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Energy Smart Lighting

Sustainable Workplace

Energy Smart Lighting

Lightolier is committed to sustainable lighting: lighting that meets users needs with the least consumption of energy and other resources.

Energy Smart Lighting

Energy Smart Lighting Principles Sample Applications Technical References

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Energy Smart Lighting For The Sustainable Workplace In lighting, energy represents both the largest component of life cycle cost and the most significant impact on the natural environment. Thus sustainable lighting is good for building users, the organizations bottom line, and for the environment. This Designing with Light application guide suggests how to design office lighting to meet user needs while minimizing energy consumption. It follows the recommended practices of the American National Standard for Office Lighting, ANSI/IESNA RP-1 and works within the energy guidelines of IES LM-05. Both of these useful documents are available from the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (visit www.iesna.org to purchase copies). Lightolier recommends retaining a qualified lighting professional. You can contact the International Association of Lighting Designers (www.iald.org) to begin a search.

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Meeting Users Needs For Office Lighting

...the earth belongs to each generation during its course, fully and in its own right, no generation can contract debts greater than may be paid during the course of its own existence.


Thomas Jefferson

Before considering how to employ advanced lighting technology to reduce energy consumption, it is critical to design the lighting to support the performance of office users and the spaces in which they work. Effective lighting for office workspaces combines appropriate illumination for a wide range of tasks together with a comfortably balanced surface and luminaire brightnesses, an ordered yet interesting visual environment, and easy-to-use controls. Put differently, workplace productivity requires more than simple task visibility; comfort and motivation play an important role as well. The need for adequate lighting doesnt end at the work surface! Moreover, the model of an office as a factory for information processing ignores other often critical concerns: supporting creative interaction within the office and promoting organizational image.

There are four basic tasks in most offices: paper, computer, machine, and face-to-face. Each need different illumination. Paper tasks need a high-level of contrast on a horizontal surface; the quantity of illumination required depends on the nature of the written or printed material. On the other hand, most computer tasks themselves need little direct illumination and can be made more difficult by too much light. Machine tasks at printers and copiers are often complicated by shadows caused by the equipment itself. Face-to-face tasks arguably the most important in the office space need diffused vertical lighting of good color to reveal facial expression. Since most work areas involve several of these tasks, lighting design involves some careful balancing. Where high levels of illumination are required, overhead lighting systems should be supplemented by local task lighting. Individually controlled task lighting also permits older workers (who may need substantially more light) to increase their illumination without burdening the entire office.

Recommended Illuminances Task Computer screen General paperwork Small print/poor copies Conference and meeting Graphics Circulation Adapted from ANSI/IESNA RP-1 Comment Note the wide range of illuminances, both within the office and within each typical area. Local task lighting or individually controllable overhead lighting should be used to provide varying levels of illumination. Illuminance 10 fc 30-50 fc 50-100 fc 30-50 fc 50-100 fc 5-10 fc

Task: remote surface Adapted from ANSI/IESNA RP-1

10:1

1:10

Where computers are used intensively, stricter limits on both luminaire and ceiling brightness are appropriate. Indirect lighting should be spaced at least 18 from the ceiling; the high-angle brightness of direct luminaires should be curtailed by deeper louvers or using fewer lamps in each luminaire. To maintain a comfortable and pleasant environment, it is also important to balance the brightness of the task and the other surfaces that commonly come into view. This minimizes the fatigue caused by adapting to widely different levels of brightness. Illuminating walls and partitions, and shading windows, are two important techniques for balancing brightness throughout the space.

Comment The low ratios reflect darker tasks, such as computer screens, and bright surfaces, such as windows. Local task lighting, wall illumination, and window blinds are successful solutions to balancing surface brightness.

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Luminaire brightness can be controlled by indirect lighting, which distributes light softly over the ceiling or by using direct lighting from well shielded luminaires, such as those with well-balanced basket optics or deep parabolic louvers.

Surface Areas Task: adjacent surface Adjacent: remote surface

Brightness Ratio 3:1 3:1 1:3 1:3

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Glare control is important. Excessive luminaire brightness causes discomfort whether the luminaires are located in the field of view or simply overhead. Additionally, when bright luminaires are reflected in computer screens, the images can obscure information.

Light on the walls (and ceiling) also imparts an sense of spaciousness, making the office feel bright and appealing.
Balancing Surface Brightness

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People Come First

Effective Task Illumination

Comfortably Balanced Brightness

Meeting Users Needs For Office Lighting

Focal

Focus attention

Nevertheless, a completely uniform application of lighting dulls the senses. It deprives occupants of needed visual stimulation and can stifle the shared creative processes that are the ultimate return on the office real estate investment. Varying the source, texture, and color of light, even the appearance of the lighting equipment, all help maintain an interesting environment. Adding carefully placed focal and decorative lighting further varies the composition in a stimulating fashion. Sparkle, provided by low wattage accent light on gleaming materials or carefully controlled exposed sources, adds a sense of cheeriness to the environment.

Cooler sources such as 4100K and 5000K, convey a stronger sense of brightness and business-like focus. Warmer sources, on the other hand, such as 3000K and 3500K, favor complexions, suggesting a more people-oriented environment. High color rendering sources (at least 80 CRI) make people look better and, they are more energy efficient than lower price lamps, as well. Generous use of glowing decorative lighting also imparts a human touch, while focal lighting on appropriate graphics or art can support organizational achievement and philosophy. This supplemental lighting can be color coordinated with the primary overhead sources, but a different color also works well, as the contrasting color can improve visual clarity. Importantly, establishing an Energy Smart design supports an environmentally friendly image for the organization.

Local task light Accent light Decorative sconce Accent light on sparkling material

Sparkle

Sense of well being

In a people come first approach to sustainability, individual control becomes a crucial strategy. There are two basic approaches. A personal task light with on/off control provides individual control in addition to illuminating key task areas. Overhead lighting can be configured for individual control as well. Using addressable technology, a single luminaire can respond to dimming instructions sent from an individual workstation.

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Moreover, when individuals are given control over lighting levels, the average level of illumination drops, providing true grass roots energy conservation.

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The more intense and demanding the office tasks, the less visually distracting the environment should be. Geometrically arranged lighting equipment that blends easily into the office interior helps in this regard. So does light that calls attention to what should be seen. Conversely, light that splashes around in a seemingly meaningless way distracts and undermines the office work effort.

All office lighting creates an image; the question is whether it is the desired image, the image the organization spends a lot to promote. The style and diversity of lighting equipment clearly contributes to establishing an appropriate image. So does the color appearance of the dominant fluorescent light sources.

Designing with the Effects of Light Effect Ambient Purpose All around brightness Source Overhead system

Providing office users with individual control over their lighting improves productivity by enhancing motivation. This statistically significant conclusion comes from a recent study of office lighting conducted by the Lighting Research Center for The Light Right Consortium (visit www.lightright.org for details).

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Interesting Visual Environment

Organizational Image and Atmosphere

Individual Control

Energy Issues

Sustainable lighting meets the qualitative needs of the visual environment with the least impact on the physical environment.
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International Association of Lighting Designers

States can adopt more restrictive codes, including more recent versions of Standard 90.1 (more than twenty states are using the 2004 version) or their own codes, as California has notably done. Some jurisdictions use the IECC (International Energy Conservation Code). The IECC, while growing in popularity and generally similar, is less widely used than Standard 90.1. Additionally, Standard 90.1 forms the baseline for many energy-oriented programs, such as the tax incentives in EPAct 2005, some utility demand-side management (DSM) incentives, and some key elements in LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design), discussed on pages 8-9. A project designed to the Energy Smart principles discussed in the following section should achieve substantially better energy use than current code, which would help to meet LEED certification criteria, qualify for EPAct 2005 tax incentives.

Standard 90.1, in its most commonly considered provisions, limits the power (watts) that can be used for lighting. This is called the Prescriptive Path, and its Lighting Power Allowance (LPA) is the basic approach to budgeting power for lighting. Standard 90.1 also establishes minimum controls requirements, requires tandem wiring of some luminaires, and imposes some minimum standards for exit lighting. Alternatively, energy consumption can be modeled and compared to standards using the Building Performance Rating method. This approach, which recognizes the impact of controls, is most often employed when seeking LEED certification.

There are two methods for calculating the LPA. Where only the basic use of a building is known, the Building Area method applies a single Lighting Power Density (LPD) limit in watts per square foot to the entire area of the building to arrive at the LPA. For example, a 100,000 SF office building is allowed an LPD of 1.0 W/SF under the 2004 edition of Standard 90.1. This produces a total LPA of 100,000 Watts or 100 KW for the building (1.0 W/SF x 100,000 SF).

Importantly, the Space-by-Space method also provides additional allowances for decorative lighting (up to 1.0 W/SF for the applicable area) and for well controlled lighting where computers are used (.35 W/SF). These are typically needed to provide an appropriate quality of lighting. These additional allowances apply only to the specific luminaires and spaces involved, not to the project overall. The total LPA can be used anywhere inside the building and does not have to follow the area LPD, space by space. For example, a training room is allowed 1.4 W/SF. If some of the allowed power is not needed in this room, it can be used elsewhere in the interior.

Lobby Atrium (1st three floors) Atrium (addl floors) Corridor Active Stairway Active Storage Restroom Electrical/Mechanical Food Preparation Dining Laboratory Building Area Method

1.8 1.3 0.2 0.7 0.9 1.1 1.0 1.3 2.2 1.4 1.8 1.3

1.3 0.6 0.2 0.5 0.6 0.8 0.9 1.5 1.2 0.9 1.4 1.0

Shared spaces, such as classrooms, conference/meeting rooms, and lunch rooms require either occupancy-sensing or multi-scene control. Other spaces need either manual or automatic control that cannot override the master shut off for more than four hours. Note that these are minimum requirements. Californias Title 24 (and EPAct 2005) also require controls that provide a 50% level of illumination. As discussed in the next section, controls offer important opportunities to reduce energy consumption.

Note: Special allowances for decorative luminaires (1.0 W/SF) and computer luminaires (.35 W/SF) apply to the Space-by-Space method.

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Additionally, each enclosed area needs a readily visible independent control over the general lighting. This can be an occupancy-sensing device, or a manual control that cannot override the automatic shut off for more than four hours.

Open office Conference/Meeting Training

1.3 1.5 1.6

1.1 1.3 1.4

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Lighting energy usage is governed by both local and Federal regulations. The Federal Energy Policy Act of 2005 sets out the current overarching requirement that state energy regulations be no less stringent than the provisions of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-1999. ASHRAE is the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers.

Standard 90.1, first published in 1975, has been updated several times; most recently in the 2004 edition. It is the 1999 version, however, that is todays Federal minimum standard. Designers should, of course, consult the actual code and standard documents that apply to the jurisdictions in which they are working.

The Prescriptive Path creates a Lighting Power Allowance (LPA) the maximum amount of power that can be used for lighting - which varies by the use of the building or the spaces within it. There are separate LPAs for the interior and exterior, which cannot be combined or re-allocated. This discussion focuses on the interior LPA for office spaces as detailed in the 2004 edition of Standard 90.1.

In most cases, however, using the Space-by-Space method provides a higher total LPA. Following this approach, each area of the building is allocated an LPD limit, which varies by the use of the area (see table at right). The area LPDs are combined to arrive at the total for the building.

All lighting (except emergency and egress lighting) must be controlled by an automatic shut-off device. This could be a programmable-clock, occupancy sensor, or relaysweep system, either independent or integrated with a building management system.

Office Lighting Power Allowance under Standard 90. (W/SF) Space Enclosed office 999 LPD 1.5 004 LPD 1.1

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Energy Codes

ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.

The Lighting Power Allowance

The Space-by-Space Method

Minimum Controls Requirements

Energy Issues

Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, LEED, a product of the U.S. Green Building Council, is a valuable tool for qualifying and promoting sustainable design. LEED presents designers a menu of sustainable best practices, each of which earns points toward certification. LEED points are available in several credit areas that affect lighting: minimizing energy, daylight and views, controls, and light pollution. There are two important pre-requisites (requirements): meeting ASHRAE 2004 (or a more stringent code) and commissioning controls. Lighting equipment is specifically excluded from the recycled materials and local content credits. LEED approaches New Construction (NC), Commercial Interiors (CI), and Existing Building (EB) with different point systems. They differ a little in their lighting provisions, but the overall thrust is similar.
Points for Leed Certification LEED-NC Certified Silver Gold Platinum 26-32 33-38 39-51 52-69 LEED-CI 21-26 27-31 32-41 42-57

LEED Credits Related to Lighting Credit Minimum Energy Requirement Minimizing Energy Daylight Views 1-10 1 1 New Construction (NC .) Points Action ASHRAE 90.1-2004 Reduce total energy consumption 15-60% (modeled) Provide 25 FC from daylight to 75% of space Provide window view to 90% of occupants Provide individually controllable lighting to 90% of occupants and shared spaces Reduce exterior lighting power beyond Standard 90.1 Control impact of interior lighting, sky glow and light trespass 1-3 1-2 1 Commercial Interiors (CI-.0) Points Action ASHRAE 90.1-2004 Reduce lighting power density 15-35% Provide 25 FC from daylight to 75% or 90%of space Provide window view to 90% of occupants Provide individually controllable lighting to 90% of occupants and shared spaces Meet IESNA RP-33 Control impact of interior lighting, sky glow, and light trespass Lighting systems and controls (and all other systems) Daylight- responsive controls within 15 of windows and under skylights Commissioning Authority and integrated manual

EPAct 2005 offers incentives for investments in energy conserving technologies. Projects that attain LEED certification and those that meet Standard 90.1-2004 will likely qualify for at least some incentive. Lighting can be considered separately or together with other systems. By itself, lighting power must be 25-60% less than the Standard 90.1-2001 LPA; additionally, the lighting must meet applicable IES recommended practice and be wired for dual switching. This qualifies for a Federal income tax deduction of up to $0.60 per square foot. Note that the 2001 LPA is the same as that in the 1999 standard and nearly 25% higher than the 2004 LPA, which makes the incentives within easy reach for many projects that are being designed to the more stringent 2004 standard. The benefits themselves accrue to the tax-paying owner, including tenants who purchase lighting themselves (private not-for-profits are not eligible). In the case of governmental buildings, the tax deduction is available to the organization that implements the program, including the design team.

EPAct 00 Tax Incentives for Lighting Reduction of LPD below Std 90.-00 25% 26% 27% 28% 29% 30% 31% 32% 33% 34% 35% 36% 37% 38% 39% 40% > 40% LPD Watts per SF .98 .96 .95 .94 92 .91 .90 .88 .87 .86 .85 .83 .82 .81 .79 .78 .78 Eligible Tax Deduction per SF $0.30 $0.32 $0.34 $0.36 $0.38 $0.40 $0.42 $0.44 $0.46 $0.48 $0.50 $0. 52 $0. 54 $0.56 $0.58 $0.60 $0.60 Note: 1 Based on Whole Building LPA of 1.3 W/SF. Qualifying LPD may be higher under the Space-by-Space method although special allowances are excluded. 2 Because this is a tax deduction, the actual financial benefit depends on the tax bracket

Controls

Light Pollution

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Enhanced Metering Daylight Controls Enhanced Commissioning

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LEED

EPAct 00 Tax Incentives

Energy Smart Lighting Principles

[Sustainable development meets the] needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
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World Commission on Environment and Development



Eight Principles of Energy Smart Lighting Integrate Daylight Make the space appear pleasingly bright Apply a layered, task/ambient lighting approach Use advanced lamp and ballast technology Use efficient fixtures Adjust light and power to the layout Use well designed controls (technology and zones) Favor high reflectance interior design options Fundamentally, Energy Smart lighting applies light more wisely, creates it more efficiently, and controls its use more effectively.

Wall

6-8 W per linear foot

Effective daylighting begins with the architecture and requires methods for bringing daylight deep into the space, controlling the intensity and careful shielding against solar heat gain. Since daylight is inherently unreliable and regularly disappears before the end of the work day, even well daylighted spaces require comprehensive electric lighting. With daylight, energy savings arise from the application of controls to lower electric lighting usage (rather than a reduction in power from using fewer fixtures or lamps). Indeed, realizing the energy savings from daylight typically requires a carefully integrated lighting solution.

Accent

Selective accent lighting and a little sparkle are important in this respect. The interior walls of daylighted spaces often need more light to balance the much higher brightness of windows and perimeter zones.

Local task lighting also provides workers personal control over their lighting (and the ability to turn it off when not needed). This affords the flexibility to handle a wide range of visual tasks and user preferences (notably the needs of older eyes), and counteracts the dulling uniformity of evenly distributed overhead lighting. Direct/indirect pendant lighting with separate control channels for the uplight (ambient) and downlight (task) is another strategy.

Visual interest Graphics Sparkle Localized glow Visual interest

Adjustable recessed or track mount Wall or pendant with diffuser

Directional halogen or Ceramic metal halide Compact fluorescent

25-35W per luminaire

Decorative

26 or 32W per luminaire

Comment Carefully budgeting the watts used in the overhead lighting leaves power available for the other lighting layers.

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People prize daylight and the window views that bring it into a space. Daylight delivers a dynamic and balanced color spectrum, unmatched by any electric light source, as well as changing intensity and distribution. These qualities along with the opportunity for outward observation provide both the stimulation and relaxation that are needed for an effective workspace. Thus, good architecture admits daylight . . . almost without regard to the energy implications!

Limiting energy consumption and general light levels makes it even more important to assure that the space feels bright and pleasant. Directing a layer of light to walls and objects of interest is a more energy-efficient approach than trying to reflect enough general light off the floor and desk tops to ultimately reach the surfaces people see most often.

The task/ambient layering applies a higher level of illumination just to those tasks that require it, while limiting the ambient illumination to a considerably lower level. Energy savings of 50% are available, compared to uniform general lighting.

Local Task

Higher level of light focused on specific tasks Balance surface brightness Create pleasant environment

Desktop or furniture mounted task light

Low watt fluorescent or LED

10-45W per station

Wall washer, recessed Linear or compact fluorescent or track-mount

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For most people, a space appears bright and pleasant and is more comfortable when the ceiling and walls are well lighted. A space that feels dark wants more light, regardless of what a footcandle meter says. Spatial brightness is one reason many people prefer the use of indirect lighting and recessed soft lighting coffers, such as those with basket optics.

Simply stated: put light where it is needed, in the appropriate amounts, and limit its use elsewhere. This is the foundation of a layered, task/ambient approach to lighting, which responds to the varied illuminance recommendations of ANSI/IESNA RP-1. Uniform applications of light typically use more energy than necessary.

Use of Layered Lighting in Open Office Area Layer Ambient Purpose Fill in shadows Orient to space Lower level of light Luminaire Overhead, recessed or pendant Lamp Linear T8 or T5 fluorescent Power Use 0.6-0.7 W per Square foot

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Daylight

A Pleasingly Bright Space

Task/Ambient Lighting

Energy Smart Lighting Principles



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For any design, the more efficient the light source (and fixture), the less energy will be consumed. Four foot, high efficiency T8 lamps and ballasts (see table and appendix) are an effective choice for the primary overhead lighting. These systems deliver about 95 lumens per watt, provide good color, and offer a valuable choice of ballast options. Standard T8 lamps and ballasts (80 LPW) are inferior from every point of view. High efficiency T5 systems can also be a good choice, especially when the luminaire is designed to operate the lamp at an elevated temperature (see pages 38-39 for more details). High output T5 systems work best with very small fixtures or where precise optics are required. Infrared coating technology raises the efficiency of halogen sources by 30-35%, permitting the use of lower wattage lamps for accent lighting and where dimming is desired. Ceramic metal halide systems are considerably more efficient and can be used in both downlights and adjustable accent lights.

Light Sources for Office Lighting Lamp Type Standard T8 High Efficiency T8 High Efficiency T5 High Output T5 Triple Tube CFL Halogen (PAR/MR) Halogen IRC (PAR/MR) Ceramic Metal Halide4 Color Rendering 70+ CRI 85 CRI 85 CRI 85 CRI 82 CRI 100 CRI 100 CRI 82 CRI System Watts 26-39W 24-36W 30W 60W 29-59W 20-90W 20-70W 26-79W System Lumen3 2000-3190 2100-3480 2470 4270 1500-3700 230-1350 350-1600 1050-4950 System LPW 80 LPW 95 LPW 80 LPW 71 LPW 55-60 LPW 11-18 LPW 17-23 LPW 40-63 LPW

A luminaire is a complete lighting system: fixture, lamp, and ballast (where needed). To evaluate the energy effectiveness of such systems, you can compare the lumens delivered by the luminaire to the total power required, with the result measured in lumens per watt. This measurement called luminaire efficacy combines the efficiency of the fixture with the efficacy of the lamp (and ballast) used in the fixture. What represents an advanced luminaire in terms of efficiency varies by type of luminaire. Since most pleasing designs include a diverse palette of luminaires, a range of efficiencies is to be expected. When absorption of light by the ceiling is considered, indirect pendants and direct troffers offer about the same energy efficiency. Due to cramped optics or shorter lamps, small luminaires are generally less efficient than large ones. It is easy to increase system efficiency simply by reducing luminaire shielding or directing light where it is not needed. Thus, it is critical to assure that the lighting system meets the requirements for light distribution and visual comfort before evaluating its efficiency. Practically speaking, efficiency is not very important where only a small number of luminaires are used for decorative effects.

Evaluating Luminaires Luminaire Type Indirect Pendant Direct/Indirect Pendant Parabolic Troffer Lens BasketTroffer Louvered BasketTroffer Horizontal CFL Downlight Vertical CFL Downlight Decorative CFL Luminaire Local Task Light Look for . . . Widespread uplight distribution Widespread uplight/shielded downlight 4" deep semi-specular louver Clean optical cavity Balanced internal brightness 35 shielding, evenly luminous reflector 40 shielding, evenly luminous reflector Comfortably luminous diffuser Effective shielding and distribution Fixture Efficiency  85% 85% 70% 90% 70% 2 60% 50% 40% NA 3 Luminaire Efficacy 70-80 LPW 70-80 LPW 60-65LPW 70 LPW 60-70 LPW 40 LPW 33 LPW 25 LPW 35 LPW Typical Product Lytespread Energos Vision Smart VR HP90 Paraplus Calculite Calculite Vetro Surfside

Notes: 1 T8 and T5 lamps are four foot only. 2 System watts are per lamp based on commercially available ballasts with different ballast factors and mean lamp lumens. 3 System lumens are per lamp using mean lamp lumens and reflect ballast factor; T5/T5HO shown at 25C. See pages 38-39 for discussion of T5/T5HO photometry. 4 Delivered lumens from non-reflectorized ceramic metal halide lamps depend on luminaire optics.

Notes: 1 Levels shown reflect larger, more efficient luminaires (9" wide pendants, 2x4 recessed troffers). Smaller fixtures with comparable optics will have somewhat lower efficiency. 2 See pages 38-39 for more discussion on the efficiency of T5 luminaires. 3 Limiting total watts with the right distribution of light is often more important than efficiency.

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Advanced Lamps and Ballasts

Efficient Luminaires

Energy Smart Lighting Principles

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The arrangement of luminaires should reflect the architecture and the organization of the space, as well as the desired quality of light. In practice, luminaires typically align to walls, workstations, columns, and of course the ceiling grid producing an intrinsic layout. Spacing fixtures closer together produces better lighting uniformity than a wide spacing, especially in spaces with furniture partitions. Once the lighting layout is arranged, it is necessary to specify the power and light in each fixture to attain the desired illumination and LPA. Except in high-ceiling spaces, a four foot fixture should use at most two lamps (not three). Even with two lamps, there may be too much power and light for an optimal design. In a fluorescent system, the amount of light produced, and power consumed, is determined by the Ballast Factor (BF). Most T8 fixtures are supplied with a BF of .87 (see pages 38-39 for more detail), but lower and higher BF (with the same system efficacy) are available. Using a lower BF, reduces both the light and power, which can adjust the design so that it hits the target illumination and power density. Light and power can also be adjusted using dimming ballasts, which permit a flexible response to changing task requirements (called task tuning).

Effect of Lamp and Ballast Specification x4 Luminaires Fixture Paraplus Paraplus Paraplus HP90 Lamp 2 x T8 2 x T8 2 x T5 2 x T5 BF .77 .87 .95 .95 Watts 48 54 58 58 Luminaires on 'x0' W/SF 0.60 0.68 0.73 0.73 FC 42 48 53 58 Luminaires at 0.6 W/SF SF/Luminaire 80 90 97 97 FC 42 42 44 48

Lighting energy can be conserved both by reducing the connected load (reducing watts) and by reducing the use of lighting when it is not needed (applying controls). The impact of controls depends significantly on the use and occupancy of the space, the availability of daylight, and how well the controls are arranged. (See the appendix for discussion of controls layouts and advanced technologies.) Occupancy sensors turn lights off when they sense that a space is no longer occupied. They are most useful in private offices, conference rooms, and similar enclosed spaces where savings of 20% or more can often be achieved at low incremental cost. (Studies show private offices are unoccupied as much as 40% of the typical day.) Programmed start ballasts are recommended for this application. They provide a soft start to fluorescent lamps that diminishes the impact of frequent switching on lamp life. Occupancy controls can also be used in open office areas where workers maintain irregular hours or are away from their workstations for prolonged periods. Where daylight is plentiful, daylight-linked dimming can be an effective strategy. The lighting needs to be zoned so that the luminaires in the daylighted areas can be separately dimmed. Dimmable systems can also permit individual control and afford savings from task tuning.

Effective Controls Strategies Space Daylight Ample Limited Strategy Daylight dimming Occupancy sensing Individual task tuning Occupancy sensing Daylight dimming Scheduled/zoned switching Individual task tuning Local area scheduling Zoned switching Multi-scene dimming Occupancy sensing Daylight dimming

Enclosed office

Calculations based on 60 x 56 x 9 room with 80-50-20 reflectances and no partitions; high efficiency T8 and T5 lamps and ballasts. Light levels in actual applications will tend to be lower. Comment At typical 8 x 10 spacing, a 2-lamp T8 system delivers the lowest W/SF. Higher efficiency T5 systems raise the illumination level but do not reduce the power density. To achieve a lighting power density of 0.6 W/SF, luminaires that draw more watts need to be spaced further apart, which may limit their use in lower ceilings.

Ample Open office Limited Conference room Training room Circulation Limited Ample

Recommended Reflectances Surface Ceiling Walls Partitions Furniture Floor Reflectance 80-90% 50-70% 40-70% 40-70% 20-40%

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For an energy-efficient space, select highly reflective materials and limit darker finishes to accents, such as chairs, architectural detail, plants, and art.

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The choice of materials and finishes for the office interior can significantly affect energy consumption. Dark-colored finishes ceiling, walls, furniture, and partitions reduce energy performance by absorbing light. Their impact is particularly costly in smaller spaces and with indirect lighting systems, where the effect can be 25% or more.

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Adjusting to the Lighting Layout

Effective Controls

An Efficient Space

Sample Applications Floor Plan

ADMINISTRATIVE ASSISTANT OFFICE


04

VICE PRESIDENT'S OFFICE


05

OFFICE
06

PRESIDENT'S OFFICE
03

CONFERENCE ROOM
19

CORRIDOR
07

SERVER ROOM
08

OPEN PLAN OFFICES


13

CORRIDOR
09

STORE ROOM
14

KITCHEN/DINING
18

S-1
20

6
ENTRY/LOBBY
01

TOILET
10

UP
JANITOR
17



TOILET
02

TOILET
11

MECH OFFICE
15 16

CORRIDOR
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The Spaces The sample applications on the following pages suggest how the guidelines for meeting user needs and the principles of energy smart design can be applied to real spaces in a variety of design options. The applications are based on a renovated 19th century building. The spaces include a mix of private and open offices, together with associated conference, circulation, and supporting areas, each with different design options. The area for each space, along with the applicable LPA from Standard 90.1-2004, are shown in the table below. For all spaces, key attributes are:
Height Ceiling Partition Wall Windows Furniture* Floor 7'6" 9'0" 4'6" Reflectance 80% 50% 50% 10% 50% 20%

Design Options The ambient lighting in each option can generally be combined with any of the suggestions for supplemental lighting shown in the other options. Note that the options are not intended to imply continuity of design; they can be used in any combination. Alternative recessed and pendant options are shown on page 40. Portable, desk-mounted task lighting is provided for each workstation. Complete descriptions of the luminaires can be found in the Luminaire Schedule on pages 34-37. To simplify maintenance, only 26W CFL lamps are specified for the downlights. Track lighting used for accent and wall illumination is fitted with 1 amp (120W) current limiting devices. In compliance with code, time-clock scheduled automatic shut-off controls are assumed for the entire space. Additional room control options are indicated.

Design Results As the accompanying table shows, power consumption for both individual spaces and the entire project falls well below ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004. Comparisons with IECC and Californias Title 24 are on page 43. Illuminance from overhead lighting averages 30-40 footcandles on work surfaces. Additional illuminance from a portable flexible-arm task light averages 27 footcandles over a 2'x2' area, with the bottom of the luminaire 15" above the work surface. (Task illuminance not shown.) Illuminance was calculated by AGI32 using luminaire data from the Schedule on pages 34-37. Room and surface dirt depreciation factors were .88 for open luminaires and .83 for enclosed luminaires. The reflectance values and partition heights reflect sustainable design practice. Lower reflectances or higher partition heights might require additional light and power.

Comments The irregularly shaped rooms, partitioned areas of various sizes and orientations, boxed-out columns, and a mix of ceiling types present common design challenges that influence the specific luminaire layout decisions. These particularities, while not typical of every project, make our results realistic. The lighting arrangements also reflect specific furniture locations, especially in the open office, which assists in reducing lighting power. Nevertheless, most of the luminaire spacing choices could be applied to different arrangements or even to spaces where the furniture locations are not yet known, though more fixtures (and consequently more power) may be required. Luminaire orientation and location were chosen to optimize illuminance and reduce veiling reflections, while tightly limiting power consumption. In practice and with low power density a priority these decisions may require several iterations, adding, removing, and rearranging luminaires as ours did.
Allowed Power Under Standard 90.-004 Room Open Plan Office Executive Office Office Office Conference Room Circulation Kitchen/Cafe Total Area SF 4054 159 130 163 131 497 300 438 5872 LPA W/SF 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.3 0.5 1.2 1.09 VTD Allow W/SF 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.35 LPA Watts 5878 230 189 236 190 646 150 526 8045 Designed Power Option  (W/SF) 0.76 1.22 1.06 0.85 1.05 0.98 0.40 0.96 0.80 42% 20% 27% Option  (W/SF) 0.71 1.48 0.92 0.74 0.92 1.09 0.51 ** 0.86 38% 14% 22% Option 3 (W/SF) 0.78 1.22 1.06 0.85 1.05 1.12 ** ** 0.83 33% 8% 16%

1.37

**Using Option 1 % below EPAct (Standard 90.1-2001) % below Standard 90.1-2004 Whole Building % below Standard 90.1-2004 without VDT Allowance

*File storage and personal storage is provided by floormounted cabinets; there are no binder bins.

The design results in the table exclude the lobby, storage and mechanical spaces, and restrooms, which represent 25% of the total space and are allowed 0.90 watts per square foot under Standard 90.1-2004.

E n e r g y

S m a r t

L i g h t i n g

Plan View

ADMINISTRATIVE ASSISTANT OFFICE


04

VICE PRESIDENT'S OFFICE


05

OFFICE
06

PRESIDENT'S OFFICE
03

Open Office Option 1


ENTRY/LOBBY
01

CONFERENCE ROOM
19

CORRIDOR
07

SERVER ROOM
08

OPEN PLAN OFFICES


13

CORRIDOR
09

STORE ROOM
14

KITCHEN/DINING
18

S-1
20

TOILET
10

UP
JANITOR
17

TOILET
02

TOILET
11

MECH OFFICE
15 16

CORRIDOR
12

W1
CE DENT'S ICE

OFFICE

F4A

P1



S1
OPEN PLAN OFFICES

9

A2

STORE ROOM

Walmaster - Wall Washer

Walls: Recessed T8 wall washers brighten the perimeter walls between windows. This reduces the effective brightness of the window during the day, and helps keep the office from feeling cave-like at night. The discreet appearance doesnt compete visually with the fixtures or the wall sconces. Columns: Compact fluorescent sconces add decorative visual interest for just 40W each. Shallow construction is ADA compliant. Recessed 20W ceramic metal halide accent lights illuminate graphics on columns. Controls: The coffers are controlled in four zones: each perimeter row is its own zone, while the central four rows are divided into two more zones. Wall washers and sconces comprise a fifth zone. Each perimeter row could be dimmed or switched automatically using

P
OFFICE

MECH

27
Surfside

13 Total Power Area Lighting Power Density Standard 90.1-2004 LPA % Below Standard

351 3065 W 4054 SF 0.76 W/SF 1.1 W/SF 31%

Avg Work Surface Illuminance 31 FC Avg Workplane Illuminance 31 FC

HP90 for Higher Llluminance

Type

Luminaire

QTY 40

Luminaire Watts Total Watts 58 2320 3465 W 4054 SF 0.85 W/SF 1.1 W/SF 22%

a daylight sensor; otherwise all zones are controlled by manual switches located on the wall as you enter the open area. (Dimming ballasts are not shown here.) This control scheme complies with Title 24. Uniform, bi-level control is not required because the power density is less than .8 W/SF.

F
HP90 2x4

Avg Work Surface Illuminance 37 FC Avg Workplane Illuminance 37 FC

Total Power Area Lighting Power Density Standard 90.1-2004 LPA % Below Standard

E n e r g y

Overhead: Recessed Paraplus soft-lighting coffers use high-efficiency T8 lamps with a .77 BF ballast to deliver appropriate task illumination at low power density. This luminaire is a good choice for computer-filled office spaces; its controlled brightness meets the RP-1 standard for normal computer use, while providing good facial lighting and balancing light levels around the space. For increased illuminance levels, HP90 (shown below in the accompanying table) is the most efficient option.

F4A
Paraplus 2x4

40 5
Bowshield - Wall Bracket
JANITOR

48 40 24 29

1920 200 72 522

S A
Calculite Metal Halide

3 18

W

S m a r t

L i g h t i n g

Design Intent

Type

Luminaire

KITCHEN/DINING

QTY

Luminaire Watts Total Watts

ADMINISTRATIVE ASSISTANT OFFICE


04

VICE PRESIDENT'S OFFICE


05

OFFICE
06

PRESIDENT'S OFFICE
03

Open Office Option 2


ENTRY/LOBBY
01

CONFERENCE ROOM
19

CORRIDOR
07

SERVER ROOM
08

OPEN PLAN OFFICES


13

CORRIDOR
09

STORE ROOM
14

KITCHEN/DINING
18

S-1
20

TOILET
10

UP
JANITOR
17

TOILET
02

TOILET
11

MECH OFFICE
15 16

CORRIDOR
12

W2
E NT'S CE

OFFICE

L1A

P1 S2
OPEN PLAN OFFICES

0

 T1

STORE ROOM

Matrix - 4x9 Wall Washer

Walls: Recessed rectangular aperture wall washers direct light to walls, using 26W triple-tube lamps. This brightens the perimeter walls between windows, reducing the effective brightness of the window during the day, and keeping the office from feeling cave-like at night. The rectangular aperture is a refreshing departure from traditional round downlights. Track-mounted 20W ceramic metal halide accent lights highlight the graphics wall on the way to the conference room and kitchen. Columns: Compact fluorescent wall sconces add a touch of glowing elegance at only 18W each. Controls: Each row of pendants is separately zoned; the wall washers and column-mounted sconces are a fourth zone. For compliance with Californias Title 24, each perimeter row could be dimmed or switched automatically using a daylight sensor (located at the edge of the 15' window zone); otherwise all zones are controlled by manual switches located on the wall as you enter the open area. (Dimming ballasts are not shown here.) Uniform, bi-level control is not required because the power density is less than .8 W/SF.

P
OFFICE

MECH

27
Surfside

13 Total Power Area Lighting Power Density Standard 90.1-2004 LPA % Below Standard

351 2894 W 4054 SF 0.71 W/SF 1.1 W/SF 35%

Avg Work Surface Illuminance 38 FC Avg Workplane Illuminance 26

E n e r g y

Overhead: Direct/indirect Energos 2 pendant T8 luminaires reflect light off the ceiling (good for facial modeling and even ambient illumination), and directs light downward comfortably onto task surfaces. The parabolic louver provides comfortable downlight that is suitable for computer use. With a 9' ceiling, the luminaire rows, 8' to 28' long, are suspended 18" from the ceiling and located over the partitions. Luminaire efficiency of 93% is very high; .77 BF ballasts reduce power consumption.

LA
Energos 2

36 8
Vetro - Wall Bracket
JANITOR

48 18 120 29

1728 144 120 551

S T
Track w/Mini HID

1 19

W

S m a r t

L i g h t i n g

Design Intent

Type

Luminaire

KITCHEN/DINING

QTY

Luminaire Watts Total Watts

ADMINISTRATIVE ASSISTANT OFFICE


04

VICE PRESIDENT'S OFFICE


05

OFFICE
06

PRESIDENT'S OFFICE
03

Open Office Option 3


ENTRY/LOBBY
01

CONFERENCE ROOM
19

CORRIDOR
07

SERVER ROOM
08

OPEN PLAN OFFICES


13

CORRIDOR
09

STORE ROOM
14

KITCHEN/DINING
18

S-1
20

TOILET
10

UP
JANITOR
17

TOILET
02

TOILET
11

MECH OFFICE
15 16

CORRIDOR
12

W3
E NT'S CE

D1
OFFICE

L2 P1



S3

OPEN PLAN OFFICES

3 T2

STORE ROOM

Matrix 4x4 Wall Wash

Walls: Recessed 4" square wall washers direct light to walls, using 26W triple-tube lamps. This brightens the perimeter walls between windows, reducing the effective brightness of the window during the day, and keeping the office from feeling cave-like at night. The square aperture matches the downlights in the central circulation areas. Track-mounted 20W ceramic metal halide lights highlight a graphics wall on the way to the conference room and kitchen. Circulation: Recessed 4" square downlights fill in ambient lighting away from the workstation pendants. Columns: Linear T5 fluorescent wall sconces add a friendly glow, using just 25W each. Controls: The pendants are networked on an iGEN DALI bus with separate, addressable dimming ballasts for the upper and lower lamp in each luminaire. Upper lamps are controlled by a daylight sensor; the lower lamps by a look down occupancy and daylight sensor, mounted in the luminaire. The lower lamp can also be personally controlled by the work station occupant from a computer. Supplemental lighting can be controlled by iGEN or simply switched.

T
OFFICE

MECH

1
Track w/Mini HID

120 13 Total Power Area Lighting Power Density Standard 90.1-2004 LPA % Below Standard

120 351 3240 W 4054 SF 0.80 W/SF 1.1 W/SF 27%

P
Surfside

27

Avg Work Surface Illuminance 31 FC Illuminance Under Luminaire 43 FC

E n e r g y

Workstations: Individual Agili-T 4' direct/indirect pendant luminaires located in each workstation reflect light off the ceiling (good for facial modeling and even ambient illumination) and direct light downward onto task surfaces. Lamp-over-lamp design allows separate control of the direct and indirect illumination without segmented optics; the parabolic louver provides comfortable downlight that is suitable for computer use. Luminaires are suspended 18" from the ceiling.

L
Agili-T Coplanar

27 5
Soli - Wall Bracket
JANITOR

67 18 29 29

1809 90 319 551

S3 D
Matrix 4x4 Downlight

11 19

W3

S m a r t

L i g h t i n g

Design Intent

Type

Luminaire

KITCHEN/DINING

QTY

Luminaire Watts Total Watts

ADMINISTRATIVE ASSISTANT OFFICE


04

VICE PRESIDENT'S OFFICE


05

OFFICE
06

PRESIDENT'S OFFICE
03

Private Office Option 1


ENTRY/LOBBY
01

CONFERENCE ROOM
19

CORRIDOR
07

SERVER ROOM
08

OPEN PLAN OFFICES


13

CORRIDOR
09

STORE ROOM
14

KITCHEN/DINING
18

S-1
20

Private Office Option 2

TOILET
10

UP
JANITOR
17

TOILET
02

TOILET
11

MECH OFFICE
15 16

CORRIDOR
12

F2

A1

P2

L4

P2

L3

EXECUTIVE OFFICE

GENERAL OFFICE 1

GENERAL OFFICE 2

GENERAL OFFICE 3

Q1

OFFICE

Q2

EXECUTIVE OFFICE

GENERAL OFFICE 1

GENERAL OFFICE 2

GENERAL OFFICE 3

4



Overhead: Four 2x2 HP90 soft-lighting coffers, 2-F14T5 lamps each, distribute light throughout the space and deliver good facial lighting, while limiting the power consumption. The luminaire is very efficient (77%) and meets the RP-1 standard for normal computer use. Luminaires are located to optimize desktop illuminance, minimize veiling reflections, and provide good wall illumination. Controls: The overhead lighting is equipped with iGEN Smart Vision (self-addressing) controls for both occupancy sensing and daylight-linked dimming. In this system, the sensor module attaches to one fixture, and the signal is networked to the other three. An infrared remote option provides personal dimming control. This approach complies with Title 24. Executive Office: Overhead lighting is supplemented by 35W adjustable MR16 accent lights for the back wall and credenza, and a decorative compact fluorescent pendant over the conversation table. Executive Controls: Smart Vision control for the overhead lighting can be combined with an occupancy sensing switch for the supplemental lighting, which complies with Title 24. Alternatively, all lighting can be controlled by a MultiSet system, offering pushbutton preset control with occupancy sensing override.

Type F

Luminaire

QTY 12

Luminaire Watts Total Watts 32 10 384 40 424 W 424 SF 1.0 W/SF 1.1 W/SF 9%

HP90 2x2

Cirque

Cirque

Executive Office Type F A


Calculite 3"

Controls: The overhead lighting is controlled by occupancy sensing switches. For compliance with Title 24, Lytespread LSB is wired for two-level lighting. Executive Office: The overhead F7000 direct/indirect T5 pendant is configured into an L shape with 35W adjustable MR16 accent lights cantilevered from each end. Diffusing panels along the sides of the pendant add visual interest. A decorative compact fluorescent pendant hangs over the conversation table and provides a pleasing glow. Executive Controls: The overhead fluorescent, MR16 accents, and CFL pendant are separately controlled with occupancy sensing switches. To comply with Title 24, each leg of the fluorescent pendant is separately switched. Alternatively, the fluorescent can be dimmed either manually or by daylight sensor with an occupancy sensor for on/off control.

Executive Office Type L4


F7400

Luminaire
HP90 2x2

QTY 4 1 1

Luminaire Watts Total Watts 32 37 18 128 37 18 10 193 W 159 SF 1.21 W/SF 1.1 W/SF 10%

Luminaire

QTY 1 1

Luminaire Watts Total Watts 196 29 196 29 10 235 W 159 SF 1.48 W/SF 1.1 W/SF 34%

Q
Vetro Pendant

Q
Vetro Pendant

P

Cirque

P

Cirque

Avg Work Surface Illuminance 35 FC Avg Workplane Illuminance 28 FC

10 Total Power Area Lighting Power Density Standard 90.1-2004 LPA % Above Standard

Avg Work Surface Illuminance 47 FC Avg Workplane Illuminance 33

10 Total Power Area Lighting Power Density Standard 90.1-2004 LPA % Above Standard

E n e r g y

Avg Work Surface Illuminance 32 FC Avg Workplane Illuminance 29 FC

Total Power Area Lighting Power Density Standard 90.1-2004 LPA % Below Standard

Avg Work Surface Illuminance 35 FC Avg Workplane Illuminance 30

Total Power Area Lighting Power Density Standard 90.1-2004 LPA % Below Standard

360 W 424 SF 0.85 W/SF 1.1 W/SF 23%

S m a r t

P

Overhead: Individual Lytespread LSB 8' 4-T8 direct/ indirect pendant luminaires reflect light off the ceiling (good for facial modeling and even ambient illumination), and direct light downward comfortably onto task surfaces. The radial blade louver and diffusing overlay provide comfortable downlight that is suitable for computer use. Luminaires are located to optimize desktop illuminance and minimize veiling reflections.

Type L3

Luminaire

QTY 6

Luminaire Watts Total Watts 55 10 330 30

LSB

P

L i g h t i n g

Design Intent

General Office

Design Intent

General Office

ADMINISTRATIVE ASSISTANT OFFICE


04

VICE PRESIDENT'S OFFICE


05

OFFICE
06

PRESIDENT'S OFFICE
03

Private Office Option 3


ENTRY/LOBBY
01

CONFERENCE ROOM
19

CORRIDOR
07

SERVER ROOM
08

OPEN PLAN OFFICES


13

CORRIDOR
09

STORE ROOM
14

KITCHEN/DINING
18

S-1
20

Private Office Option 4

TOILET
10

UP
JANITOR
17

TOILET
02

TOILET
11

MECH OFFICE
15 16

CORRIDOR
12

F3

D1 L2
GENERAL OFFICE 1 GENERAL OFFICE 2 GENERAL OFFICE 3 EXECUTIVE OFFICE

P2

P2 Q1
EXECUTIVE OFFICE

Q1

GENERAL OFFICE 1

GENERAL OFFICE 2

GENERAL OFFICE 3

A!

W3

6



Cirque

4x4 Matrix Downlight

Controls: The overhead lighting is equipped with iGEN Smart Vision (self-addressing) controls for both occupancy sensing and daylight-linked dimming. In this system, the sensor module attaches to one fixture, and the signal is networked to the other three. An infrared remote option provides personal dimming control. This approach complies with Title 24. Executive Office: Overhead lighting is supplemented by 35W adjustable MR16 accent lights and a decorative compact fluorescent pendant over the conversation table. Executive Controls: Smart Vision control for the overhead lighting can be combined with an occupancy sensing switch for the supplemental lighting, which complies with Title 24. Alternatively, all lighting can be controlled by a MultiSet system, offering pushbutton preset control with occupancy sensing override.

Executive Office Type F3 A


Calculite 3"

Executive Office: In addition to the Agili-T pendant and Matrix downlights, a Vetro pendant illuminates the discussion table. Controls: Dual sensor for occupancy and daylight controls both upper and lower lamps. The lower lamp also responds to personal control from the occupant's computer, with dimming up to the maximum set by the daylight sensor. An infrared remote option provides personal dimming control. The supplemental lighting is controlled by a wall-mounted IntelliSight occupancy sensing switch. This approach complies with Title 24.

Cirque

Luminaire
HP90 1x4

QTY 4 1 1

Luminaire Watts Total Watts 32 37 18 128 37 18 10 193 W 159 SF 1.21 W/SF 1.1 W/SF 10%

Avg Work Surface Illuminance 35 FC Avg Workplane Illuminance 27

Total Power Area Lighting Power Density Standard 90.1-2004 LPA % Below Standard QTY 1 2 1 1 1

463 W 424 SF 1.09 W/SF 1.1 W/SF 1%

Executive Office Type L D W3 Q P Luminaire


Agili-T Coplanar 4x4 Matrix Downlight 4x4 Matrix Wall Washer

Luminaire Watts Total Watts 67 29 29 29 67 58 29 29 10 182 W 159 SF 1.14 W/SF 1.1 W/SF 4%

Q
Vetro Pendant

P

Cirque

Avg Work Surface Illuminance 37 FC Avg Workplane Illuminance 32 FC

10 Total Power Area Lighting Power Density Standard 90.1-2004 LPA % Above Standard

Vetro Pendant Cirque

Avg Work Surface Illuminance 42 FC Avg Workplane Illuminance 29

10 Total Power Area Lighting Power Density Standard 90.1-2004 LPA % Above Standard

E n e r g y

Avg Work Surface Illuminance 36 FC Avg Workplane Illuminance 32 FC

Total Power Area Lighting Power Density Standard 90.1-2004 LPA % Below Standard

414 W 424 SF 0.98 W/SF 1.1 W/SF 11%

W3 P

4x4 Matrix Wall Washer

3 3

29 10

87 30

S m a r t

Overhead: Four 1x4 HP90 soft-lighting coffers, 1-F28T5 lamp each, distribute light throughout the space and deliver good facial lighting, while limiting power consumption. The luminaire is very efficient (84%) and meets the RP-1 standard for normal computer use. Luminaires are located to optimize desktop illuminance, minimize veiling reflections, and provide good wall illumination.

Type F3

Luminaire

QTY 12

Luminaire Watts Total Watts 32 10 384 30

HP90 1x4

P

Overhead: A single Agili-T Coplanar Solo illuminates the desk area. Lamp-over-lamp configuration facilitates separate control of task-oriented downlight and ambient uplight. Luminaire is oriented to the primary paper-task work surface. Parabolic louver shields downlight for high visual comfort. Matrix 4x4 downlights and Matrix 4x4 wall washers provide supplemental ambient lighting for other areas.

Type L D

Luminaire
Agili-T Coplanar

QTY 3 5

Luminaire Watts Total Watts 67 29 201 145

L i g h t i n g

Design Intent

General Office

Design Intent

General Office

ADMINISTRATIVE ASSISTANT OFFICE


04

VICE PRESIDENT'S OFFICE


05

OFFICE
06

PRESIDENT'S OFFICE
03

Conference Room Option 1


ENTRY/LOBBY
01

CONFERENCE ROOM
19

CORRIDOR
07

SERVER ROOM
08

OPEN PLAN OFFICES


13

CORRIDOR
09

STORE ROOM
14

KITCHEN/DINING
18

S-1
20

Conference Room Option 2


W4

TOILET
10

UP
JANITOR
17

TOILET
02

TOILET
11

MECH OFFICE
15 16

CORRIDOR
12

W4

D2

D2 L5

Q3
CONFERENCE ROOM 1

CONFERENCE ROOM 2



9

Type Q3

Luminaire

QTY 3

Luminaire Watts Total Watts 29 29 29 87 232 174 493 W 497 SF 0.99 W/SF 1.3 W/SF 24%

Type L

Luminaire

QTY 3

Luminaire Watts Total Watts 46 29 29 138 232 174 544 W 497 SF 1.09 W/SF 1.3 W/SF 16%

Compact fluorescent 6" lens wall washers evenly light walls for pin-ups, white board use, or displays. Aperture size and finish match the central downlights. Controls: All lighting is controlled by a MultiSet system with four channels: pendants, downlights, and each row of wall washers. The downlights are dimmed; the other channels are non-dim. The system provides pushbutton control over five different lighting scenes (AV presentation, paper presentation, daytime conference, evening conference, and clean up). For AV presentations, wall washers and pendants are switched off, and the downlights dimmed. A ceiling-mounted occupancy sensor connects to the master control. Hand-held IR remote and an interface to a motorized window blind are system options.

The system provides pushbutton control over five different lighting scenes (AV presentation, paper presentation, daytime conference, evening conference, and clean up). For AV presentations, wall washers and pendants are switched off, and the downlights dimmed. A ceiling-mounted occupancy sensor connects to the master control. Hand-held IR remote and an interface to a motorized window blind are system options.

E n e r g y

Compact fluorescent 6" downlights deliver comfortable, over-the-shoulder illumination on the table; the slightly diffused Comfort Clear finish contributes to a perception of brightness without glare.

W4
Calculite Wall Washer

W4
Calculite Wall Washer

Avg Work Surface Illuminance 37 FC Avg Workplane Illuminance 22 FC

Total Power Area Lighting Power Density Standard 90.1-2004 LPA % Below Standard

Controls: All lighting is controlled by a MultiSet system with four channels: pendants, downlights, and each row of wall washers. The downlights are dimmed; the other channels are non-dim.

Avg Work Surface Illuminance 57 FC Avg Workplane Illuminance 33 FC

Total Power Area Lighting Power Density Standard 90.1-2004 LPA % Below Standard

S m a r t

Option : Pendalyte decorative 9" diameter compact fluorescent pendants provide visual entertainment, as well as tabletop illumination. The suspended clear glass disk complements the primary glowing forms. Bottom of pendant is 5' AFF.

Pendalytes

D
Calculite Downlight

Option : Energos T8 linear fluorescent pendant provides a high level of illumination on the tabletop and brightens the ceiling. Indirect lighting helps faces look attractive. 24" overall suspension length allows wide spread of light on ceiling. Parabolic louver minimizes glare for users.

Energos 1

D
Calculite Downlight

L i g h t i n g

Design Intent

Design Intent

ADMINISTRATIVE ASSISTANT OFFICE


04

VICE PRESIDENT'S OFFICE


05

OFFICE
06

PRESIDENT'S OFFICE
03

Conference Room Option 3


ENTRY/LOBBY
01

CONFERENCE ROOM
19

CORRIDOR
07

SERVER ROOM
08

OPEN PLAN OFFICES


13

CORRIDOR
09

STORE ROOM
14

KITCHEN/DINING
18

S-1
20

Conference Room Option 4


W1

TOILET
10

UP
JANITOR
17

TOILET
02

TOILET
11

MECH OFFICE
15 16

CORRIDOR
12

W5 D3

F4D
CONFERENCE ROOM 3
CONFERENCE ROOM 4

30

3

Type D3

Luminaire

QTY 11

Luminaire Watts Total Watts 29 120 319 240 559 W 497 SF 1.12 W/SF 1.3 W/SF 13%

Type F4D

Luminaire

QTY 6

Luminaire Watts Total Watts 71 29 426 116 542 W 497 SF 1.09 W/SF 1.3 W/SF 16%

Controls: All lighting is controlled by a Multiset system with four channels: two zones of downlights and each track. The downlights are dimmed; the other channels are non-dim. The system provides pushbutton control over five different lighting scenes (AV presentation, paper presentation, daytime conference, evening conference, and clean up). For AV presentations, track wall washers are switched off, and the downlights dimmed. A ceiling-mounted occupancy sensor connects to the master control. Hand-held IR remote and an interface to a motorized window blind are system options.

Controls: All lighting is controlled by a Multiset system with three channels: one for the central Paraplus coffers and two for the wall washers. The Paraplus coffers are dimmed; the other channels are non-dim. The system provides pushbutton control over five different lighting scenes (AV presentation, paper presentation, daytime conference, evening conference, and clean up). For AV presentations, wall washers, and the central coffers dimmed. A ceiling-mounted occupancy sensor connects to the master control.

E n e r g y

Powerwash track-mounted 3' T5HO wall washers deliver vertical footcandles for lighting the whiteboard or pin-up space. The track is equipped with a Powertrip current-limiting device, limiting the total wattage to 120W. Including the track, Powerwash extends a minimal 5" below the ceiling so it does not interfere with projected images.

Avg Work Surface Illuminance 30 FC Avg Workplane Illuminance 22 FC

Total Power Area Lighting Power Density Standard 90.1-2004 LPA % Below Standard

Walmaster 4' long recessed asymmetrical wall washers illuminate the whiteboard or pin-up wall without calling attention to themselves.

Avg Work Surface Illuminance 78 FC Avg Workplane Illuminance 52 FC

Total Power Area Lighting Power Density Standard 90.1-2004 LPA % Below Standard

S m a r t

Option 3: Vetro 6" decorative compact fluorescent downlights provide effective lighting for the table and the faces across it. The highly polished acrylic collar adds pleasing sparkle. The recessed downlights do not interfere with ceiling-mounted projection equipment.

Vetro Downlights

W
Track w/PowerWash

Option 4: This simple approach to the conference room applies the luminaires used in Open Office option 1. Paraplus 2x4s provides excellent lighting on faces for meetings, as well as high and uniform light levels on the tabletop. Glare is controlled with an acrylic diffuser above parabolic louvers. These recessed luminaires do not interfere with projection equipment.

Paraplus

W
Wall Master

L i g h t i n g

Design Intent

Design Intent

ADMINISTRATIVE ASSISTANT OFFICE


04

VICE PRESIDENT'S OFFICE


05

OFFICE
06

ADMINISTRATIVE ASSISTANT OFFICE


04

VICE PRESIDENT'S OFFICE


05

OFFICE
06

PRESIDENT'S OFFICE
03

PRESIDENT'S OFFICE
03

Kitchen
ENTRY/LOBBY
01

CONFERENCE ROOM
19

CONFERENCE ROOM
19

CORRIDOR
07

CORRIDOR
07

SERVER ROOM
08

SERVER ROOM
08

OPEN PLAN OFFICES


13

OPEN PLAN OFFICES


13

CORRIDOR
09

CORRIDOR
09

STORE ROOM
14

STORE ROOM
14

KITCHEN/DINING
18

KITCHEN/DINING
18

S-1
20

S-1
20

Circulation

TOILET
10

TOILET
10

UP
JANITOR
17

UP
ENTRY/LOBBY
01

JANITOR
17

TOILET
02

TOILET
11

TOILET
02

TOILET
11

MECH OFFICE
15 16

MECH OFFICE
15 16

CORRIDOR
12

CORRIDOR
12

KITCHEN/DINING

UP
F5
CORRIDOR

JANITOR

MECH

F1 W3 U1 3 S4 33
CORRIDOR

Overhead: Recessed HP90 soft lighting coffer with two T5 lamps is more than 90% efficient and provides a high level of illumination with good facial lighting for breaks and informal gatherings. The linear prismatic lens fully encloses the lamps satisfying requirements for food preparation areas. Luminaire orientation, rotated 45 from the rest of the office, offers an appropriate diversion during break times. Counter: Low profile T8 task lighting is mounted under cabinets to illuminate local work surfaces. Control: Recessed fixtures are provided with two-level ballasts, which will provide both high and low-level lighting options. Control is provided by occupancy-sensing switches. This configuration complies with Title 24.

Type F

Luminaire

QTY 6

Luminaire Watts Total Watts 58 18 348 72 420 W 438 SF 0.96 W/SF 1.2 W/SF 20%

HP90 2x4

Undercabinet Lighting

Avg Work Surface Illuminance 42

Option  Type S4
F7400 Wall Mount

Luminaire

QTY 3 2

Luminaire Watts Total Watts 32 29 98 58 154 W 300 SF 0.51 W/SF 0.50 W/SF 2%

Option : Wall-mounted F7441 direct/indirect luminaires deliver the primary illumination. Reflected light from the ceiling and opposite wall creates a feeling of spaciousness in a confined area, provides good face lighting, and is comfortably free from glare. Luminous side ribbing and louvered downlight add visual interest. An emergency battery option can be easily accommodated if required. Matrix 4x4 wall washers illuminate artwork by the Presidents office. A second wall washer at the interior end of the corridor helps to balance the brightness at the opposite window end.

W3
Matrix 4x4 Wall Washer

Avg Floor Illuminance

Total Power Area Lighting Power Density Standard 90.1-2004 LPA % Above Standard

E n e r g y

Total Power Area Lighting Power Density Standard 90.1-2004 LPA % Below Standard

The Paraplus 2x2 is style matched to Open Office option 1; an HP90 2x2 the same luminaire used in Private Office option 1 could also be used with very similar results.

S m a r t

U

Option : Paraplus 2x2 coffers distribute light onto walls to brighten this narrow, interior space. The soft lighting optics permit spacing up to 12' on center. Efficiency of 65% (high for a 2x2 coffer) with just 2-F17 lamps provides an effective low wattage approach to meet the 0.5 W/SF lighting power allowance. An emergency battery option can be be easily accommodated if required.

Type F

Luminaire

QTY 4

Luminaire Watts Total Watts 30 136 120 W 300 SF 0.40 W/SF 0.50 W/SF 20%

Paraplus 2x2

Avg Floor Illuminance

Total Power Area Lighting Power Density Standard 90.1-2004 LPA % Below Standard

L i g h t i n g

Design Intent

General Office

Design Intent

Option 

Luminaire Schedule

Fixture Type

Description Note 1

Lamps Note 2

Input Watt

Ballast Type Notes 3 and 4

Lightolier Product Notes 3, 5 and 6 Evolution 3" Adjustable

Location

Fixture Type

Description Note 1

Lamps Note 2 (2) F32T8/835/ Super T8

Input Watt

Ballast Type Notes 3 and 4

Lightolier Product Notes 3, 5 and 6 Paraplus 2x4

Location

A

Recessed adjustable MR16 downlight with 3" diameter (1) cone, clear aluminum self-flange trim, unitized to assure Q35MR16/C/FL40 correct alignment. Non-IC housing 15.8" long x 9.5" wide x 6" recessed depth. Fixture accommodates up to 2" ceiling thickness and permits servicing through the aperture. Aiming adjusts and locks with a Phillips screwdriver. Full 45 aiming angle for lamp without blocking light beam. Label for MAXIMUM 37W lamp for energy code compliance. Recessed adjustable T4 metal halide downlight with (1) CMH20TC/ 30 flood distribution upper reflector and nominal 830 4.5" diameter cone, clear aluminum self-flange trim, unitized to assure correct alignment. Housing is 15" long x 13.8" wide x 8" recessed depth. Fixture accommodates up to 1" ceiling thickness and permits servicing through the aperture. 35 aiming angle for lamp. Aiming adjusts and locks with a Phillips screwdriver. Recessed compact fluorescent square downlight with horizontal mounted lamp with comfort clear reflector finish and polished self-flange. Nominal aperture is 4.5" square, recess depth of 5.5". Minimum efficiency of 50%. Recessed compact fluorescent downlight with horizontal mounted lamp with comfort clear reflector finish and polished self-flange. Nominal aperture is 6" and recess depth of 6.75". Minimum efficiency of 61% Recessed compact fluorescent downlight with vertical lamp. Clear reflector finish and dropped glass cylinder. Nominal aperture is 6", recess depth is 10", and projection from ceiling is 1.9". Recessed direct/indirect 2'x4' soft lighting coffer with linear acrylic lens, specular reflector behind lens. Nominal dimensions 2'x4'x5" depth. Minimum efficiency of 90%. Contractor to verify ceiling type. Recessed direct/indirect 2'x2' soft lighting coffer with linear acrylic lens, specular reflector behind lens. Nominal dimensions 2'x2'x5" depth. Minimum efficiency of 75%. Contractor to verify ceiling type. Recessed direct/indirect 1'x4' soft lighting coffer with linear acrylic lens, specular reflector behind lens. Nominal dimensions 1'x4'x5" depth. Minimum efficiency of 84%. Contractor to verify ceiling type. Recessed direct/indirect 2'x4' soft lighting coffer with 12-cell center louver and prismatic overlay. Nominal dimensions 2'x4'x5" depth. Minimum efficiency of 72%. Contractor to verify ceiling type. (1) CFTR26/ GX24q/835

37

Integral Electronic Transformer

Private Office 1 & 3

F4D

Recessed direct/indirect 2'x4' soft lighting coffer with 12-cell center louver and prismatic overlay. Nominal dimensions 2'x4'x5" depth. Minimum efficiency of 72%. Contractor to verify ceiling type. Recessed direct/indirect 2'x2' soft lighting coffer with 8-cell center louver and prismatic overlay. Nominal dimensions 2'x2'x5" depth. Minimum efficiency of 65%. Contractor to verify ceiling type. Suspended direct/indirect linear fluorescent pendant. Two T8 lamps in cross section. 33% downlight/67% uplight. Extruded aluminum housing, 10" wide x 2.5" high, with low-iridescent semi-specular anodized aluminum parabolic louvers. White finish on housing. Minimum efficiency of 92%. Suspended linear fluorescent pendant. Two T5 lamps in cross section, lamp-over-lamp configuration, with separate control of uplight and downlight. 30% downlight/70% uplight. Extruded aluminum housing 7.2" wide x 1.8" high, with matte parabolic louvers. White finish on housing. Minimum efficiency of 84%. Suspended direct/indirect linear fluorescent pendant. Two T8 lamps in cross section. 27% downlight/73% uplight. Extruded aluminum housing, 8.5" wide x 2" high, with painted radial louvers. White finish on housing. Minimum efficiency of 84%. Suspended direct/indirect linear fluorescent luminaire. Two T5 lamps in cross section. 69% uplight/31% downlight. Extruded aluminum housing, 5.8" wide x 1.6" high, with flat blade louvers and translucent ribbed side lens. White finish on housing and louvers. Minimum efficiency of 79%. Adjustable MR-16 accent modules,12" long, cantilevered from each end of the configuration. Label accent lights for MAXIMUM 35W LAMP for energy code compliance. Suspended direct/indirect linear fluorescent pendant. Two T8 lamps in cross section. 33% downlight/67% uplight. Steel housing, 11" wide x 2.2" high, with lowiridescent semi-specular anodized aluminum parabolic louvers. White finish on housing. Minimum efficiency of 92%.

71

3-wire 100 - 1% dimming HDF232T8

Conference 4

F

(2) F17T8/835

30

High efficiency Programmed Start .87 BF High Efficiency Instant Start .77 BF

Paraplus 2x2

Circulation 1

A

24

Integral Electronic Ballast

Calculite 4" CMH Adjustable

Open Office 1

LA

(2) F32T8/835/ Super T8

48

Energos 2

Open Office 2

34

3

L 29 Integral Electronic Matrix 4x4 Downlight Open Office 3 Private Office 4 L3

(2) F28T5/835

67

(2) DALI Dimming Programmed Start

Agili-T Coplanar Solo

Open Office 3 Private Office 4

D

D

(1) CFTR26/ GX24q/835

29

Integral Electronic Dimming

Calculite 6" CFL Downlight

Conference Room 1&2 L4

(2) F32T8/835/ Super T8

"55 per 4'"

High Efficiency Programmed Start .87 BF

Lytespread LSB

Private Office 2

D3

(1) CFTR26/ GX24q/835

29

Integral Electronic Dimming

Vetro 6" Downlight Conference Room 3

F

(2) F28T5/835

58

High Efficiency Programmed Start .95 BF High Efficiency Programmed Start 1.0 BF High Efficiency Programmed Start 1.0 BF High Efficiency Instant Start .77 BF

HP90 2x4

Open Office 1 Kitchen/Caf

F

(2) F14T5/835

32

HP90 2x2

Private Office 1

L

(2) F32T8/835/ Super T8

"46 per 4'"

High Efficiency Programmed Start .71 BF

Energos 1

Conference 2

F3

(1) F28T5/835

32

HP90 1x4

Private Office 3 P

F4A

(2) F32T8/835/ Super T8

48

Paraplus 2x4

Open Office 1

Portable, adjustable desk-mounted compact fluorescent (1) CF13DS/E/835 13 task light. Transparent green polycarbonate shade 10" long. Extruded aluminum Spring-balanced arm, 20" long. Weighted base. Cord and plug and on/off swithch. Silver enamel finish. Lamp included.

Electronic Ballast

Surfside Task Light

Open Office 1, 2, 3

E n e r g y

(4) F28T5/835 and (2) Q35MR16/C/ FL40 lamps per configuration

196

High Efficiency Programmed Start .95 BF

F7400 System

Private Office 2

S m a r t

L i g h t i n g

Luminaire Schedule (continued)

Fixture Type

Description Note 1

Lamps Note 2 (8) 1W LED's 6500K

Input Watt

Ballast Type Notes 3 and 4

Lightolier Product Notes 3, 5 and 6 Cirque Task Light

Location

Fixture Type

Description Note 1

Lamps Note 2 (1) F17T8/835

Input Watt

Ballast Type Notes 3 and 4

Lightolier Product Notes 3, 5 and 6 Undercabinet Task Light Walmaster

Location

P

Portable, adjustable desk-mounted LED task light. Die-cast aluminum shade 9.8" diameter. Articulated, spring-balanced steel arm, 34" long. Weighted base. Cord and plug and on/off switch. Silver enamel finish. LED's included. Suspended decorative pendant with concentric cones of hand-blown triplex and clear glass. Satin aluminum finish on housing and canopy. 7.5" diameter x 17" high. Suspend at 5' AFF.

10

Electronic Transformer

Private Office 1, 2, 3, 4

U

Undercabinet linear fluorescent light with solid front, steel-body, black finish, white painted reflector, and linear diffuser. 26" long x 7.3" wide x 1.8" high. Recessed 1-lamp wall washer with low-iridescent reflector. 48" long x 8" wide x 4.5" deep. Recessed lensed wall washer with lamp horizontally mounted. Comfort clear reflector finish and polished self-flange trim. Nominal aperture of 4.5" x 9" and recessed depth of 5.5". Minimum efficiency of 40%. Recessed lensed wall washer with lamp horizontally mounted. Comfort clear reflector finish and polished self-flange trim. Nominal aperture of 4.5" square and recessed depth of 5.5". Minimum efficiency of 39%. Recessed lensed wall washer with lamp horizontally mounted. Clear reflector finish and polished self-flange trim. Nominal aperture of 6" and recessed depth of 6.75". Minimum efficiency of 33%. Ceiling-mounted track with (1) F39T5HO fluorescent wall washers. White finish track and fixture. Track has current limiting device with maximum wattage of 120w. Provide necessary components to complete track run.

18

Electronic Instant Start

Kitchen/Caf

W (1) CF13DS/ E/835 18 Integral Electronic Vetro Pendant Private Office 1, 3, 4

Q

(1) F32T8/835/ Super T8 (1) CFTR26/ GX24q/835

29

High Efficiency Programmed Start .88 BF Integral Electronic

Open Office 1 Conference Room 4 Open Office 2

W

29

Matrix 4x9 Wall Washer

Q

36

Suspended decorative pendant with concentric cylinders (1) CFTR26/ of hand-blown triplex and clear glass. Satin aluminum GX24q/835 finish on housing and canopy. 7" diameter x 16.5" high. Suspend at 5' AFF. Suspended decorative pendant with white glass diffuser (1) CFTR26/ and etched glass deco disk. 9.5" diameter x 17" high. GX24q/835 Cable and wire suspension. Titanium finish power head, canopy, and power cord. Satin aluminum disk supports. Mount bottom of fixture at 5'-0" AFF. Minimum efficiency of 62%. Wall-mounted decorative sconce with silk-screened glass diffuser. 13" wide x 13.5" high x 4" maximum projection. ADA compliant. Satin Nickel finish on exposed hardware. Center at 5'6" AFF Wall-mounted decorative sconce with die-cast and machined lamp holder and hand-blown triplex glass diffuser. 2.5" diameter x 13.5" high x 4" maximum projection and 4.5" wide backplate. Satin aluminum finish. ADA compliant. Center at 5'6" AFF. Wall-mounted decorative sconce with etched glass diffusing reflector and slitted aluminum housing. 23" tall x 6.5" wide x 3.75" maximum projection. Satin aluminum finish. ADA compliant. Center at 5' AFF. Wall-mounted direct/indirect linear fluorescent luminaire. One T5 lamp. 67% uplight/33% downlight. Extruded aluminum housing, 3.9" wide x 1.6" high, with flat blade louvers and translucent ribbed side lens. White finish on housing and louvers. Minimum efficiency of 81%. Mount at 7' AFF. Ceiling-mounted 12' track and (5) Mini HID MR16 Step Spots with integral electronic ballasts. White painted finish. Track is fitted with a dedicated 1 Amp current limiting device with maximum wattage of 120W. (2) CFQ18/G24q2/835

29

Integral Electronic

Vetro Pendant

Private Office 2 W3

(1) CFTR26/ GX24q/835

29

Integral Electronic

Matrix 4x4 Wall Washer

Q3

Open Office 3 Private Office 4 Circulation 2 Conference Room 1&2

3

29

Integral Electronic

Pendalyte 9" Deco Disk

Conference 1 W4

(1) CFTR26/ GX24q/835

29

Integral Electronic Dimming

Calculite 6" CFL Lensed Wall Washer Basic Track with Powerwash and Powertrip

S

All fixtures to be UL listed. Note 1 (1) F14T5/835 18 High Efficiency Programmed Start 1.0 BF High Efficiency Programmed Start 1.0 BF Soli Wall Open Office 3 Note 2 All dimensions are nominal. Contractor shall verify recessed depth prior to ordering fixtures. All fluorescent lamps shall have a CRI greater than 80. All lamps of a given type (linear fluorescent, compact fluorescent, ceramic metal halide, and halogen shall be from the same manufacturer. F32T8 lamps shall have mean lumens of 2900 or greater, rated average life (at 3 hours per start) of 24,000 hours or greater, and mercury content of 5 milligrams or less. F28T5 lamps shall have mean lumens of 2460 or greater, rated average life (at 3 hours per start) of 30,000 hours or greater, and mercury content of 1.5 milligrams or less. Electrical contractor shall verify all voltages with Electrical Engineer prior to ordering fixtures and apply correct voltage to catalog numbers. All ballasts for 4' T8 lamps shall have a system efficacy no less than 90 mean lumens per watt and 10% THD. Electrical contractor shall verify ceiling types prior to ordering fixtures and provide equipment appropriate to the actual condition. For specific catalog numbers or alternative fixtures, visit www.lightolier.com

S4

(1) F28T5/835

32

F7400 System

Circulation 2

Note 3 Note 4 Note 5 Note 6

T

(1) CMH20MR16/ Assume GX10/830/FL (per 120 track head) for track Assume 120 for track

Integral electronic in track head

Basic Track with Powertrip, Mini HID Step spot and spread lens AF2SF

Open Office 2

T

Ceiling-mounted 12' track and (5) Mini HID T4 Cylinders (1) CMH20T4/ with flood reflectors and electronic ballasts. White GU6.5/830 (per painted finish. Track is fitted with a dedicated 1 Amp track head) current limiting device with maximum wattage of 120W.

Integral electronic in track head

Basic Track with Open Office 3 Powertip, Mini HID cylinder flood and spread lens AF25SF

E n e r g y

S3

S m a r t

(1) CF13DS/ E/835

18

Integral Electronic

Vetro Wall

Open Office 2 General Notes

L i g h t i n g

S

40

Integral Electronic

Bowshield

Open Office 1

W

Two F39T5HO/835 Assume per 3' fixture 120 for track

Integral Electronic

Conference Room 3

Lighting Systems

Advanced Fluorescent Systems Since Energy Smart Lighting depends in part on using advanced fluorescent technology, it may be worth looking at some of the technical issues more closely. Readers unfamiliar with any of the terms used here can consult the Glossary on pages 44-45.
% Max Light Output

Thermal Effects on Fluorescent Light Output 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 Temperature (C) T5 T8

T Lamps T5 and T5HO lamps were introduced to North America in 1997 and in the last decade have found considerable use in indirect pendants and, more recently, in recessed basket troffers. 1. T5 lamps are just 5/8" in diameter, 37% smaller than T8. This allows smaller fixtures and more precise optics. 2. T5 and T8 lamps operate off of entirely different electronic circuits and ballasts. Additionally, T8 lamps can be driven by either instant start or programmed start ballasts. T5 lamps use programmed start ballasts. 3. T5 lamps have metric lengths: the nominal four foot lamp actually measures 46" in length. Thus T5 and T8 lamps cannot be simply interchanged. 4. The T5 family includes a high efficiency model and a high output (HO) model, both in the same length. They require different ballasts, but have the same distribution of light. 5. T5 lamps deliver maximum light output in an ambient temperature of 95F (35C). T8 lamps, on the other hand, are rated at 77F (25C). Like most fluorescent lamps, lumen output declines when the ambient temperature is either higher or lower than the optimum. Thus T5 lamps enjoy an advantage when the temperature inside a luminaire (or cove) is elevated.

Fluorescent Photometry Lamp output is measured in an integrating sphere, which captures all of the lumens emitted by the lamp. The measurement is carefully calibrated using a reference ballast, which drives the lamp at its nominal wattage (32W for most four-foot T8 lamps). When the lamp operates on a commercial ballast, its performance changes. Ballast companies measure the power required to operate the lamp and ballast together (input watts), as well as the performance of the lamp. This is compared to the lamps rated lumen output, to calculate the Ballast Factor. Ballasts can be engineered for a range of light output (BF) and input watts all roughly proportional for a given type of ballast. When a luminaire fixture, ballast, and lamps is photometered, the process changes again. First, the laboratory measures the output of just the specific lamps and ballast that will be used in the luminaire. This measurement is done in a 25C ambient. Then the lamps and ballast are installed in the fixture, and the complete luminaire is photometered under the same ambient conditions. The measured light output from the luminaire is then compared to light output from the lamps and ballast alone to calculate the luminaire efficiency. The actual measured candlepower and lumens are then normalized for the lamp. This is called relative photometry (as distinguished from absolute lamp photometry) and ensures that luminaire photometry is not affected by variances in the individual lamps and ballasts installed at the time of the test. Note that luminaire photometry captures the effects of changing temperatures inside the luminaire as when the environment of a small optical cavity heats up due to the lamp itself. If lamp output diminishes due to the increased temperature, then luminaire output and efficiency will both decrease. This is typical of enclosed T8 luminaires. However, open T8 luminaires, particularly indirect/direct pendants, typically operate near optimal temperatures when photometered. If actual conditions differ from those in the lab, the photometric results will not accurately predict installed performance, and compensating application factors should be applied. In a T5 luminaire, when the lamps and ballast are photometered alone, lamp output is about 11% below the ratings at 35C. When installed in the fixture, particularly an enclosed type, and the ambient temperature rises, lamp output increases as well. This is captured in the luminaire output and efficiency. In other words, the luminaire photometry includes both optical effects and thermal effects. In the case of well designed T5 luminaires, the thermal effects can be quite positive. When applying T5 luminaire photometry in a calculation, however, you must use the rated lamp lumens at 25C (not the higher 35C values) . . . even when the lamp operates in the fixture in a 35C ambient.

Specifying High Efficiency Lamps and Ballasts The variety of performance choices and manufacturer designations make it difficult to specify high efficiency T8 systems. The term Super T8 may be used for improved T8 technology, but it is often unclear what this means in practice and whether it refers to the lamp alone or to a lamp and ballast combination. Specifying minimum system efficacy is clearer. Here is another alternative to researching and writing each manufacturers lamp and ballast catalog numbers: 1. Specify a T8 lamp (in the desired color) with 32 nominal watts, at least 3100 initial lumens, and 24,000 rated average life (at three hours per start). 2. Specify each ballast with the desired BF and input watts. In our example: a 2-lamp instant start T8 ballast with .77 BF and 48 input watts. The parameters for other ballasts will be a little different. Luminaire Options A table of energy-efficient luminaire options is shown on the following page. Studies show that office workers prefer to work under a mix of indirect and direct lighting, rather than soley direct or indirect lighting. So, where ceiling height permits indirect/direct pendants are a good fixture choice. A 75/25 up and down distribution works well with high-reflectance ceilings. In spaces with intensive computer work, a totally indirect system with carefully focused supplemental accent lights can be a good alternative. Conventional pendants are typically mounted in continuous rows that are oriented to the design of the space. A workstationspecific design uses individual luminaires oriented to each work area. Separate uplight and downlight control permits individual dimming for local task lighting preferences. Where direct lighting is used, soft lighting coffers provide better illumination of vertical surfaces than troffers with parabolic louvers. A high-efficiency T5 coffer, such as HP90, is among the most efficient recessed options. Parabolic louvers, on the other hand, provide better cut off and glare control. 2x4 troffers are more efficient than smaller fixtures, but 2x2s and 1x4s offer more layout flexibility, especially in enclosed offices. Where computers represent the primary visual task, ANSI/IESNA RP-1 recommends that the intensity of direct lighting meet specific. These are shown on page 42. Compliant luminaires are indicated in the table on page 40. Other Attributes of Sustainability Mercury is toxic and considered a hazardous material. A very small amount (about 50 micrograms in a four foot T8) is needed for the efficient operation of all fluorescent lamps today. However, mercury tends to be absorbed by the glass wall of the lamp during operation, leading manufacturers to add more than 100 times that amount (several milligrams) to assure that the mer-

cury will remain active throughout the life of the lamp. While the actual amount of mercury in each lamp appears small, when you consider the millions of lamps used, it mounts up. The amount of mercury in the lamp can be substantially reduced without compromising lamp performance by preventing absorption and precisely dosing the lamp. Low mercury lamps have been available for more than a decade, and mercury levels continue to be reduced. LEED EB credits mercury reduction in a formula that calculates the amount of mercury in the lamp per lumen-hour of performance. The LEED-EB credit for 80 picograms per lumen-hour corresponds to a high efficiency T8 lamp with less than 6 milligrams of mercury. The best low mercury T8 lamps today do substantially better than that, while low mercury T5 lamps have less than 1.5 milligrams. Note that the LEED-EB credit is based on the weighted average of all lamps used in the project. Electrical equipment is excluded from LEED credits for recycled content and local manufacture. Nevertheless, manufacturing methods and transportation impact are valid concerns. On the one hand, T5 lamps due to their small diameter pack and transport more efficiently than T8 lamps. On the other hand, most T8 lamps used in North America are manufactured here. T5 lamps are currently produced in Europe, so their net transportation impact may not be as favorable. Lightolier manufactures its linear pendants, recessed troffers, and recessed downlights in North America in facilities that have been recognized for their environmental leadership. Significant advances include reduction of VOCs, reduction and recycling of cleaning and lubricating materials, and the recycling of pre-consumer waste material. Continuous improvement in product engineering has also resulted in the reduction of material content and imbedded-energy cost.

3

T vs. T Lamps There are conflicting claims for the benefits of T5 and T8 lamps and sorting them out can be confusing. Like T8 lamps, T5 lamps can be dimmed with appropriate dimming ballasts and controls. They are available with high CRI and in a range of colors. As noted above, T5 lamps provide better optical control, which may translate into a more efficient luminaire. Comparisons of efficacy and lamp life important elements of cost and environmental impact are a little more complex. The table below uses mean lumen data for high efficiency lamps and commercially available high efficiency ballasts. Since luminaire photometry is performed at 77F (25C), data are shown for T5/T5HO at 25C.

As the system efficacy shows, when lamps operate near room temperature (close to 25C), T8 has a decisive edge. On the other hand, when T lamps operate in elevated temperatures (as in enclosed luminaires), the output of T8 lamps diminishes, and T5 has the advantage. In practice, T8 systems do better in indirect pendants (such as Energos) unless the fixture is small and T5 lamps do better in a soft lighting coffer designed to operate the lamps in elevated temperatures (such as HP90). When T8 lamps are operated on instant start ballasts (the most efficient system), T5 has longer life. However, when both lamps operate on programmed start ballasts, rated average life is similar.

39

Two-Lamp T and T Systems Lamp F32T8 HE F32T8 HE F32T8 HE F32T8 HE F28T5 @ 35C F28T5 @ 25C F54T5HO @ 35C F54T5HO @ 25C Initial Lumens 3100 3100 3100 3100 2900 2600 5000 4500 Mean Lumens 2950 2950 2950 2950 2750 2466 4750 4275 Ballast Type Instant Instant Programmed Programmed Programmed Programmed Programmed Programmed Ballast Factor 0.87 1.18 0.88 0.71 1.03 1.03 0.99 0.99 System Lumens Input Watts 5,133 6,962 5,192 4,189 5,665 5,079 9,405 8,465 54 72 55 46 64 64 118 118 System Efficacy 95 LPW 97 LPW 94 LPW 91 LPW 89 LPW 79 LPW 80 LPW 72 LPW Lamp Life 30000 30000 36000 36000 35000 35000 35000 35000

Notes: 1. Initial and mean lumens vary a little among manufacturers of T5 lamps. Values used are generally representative. Mean lumens at 25C are calculated at 95% lumen maintenance. 2. Rated average life in hours at 12 hours per start.

Comment: Using initial lamp lumens and nominal lamp watts (exclusive of ballast), T5 lamps at 35C look a little better than T8s.

E n e r g y

S m a r t

L i g h t i n g

Lighting Systems (continued)

Controls

Luminaire Options Pendants Energos Louver or Lens Eye Q Lytespread LSB - Radial Louver Lytecell I/D Energos Louver or Lens Agili-T Neo/Coplanar Coplanar Solo F7000-17 (side lens) F7000-24 (lens) Silhouette (SC, SD, SF) Coplanar Solo Lytespead LSC F7000-1 (6.75" wide) Lytespread LSC Lytespread LSA-Wall Recessed Troffers HP90 2x4 Paraplus 2x4 Paraplus 2x4 Alter HE 2x4 Alter HE 2x4 VisionSmart VRA 2x4 HP90 2x2 HP90 2x2 Paraplus 2x2 Paraplus 2x2 Alter HE 2x2 Alter HE 2x2 VisionSmart VRA 2x2 Deepcel 2x2 (16) HP90 1x4 HP90 1x4 Paraplus 1x4 Paraplus 1x4 Paraplus 1x4 Alter HE 1x4 Alter HE 1x4 VisionSmart 1x4 Lytecel 8" Lytecel 8" Lamp over Lamp Lamp 2-T8 2-T8 2-T8 2-T8 2-T5 2-T5 2-T5 2-T5 2-T5 2-T5 3-T5 2-T8 1-T5HO 1-T5HO 1-T5HO Lamp 2-T5 2-T8 2-T5 2-T8 2-T5 2-T8 2-T5HO 2-T5 2-T8 2-T5 2-T8 2-T5 2-T8 2-T8/U 1-T5 2-T5 2-T8 1-T5 1-T5HO 2-T8 2-T5 1-T8 1-T8 2-T8 Direct/Indirect Lens Louver Specular Indirect/direct 70/30 Indirect/direct 60/40 Indirect/direct 70/30 Indirect/direct 60/40 Indirect/direct 70/30 Indirect/direct 70/30 Indirect/direct 70/30 Indirect/direct 70/30 Indirect/direct 50/50 Indirect/direct 70/30 Indirect/direct Separate Luminous indirect 93/7 Indirect 100 Luminous indirect 93/7 Indirect Wall 98/2 Optics Coffer/lens Coffer/louver Coffer/louver Coffer/Basket Coffer/Basket Semi-specular louver 4" Coffer/lens Coffer/lens Coffer/louver Coffer/louver Coffer/Basket Coffer/Basket Semi-specular louver 4" Semi-specular louver 3" Coffer/lens Coffer/lens Coffer/louver Coffer/louver Coffer/louver Coffer/Basket Coffer/Basket Semi-specular louver 4" Semi-specular louver Semi-specular louver Efficiency 93% 86% 84% 83% 94% 89% 84% 83% 82% 82% 81% 85% 90% 86% 82% Efficiency 91% 72% 82% 70% 76% 71% 77% 77% 65% 71% 64% 69% 63% 62% 84% 88% 60% 68% 68% 63% 65% 68% 65% 61% Lamp/Ballast Lumens/Watt 95 95 95 95 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 95 72 72 72 Lamp/Ballast Lumens/Watt 80 95 80 95 80 95 67 72 81 72 81 72 81 77 80 80 95 80 72 95 80 95 95 95 Luminaire Lumens/Watt 88 82 80 79 75 71 67 66 66 66 65 81 65 62 59 Luminaire Lumens/Watt 73 68 66 67 61 67 52 55 53 51 52 50 51 48 67 70 57 54 49 60 52 65 62 58 Ballast Type IS IS IS IS PS PS PS PS PS PS PS IS PS PS PS Ballast Type PS IS PS IS PS IS PS PS IS PS IS PS IS IS PS PS IS PS PS IS PS IS IS IS RP- for VDT Use

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RP- for VDT Use

The Growing Importance of Controls The trend is clearly toward increasing reliance on controls for energy smart lighting design. More states are adopting codes that go further than the minimal requirements Standard 90.1-2004; those based on Californias Title 24 require considerably more sophisticated techniques. Regardless of the code in place, LEED strongly encourages the use of controls through its credits for daylighting and individual control, as well as the performance-based measurement of energy consumption. Even EPAct 2005 does a little by requiring half-level control. As we move closer to a 24/7 information economy, normal hours for many office spaces will begin to exceed the 4000 hours annually reported by The Building Owners and Managers Association (BOMA). As some office workers begin earlier and others end their days later, the need to control lighting in partially occupied areas will only increase. At the same time, flexibility is being recognized as a key controls benefit: accommodating the needs of different workers, varying tasks, and changing office layouts. Occupancy-Sensing Wall Controls Studies show that enclosed offices are unoccupied as much as 40% of normal working hours. Thus, simple wall switches and dimmers connected to an occupancy sensing devices provide a reliable and cost effective control for most enclosed offices. New technologies, such as those embodied in Lightoliers IntelliSight, enhance sensor performance with heightened sensitivity, an expanded field of view, and automatic adjustment of sensitivity and the time-out period to actual occupancy patterns. IntelliSight also features a choice of manual-on (generally preferred) or automatic-on control. Luminaire-Integrated Sensors Occupancy sensors can also be installed in, or directly connected to, pendant and recessed luminaires, such as Energos, HP90, or Paraplus. This approach can be particularly useful where it is difficult to locate wall controls conveniently or with a clear view of the occupied space. Networked signals enable a single sensor to control all luminaires in the space. Daylight Setback or Integral Dimming Sensors, such as those described above, are typically combined with an integral photosensor that can be programmed so that lights do not turn on automatically when adequate daylight is present. This increases the energy savings potential with minimal incremental cost. Using the following intelligent control technologies, luminaireintegrated controls can also dim the lighting for daylight harvesting in local networks confined to individual offices. This is Lightolier Smart Vision.

Multi-Scene Preset Controls Conference areas, which typically support a wide range of activities and associated lighting settings, benefit from multi-scene preset controls that easily adjust all the lighting layers in the space to the lighting composition desired for each activity. Push buttons, labeled for each activity (conference, presentation, break, clean up, etc.) permit users unfamiliar with the space to conveniently recall the appropriate lighting effect. Multi-scene controls can be integrated with occupancy sensors and daylight controls. They are required by Standard 90.1-2004 for conference areas and are also valuable in executive offices with several layers of lighting. MultiSet systems connect individual five-scene preset dimmers with master control keypads and remotes. They are notable for their flexibility and economy. Intelligent Controls Controls save the most energy when they are tightly zoned to work areas or activities and are variable (like dimming), rather than simply on/off. Thus the individually controllable dimming ballast offers the most energy savings and is the basis for Lightoliers iGEN intelligent lighting systems.

In the various iGEN configurations, addressable dimming ballasts (some using the DALI protocol and others using Lutrons ISI technology) are networked so they can be controlled individually or arranged (and rearranged) into zones appropriate for different work areas. The stand-alone iGEN Smart Vision is designed for a small office, while larger-scale networked DALI or ISI systems handle major areas, up to entire buildings, and can be managed together. iGEN networked controls can deliver a variety of strategies: task tuning, local area scheduling, occupancy-response, daylighting, load shedding, as well as personal dimming control. The potential energy savings of each strategy is shown in the table below. The DALI protocol provides two-way communication between the ballast and a master control. Thus, an iGEN DALI system can monitor the status of each luminaire, reporting its on/off status, as well as the working condition of specific lamps and ballasts. This facilitates spot maintenance and the creation of energyperformance reporting (worth a LEED-CI credit).

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Control Strategy Task Tuning Scheduling Occupancy Response Daylight Harvesting Load Shedding Personal Dimming

Description Adjusts illumination levels to tasks in different spaces Shuts off lights at different times for different spaces Shuts off lights when an space is no longer occupied Adjusts illumination levels in conjunction with available daylight Lowers power as part of a utility DSM incentive contract Adjusts illumination level to an individuals preference

Savings Potential < 5% < 20% < 30% < 20% < 5% < 10%

Combined Potential < 5% < 25% < 45% < 55% < 65% < 70%

Meets RP-1 for VDT use with .77 Ballast Factor


For specific catalog numbers or alternative fixtures visit www.lightolier.com

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Energy Savings Using iGEN Intelligent Control Strategies

Codes

Comparing Codes As the tables on the facing page indicate, ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1, the IECC, and Californias Title 24 all differ slightly in their lighting power allowances (LPA) and controls provisions. Depending on the actual spaces that make up an office building, the total LPA may be more favorable under one code or another. Note that the LPA calculation for the sample project do not include allowances for decorative or VDT luminaires. The Space-by-Space method of Standard 90.1 is called the Tenant Area method in the IECC and the Area Category method in Title 24. The energy credits in LEED are based on Standard 90.1-2004, while the tax incentives of EPAct 2005 are based on Standard 90.1-2001 (without allowances but including multi-level control). Controls are also part of the LEED credits for daylighting. Note that Title 24 tends to allow more power (especially in office areas) but requires several additional controls for compliance. For non-office uses (notably retail), Title 24 allows a tailored method, which considers individual spaces, tasks, and room parameters and often permits more power for lighting. All of the codes shown also permit compliance through the Performance Method, which compares the design to a codecompliant model and takes into account the impact of controls on lighting (and other) energy consumption. Designers should, of course, consult their local code for details. Useful references include: www.ashrae.com www.energy.gov.ca

Allowances for Additional Lighting Power When applying the Space-by-Space method, additional power is allowed for decorative lighting and for luminaires that meet ANSI/IESNA RP-1 parameters for computer usage, where that is the primary visual task. While these allowances do not reduce energy consumption, they do permit the use of valuable lighting techniques that might increase lighting power above that otherwise permitted by code. The decorative allowance applies only to the installed decorative lighting and is the actual wattage of the decorative luminaires, up to a maximum of 1.0 W/SF of the space in which the luminaires are installed. Under Title 24, such allowances are limited to specified spaces, including lobbies and conference areas, and must be separately controlled. The allowance for luminaires used for computer viewing is also limited to the actual power consumed by those luminaires, up to .35 W/SF of the spaces with computer usage. In practice, this will likely be in most open and private office areas. Luminaires that qualify for the allowance must comply with the RP-1 limits on the intensity of direct illumination shown below. The luminaire candela distribution can be found on the photometric report. RP- Limits for Normal Computer Use Angle 65 75 85 Max Candelas 300 cd 185 cd 60 cd

Controls The automatic shut-off control required by all codes may be achieved by scheduled building (with local override for a period of time) or lighting management systems or occupancy sensors with a time out period not exceeding 30 minutes. For each enclosed space, at least one additional control is required per 2500 SF in an area of less than 10,000 SF and per 10,000 in areas larger than that. Title 24 additionally requires a separate control for luminaires within 15' of windows. These can but need not be daylight-linked. Both the IECC and Title 24 also require multi-level controls for areas with more than one luminaire. The control must provide for reasonable illumination at between 50-70% of full power. This can be achieved by dimming, step-dimming using multilevel ballasts, or the switching of alternate lamps, luminaires, or rows of luminaires. Finally, where specific occupancy-sensing and daylight-linked controls are used, Title 24 permits reductions when calculating the design power. Designers should study Title 24 carefully in this area. Calculating the Design Power Energy codes specify how the actual power is to be calculated for compliance. Where a luminaire is rated for a range of wattages, compliance may require special labeling. Where track is used, a current limiting device may be needed to avoid being penalized by the power calculation otherwise mandated by the code. Title 24 also adds 0.2 W/SF for portable task lighting in office areas larger than 350 SF, unless the lighting plan provides for such luminaires and specifically denotes their quantity and wattage.

Comparison of Energy Codes Interior Office Lighting Whole Building LPA Space-by-Space LPA Enclosed office Open office Conference/Meeting Training Lobby Atrium (1st three floors) Atrium (addl floors) Corridor Active Stairway Active Storage Restroom Electrical/Mechanical Food Preparation Dining Laboratory Decorative Allowance VDT Allowance Controls Automatic Shut-Off Individual Space Conference Room Window Zone Half-Level Wattage Allowance Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes No 1.1 1.1 1.3 1.4 1.3 0.6 0.2 0.5 0.6 0.8 0.9 1.5 1.2 0.9 1.4 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.2 0.9 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7 1.6 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.3 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.4 1.2 1.5 1.5 1.3 1.5 1.6 1.8 1.3 0.2 0.7 0.9 1.1 1.0 1.3 2.2 1.4 1.8 No No ASHRAE/IESNA Std. 90.-004 1.0 IECC 003 1.0 California Title 4 1.1 EPAct 00 1.3

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Calculating The Design Power Under Standard 90.-004 Luminaire/Lamp Type Incandescent luminaires with medium screw-base sockets Luminaries with ballasts (fluorescent or HID) Luminaires with individual transformers (low voltage) Line voltage Track or Bus System Low voltage Track Power Calculation Maximum labeled wattage of the luminaire Operating input wattage of the maximum lamp and auxiliary combination Operating input wattage of the maximum lamp and auxiliary combination 30W per linear foot or maximum permitted by a current limiting device.* Specified wattage of the transformer Comment Request a special label for lower wattage lamps, typical for PAR luminaires. Request a special label for lower wattage CFL and linear fluorescent lamps. Request a special label for lower wattage lamps, typical for MR16 luminaires. Add Powertrip current limiting device, which is permanently wired to track. For low voltage track fixtures, see above.

Lighting Power Allowances For the Sample Project Space Type Open Plan Office Enclosed Offices Conference Room Corridor Kitchen/Dining Entry/Lobby Mechanical/Electrical Restrooms Store Room Stairs Total Area Allowed Power (W) LPA (W/SF) Area SF 4054 701 497 564 438 797 215 152 114 282 4 439W .0 643W . 909W .6 06W .3 % 52% 9% 6% 7% 6% 10% 3% 2% 1% 4% Std. 90.-004 LPA 1.1 1.1 1.3 0.5 1.2 1.3 1.5 0.9 0.8 0.6 IECC LPA 1.1 1.1 1.3 0.9 1.2 1.3 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.9 Title 4 LPA 1.2 1.2 1.4 0.6 1.6 1.5 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 EPAct LPA 1.3 1.5 1.5 0.7 2.2 1.8 1.3 1.0 1.1 0.9

*30W is the calculation in ASHRAE 90.1. Title 24 uses 45W per foot of track and a minimum of 15W per foot with a current limiting device.

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Lighting Glossary

Adaptation The process by which the visual system becomes accustomed to more or less light than it was exposed to during an immediately preceding period. It results in a change in the sensitivity of the eye to light. ANSI American National Standards Institute. Ballast An auxiliary device used with fluorescent and HID lamps to provide the necessary starting voltage and to limit the current during operation. Ballasts are generally incorporated into the lighting fixture. Most ballasts used in office lighting use electronic components, which improves efficiency and largely eliminates flicker and hum, compared to magnetic ballasts. Ballast Factor (BF) The ratio of lumens emitted by a lamp operated by a specific commercial ballast to the lamps rated lumens (from operation on a laboratory ballast). A ballast with a BF of 1 produces 100% of rated lamp lumens. A normal light output ballast factor for todays electronic ballasts is .87 (or .88), yielding 87% of rated lamp lumens. Higher and lower BF are widely available today and are useful in adjusting luminaire light output to achieve design objectives with a specific luminaire layout. Ballast factor is directly related to input watts (q.v.). Batwing Distribution Candlepower distribution which serves to reduce glare and veiling reflections by having its maximum output in the 30 to 60 zone. Candela The unit of measurement of luminous intensity of a light source in a given direction. Candlepower Luminous intensity expressed in candelas. The distribution of light from a lamp or luminaire is generally represented by a curve of its candlepower. Coefficient of Utilization (CU) The CU is used in calculations that estimate the quantity of illumination from a regular arrangement of luminaires in a simple space. The CU is based on the distribution light from a luminaire and the shape and reflectances of the space in which it is installed. The CU measures the percentage of lamp lumens that reach the workplane. Now that most illuminance calculations are done by computer modeling, the CU is used mostly for comparing luminaires. Color Rendering Index (CRI) Measures the ability of a light source to show colors as expected. Technically, CRI measures the average color shift of eight standard colors when illuminated by the light source as compared to a reference source of comparable color temperature (q.v.). The CRI scale runs from 0-100. A minimum of 80 CRI is recommended for office applications. Color Temperature Measures the appearance of a white light source. Low color temperature corresponds to a reddish tint; high color temperature corresponds to a bluish tint. The color temperature scale is in Kelvins (K). Most office applica-

tions use fluorescent light sources with color temperatures ranging from about 3000K to 4100K, although 5000K (and higher) sources are being increasingly used. Contrast The difference in brightness (luminance) of an object and its background. High contrast tasks require less illumination to be seen. Control Channel or Zone A group of luminaires (or other devices) controlled together. Channels or zones (the terms are synonymous) may be created by connecting their power supply wires together and to a control device. Such a control channel is fixed and cannot be modified without rewiring the luminaires. Alternatively, luminaires with addressable devices can be assigned to different channels by a master control. This concept is part of the iGEN systems that use DALI and other addressable protocols. Channels created in this way may be modified without rewiring. Cove Lighting Lighting comprising sources shielded by a ledge or horizontal recess, and distributing light over the ceiling and upper wall. Digital Addressable Lighting Interface (DALI) An open communications protocol used by multiple control and ballast manufacturers for digital control. DALI is used in many iGEN systems to integrate ballasts and various sensor and control devices. Within iGEN, DALI is networked using two dedicated conductors, run together with the luminaire power wiring. DALI assures that all the devices in the network speak the same language. Dimming Ballast Special electronic ballast, which when used with a dimmer control, permits varying light output from fluorescent lamps. Dimming ballasts use slightly more wattage (at full intensity) than most non-dimming ballasts. They use programmed start (q.v.) circuits. Direct Lighting Lighting involving luminaires that distribute 90 to 100% of emitted light in the general direction of the surface to be illuminated. The term usually refers to light emitted in a downward direction. Direct Glare Glare resulting from high luminances or insufficiently shielded light sources in the field of view. It usually is associated with bright areas, such as luminaires, ceilings and windows which are outside the visual tasks or region being viewed. Discomfort Glare Glare producing discomfort. It does not necessarily interfere with visual performance or visibility. Efficacy Luminous efficacy is the ratio of lumens produced by a lighting system to the watts consumed. Expressed as lumens per watt (LPW). Lamp efficacy relates the lumens emitted by the lamp to the watts required to produce them and is based on the lamp manufacturers laboratory testing. Lamp/ballast system efficacy relates the lumens emitted by that system to the power required to produce them and is developed by the ballast manufacturers testing. Luminaire

efficacy relates the lumens emitted by a luminaire to the power required for its lamp and ballast system. In this Application Guide, luminaire efficacy is a mathematical computation that multiplies fixture efficiency by lamp/ballast system efficacy. The actual performance of any lamp, ballast, or luminaire will differ from the photometric predictions due to application conditions such as temperature, voltage fluctuations, component age, and dirt accumulation. Efficiency In a luminaire, the ratio of luminous flux (lumens) emitted by a luminaire to that emitted by the lamp or lamps used. Energy In an electrical system, energy represents power (watts) consumed over time and is measured in watt-hours, often shown as kilowatt-hours (1000 watt hours). Footcandle (fc) A unit of illuminance. It is the illuminance on a surface one square foot in area on which there is a uniformly distributed flux of one lumen. Glare The sensation produced by luminance within the visual field that is sufficiently greater than the luminance to which the eyes are adapted. Glare can cause annoyance, discomfort, or loss in visual performance and visibility. Group Relamping Relamping of a group of luminaires at one time to reduce relamping labor costs. In typical office applications, group (or scheduled) relamping often performed at 60-70% of average rated life. IALD International Association of Lighting Designers www.iald.org. Input Watts (W) The power consumed by a ballast and lamp combination, as measured under specified conditions (also called ANSI Watts). Changes in ballast factor result in generally proportional changes in input watts. Input watts differ from nominal lamp watts and more closely represent the power of a lighting system. Instant Start Ballast Starts a fluorescent lamp with high initial current and without heating the lamp cathodes. Instant start ballasts generally enjoy the fewest ballast losses and are wired in parallel so that lamps driven by the same ballast operate independently. If one lamp fails, the others will continue to operate. See Programed Start Ballast. Kilowatt-Hour (KWH) Unit of electrical power consumed over a period of time. KWH = watts/1000 x hours used. Lamp Lumens Light output from a light source (as distinguished, for example, from luminaire lumens). Initial lumens are measured when the lamp is just 100 hours old (and has therefore stabilized). Mean lumens are measured when the lamp has reached 40% of its rated average life (q.v.).

Lamp Lumen Depreciation (LLD) Loss of lamp lumen output as the lamp ages. In illumination calculations, the multiplier factor to account for such depreciation over a period of time. For high efficiency fluorescent systems, an LLD of .95 is commonly used. LEED Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, a program for promoting sustainable building practices produced by the USGBC. Lighting Power Allowance (LPA) The maximum amount of power (W) permitted by code for a space or building. The LPA may be prescribed by the code as a density (W/SF) but for an actual project, the LPA will be calculated in total watts. The total power used for lighting in that project must not exceed the LPA. Lighting Power Density (LPD) The power used for lighting per unit area, typically expressed in watts per square foot (W/SF). LPD makes it easier to describe the power used in different design approaches, regardless of the actual size of the space. Lighting Scene A specific lighting effect (or setting) achieved by applying controls. Different lighting scenes are typically used in conference and training areas that support different activities. Where the lighting consists of multiple layers and control channels multi-scene dimming controls (q.v.) are both convenient and cost effective. Louver A series of baffles used to shield a source from view at certain angles or to absorb unwanted light. The baffles usually are arranged in a geometric pattern. Lumen The unit of luminous flux (commonly called light output). It is the luminous flux emitted within a unit solid angle (one steradian) by a point source having a uniform luminous intensity of one candela. Luminaire A complete lighting device consisting of a lamp or lamps, together with the parts designed to distribute the light, to position and protect the lamps and to connect the lamps to the power supply (including the ballast as required). Luminaire Dirt Depreciation (LDD) The loss of luminaire lumen output due to dirt accumulation on the lamp and fixture. In illuminance calculations, the multiplier used to account for such depreciation between the times that the luminaires will be cleaned. LLD depends on the shape of the lamp and fixture, conditions of the application and maintenance procedures. Luminaire Lumens Quantity of lumens emitted by a luminaire, calculated by multiplying the system lumens produced by the lamp(s) and ballast in the luminaire by the luminaire efficiency. This is not a technically recognized term, but it helps to compare luminaires for specific applications.

Luminance The amount of light reflected or transmitted by an object in a specific direction, that is, as it is viewed. Luminance is measured in candelas per square meter (cd/ m2) and differs from the commonly used term brightness in that the latter reflects our subjective perception and is influenced by the visual context. Lux The metric unit of illuminance. One lux is one lumen per square meter (lm/m2). 1 footcandle equals 9.76 lux. Maintenance Factor (MF) A factor used in calculating illuminance after a given period of time and under given conditions. It takes into account temperature and voltage variations, dirt accumulation on luminaire and room surfaces, lamp depreciation, maintenance procedures and atmosphere conditions. In a typical calculation, the MF would include the LLD and LDD factors discussed above. For the calculations in this application guide, MF of .83-.75 were used, depending on the luminaire. Parabolic Louvers A grid of baffles which redirect light downward and provide very low luminaire brightness. Power Factor (PF) Measures the efficiency of an electrical device in converting current to power. High power factor (HPF) devices require fewer amps (hence fewer circuits). Virtually all electronic lighting devices are HPF. Dont confuse power factor with ballast factor (q.v.). Programmed Start Ballast Heats the lamp cathodes precisely before applying the starting current. As a result, programmed start ballasts extend lamp life especially in frequent switching applications (such as with occupancy sensors). T5 and T5HO lamps should be operate only on programmed start ballasts. Due to the cathode heating, however, programmed start ballasts generally require a little more power than instant start and are mostly wired in series. If one lamp fails, the other will not operate until the failed lamp is replaced, making maintenance a little more difficult. See Instant Start Ballast. Rapid Start Ballast Heats lamp cathodes while simultaneously applying the starting current. Rapid start technology is practically obsolete in office lighting equipment. Reflectance Reflectance is a property of materials and is the ratio of reflected light to incident light (light falling on a surface). Reflectance is generally expressed in percent. Reflected Glare Glare resulting from specular reflections of high luminances in polished or glossy surfaces in the field of view. It usually is associated with reflections from within a visual task or areas in close proximity to the region being viewed. Reflection Light bouncing off a surface. In specular reflection the light strikes and leaves a surface at the same angle. Diffuse reflected light leaves a surface in all directions. RP- American National Standard Practice for Office Lighting, ANSI/IESNA RP 1-04

Spacing Criteria Spacing Criteria (SC) is a property of a luminaire, calculated from its candlepower distribution. The SC is the ratio of the distance between luminaire centers to the mounting height above the work-plane for uniform illumination. The SC does not determine the optimal spacing for luminaires, only the maximum (for a given ceiling height) that will provide uniform illumination. SC replaces the older spacing ratio. A luminaire with a symmetrical distribution of light has one SC. Most luminaires with horizontally mounted fluorescent lamps have different SCs when the lamps are viewed lengthwise or crosswise. Spectral Power Distribution (SPD) Curves A plot of the level of power at each wavelength of a light source. The SPD is used to evaluate color in a light source and is a more accurate predictor of color than Color Rendering Index or Color Temperature. USGBC U.S. Green Building Council, a not-for-profit organization and producer of LEED. www.usgbc.org. Veiling Reflections Reflections of light from an object that partially or totally obscure details, reducing the contrast. This is sometimes called reflected glare. Veiling reflections depend on the material (specular surfaces are worse than diffuse ones), the location of the light source, and the location of the viewer (sometimes called Source-task-eye geometry). VDT Luminaire A direct luminaire that satisfies the RP-1 criteria for reducing images on computer screens. The criteria limit candlepower at viewing angles of 55 and 65 from horizontal and above. The criteria are more stringent for areas where computers are used intensively. Visual Comfort Probability (VCP) The rating of a lighting system expressed as the percentage of people who, when viewing from the specified location and in a specified direction, will be expected to find it acceptable in terms of discomfort glare. VCP is a modeled calculation based on the light distribution from lensed troffers and, as such, it may not be fully applicable to much of todays lighting equipment. RP-1 recommends a minimum VCP of 80. Note that the VCP tables provided for most recessed luminaires are based on an illuminance level of 100 FC, two-to-three times that used in practice. Watt (W) The unit for measuring electric power. It defines the power or energy consumed by an electrical device. The cost of operating an electrical device is determined by the watts it consumes over the hours of use. Ohms Law relates volts and amps by the following formula: Watts = Volts x Amps x Power Factor.

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Lighting design assistance provided by Naomi Miller Lighting Design.

Cover Photograph

Page 

Page 3 Catherine Tighe Photographer Wesley Wei Architect Page 4 Hedrich Blessing Chris Barrett Interior Architect: Powell/Kleinschmidt Page 4

Genzyme Center
Peter Vanderwarker Photographer Behnisch, Behnisch & Partner Inc.

Lightfoot, Vandevelde, Sadowsky, Crouchley, Rutherford & Levine LLP


Paul Bielenberg Photographer Page 

Intro Photograph

Genzyme Center
Peter Vanderwarker Photographer Behnisch, Behnisch & Partner Inc. Page 9

Netflix
John Sutton Photographer

Netflix
John Sutton Photographer

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Page 4 &  Prakash Patel Photography Fox Architects

Velocita
Sean Hennessey Photographer

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Page 

Genzyme Center
Peter Vanderwarker Photographer Behnisch, Behnisch & Partner Inc.

Wachovia
Don Pearse Photographer Meyer Design Inc.

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a Genlyte company 631 Airport Road Fall River, MA 02720 Phone (508) 679-8131 Fax (508) 674-4710 www.lightolier.com 3015 Rue Louis Amos Lachine (Quebec) H8T 1C4 Phone (514) 636-0670 www.canlyte.com 2007 Genlyte Group LLC. All rights reserved. Certain products illustrated in this catalog may be protected by applicable patents and patents pending. Lightolier will aggressively defend all of its intellectual property. We reserve the right to change details of design, materials and finishes. A.I.A. Division 16 Brochure LOL7040
Some luminaires use fluorescent or high intensity discharge (HID) lamps that contain small amounts of mercury. Such lamps are labeled Contains Mercury and/or with the symbol Hg. Lamps that contain mercury must be disposed of in accordance with local requirements. Information regarding lamp recycling and disposal can be found at www.lamprecycle.org.

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