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1

Vector Analysis

1.1

INTRODUCTION

(a) Circuit point of view. (b) Field point of view.

Any problem concerning an electrical network can be viewed from two angles:

It can be said that a proper understanding of concept of field theory provides a better understanding of analysis of circuit problems. Vector analysis is a valuable mathematical tool for engineers for solving certain type of problems where the conventional methods become lengthy and cumbersome. The analysis with vectors even though little difficult to understand in the beginning, but effectively gives the solution of field quantities both in magnitude and direction. For this reason, a review of vector analysis is provided at the beginning of course. There is a lot of difference between circuit theory and field theory. Electromagnetic field theory deals directly with the field vectors viz. electric field (E) and magnetic field (H) while circuit theory deals with voltage (V) and current (I) that are the integrated effects of electric and magnetic fields. In general, electromagnetic field problems involve three space variables as a result of which the solutions tend to become comparatively complex. The additional problem that arises due to dealing with vector quantities in three dimension can be overcome by use of vector analysis. The use of vector analysis in the study of electromagnetic field theory thus saves time and provides economy of thought. In addition the vector form gives a clear understanding of physical laws which is described by mathematics.

1.2

SCALAR AND VECTOR QUANTITIES

Quantities associated with electric and magnetic fields are either scalars (or) vectors possessing characteristic properties. A quantity which possesses only magnitude but no direction is called a scalar quantity. For example, physical quantities like mass, area, volume, temperature are scalar quantities. On the other hand, quantities which possess both magnitude and direction are called vector quantities. For examples, velocity, force, acceleration are vector quantities. 1

2

ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS

In order to distinguish a vector from a scalar, an arrow on the top is used to denote a vector. So for example, A, B, C represent vector quantities and A, B, C represent scalar quantities.

→ → →

1.3

FIELD

Although a scalar field has no direction, it does have a specific location. Mathematically a field is a function which describes a physical quantity at all points in space. This field can be classified as either scalar (or) vector.

1.3.1 Scalar Field

It implies the distribution of scalar quantity with a definite position in space. The temperature of hot water in a container is an example of scalar field.

1.3.2 Vector Field

If the value of physical function at every point is vector quantity, the field is a vector field. For example, the wind velocity of atmosphere, gravitational force and electric field intensity are vector fields.

1.4

VECTOR OPERATIONS

1.4.1 Addition of Vectors

Consider two vectors P and Q as shown in Fig. 1.1(a). The vector R which is called as resultant vector can be obtained by moving a point along P and then along Q or sum of vectors P and Q , we can written as

→ →

→ → →

→

→

→

R= P+Q

→

→

…(1.1)

® Q ® R ® P ® P ® R ® Q (a) (b)

Fig. 1.1

**From nature of definition of vector addition, it is apparent that
**

Q+ P= P+Q

→ → → →

…(1.2)

VECTOR ANALYSIS

→ →

3

→

If the vectors P and Q are situated as shown in Fig. 1.1 (b), then the resultant vector R is obtained by completing the parallelogram formed by two vectors.

1.4.2 Subtraction of Vectors

To subtract two vectors the best method which is to be followed is to change the direction of vector and then add. As shown in Fig. 1.2, the direction of vector Q is changed which results in magnitude of (–) Q and which on addition with P give the resultant vector R whose value is given by R = P − Q .

→ → → → → →

→

® –Q ® ® ® ®R (R = P – Q) ® P

1.4.3 Multiplication of Vectors

The multiplication of vectors has been classified into three categories: (a) When vector is multiplied by a scalar.

Fig. 1.2

(b) When a vector is multiplied by another vector resulting in a scalar quantity. This is called as Scalar (or) Dot product. (c) When a vector is multiplied by another vector resulting in vector quantity. This is called as Vector (or) Cross product. These three classifications of multiplication can be discussed in detail as follows: 1.4.3.1 Multiplication of Vector by a Scalar When a vector quantity is multiplied by a scalar quantity, the magnitude of vector changes, but its direction remains unchanged. Thus it can be shown that if vector P is multiplied with a scalar ‘a’ it results in vector Q with same direction as of P . Thus, 1.4.3.2 Scalar (or) Dot Product The scalar (or) Dot product of two vectors is the product, of magnitude of vectors multiplied by cosine of the smaller angle between them. Let P and Q be two vectors and θpq denote angle between them. ∴ P · Q = | P | | Q | cos θpq Obviously the result is a scalar quantity and also it can be written as

→ →

→ → → →

→

→

Q=a P

→

→

…(1.3)

…(1.4) …(1.5)

P.Q = Q. P

→

→

→

We can come to a decision from equation (1.4) that the vectors have same direction when θ = 0 i.e., cos θ = 1 and the two vectors are opposite in direction when θ = 180° i.e., cos θ = – 1 and the two vectors are perpendicular to each other when θ = 90° i.e., cos 90° = 0. 1.4.3.3 Vector (or) Cross Product It is the product of two vectors, where the magnitudes of vectors are multiplied by sine of the smaller angle between them.

Q 1. j Py Q y + j . So vector P divided by scalar Q results in vector P → → 1 .5.10) → → → Q = i Qx + j Qy + k Qz Case (a): Dot (or) scalar product: → P · Q = ( i Px + j Py + k Pz ) . j Pz Qy + k . while other product unlike unit vectors will be zero.4. Here also the direction of vector does not change. i Py Qx + j . A unit vector is a vector of unit magnitude and having specified direction and is denoted by U. i Pz Qx + k .1 Applications of Unit Vectors With the help of unit vectors the dot (or) scalar product and cross (or) vector product of two vectors can be worked out by direct multiplication. k Pz Qz but ∴ → → → → → → → → → → → → → → → → → → → → i ⋅ i = j ⋅ j = k ⋅ k = 1. ( i Qx + j Q y + k Qz ) → → → → = i .11) . Let the two vectors P and Q be given by → → → → P = i Px + j Py + k Pz → → → → → → …(1.5 UNIT VECTOR It is a common practice to express each of component vectors as a product of scalar magnitude and a unit vector. → → …(1. → → → → → → P · Q = Px Qx + Py Qy + Pz Qz …(1. k Py Qz + k .4 Division of Vectors by Scalar It is the same as multiplication of vector by reciprocal of scalar.6) 1. k Px Qz + j .4 ∴ → ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS P × Q = P Q sin θ → …(1. → Up = P 1.9) …(1. i Px Qx + i .8) | P| The concept of unit vector is useful in representing a vector in terms of component vectors.7) → The unit vector in the direction of vector P can be obtained by dividing P with its modulus value | P |. j Px Qy + i . So the component vector P x can be written as → → P x = Px Ux → …(1.

2 2 2 Ax + A y + Az 32 + 5 2 + 6 2 = 8.. 4 2 .VECTOR ANALYSIS 5 Case (b): Cross (or) vector product: → P × Q = ( i Px + j Py + k Pz ) × ( i Qx + j Q y + k Qz ) = i × i Px Qx + i × j Px Q y + i × k Px Qz + j × i Py Qx + j × j Py Qy + j × k Py Qz + k × i Pz Qx + k × j Pz Qy + k × k Pz Qz → → → → → → → → → → → → → → → → → → → → → → → → → Since i × i = 0 and i × j = k and i × k = − j . z).366 2 2 2 Bx + By + Bz 6 2 + 4 2 + 2 2 = 7.96° Ux Uy Uz A × B = Ax A y Az Bx B y Bz (d) in determinant form = Ux 3 6 Yy U z 5 6 = 14Ux + 30Uy + 18Uz on simplification.366 × 7.48 A · B = 50 (Calculated earlier) 50 = 8.e.12) Example 1. Solution: Given A = 3Ux + 5Uy + 6Uz and B = 6Ux + 4Uy + 2Uz (a) A + B = (3Ux + 5Uy + 6Uz) + (6Ux + 4Uy + 2Uz) = (3 + 6)Ux + (5 + 4)Uy + (6 + 2)Uz = 9Ux + 9Uy + 9Uz (b) A · B = Ax Bx + Ay By + Az Bz Given Ax = 3.799 θAB = cos–1 0.48 × cos θAB cos θAB = 0.799 = 36. Ay = 5. This becomes → → → → → → → → → i P × Q = Px Qx → → j Py Qy → k Pz Qz → …(1. Az = 6 and Bx = 6. Find (a) A + B (b) A · B (c) angle between A and B (d) A × B (e) unit normal to plane containing A and B .1: Vectors A = 3Ux + 5Uy + 6Uz and B = 6Ux + 4Uy + 2Uz are situated at point P (x. y. By = 4 and Bz = 2 ∴ A · B = (3 × 6) + (5 × 4) + (6 × 2) = 50 (c) A · B = | A | | B | cos θAB We have | A |= = |B |= = Also i.

48 (d) Unit vector. 2. Find (a) RAB (b) | RA | (c) | RB | (d) UA (e) UB (f) UAB (g) unit vector directed from C towards A.099 .37Uy + 0.48 = 0. UB = = 9.37Ux – 0.68 = 0. 3) but R A = 3Ux – 2Uy + 4Uz UCA = (3 − 6) (− 2 − 2) (4 − 3) Ux + Uy + Uz 5.841Uz ( g) Unit vector directed from C to A is UCA Given C = (6.79Uy + 0.55Ux – 0.68 14U x + 30U y + 18U z 37. 2.74Uz RB | RB | 4U x + 5U y − 7U z (e) Unit vector.38 4 2 + 5 2 + 7 2 = 9.07 | R AB | = ∴ UAB = U x + 7U y − 11U z 13. RB = 4Ux + 5Uy – 7Uz and point C = (6.73Uz (f) UAB = RAB | RAB | (1) 2 + (7) 2 + (11) 2 = 13.07 = 0.53Uy – 0.6 (e) Unit normal vector (Un ) We have But and ∴ Un = ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS A×B |A × B| A × B = 14Ux + 30Uy + 18Uz | A × B |= Un = 14 2 + 30 2 + 18 2 = 37.076Ux + 0. UA = = RA | RA | 3U x − 2U y + 4U z 5. RB = 4Ux + 5Uy – 7Uz and point C = (6.52Uy – 0.42Ux + 0. 3) R AB = RB – RA = (4Ux + 5Uy – 7Uz ) – (3Ux – 2Uy + 4Uz ) = Ux + 7Uy – 11Uz (b) | RA | = (c) | RB | = (3) 2 + (− 2) 2 + (4) 2 = 5.2: If R A = 3Ux – 2Uy + 4Uz. Solution: Given (a) Vector RA = 3Ux – 2Uy + 4Uz. 3).099 5.099 5.477Uz Example 1.38 = 0. 2.

2). Find (a) RAB . 2.VECTOR ANALYSIS 7 since (3 − 6) 2 + ( − 2 − 2) 2 + (4 − 3) 2 = 5. Find (a) unit vector in directions of G at P (2. RAC | RAB | RAC | | 22 2 2 2 (b) cos θ = = (2) + (2) + (2) (8) 2 + (2) 2 + (1) 2 = 0. RAC (b) the angle between RAB and RAC (c) length of projection of RAB on RAC (d) vector projection of R AB on R AC .588Ux – 0. Solution: (a) RAB = RB – RA = (2Ux + Uy + 4Uz) – (4Ux + 3Uy + 2Uz) = – 2Ux – 2Uy + 2Uz RAC = RC – RA = (– 4Ux + Uy + 3Uz) – (4Ux + 3Uy + 2Uz) = – 8Ux – 2Uy + Uz RAB .648 LM MN − 8U x − 2U y + U z (− 8) 2 + (− 2) 2 + (1) 2 OP PQ 2 = – 2. B (2.544Ux – 0. 1.196Uz Example 1. 0.099 UCA = – 0.318Uz Example 1. 3).4: Given the field G = LM 3x OP U N1 + y Q x + (y + 2z + 1) Uy + (5x – z2) Uz . (c) the value of Solution: (a) G at point P z z 2 y=0 3 x=1 G · dx dy Uz at the plane z = 1.2Ux – 3Uy – Uz .766 θ = cos– 1 (0. = LM 3 (2) OP U N1 + 2 Q 2 x + (2 – 6 + 1) Uy + [5 (2) – (– 3)2] Uz = 1. 4).784Uy – 0. 1. 4) and C (– 4.3: Given points A (4. – 3) (b) the angle between G and y = 0 plane at Q (2.766) = 40° (c) AP = Scalar projection of R AB on R AC = RAB · UAC = RAB · RAC = | RAC | 22 (8) + (2) 2 + (1) 2 2 = 2.636Uy + 0.648 (d) RAP = Vector projection of R AB on RAC = ( RAB · UAC ) UAC = 2. 3. RAC = (– 2) (– 8) + (– 2) (– 2) + (2) (1) = 22 RAB .

53° G · dx dyU z = (5x – z2) dx dy as Ux · Uz = Uy · Uz = 0 z z 2 3 y=0 x=1 G · dx dy Uz = =5 z z 2 y=0 2 3 1 3 x=1 (5x – z2) dx dy 2 0 LM x OP N2Q 6 y − (1) 2 x 3 1 y 2 0 = 36 .08) 2 RMN = rN − rM = (– Ux + 2Uy + Uz) – (2Ux – 6Uy + 6Uz) = – 3Ux + 8Uy – 5Uz RMQ = rQ − rM = (Ux + 2Uy + 3Uz) – (2Ux – 6Uy + 6Uz) = – Ux + 8Uy – 3Uz Ux U y RMN × RMQ = − 3 8 −1 8 Uz −5 −3 = 16Ux – 4Uy – 16Uz .233Ux – 0.508) = 59.18U x + 4.18) 2 + (4.583Uy – 0.482Ux + 0. 2) 2 + (− 3) 2 + (− 4) 2 ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS = 0. Solution: (a) E at P = [(1)2 + (2)2 + (– 2)2] LM MN Ux 22 + (− 1) 2 + 2U y (1) 2 + (− 2) 2 − 2U z (1) 2 + (2) 2 OP PQ = 3.5: Find in rectangular components the unit vector which is (a) in the direction of E at P (1. 2U x − 3U y − 4U z (1. The angle α between Uy and G at point Q is given by cos α = ∴ Now ∴ (c) ∴ G .7782Uz (b) G at point Q = 3 (2) Ux + (0 + 4 + 1) Uy – (5 × 2 – 4) Uz = 6Ux + 5Uy – 6Uz The unit vector Uy is normal to y = 0 plane. – 2) if E = (x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ) LM MN x y2 + z2 Ux + y x2 + z2 Uy + z x 2 + y2 Uz OP PQ (b) perpendicular to plane passing through M (2.08U y − 4. U y (6) + (5) + (− 6) 2 2 2 = 5 = 0. N (– 1.46° β = angle between G at point Q and y = 0 plane = 90° – α = 90° – 59.08Uz ∴ (b) U = 3. 2.508 9. 3) and having positive x component (c) find the angle between vectors RMN and RMQ .08Uy – 4. 6).46 = 30. 2.08) 2 + (− 4.619Uy – 0.8 ∴ U = |G | |G | = 1.08U z E = = 0. 2. Example 1. 1) and Q (1.18Ux + 4. – 6.Uy |G | U y | | cos–1 = (6U x + 5U y − 6U z ) .619Uz |E| (3.84 α= α + β = 90° (0.

1.VECTOR ANALYSIS 9 UN = ± RMN × RMQ | RMN × RMQ | =± 16U x − 4U y − 16U z (16) 2 + (− 4) 2 + (− 16) 2 = ± (0.3 shows a right hand system of co(1. (b) Cylindrical coordinate system. 0. 0. (c) Spherical coordinate system. Py. 0) y Figure 1. forefinger and middle finger are held mutually at right angles. 0) ordinates (x. y and z-axis respectively.174Uy – 0. A point (1.696Uz) The unit vector with positive x component = 0. the point P′ (1. if the three fingers of right hand namely thumb. 2. directions and angles and they are: (a) Cartesian coordinate system.3 Right-hand system of coordinates technique is the one known to us in our earlier discussions. y.696Ux – 0. To locate the point P. It is the usual practice to select a right handed coordinate system in which a z rotation of x-axis into y-axis through smaller angle P (1. i. then they may be identified as x. The above Fig. where Px.1 Cartesian Coordinate System In the Cartesian coordinate system. Thus in terms of Cartesian coordinates a unit vector can thus be founded in the following way.174Uy – 0. (0. 2. As an example.6. 0) (0. 1. Uy. 2. 1. The point P can be located by going three units along z-axis from P′. P¢(1.2698 (or) θ = sin–1 (0. 2. y and z-axis. 3) is shown in the Fig. |P | = → 2 Px2 + Py + Pz2 → → → …(1.3. Uz respectively. The modulus of vector | P | is absolute value of vector. 0) 1.2698)= 15.6 THREE DIMENSIONAL COORDINATE SYSTEMS There are three important methods of fixing a point in space by specified lengths. 2. Pz are the components of P along Ux. three coordinate axes which are mutually at right angles to each other are selected and generally named as x.e.13) .. z). Let P = Px Ux + Py Uy + Pz Uz .696Uz (c) sin θ = RMN × RMQ | RMN | RMQ | | =± (16) 2 + ( − 4) 2 + (− 16) 2 (− 3) 2 + (8) 2 + (− 5) 2 (− 1) 2 + (8) 2 + ( − 3) 2 = 0.65°. 0) is located first which is the projection of P on z = 0 x plane (x – y plane).696Ux – 0. 3) would cause a right handed screw to advance in the direction of z-axis.

Before attempting the transformation of coordinates.5. If we now increase (ρ. as we start doing problems in electric and magnetic fields. where ρ is distance of P from z-axis.5.5. f.6. φ + dφ. It is easy to work out a O problem with spherical symmetry in spherical coordinate system. the f suitable coordinate system must be selected to reduce P¢ (r.6. 1. z + dz we get a small volume in the space in the shape of rectangular parallelopiped as shown in Fig.5 In the Fig. if we consider the curvature of angle to be z projected as straight line. But problem with spherical and cylindrical symmetries are P (r. 1. z) the labour involved in working the problem.10 ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS z 1. 1. r df y x Fig.6 r sin f z y x Fig. 1. z). 1. it is essential to know the relation between the variables in one system of coordinates to the variables in other system of coordinates. 1. φ.7 .4 Cylindrical coordinates φ. dρ and dz are dimensional lengths but not dφ. z = z …(1. r y dz In the later chapters. 1. So in order to bring to into a length format. z) not only difficult to work in Cartesian system but the physics of problem will be lost. we require transformation of problem from one system of coordinates to another to reduce the labour involved in the solution. we can consider the basic mathematical format as defined by: An arc of radius ‘r’ making an angle θ with respect to origin will be projected as a straight line with r. y = ρ sin φ. we can write it as ρ dφ and as a result the volume becomes equal to ρ dρ dφ dz. 1. f. So here also in Fig.7 we can write the equations which help us to convert cylindrical coordinates into Cartesian coordinates. θ as shown is Fig.2 Cylindrical Coordinate System Students prefer to work in the Cartesian system or coordinates since it is easy by virtue of familiarity. x = ρ cos φ.1. Depending upon the symmetry of problem. From Fig. P ′ is the projection of P on z = 0 plane as shown in the Fig.4. φ is the angle measured from x-axis (any reference line) of line OP′ and z is z dr height of P above x-y plane (P′P = z) . In the x cylindrical three dimensional coordinate system any point ‘P’ in space can be represented by coordinate P (ρ. Fig. 1. z) by ρ + dρ.14) f r cos f r q r Fig.

438Uφ – 4Uz .VECTOR ANALYSIS 11 Also from the equation (1. φ = tan–1 Substituting coordinate of point P in above vector A at point P = – 2. y = 4.555Uρ – 4. (c) 4Ux – 2Uy – 4Uz at A (x = 2. z = – 1) (b) 5Ux at Q (x = 3. φ = 120°. z = z x The dot product of unit vectors in cylindrical and Cartesian coordinate system can be given as follows: Uρ Ux Uy Uz cos φ sin φ 0 Uφ – sin φ cos φ 0 Uz 0 0 1 Example 1.31° H xK H 2K –1 Substituting φ coordinate of point A in above expression ∴ B at point A = 0.13°Uφ = 3Uρ – 4Uφ Let B = 4Ux – 2Uy – 4Uz = Bρ Uρ + Bφ Uφ + Bz Uz Bρ = B · Uρ = (4Ux – 2Uy – 4Uz) · Uρ = 4Ux · Uρ – 2Uy · Uρ – 4Uz · Uρ = 4 cos φ – 2 sin φ Bφ = B · Uφ = (4Ux – 2Uy – 4Uz) · Uφ = 4Ux · Uφ – 2Uy · Uφ – 4Uz · Uφ = – 4 sin φ – 2 cos φ Bz = B · Uz = (4Ux – 2Uy – 4Uz) · Uz = – 4 B = (4 cos φ – 2 sin φ) Uρ + (– 4 sin φ – 2 cos φ) Uφ – 4Uz for point A. φ = tan–1 . z = 5). Solution: (a) Let A = 5Ux = AρUρ + AφUφ + AtUt Aρ = A · Uρ = 5Ux · Uρ = 5 cos φ Aφ = A · Uφ = 5Ux · Uφ = 5 sin φ Az = A · Uz = 5Ux · Uz = 0 ∴ A = 5 cos φ Uρ – 5 sin φ Uφ For point Q.33 Uφ (b) ∴ (c) FG y IJ = tan FG 4 IJ = 53.13°Up – 5 sin 53.13° H xK H 3K –1 A at point Q = 5 cos 53. y = 3. z = – 1) . φ = tan–1 FG y IJ = tan FG 3 IJ = 56.14).15) ρ = x 2 + y 2 .6: Transform each of following vector to cylindrical coordinates at point specified (a) 5Ux at P (ρ = 4. it can be written as y …(1.5 Uρ – 4.

φ = 15°. 4) and that of point Q are x = 5 cos 80° = 0. Solution: (a) Cartesian coordinate of point P are x = 10 cos 45° = 7.. P (4.e.829Ux + 1.341Uρ + 3. 15) AB = [(50 + 8.071Ux + 7.071. φ = 65°. 4.437..071. distance of y = 20 sin 115° = 18.e.8682) 2 + (7. 18.8682Ux + 4.535.126.294Uy + 2Uz) = – 2. z = 3) that extends to N(1.437.924 . 7.147Uy – 7Uz .924) 2 + (4 + 3) 2 = 9.535.2028Ux – 2. distance of (b) PQ = (7..60. 60°. z = 5.071. z = 4.829.452. – 10) and that of point B are x = 20 cos 115 = – 8. 5.413Uy + 3Uz (b) RMN = rN − rM = (1Ux + 5Uy + 5Uz) – (4Ux + 2Uy + 3Uz) = – 3Ux + 3Uy + 2Uz Let A = RMN = – 3Ux + 3Uy + 2Uz = AρUρ + Aφ Uφ+ AzUz Aρ = A · Uρ = – 3Ux · Uρ + 3Uy · Uρ + 2Uz · Uρ = – 3 cos φ + 3 sin φ Aφ = A · Uφ = – 3Ux · Uφ + 3Uy · Uφ + 2Uz · Uφ = 3 sin φ + 3 cos φ Az = A · Uz = – 3Ux · Uz + 3Uy · Uz + 2Uz · Uz = 2 ∴ A = RMN = (– 3 cos φ + 3 sin φ) Uρ + (3 sin φ + 3 cos φ) Uφ + 2Uz For point M. i. φ = 45°.071Uy + 4Uz ) = – 6.452)2 + (86. i. Substitution this value of φ in the above vector we H 4K have RMN at point M = – 1. B (– 8. y = 2.997Uφ + 2Uz (c) Cartesian coordinate of point A are x = 100 cos 60° = 50.. z = – 10 i. z = 2) to Q (ρ = 6. 15)? Solution: (a) Cartesian coordinate of point P are x = 5 cos 15° = 4. z = 2. 86.60.8682.60 – 18.e. z = – 3) (a) Find the distance | RPQ | (b) Give a unit vector in Cartesian coordinate at P that is directed towards Q (c) Give a unit vector in cylindrical coordinates at P that is directed towards Q.452.7: Give the vector in (a) Cartesian coordinates that extends from P (ρ = 5. 1. ∴ RPQ = rQ − rP = (2. 115°.12 ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS Example 1.535Ux + 5. y = 5 sin15° = 1.071 − 4. φ = tan–1 FG 2 IJ = 26. z = 4) and Q (ρ = 5.1.829.126. y = 100 sin 60° = 86. – 10) to B (20. z = – 3. i.8: Given the points P(ρ = 10. 2) and that of point Q are x = 6 cos 65° = 2. Q (0. 5.924Uy – 3Uz ) – (7. z = 5) (b) Give the vector in cylindrical coordinate at M (x = 4.924. y = 10 sin 45° = 7.596 RPQ = rQ − rP = (0. Q (2. – 3). i. 5).56°..e. i.126)2 + (– 10 – 15)2 ]1/2 = 93..e. y = 6 sin 65° = 5. z = 15. A (50.071 − 0.294.294. P (7.436 Example. 5) (c) How far is it from A (100.e. Hence.071.8682. φ = 80°. y = 5 sin 80° = 4.294Ux + 4.437Uy + 5Uz) – (4.

y = 6.867Uφ – 3Uz.596 = – 0.147Uy – 7Uz = Aρ Uρ + Aφ Uφ + Az Uz Aρ = A · Uρ = – 6.6464Ux – 0. z = 5).202Ux · Uρ – 2. z = – 1) (c) 5Ux – 3Uy – 4Uz at A (x = 3. Example 1.660Uz | F | at P = (5.147 sin φ Aφ = A · Uφ = – 6.660) 2 = 30. Solution: (a) F = 3xyz Ux – 6 (x + y + z) Uz = Fρ Uρ + Fφ Uφ + Fz Uz Fρ = F · Uρ = 3 xyz Ux · Uρ – 6 (x + y + z) Uz · Uρ = 3 xyz cos φ – 6 (x + y + z) (0) = 3 (ρ cos φ) (ρ sin φ) (z) cos φ = 3 ρ2 z cos2 φ sin φ Fφ = F · Uφ = 3 xyz Ux · Uφ – 6 (x + y + z) Uz · Uφ = 3 xyz (– sin φ) – 6 (x + y + z) (0) = – 3 (ρ cos φ) (r sin φ) (z) sin φ = – 3ρ2 z cos φ sin2 φ Fz = F · Uz = 3 xyz Ux · Uz – 6 (x + y + z) Uz · Uz = 3 xyz (0) – 6 (x + y + z) (1) = – 6 (x + y + z) = – 6 (ρ cos φ + ρ sin φ + z) ∴ F = 3ρ2 z cos2 φ sin φ Uρ – 3ρ2z cos φ sin2 φ Uφ – 6 (ρ cos φ + ρ sin φ + z) Uz F = 5.10: Transform each of the following vector to cylindrical coordinates at the point specified (a) 6Ux at P (ρ = 5.2028 sin φ – 2.196) 2 + ( − 9) 2 + ( − 28. Z = – 2) (b) 6Ux at Q (x = 4.147 cos φ Az = A · Uz = – 6.147U y − 7U z 9.2028Ux · Uφ – 2. (b) Substituting the coordinate of point P in the above F .147Uy · Uz – 3Uz · Uz =–3 ∴ A = RPQ = (– 6.147Uy · Uρ – 7Uz · Uρ = – 6.147 cos φ) Uφ – 3 Uz Substituting the coordinates of point P in above A we get RPQ at point P = – 5.202 cos φ – 2. y = 4.196Uρ – 9Uρ – 28.486.VECTOR ANALYSIS 13 ∴ UPQ = RPQ | RPQ | = − 6.2237Uy – 0.2028Ux · Uz – 2.2028Ux – 2.7295Uz (c) Let A = RPQ = – 6.147Uy · Uφ – 3Uz · Uφ = 6. .9042Uρ + 2. we have Example 1. φ = 110°. φ = 60°.2028U x − 2.2028 sin φ – 2. z = 3).2028 cos φ – 2.9: (a) Express the field F = 3 xyz Ux – 6 (x + y + z) Uz in cylindrical coordinate (variables and components) (b) Find | F | at P(ρ = 2.147 sin φ) Uρ + (6.

but usually we consider only points on surface and not those below (or) above ground.12° H 3K H xK –1 Substituting φ coordinate of point A is the above B we have B at point A B = – 0. 1. 1.638Uφ ∴ Substituting φ coordinate of point P in the above vector we have A at point P as (b) For point Q.14 Solution: (a) Let ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS A = 6Ux = Aρ Uρ + Aφ Uφ + Az Uz Aρ = A · Uρ = 6 Ux · Uρ = 6 cos φ Aφ = A · Uφ = 6 Ux · Uφ = – 6 sin φ Az = A · Uz = 6 Ux · Uz = 0 A = 6 cos φ Uρ – 6 sin φ Uφ A = – 2.32Uρ – 4. First define the r Uq distance from origin to any point as ‘r’ as shown in the y Fig.99Uφ (c) Let B = 5Ux – 3Uy – 4Uz = Bρ Uρ + Bφ Uφ + Bz Uz Bρ = B · Uρ = (5Ux – 3Uy – 4Uz) · Uρ = 5Ux · Uρ – 3Uy · Uρ – 4Uz · Uρ = 5 cos φ – 3 sin φ Bφ = B · Uφ = (5Ux – 3Uy – 4Uz) · Uφ = – 5 sin φ – 3 cos φ Bz = B · Uz = (5Ux – 3Uy – 4Uz) · Uz = – 4Uz B = (5 cos φ – 3 sin φ) Uρ + (– 5 sin φ – 3 cos φ) Uφ – 4Uz for point A . Uf Let us start by building a spherical coordinate q system on the three Cartesian axes.6. It is the angle x between the x-axis and the projection in z = 0 plane of Fig.30° H xK H 4K –1 A at point Q = 6 cos 56. The second coordinate is an angle θ between z-axis and line drawn from origin to the point in question.799Uφ – 4Uz 1.3 Spherical Coordinate System We have no two-dimensional coordinate system to help us understand the three dimensional spherical coordinate system. f The third coordinate φ is also an angle and is exactly the same as angle φ of cylindrical coordinate. In certain respects we can draw on our knowledge of the latitude z and longitude system of locating a place on surface of Ur earth.30° Uρ – 6 sin 56.30° Uφ = 3.8.60Uρ – 5.8 Spherical coordinates .052Uρ – 5. as we have for the circular cylindrical coordinate system. φ = tan–1 ∴ FG y IJ = tan FG 4 IJ = 53. φ = tan–1 FG y IJ = tan FG 6 IJ = 56.

8.2925Uθ – 3.5°.3° H 3. z = – 1).17) The dot product of unit vectors of spherical and Cartesian coordinate systems can be given as follows: Ur Ux Uy Uz sin θ cos φ sin θ sin φ cos θ Uθ cos θ cos φ cos θ sin φ –sin φ Uφ –sin φ cos φ 0 Example 1. dφ can be created.59Uφ Substituting θ and φ coordinates at point B in above vector we have A .32Uφ (c) Let B = 4Ux – 2Uy – 4Uz = Br Ur + Bθ Uθ + Bφ Uφ Br = B · Ur = (4Ux – 2Uy – 4Uz) · Ur . φ = 120°). The unit vectors corresponding to the three coordinate axes are also represented in the Fig.16): r = x 2 + y2 + z 2 .359Uθ – 2. In order to convert the spherical coordinates into Cartesian coordinates the following equations can be used: x = r sin θ cos φ.633Ur – 1. θ = cos–1 z x +y +z 2 2 2 . Solution: (a) Let A = 3Ux = ArUr + AθUθ + AφUφ Ar = A · Ur = 3Ux · Ur = 3 sin θ cos φ Aθ = A · Uθ = 3Ux · Uθ = 3 cos θ cos φ Aφ = A · Uφ = 3Ux · Uφ = – 3 sin φ ∴ A = 3 sin θ cos φ Ur + 3 cos θ cos φ Uθ – 3 sin φ Uφ = – 0. (c) 4Ux – 2Uy – 4Uz at P(x = – 2.16) The transformation in the reverse direction is achieved with help of following equations which are derived from eqn. r = (2) 2 + (3) 2 + (− 1) 2 = 3. x = 4). we have A at point A = 2.742 K H 2K –1 Substituting θ and φ coordinate of point A in above A . (1.137Ur – 0. y = 3. They are mutually perpendicular and a differential volume element made of following differential elements dr. (b) 4Ux at A(x = 2. dθ. φ = tan −1 y x …(1.742 θ = cos–1 (b) for point FG − 1 IJ = 105.VECTOR ANALYSIS 15 line drawn from origin to the point. y = r sin θ sin φ. The differential distance ‘r’ can be written as ‘dr’. at point B A. θ = 25°.11: Transform each of the following vectors to spherical coordinates at specified point (a) 3Ux at B (r = 4. y = – 3. z = r cos θ …(1. φ = tan FG 3 IJ = 56. the differential angle ‘θ’ can be written as ‘r dθ’ and the differential angle ‘φ’ can be written as ‘r sin θ dφ’ and as a result the volume of differential element can be written as r sin φ dr dθ dφ.1.

φ = 20°. θ = 60°. θ = 60°.3° φ = 180° + tan G H − 2K θ = cos–1 –1 Substituting θ and φ coordinates of point P is above B expression we have B at point P = – 3.330 cos θ sin φ)Uy + (5 cos θ – 4.330 sin θ)Uz Substituting θ = 60° and φ = 20° in above vector equation E at point (r = 2.094Ux + 2.249Uz .385 for point P.266Uθ + 4.330Uθ · Uy Ez = E · Uz = 5Ur · Uz + 4.330 sin θ E = (5 sin θ cos φ + 4.614 E = Ex Ux + Ey Uy + Ez Uz Ex = E · Ux = 5Ur · Ux + 4. Solution: (a) E = 80 cos 60° 3 r = 5Ur + 4.330Uθ Ur + 40 sin 60° r3 Uθ | E |= (b) (5) 2 + (4.330 cos θ cos φ = 5 sin θ cos φ + 4.438Uφ Example 1. φ = 20°) = 6.330 cos θ cos φ)Ux + (5 sin θ sin φ + 4.330Uθ · Uz = 5 cos θ – 4.330 cos θ sin φ Ey = E · Uy = 5Ur · Uy + 4. and FG 4 IJ = 42.03° H 5K F − 3 IJ = 236.330Uθ · Ux = 5 sin θ cos φ + 4.343Ur + 2.12: An electric field intensity is given as E = FG 80 (cos θ) U H r 3 r + 40 sin θ r 3 Uθ IJ K At the point whose spherical coordinates are r = 2.330) 2 = 6. Find (a) | E | (b) a unit vector in (Cartesian coordinates) in direction of E.16 = 4Ux · Ur – 2Uy · Ur – 4Uz · Ur = 4 cos θ cos φ – 2 cos θ sin φ + 4 sin θ Bφ = B · Uφ = (4Ux – 2Uy – 4Uz) · Uφ = 4Ux · Uφ – 2Uy · Uφ – 4Uz · Uφ = – 4 sin φ – 2 cos φ ∴ ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS B = (4 sin θ cos φ – 2 sin θ sin φ – 4 cos θ) Ur + (4 cos θ cos φ – 2 cos θ sin φ + 4 sin φ) Uθ + (– 4 sin φ + 2 cos φ) Uφ r= (− 2) 2 + ( − 3) 2 + (4) 2 = 5.220Uy – 1.

gradient operation on a scalar turns it into a vector. it can be shown that ∇ · V represents the rate at which fluid flows out of unit volume enclosing that point. So by definition grad V (or) ∇V = ∂ν ∂ν ∂ν Ux + U y + Uz ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂ ∂ν ∂ Ux + Uy + Uz ∂x ∂y ∂z …(1. The vector whose x.. It is denoted by grad V (or) ∇V.049) 2 + (2. z).220) 2 + (− 1. the vector is termed as divergence free vector. 1. 1.18) From the above expression after comparison.8 DIVERGENCE OF VECTOR FIELD Let V denote a vector field and represented as ∂Vx ∂Vy ∂Vz is termed + + ∂x ∂y ∂z as divergence of vector V. ∴ div V (or) ∇ · V = ∂Vx ∂Vy ∂Vz + + ∂x ∂y ∂z …(1.VECTOR ANALYSIS 17 UE = ∴ E = |E | 6. So evidently divergence of vector is a scalar.7 GRADIENT OF SCALAR FIELD ∂ν ∂ν ∂ν is termed . since above sum is a scalar.049U x + 2. V = Vx Ux + Vy Uy + Vz Uz.21) .49) 2 = 0.20) If divergence of a vector is zero.336Uy – 0. 1.8.19) Here ∇ is not a vector but only a differential operator.9 LAPLACIAN OF SCALAR FIELD Let V represent a scalar field Now ∇V = FG ∂ U H ∂x x + ∂ ∂ Uy + Uz V ∂y ∂z IJ K …(1. we can write as ∇= …(1. and ∂x ∂y ∂z Let V denote a scalar field.923Ux + 0.1 Significance of Divergence If vector V represents the velocity of fluid in motion at any point.49U z (6. y and z-coordinates are as gradient of V at point (x. y. The sum of partial derivative viz. Hence.189Uz 1.220U y − 1.

22) ∂2V ∂2V ∂2V + 2 + 2 ∂x 2 ∂y ∂z …(1.13 (or) y = ± 6.18 Now determine the divergence of equation (1. 3) (b) a unit vector in direction of G at P (c) the (scalar) equation of surface on which | G | = 90. so implementing the above formulae we can get Ux ∂ ∇×V= ∂x Vx Uy ∂ ∂y Vy z Uz ∂ ∂z Vz x x z y y x z ∇×V= So we can write as FG ∂V H ∂y z FG ∂V H ∂y IJ U + FG ∂V − ∂V IJ U + FG ∂V − ∂V IJ U …(1.24) H ∂z ∂x K H ∂x ∂y K ∂z K ∂V I F ∂V ∂V − JK . is termed as laplacian of scalar field V.21) ∇ · (∇ V) = ∇ · = ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS LM ∂ U N ∂x x + ∂ ∂ Uy + Uz V ∂y ∂z OP Q …(1.H. 2.S.13: Given vector field G = 3x2 y Ux – 4 (z – x) Uy + 6xyz Uz.23) So the expression on R.16Ux – 0. 3) if | GQ | = 90 and y > 0. ∂z − ∂V y y x z y x Example 1.214Uy – 0.10 CURL OF A VECTOR FIELD Consider a vector V = Vx Ux + Vy Uy + Vz Uz We define curl as ∇ × V.86 . FGH ∂x − ∂∂Vy IJK is termed as curl of vector V. 1. GH ∂z − ∂∂Vx IJK . y. Solution: (a) G at P = 3 (1)2 (2)Ux – 4(3 – 1)Uy + 6 (2) (3)Uz = 6Ux – 8Uy + 36Uz U = G |G | = 6U x − 8U y + 36U z (6) 2 + (− 8) 2 + (36) 2 (b) (c) = 0. Find (a) G at P(1. (d) the y-coordinate of Q (2. (e) the distance between P and Q.96Uz |G |= = (3 x 2 y) 2 + [− 4( z − x)]2 + (6 xyz) 2 9 x 4 y 2 + 16( z − x) 2 + 36 x 2 y 2 z 2 = 90 Squaring on both sides we have scalar equation of surface as 9x4 y2 + 16 (z – x)2 + 36x2 y2 z2 = 8100 (d) Substitute the coordinates of point Q in above equation of surface ∴ 9 (2)4 y2 + 16 [3 – 2]2 + 36 (2)2 y2 (3)2 = 8100 144 y2 = 6788 (or) y2 = 47.

Then the lower limits of ρ.15: Points A (r = 90. 2 < z < 5 (b) what is length of longest straight line that lies entirely within the volume? (c) find the total area of surface. Hence dr and dθ both are equal to zero. Hence dL = r sin θ dφ Uφ (or) dL = r sin θ dφ ∴ L= z z dL = 5° 0° r sin θ dφ 5° 0° = 90 sin 90° φ = 7.86) 2 + (3 − 3) 2 = 4. Example 1. r and θ coordinates are constant. 5) Distance between PQ = (4 cos 30° − 6 cos 60° ) 2 + (4 sin 30° − 6 sin 60° ) 2 + (2 − 5) 2 = 4. using a straight line path? Solution: (a) d L = dr Ur + rd θ Uθ + r sin θ dφ Uφ For points A and B. (e) Distance between (PQ) = (1 − 2) 2 + (2 − 6. z = 2 and 5 S = S1 + S2 + S3 + S4 + S5 + S6 = z z 30 ° 60 ° 5 2 ρ dφ dz + ρ=2 z z 30° 60 ° 30 ° 60 ° 5 ρ dφ dz + ρ=6 6 2 + =4 φ 60 ° 30 ° zz zz 6 4 60 ° 4 30 ° 5 2 dρ dz + φ = 30 ° ρ dρ dφ dz + z=2 6 4 zz zz 6 5 4 6 4 60 ° 30 ° 2 φ = 60 ° 60 ° dρ dz ρ dρ dφ dz z=2 30 ° z 5 2 +6 φ z 5 2 + ρ 6 4 z 5 2 + ρ + z 5 2 Lρ O L O + M P M φP N2Q N Q 2 2 6 + LM ρ OP LMφOP N4Q N Q 4 2 6 60 ° 30 ° = 38.96. 60°. 30° < φ < 60°. φ and z given coordinates of point Q. 30°. φ and z gives the coordinates of point P where as the higher limits of ρ.86 where r = 90 and θ= 90° . Example 1. θ = 90°. φ = 0°) and B (r = 90. φ = 30° and 60°. y = 6.VECTOR ANALYSIS 19 Since y > 0. using a path on spherical surface? (b) what is their separation.708 2 (b) Suppose points P and Q are diametrically opposite corners of the volume. φ = 5°) are located on the surface of 100 m radius sphere (a) what is their separation.180.86 is selected.408 (c) Six surface of volume are located by coordinates ρ = 4 and 6. 2) and Q (6. θ = 90°.14: (a) Find the volume defined by 4 < ρ < 6. Solution: (a) Volume = z zz z 6 dv = 2 6 60 ° 5 4 30 ° 2 ρ dρ dφ dz Lρ O =M P N2Q φ 4 60 ° 30 ° [ z]5 = 15. ∴ P (4.

12Uy · Uρ + 4Uz · Uρ = – 0.88 cos φ – 6.12Uy · Uρ – 4Uz · Uρ = 0.12 cos φ Bz = B · Uz = – 0.12Uy · Uz – 4Uz · Uz = – 4 ∴ A = RBA = (0.88Ux · Uz – 6.12 cos φ)Uφ + 4Uz For point A.423) 2 + (− 2.12 cos φ)Uφ – 4Uz Substituting φ coordinate of point B in the above vector we have RBA at point B = – 3.705U ρ + 4.12Uy – 4Uz = AρUρ + Aφ Uφ + Az Uz Aρ = A · Uρ = 0. . φ = tan–1 FG 4 IJ = 53. – 2.12Uy + 2Uz) – (3Ux + 4Uy – 2Uz) = – 0.12Uy + 2Uz) Let A = RBA = 0.12 cos φ Az = A · Uz = 0.12Uy · Uφ – 4Uz · Uφ = 0.949) 2 + (− 4) 2 = – 0.969U φ + 4U z RAB = | RAB | [(− 5.12.12Uy + 4Uz Let B = RAB = – 0.20 ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS (b) distance between AB = [(90 sin 90° cos 0° – 90 sin 90° cos 5°)2 + (90 sin 90° sin 0° – 90 sin 90° sin 5°)2 + (90 cos 90° – 90 cos 90°)2]1/2 = 7.736Uρ – 0.543Uz (b) R AB = rB − rA = (2.847.16: Given point A (x = 3.12.12 sin φ)Uρ + (0..88Ux + 6.88 sin φ + 6.12 sin φ Bφ = B · Uφ = – 0.423Uρ − 2. find a unit vector in cylindrical coordinates (a) at point B directed towards point A (b) at point A directed towards point B.949Uφ – 4Uz ∴ U BA = RBA | RBA | = − 3.88Ux · Uφ – 6.403Uφ + 0.969) 2 + (4) 2 ]1/ 2 = – 0.705) 2 + (4.88Ux – 6.12 sin φ)Uρ + (0. y = 4.969Uφ + 4Uz UAB = − 5. Solution: (a) Cartesian coordinate of point B are x = 3 cos (– 45°) = 2.88 cos φ + 6.12Uy + 4Uz Bρ = B · Uρ = – 0.543Uz. z = – 2) and B (ρ = 3.88Ux · Uz + 6.503Uρ + 0.88Ux – 6. B (2.88 sin φ – 6.e.12°. φ = – 45°.12Uy · Uz + 4Uz · Uz = 4 ∴ B = R AB = (–0.88 cos φ + 6.88 cos φ – 6.88 sin φ – 6.12 z=2 i. Example 1.672Uφ – 0. Substituting this value of φ in the above vector we H 3K have R AB at point A = – 5.88 sin φ + 6.949U φ − 4U z (− 3.12Uy · Uφ + 4Uz · Uφ = 0.88Ux · Uρ – 6.423Uρ – 2.12Ux – 2.12 sin φ Aφ = A · Uφ = 0.88Ux · Uφ + 6.705Uρ + 4.12Ux – 2.88Ux · Uρ + 6. z = 2). 2) RBA = rA − rB = (3Ux + 4Uy – 2Uz ) – (2.12. y = 3 sin (– 45°) = – 2.

Specify the locus of all points at which (a) F Nx + y Q 2 2 Example 1. 4) = (– 3. 1) i.74 (c) Let C = A + 2 B = (10. ± 1. 1. 0) = (14. find (a) the component of A along u y (b) the magnitude of 3A – B (c) a unit vector along A + 3B. – 2. ± π . 2. Solution: (a) ∴ ∴ ∴ (b) F = Fx Ux + Fy Uy + Fz Uz Fx = 4 (x + y) sin π z = 0 x + y = 0 (or) sin π z = 0 y = – x (or) π z = 0. – 1.. 6) C = uc = |C| 14 2 + (−2) 2 + 6 2 uc = 0. R pq = – 3ux – uy + uz . 5) – (0. Calculate (a) the position vector of P(b) the distance vector from P to Q (c) the distance between P and Q (d) a vector parallel to PQ with magnitude of 10. 4) and (– 3. – 4. ± 3 represents planes Fy = – (x2 + y) = 0 y = – x2.3906uz Example 1.19: Points P and Q are located at (0. 1. 2.18: If A = 10ux – 4uy + 6uz and B = 2ux + uy. 0) = (30. 18) – (2.. 0) = (28. Solution: (a) rp = 0ux + 2uy + 4uz = 2uy + 4uz (b) R pq = rq − rp = (– 3. Solution: (a) The component of A along u y is Ay = – 4 (b) 3A – B = 3(10.17: A vector field is specified by F = 4 (x + y) sin π z Ux – (x2 + y)Uy z x = 0 (b) Fy = 0 (c) | Fz | = 1. 6) – (2.9113ux – 0. –12. 5). 6) A unit vector along C is given by (14. Example 1. ± 2 π …….1302uy + 0. 6) + (4. − 2. 2. ± 2. – 4.VECTOR ANALYSIS 21 + LM 20 OP U .e. It represents a parabolic cylinder Fz = | Fz | = (c) 20 x + y2 20 2 2 x + y2 2 + y2 = 20 x =1 It represents a circular cylinder of radius 20 with z-axis as its axis. y = – x represents a plane and z = 0. 1. 18) Hence | 3A – B |= (28) 2 + (−13) 2 + (18) 2 = 35. –13. 1.

317. 0). Solution: Using the concept to convert spherical coordinated to cylindrical coordinates it can be written as A=± 10 sin θ cos φ + r cos2 θ cos φ – sin φ r 10 By = sin θ sin φ + r cos2 θ sin φ – cos φ r 10 Bz = cos θ + r cos θ sin θ r Bx = But r = x 2 + y 2 + z 2 . where A = 10 is the magnitude of A. Bx = 10 x 2 + y2 (x + y + z ) 10 x (x + y + z ) 10 x 2 + y 2 (x + y + z ) 10 y (x + y + z ) 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 × x x +y 2 2 + x 2 + y2 + z2 (x + y + z ) 2 2 2 × z2 x x +y 2 2 − y x + y2 2 = + xz 2 (x + y ) (x + y + z ) y x 2 + y2 + 2 2 2 2 2 − y x + y2 × z2 y x 2 + y2 x x + y2 2 2 By = × x 2 + y2 + z2 (x + y + z ) + 2 2 2 + x x2 + y2 = + yz 2 (x + y ) (x + y + z ) 2 2 2 2 2 .317 10 (− 3. Hence and uA = ± rpq | rpq | =± (−3. (d) Let the required vector be A. cos φ = x + y2 2 Substituting all the above equations in the basic equation it yields. − 1) = ± (– 9. sin θ = sin φ = ρ = r y = ρ x2 + y2 x + y +z y x +y 2 2 2 2 2 x2 + y2 −1 y and φ = tan x z .045ux – 3. Since A is parallel to PQ.22 ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS (c) Since R pq is the distance vector from P to Q the distance between P and Q is the magnitude of this vector i. θ = tan −1 Hence. 1) 3.015uz) 3.015uy + 3. 4. cos θ = x = ρ z = r x z x + y2 + z 2 2 .. then it can be written as A = AuA.20: Express vector B = r also find B(– 3. − 1.317 10 ur + r cos θ uθ + uφ in Cartesian coordinates and Example 1. d = | rpq | = 9 + 1 + 1 = 3.e. it must have the same unit vector as rpq. − 1.

Example 1. cos β2.100) 10 (b) Any vector D can be resolved into two orthogonal components: D = Dt + Dn where Dt is tangential to a given surface and Dn is normal to it.. 1 sin θ cos φ uθ + r2uφ . since u r is normal to the surface r = 10.21: Given a vector field D = r sin φ ur – Hence D = 10 sin 330°ur – 1 sin 150° cos 330° uθ + 100uφ = (– 5. 330°) (b) the component of D tangential to the spherical surface r = 10 at P (c) a unit vector at P perpendicular to D and tangential to the cone θ = 150° Solution: (a) At P.9988ur – 0. 0) the value of B can be shown as Bx = − By = 30 4 +0− =−2 25 5 40 3 +0− =1 25 5 Bz = 0 – 0 = 0 Thus it can be written as B = – 2ux + uy. Example 1. Solution: Let cos α1. cos β1. then A = Axux + Ayuy + Azuz 2 2 2 = Ax + A y + Az LM MNM Ax 2 2 2 Ax + A y + Az ux + Ay 2 2 2 Ax + Ay + Az uy + Az 2 2 2 Ax + A y + Az uz OP PQP . r = 10.VECTOR ANALYSIS 23 z x 2 + y2 (x2 + y2 + z2 ) Bz = 10 z (x2 + y2 + z2 ) − At (– 3. 4. θ = 150°.043uθ + 100uφ (c) A vector at P perpendicular to D and tangential to the cone θ = 150° is the same as the vector perpendicular to both D and uθ. cos γ1 be the direction cosines of A and cos α2. In this case.22: Show that the cosines of the angle ψ between the vectors A and B is given by the sum of the products of their direction cosines. 0.043 100 0 1 0 = – 100ur – 5uφ A unit vector along this is given by u = − 100ur − 5uφ 100 2 + 5 2 = – 0. Hence ur uθ uφ D × uθ = − 5 0. i. cos γ2 be the direction cosines of B. φ = 330°.e.043. 150°.0499uφ. Determine r (a) D at P(10. Dn = r sin φ ur = – 5ur Hence Dt = D – Dn = 0.

342 Aθ = A · uθ = (4ux – 2uy – 4uz) · uθ = 4 cos θ cos φ – 2 cos θ cos φ – 4 sin θ = 2. the vector in spherical coordinates can be written as A (r. Define scalar quantity and vector quantity.69° cos θ = 0. y = – 3.24 or where ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS A = | A | [cos α1ux + cos β1uy + cos γ1uz] A= 2 2 2 Ax + A y + Az Ax = A cos α1. Az = A cos γ1.31° r x In this case y and i. Similarly B = | B | [cos α1ux + cos β1uy + cos γ1uz] A . sin θ = 0.5547. so the point is in 3rd quadrant. The parameters in spherical system can be obtained as follows: r= x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = 5.6695.31° = – 123. φ = tan–1 = 56. z = 4).8321 The components of the vector in r. . y = – 3. Solution: Given the vector 4ux – 2uy – 4uz and it is to be transformed into spherical coordinates at point P(x = – 2.4378 So.4378uφ.7428. sin φ = – 0. φ) = – 3.23: Transform the vector 4ux –2uy – 4uz into spherical coordinates at a point P(x = – 2. z = 4). θ = cos–1 z y = 42. θ. Scalar quantity is one which has only magnitude but no direction. θ and φ direction need to be found out in order to convert the vector into spherical coordinates Ar = A · ur = (4ux – 2uy – 4uz) · ur = 4 sin θ cos φ – 2 sin θ sin φ – 4 cos θ = – 3. Ay = A cos β1.. φ = – 180° + 56. x are both negative.03°. cos φ = – 0.385.266 Aφ = A · uφ = (4ux – 2uy – 4uz) · uφ = – 4 sin φ – 2 cos φ = 4. B = | AB | cos ψ ∴ = | AB | [cos α1 cos α2 + cos β1 cos β2 + cos γ1 cos γ2] where ψ is the angle between vectors A and B ∴ cos ψ = cos α1 cos α2 + cos β1 cos β2 + cos γ1 cos γ2 ψ = cos–1[cos α1 cos α2 + cos β1 cos β2 + cos γ1 cos γ2] Example 1. Vector quantity is one which has both magnitude and direction.e.342ur + 2. SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 1.266uθ + 4.

like sunrays come out continuously from sun. This is an example of curl. The vector is said | P | to be solenoid ∇ · P = 0 if and is irrotational if ∇ × P = 0. uφ and uθ are the three unit vectors which are always perpendicular each other. What is meant dot product and cross product of two vectors? → → → → Dot product and cross product are two methods of vector multiplication. What do you mean by “gradient”? Gradient is the concept of rate of change of a scalar in the given field. What do you mean by “divergence”? The net out flow of flux per unit volume is called as the divergence. Define unit vectors in rectangular coordinate system. where ‘φ’ is scalar. If a vaccum tube is broken there is inflow of air. which is measured as usual like in rectangular coordinate system. which is measured from positive x-axis in positive director of angle measurement. 5. 9. Define unit vectors in cylindrical coordinate system. y. In spherical coordinate system ur . Curl of vector A is defined as ∇ × A (curl of A) or Curl A . This is an example of negative divergence since inflow is negative outflow. which are always mutually perpendicular to each other. uφ and uz are three unit vectors in cylindrical coordinate system. What is concept of laplacian? Laplacian is of scalar and vector type Laplacian (scalar) is defined as divergence of gradient of scalar and is mathematically represented as ∇2φ = ∇ . Thus uρ. And uz is the unit vector in z-coordinate axis direction. From a charged body there is continuous out flow of flux. And Laplacian vector is defined as follows: ∇2 A = grad (div A ) – curl A . And always they are mutually perpendicular each other. What is concept of “curl”? Curl is defined as the net circulation per unit area. If a piece of paper is released here. and z-coordinate directions. In rectangular coordinate system the unit vector ux. Here. The uφ is unit angle in coordinate axis directions. If A and B are two vectors their dot product is A · B = | A | | B | cos θ where θ/q is the angle between → → → → → → → → A and B and the cross product of A and B is defined as A × B = | A | | B | sin θ un. → → → → → 8. In cylindrical coordinate system uρ is the unit vector along ρ-coordinate axis. 10. uy and uz are in x. 3. 7. it rotates and finally moves up ward.VECTOR ANALYSIS 25 → → 2. Consider wind whirl pool which is upward. uφ is already defined in cylindrical coordinate system and uθ is unit angle measured from positive z-axis in anti clock wise direction. 4. which is measured radially outward from z-axis. ur is the unit vector r-axis. ∇φ. State the condition for the vector to be solenoid. Divergence of vector A is defined as ∇ · A (Divergence of A) or div A . 6. where un is the unit vector normal to plane containing A and B . Define unit vectors in spherical coordinate system. → → → → → → → → → . since there is a net out flow. These are the examples of positive divergence. which is measured always radially outward from the point of origin.

exist in pairs 2. charged in humid environment (b) 3 (c) 3. 2 (c) 1. the medium is any dielectric 2. 2. There is a charged metal sphere and thin circular plate. 3 2. the following are true (a) 1 only (b) 1. 4 4. an insulator 3. 3 3. are conserved 3. 3 2. the medium is dry air In the above. have a circular field around it In the above statements. A body can be charged when it is 1. 4 (d) 1. charges reside (a) on the outer surface in both (b) on outer surface in hollow and throughout in solid (c) throughout in both (d) none 5. Between a hollow and solid metal sphere. 2 (d) 1.26 ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS MULTIPLE CHOICES 1. 3 (c) 1. held in hand The false statements are (a) 1. The electric charge is transferred from one body to another insulated metal body only when 1. the true statements are (a) 1 (b) 2. Distribution of charge around the surface is (a) uniform in both (b) uniform in sphere and bulging at the edges in plate (c) non-uniform in both (d) Uniform in circular plate and non-uniform in sphere 6. The electric charges 1. A charged plate is touched by a metal rod standing on a wooden platform (a) the plate is discharged completely (b) the charge is unaffected in the plate (c) the charge is transferred to the metal rod (d) none . the medium is vaccum 3. are quantized 4. 4 (d) 1. 2. an insulated metal body 4. A lighting conductor on top of a building is made into a pointed spike because (a) rain drops may not collect (b) dust particles may not accumulate (c) charge per unit area becomes very high for lightning to discharge (d) as decoration 7.

F13 makes an angle 30° with normal as shown in Fig.1.75 N y 15. Find the force between them. The force acting in x-direction is (a) 5 N (c) 1 N (b) 3. After touching the rod. the permittivity of free space is (a) (coulomb)2 / newton-metre2 (b) (coulomb)2 joule-metre (c) farad / metre (d) none correct 14. The unit of ε0. (a) conductivity increases and insulator unaffected (b) insulating power increases while conducting power remains same (c) insulator decreases in insulating power and conductor decreases in conducting power (d) both are unaffected 12. εr of alcohol is 20. Two positive charges 10 µ coulomb and 15 µ coulomb are separated by a distance of 10 cms with a dielectric of alcohol. Match the following: (a) Mercury 1.0 × 10–6 coulomb is 12 cm from a second point charge of –1. (a) 180 N (c) 9 N (b) 135 N (d) 6. the bits of paper acquire the same charge as the rod and are repelled (d) none 10. 1. A conductor and an insulator are heated. Insulator (b) Cotton 2.81 nt directed towards each other (c) 2. A point charge of + 3.9. The magnitude and direction of the force on each charge is (a) 2 nt directed away from each other (b) 2. Partial insulator 13.5 N (d) –1 N q1 q 30° F13 x F12 Fig.5 × 10–6 coulomb. F12 and F13 are two forces of 2 and 3 newtons.81 nt directed away from each other (d) 1.9 . Conductor (c) Sulphur 3.5 nt towards each other 9. Partial conductor (d) Ivory 4.VECTOR ANALYSIS 27 8. they jump violently away from it because (a) there is no place in the rod for all bits (b) the charged rod gives a shock to the bits of paper (c) on contact with the rod. A charged rod attracts bits of uncharged paper. When charges are applied to a gold leaf electroscope (a) the leaves converge for positive charges (b) the leaves remain stationary (c) the leaves diverge for negative charges (d) the leaves diverge for both positive and negative charges 11.

though of same kinds are of equal magnitude (d) the two charges of different kinds have units 1 : 2 .6 N (b) 3 N (d) 2 N ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS 17. What must be a charge on a ball placed 10 cm directly above which will hold the pith ball in equilibrium? (a) 1 µC (c) –0. The resultant force F of F1x and F1y in Problem 15 is 18. 2 (b) 0.36 N (b) 3 N (d) 2. Two charges of unknown sign and magnitude are a distance d apart. Electric lines of force do not cross each other because (a) the tangent to the line of force gives the direction of E and if they cross. In problem 15. 4 (c) 1. 4. The electric field strength is zero at a point joining them (a) the two charges are of opposite kinds (b) the two charges are of some kinds (c) the two charges. The electric field strength of a charge (a) increases with distance (b) decreases with distance (c) decreases with square of distance (d) decreases with cube of distance 22. There are two positive charges separated by a distance (a) the lines of force will occupy the space between them in all manner (b) the electric lines of force will emanate from the two charges and occupy the space without crossing (c) there will be null points in the line joining the two charges (d) the entire space between the charges will be without lines of force 21. 3. 3 19. 3. there will be two tangents for E which is not possible (b) the lines of force mutually repel (c) the lines of force emanate from a point charge (d) they are parallel to each other 23. the force acting along y-direction is (a) –2.28 16. Arrange the following forces in descending order of their strength: 20.011 µC (a) electromagnetic (c) gravitational (a) 1. 3.1 µC (b) nuclear (d) radioactive decay (b) 1.6 N (c) 1 N (a) 5 N (c) 4. 2.011 µC (d) 0. 4. 1. 4 (d) 2. A pith ball of 10 g carries a charge of 10 µC. 2.

(b) 21. Identify which of the following quantities is not a vector: (a) force (c) toleration (b) momentum (d) work 25. → (b) –10uz (d) –10uy → A = 10ux + 5uy . (d) 24. (d) 17. B = 2uz. (b) 11. A different volume formed in a cylindrical coordinate system is (a) dr dz (c) r dφ dz (b) r dr dφ (d) all of these 29. (c) 9. (c) 2. What is a scalar quantity? Give some examples of scalars. What is a vector quantity? Give some examples of vectors. (c) 19. (c) 4. (b) 29. The component of 6ux+ 2uy – 3uz along 3ux – 4uy is (a) – 12ux – 9uy – 3uz (b) 30ux– 40uz (c) 10/7 (d) 2 KEY 1. (d) 7. (d) 20. 3. (a) 22. What do we mean when we say that two vectors are equal? 4. (d) 12. (a) – 2. (b) 5. (c) 18. (c) 26. (b) 3. Which of the following is not a scalar field: (a) displacement of a mosquito in space (b) high intensity in a drawing room (c) temperature distribution in your classroom (d) atmospheric pressure in a given region 26. (b) 6. (a) 28.VECTOR ANALYSIS 29 24. Can you reason why the dot product of two vectors is known as scalar product? 7. (a) 10. (c) 27. (d) – 4 13. Can the dot product be negative? If yes. A × B = (a) 20ux – 20uy → → (b) – 20uy + 10uz (c) – 10ux + 10uy (d) 10ux – 20uy 28. (b) – 3. The vector projection of A = 5ux – 10uz in the direction of uz is (a) –10 (c) –10ux 27. (d) 25. (d) 23. What is the significance of zero vector and is vector addition “closed”? 5. (c) 16. (c) – 1. (d) 14. 2. (c) 8. (c) 15. How can you determine if two vectors are dependent or independent? . (a) REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. what must be the condition? 6.

20. Given the vector in Cartesian coordinate that extends from P(r = 4. . Can vector operations be performed without making a transformation from H 2 3K spherical to rectangular coordinates? 14. A closed surface is defined in spherical coordinates by 3 < r < 5. φ = 1. y = 1. Show that the necessary and sufficient condition for two non-zero vectors A and B to be perpendicular is that A . .2 π < φ < 1.30 8. 0.3 π. π . What is the significance of a curl of a vector? 17. can vector operations be performed without transforming into rectangular coordinates? 13. B = 0. 2π IJ .6 π (a) Find the volume enclosed (b) Find the distance from P1(r = 3. → → → → EXERCISE PROBLEMS 1. Two vectors A and B are given in the spherical coordinate system at → → FG 2. Verify the commutative law for addition of vectors.) to P2 (r = 5. φ = 10°) to Q(r = 7. 1. θ = 0. 10 and vector B is given at Q 1. θ = 30°. φ = 125°)? 3. → FG H → π π . φ = 60°) to B(r = 30.4. Is the projection of a vector on another vector unique? 11. Is division of a vector by another vector defined? ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS 9. Give some physical examples of dot product and cross product.1 π. θ = 75°. What do we mean by gradient of a scalar function? 15. Prove that two non-zero vectors are parallel if and only if their cross product is zero.3 π. 5 in cylindrical 6 6 IJ K FG H IJ K coordinates. 21. θ = 0. θ = 120°.6) (b) How far is it from A(r = 110. How many vector surfaces does a thin sheet of paper possess if we assume that its thickness → 0? 19.1 π < θ < 0.6 π) (c) Find total surface area. π . θ = 20°. 2. 10. φ = 75°) (a) Give the vector in spherical coordinate at M(x = 5. z = 2) that extends to N(2. 18. 2π IJ H 2 3K and FG 10. If a vector A is given at point P 3. φ = 1. How can you determine the area of parallelogram using vectors and what is meant by right-hand rule? 12.2 π. Which equations will you use to check if a vector is (a) continuous (b) solenoidal (c) rotational (d) irrotational and (e) conservative? Give some real life examples for each case. What does the divergence of a vector signify? 16. (a) Express uρ in spherical components and variables (b) Express ur in cylindrical components and variables.

3. 10. Obtain (a) the vector drawn from P1 to P2 (b) the unit vector along the line from P1 to P3. – 3). N(– 2. 0) and P(– 4. 6)? (b) How far is it from A(110.13°. 9. 10)? 8. Three points P1. (5. 8.4. Given the three points M(6. Using the coordinate system named.VECTOR ANALYSIS 31 4. 3) and (7. 2. 2) respectively. Find in cylindrical components (a) A unit vector P (ρ = 5. Find the value of Bz such that the angle between the vector A = 2Ux + Uy + 4Uz and B = – 2Ux – 1Uy + BzUz is 45°. – 2). 6. Find (a) the angle between A and B (b) the distance between the tips of vector (c) the unit vector normal to plane containing A and B (d) the area of parallelogram which A and B are adjacent sides? 7. Vector A = 3Ux + 4Uy – 5Uz and B = – 6Ux + 2Uy + 4Uz extend out from the origin. 3. Give the vector in Cartesian coordinates that extends from P (ρ = 4. 60°. – 1. 5) find (a) the area of triangle they define (b) A unit vector perpendicular to this triangular surface (c) a unit vector bisecting the interior angle of triangle at M. φ = 75°. 6. – 20) to B (30. give the vector of point A(2. 3. z = 1) to Q (ρ = 7. φ = 10°. – 3) that extends to B(1. 125°. P2 and P3 are given by (2. 5. z = 2) that extends to N(2. y = 1. z = 4) (a) Give the vector in cylindrical coordinates at M(r = 5. 6. . 4) (a) Cartesian (b) Cylindrical (c) Spherical. z = – 2) in director of E = ρz cos φ Uρ – ρz sin φ Uφ + ρa Uz at P. φ = 53.

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