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Manuscript: ORGANIC LIGHT EMITTING DIODES

Amit Mishra1*, Arshdeep Kaur1*, Garima Mathur2 Student , Head2, E.C.E., Jaipur Engineering College, Kukas, Jaipur amit_m04@yahoo.in1, arshdeep.k057@gmail.com1, garimamathurjec@gmail.com2
1*

1.1 ABSTRACT
This paper deals with the study of OLED, its structural details and its advantages and disadvantages. OLEDs are light weight durable power efficient, and ideal for portable applications. OLEDs have fewer process steps and also use both fewer and low cost materials than LCD display.

2.1 INTRODUCTION
Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) are optoelectronic devices based on small molecules or polymers that emit light when an electric current flows through them. Simple OLED consists of a fluorescent organic layer sandwiched between two metal electrodes. They have been developed for applications in flat panel displays that provide visual imagery that is easy to read, vibrant in colors and less consuming of power. OLEDs have fewer process steps and also use both fewer and low-cost materials than LCD displays. An OLED is a solid-state semiconductor device that is 100 to 500 nanometers thick or about 200 times smaller than a human hair. They can have either two layers or three layers of organic material; in the latter design, the third layer helps transport electrons from the cathode to the emissive layer. In this paper, we are focusing on the two-layer design.

3.1 OLED TECHNOLOGY BASICS


The basic OLED comprises an anode and a cathode deposited in a substrate, and sandwiched between these is a layer of organic material. The organic material is electrically conductive

because of what is termed the delocalization of pi electrons caused by conjugation over all or part of the molecule. When used in this way, these organic materials can range from insulators to conductors and are therefore classed as semiconductors. There are two definitions required, highest unoccupied molecular orbital, HUMO, and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, LUMO of organic semiconductors. These are analogous to the valence and conduction bands of inorganic semiconductors.

The OLED display consists of a number of layers. A typical stack may include:

Anode Emissive layer Conductive layer Cathode

4.1 TYPES OF OLEDS


Organic LED, OLED technology can be divided into two types of organic LED technologies:

Small Molecule OLED, SM-OLED: The small molecule type of organic LED was originally championed by Kodak, and is often the type referred to be the name OLED. Polymer LED, PLED: Polymer LEDs, PLEDs, may also be known as Light Emitting Polymers (LEPs).

OLEDs are being seen used increasingly in view of the advantages which they possess. While they still have some disadvantages, significant development effort is being focused on this technology around the globe because of its potential which is starting to be taped. Although OLED technology has a number of basic similarities with those of the traditional inorganic

LEDs, there are some major differences. Not only does organic LED technology differ in the materials that are used, but aspects of OLED operation are also different.

4.2 DIFFERENCES BETWEEN the SCREEN TECHNOLOGIES


OLED Potentially the lowest cost Consumes lowest power (when backlight of others included) Self-emissive Displays wider color range than LCD No screen burn potential Shorter overall life (red and green half-life ~ 10 40 k hours, blue ~ 1-k hours) LCD Medium cost Lower power consumption than plasma Requires backlight Color range not good No screen burn potential Backlight bulb typically requires replace at around 60 k hours PLASMA Highest cost Highest power consumption Requires backlight Displays a very deep black Screen burn potential Half-life ~ 60 k hours

5.1 ADVANTAGES of OLED


OLED technology is finding its niche in a variety of applications because it is able to provide a number of advantages:

Flexible: It is possible to make OLED displays flexible by using the right materials and processes.

Very thin: OLED displays can be made very thin, making them very attractive for televisions and computer monitor applications. Color capability: It is possible to fabricate OLED displays that can generate all colors.

Figure:- Color compatibility

Power consumption: The power consumed by an OLED display is generally less than that of an LCD when including the backlight required. This is only true for backgrounds that are dark, or partially dark. Bright images: OLED displays can provide a higher contrast ratio than that obtainable with an LCD. Wide viewing angle: With many displays, the color becomes disported and the image less saturated as the viewing angle increases. Colors displayed by OLEDs appear correct, even up to viewing angles approaching 90. Fast response time: As LCDs depend upon charges being held in the individual pixels, they can have a slow response time. OLEDs are very much faster. A typical OLED can have a response time of less than 0.01ms. Low cost in the future: OLED fabrications are likely to be able to utilize techniques that will enable very low cost displays to be made, although these techniques are still in development. Current costs are high.

5.3 DISADVANTAGES of OLED


OLED displays do have their disadvantages:

Moisture sensitive: Some types of OLED can be sensitive to moisture. Limited life: The lifetime of some displays can be short as a result of the high sensitivity to moisture. This has been a limiting factor in the past. Power consumption: Power consumption can be higher than an equivalent LCD when white backgrounds are being viewed as the OLED needs to generate the light for this which will consume more power. For images with a darker background power consumption is generally less. Lifespan: The lifespan of the OLED displays is a major problem. Currently they are around half that of an LCD, being around 15 000 hours. UV sensitivity: OLED displays can be damaged by prolonged exposure to UV light. To avoid this UV blocking filter is often installed over the main display, but this increases the cost.

6.1 CONCLUSION
Performance of organic LEDs depend upon many parameters such as electron and hole mobility, magnitude of applied field, nature of hole and electron transport layers and excited life-times. Organic materials are poised as never before to transform the world IF circuit and display technology. Organic Light Emitting Diodes are evolving as the next generation of light sources. Presently researchers have been going on to develop a 1.5 emitting device. This wavelength is of special interest for telecommunications as it is the low-loss wavelength for optical fibre communications. Organic full-color displays may eventually replace liquid crystal displays for use with lap top and even desktop computers. Researches are going on this subject and it is sure that the future of OLED holds tremendous opportunity for the low cost and sometimes surprisingly high performance offered by organic electronic and optoelectronic devices

7.1 REFERENCES

1. Pope, M.; Kallmann, H. P.; Magnante, P. "Electroluminescence in Organic Crystals". The Journal of Chemical Physics, page no.38, year-1963.

2. Mark, Peter; Helfrich, Wolfgang (1962). "Space-Charge-Limited Currents in Organic Crystals". Journal of Applied Physics, page no.33, year-1962.

3. Michael W. Wagaman and Robert H. Grubbs, Synthesis of Organic and Water Soluble Poly(1,4-phenylenevinylenes) Containing Carboxyl Groups: Living Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization (ROMP) of 2,3-Dicarboxybarrelenes, Macromolecules, 1997, 30 (14), pp 39783985 .