in the harem. He was warned to be expeditious. Unable t o comprehend how he could possibly have succumbed. and triumphant shouts greeted the appear ance of a document affixed to the head which narrated Ali's crimes and the circu mstances of his death. and he consoled her. The couriers sent in all directions to announce the death of Ali. and already his officers had been tortured. was laid in a grave beside that of Amina. where Ali's sons would pr obably have been forgotten in their banishment. having preced ed the sword-bearer Mehemet's triumphal procession. not her life. She burst into tears when she beheld Ali's secretaries. whose life had been spare d. and she was removed to the farm of Bouila. The portcullis was raised to admit the procession. to be brought before him. in his palace at Ar . The body. and the whole garrison. by the firing of the guns of the seraglio--roused the enthusiasm of the military inhabitants of Constantinople to a state of frenzy. A sultan does not condescend to mince matters with his sl aves. The Seraskier then ordered the unfortunate Basilissa. dispersed to their quarters: Kursheed. when he can despoil them with impunity. and before dawn w as well out of reach of the Arnaouts. surrounded by weeping mourners. Veli Pacha. a Traitor to the Faith of Islam. having presided at the execution. they could hardly believe the ir eyes when the head was withdrawn from its casket and displayed before them. Only sixty thousand purses (about twenty-f ive million piastres) of Ali's treasure could be found. and as the public curiosity conti nued to increase throughout the journey. exposed on the 23rd of February at the gate of the seraglio. murmurin g like the waves of the sea after a tempest. and steward loaded with irons. and a hyperbolical despatch to hi s army. the latter. who made the ruins of Janina echo wi th their lamentations. heard his sentence kneeling. imploring him to spa re. The wretch who had. eager to behold the head of the terrible Ali Pacha. on arriving at G reveno. drawn up to receive it. covered with matting. Basilissa fell insensible into the arms of he r attendants. was en trusted with the further duty of presenting it to the sultan. and the head of the renowned vizier was degraded into becoming an article of traffic exhibited at every post-house. The sight of this dreaded relic. the Skipetars. His Supreme Highness simply sent t hem his commands to die. and the birth of an heir-presumptive to the sword of Othman--whic h news was announced simultaneously with that of the death of Ali.

while innocent victims were bei ng tortured around him. yielded his guilty head to the executioners. faithful to the end. "to be quite as old as their father. were dragged to the bazaar and sol d ignominiously to Turcoman shepherds. Presently a troop of janissaries from Koutaieh. and his daughters by various mothers." he said stupidly. imploring at least the favour of dying in priva cy. whose merits might have procured the pardon of his family had not F ate ordained otherwise. Veli. "I had imagined them. and Mouktar. The venerable Metche-Bono. upon the Turks. whose scandalous story had even reached Constantinople. comrades! they would slay us!" As he spoke. danced to the strains of a lively orchestra. His women were then seized." and he expressed sorrow for the fate to which he had condemned t hem. An enviable fate. sword in hand. whose long eyelashes and closed eyelids gave the m the appearance of beautiful youths sunk in peaceful slumber. and a stubborn combat began. sewn up in a leather sack. Pere Ali Pacha from http://manybooks. "Wretch!" cried Mouktar. he rushed. "dost thou think an Arnaout dies like an eunuch? I also am a T epelenian! To arms. roaring like a bull escaped from the butcher. and the unhappy Zobeide. Salik Pacha. weeping. adv anced. He vainly embrace d the knees of his executioners. and the g entle Selim. leaving as inheritance for the sulta n only a heap of smoking ruins. was flung into the Purs ak--a river whose waters mingle with those of the Sagaris. astonished the gaping multitude. After next beholding the execution of his brother. himself riddled with wounds. struck with t he beauty of Mehemet and Selim. ordered to be in readiness.net/ . Katherin. Mehemet the elder." CELEBRATED CRIMES. But the inheritance of Mouktar Pacha was not quite such an easy prey. The kapid gi-bachi who dared to present him with the bowstring was instantly laid dead at his feet by a pistol-shot. if compared with that of his f ather and brothers. The heads of Ali's children. who died by the hand of the executioner. sent to Constantinople and exposed at the gate of the seraglio. v7 by Al exander Dumas. having slain a host of enemies with his own hand and seen all his friends perish. remarkable. succeeded in barricading himsel f in his apartments. and he must have endured the full bitterness of death in seeing his sons str angled before his eyes. father of Elmas Bey. after which the executioners at once proc eeded to make an inventory of the spoils of their victims. whom a Georgian slave had borne to him in his old age. End of this Project Gutenberg Etext of "ALI PACHA. The sultan himself. received the due reward of his crimes. and died. for his beauty. Veli's othe r wife. Ali's best loved son.ta. was killed by a bullet. hauling up cannon. set fire to the powder magazine. and driving them back. experienced a fee ling of emotion. Mouktar's frail defences were soon in splinters.