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Seth Jai Parkash Mukand Lal Institute of Engineering & Technology, Radaur



ISGEC (Indian Sugar and General Engg. Corporation), the heavy engineering unit of the SARASWATI INDUSTRIAL SYNDICATE LIMITED was established in 1946 and is located at Yamuna Nagar, Haryana, about 200 km from new Delhi. The annual turnover of ISGEC for the year 1996-97 exceeds US $ 24 Million and group turnover of Saraswati Industrial Syndicate Ltd. exceeds US$ 100 Million. ISGEC has been approved by Lloyds Register of Quality Assurance as an ISO-9001 Company. It is also authorised by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and by Lloyds Register as Class-I Manufacturers of Fusion Welded Pressure Vessels upto 200 mm thickness. It is also approved by Engineers India Ltd. for manufacture of Vessels and columns in Carbon and Alloy Steel up to 150mm thickness and in Clad Steel up to 132mm thickness and for manufacture of Heat Exchanger up to maximum tube sheet thickness of 300mm. Production range of heavy duty Mechanical Presses up to 1000 tonnes) and Hydraulic Presses( upto 3000 tonnes) for sheet metal and other application for Automobile, Railways and various other industries.



ISGEC has been divided into three division as follows:

1.2.1 Pressure Vessel Division (PVD)

It is the oldest division of the ISGEC and it manufactures pressure vessels such as boilers, heat exchangers etc. It is subdivided into following shops.

1.2.2 Machine Building Division (MBD)

It manufacture sugar mill machinery, press component and other steel plant machinery. It is subdivided into following shops: Machine shop 1,2

Seth Jai Parkash Mukand Lal Institute of Engineering & Technology, Radaur

Fabrication shop 1,2 Assembly Shop Quality Shop

1.2.3 Foundary Group (FG)

It is the third important group of ISGEC and is responsible for castings of small sizes to be used with in the plant.



Machine shop is the main workstation of the organisation, here various machining operations are carried out to produced different parts of hydraulic and mechanical presses. There are two divisions of Machine Shop: a) b) Machine Shop-I (Heavy work division) Machine Shop-II (Light work division)

Material: In form of casting from foundary shop. From preparation shop where proper sizing of raw material from market is done. Main Customers: Main customer of Machine shop are a) b) Assembly shop Fabrication shop

1.3.1 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7)

MACHINE INSTALLED IN MACHINE SHOP-I SACEM CNC Horizontal boring machine (SPAIN) NC WALDRICH Planomiller SWIFT Lath (England) SKODA Horizontal boring machine (2 in Nos) WMW Horizontal boring machine Radial drilling machine. ASQUITH Horizontal boring machine.


LOUDON Planomiller KIRLOSKER CNC Lathe 2

Seth Jai Parkash Mukand Lal Institute of Engineering & Technology, Radaur

HMT Lathe Radial drilling machine (2 in Nos) Vertical boring machine Vertical turret Lathe SWIFT Lathe Capsten Lathe ASQUITH Horizontal boring machine Slotter Vertical drillingmachine Shaper HMT CNC Horizontal boring machine NC Milling machine NC Universal milling machine CNC Horizontal boring machine


Spindle die-125mm Spindle speed 2500 npm Max feed for X,Y,Z,W-3-5000mm/min Feed infinitely variable for B-002-1.8RPM Rapid movement for X,Y,Z,W-1000mm/min Rapid movement for B axis-18rpm Head stock for vertical travel 2000mm Spindle Horizontal travel 800mm Table cross travel-4mm Column longitudinal travel 1mm Dimensions of rotary table 2x2.5m Max allowed load on table 2000kg AC motor for spindle drive-27KW Nominal torque for AC motor for feed drive axis Y,X,Z, WmB-37Nm. 3


Seth Jai Parkash Mukand Lal Institute of Engineering & Technology, Radaur

Max Job size-4m.

1.4.2 WMW Horizontal Boring Machine

Bed Length Vertical Height Cross movement of column Spindle dia Table size : : : : : 6800mm 3000mm 500mm 160mm 4mm x 3m

1.4.3 SAKODA Boring Machine:

Machine Bed Bed Covering Column Base Column Head Stock Spindle Drive Column Feed Gearbox Head Stock Gearbox Spindle Feed Gearbox Spindle Feed and Head Stock Feed unit Pendent Control Station with overarm Contactor Cabinets boxes of thyristors Platform Current Supply.

Seth Jai Parkash Mukand Lal Institute of Engineering & Technology, Radaur



Kamber (1995) developed an expert system using special software for monitoring and maintenance of composition of grinding media and charge with a view to keeping mill performance at high level for process industry. Kenne, J.P. and Boukas, E.K. (1997) suggested that analysis of the optimal production and corrective maintenance-planning problem for a failure prone manufacturing system consisting of several identical machines. The decision variables are the production and the machine repair rates, which influence the inventory levels and the system capacity respectively. The objective of the problem is to minimize the cost of surplus and repair activities. The production-planning problem of a manufacturing system with corrective maintenance has been proposed. A procedure was constructed to a control for the given system derived from the aggregation of the states of the system. By controlling both production and repair rates, obtained a near optimal control policy of the system through numerical techniques. This approximating control policy was shown to be asymptotically optimal. Tsang (1999) outlined the decision modal to address the inspection problems in various scenarios. In this model a systems level of deterioration was considered to have a discrete state space and the transition from one state to another is modeled as either a semi-Markov process for a Poisson process. It was also recognized that the currently available decision models are commonly designed to optimize a single criterion such as minimizing the total maintenance related costs or maximizing equipment availability. Yam (2001) described that Conventional Condition Based Maintenance reduces the uncertainty of maintenance according to the needs indicated by the equipment condition. The intelligent predictive decision support system (IPDSS) for CBM supplements the conventional CBM approach by adding the capability of intelligent

Seth Jai Parkash Mukand Lal Institute of Engineering & Technology, Radaur

condition based fault diagnosis and the power of predicting the trend of equipment deterioration. Roa S Baru, and Sarda N.L. (2002) suggested that after establishing corrective maintenance activities form a significant component of the overall maintenance efforts, the applicability of the IEEE standard maintenance process for corrective maintenance by measuring the efforts spent on the various activities. So conclusion comes that a) the process for each type of maintenance need to be fine turned especially in the context of outsourcing b) analysis, testing form ;significant part of the corrective maintenance effort c) teams need to carry out other activities such as database reorganization and configuration management that are not defined by the IEEE maintenance process. Due to a growing demand for better service levels and increased pressure on rates, there is a need to arrive at better process to ensure cost-effective delivery. The effort distribution shows that the processes for each type of maintenance are different and there is a need to fine-tune them especially in the context of outsourcing. While problem analysis and testing form a significant part of the corrective maintenance effort, teams spend efforts on other activities similarly, testing tolls could help the teams in reducing the effort spent on conducting the unit/ system testing. It was found that some maintenance requests do not result in any change of code but clarifications and training to the users. Finally, effective communication between the customer and the outsourcing team and also within the outsourcing team could significantly improve the turn around times for maintenance requests. Zhang, Tao and Nakamura, Masatoshi (2002) suggests that proper maintenance scheduling of equipment can keep high availability of power system, avoid the damage of failure and reduce the waste of cost. In this research, facing to the difficulty of short of data for maintenance scheduling in industry, element availabilities with various kinds of maintenance intervals can be calculated by the dimensional reduction method. Considering on the system availability, maintenance scheduling of equipment can be optimized by element maintenance interval adjustment. Sacrificing system availability within allowance and keeping system availability during the process of optimizing maintenance scheduling was discussed in detail. Effectiveness of both of them was verified by the proper maintenance scheduling for the electrical elements of thermal power stations. In this optimizing maintenance scheduling method of equipment by 6

Seth Jai Parkash Mukand Lal Institute of Engineering & Technology, Radaur

element maintenance interval adjustment considering system availabilities with various kinds of maintenance intervals can be obtained. With these element availabilities, several new maintenance-scheduling algorithms were given, which can provide several possibilities for industry to optimize the maintenance interval with the requirement of actual system. Andersen, T.M et-al. (2002) suggested an approach for utilization of condition information both in short term and long term maintenance planning. In connection with short term planning for improved coordination of jobs, in long term planning for improved estimation of residual life of systems and equipment. The short-term maintenance planning approach uses information from several systems such as condition monitoring, maintenance planning and management systems for equipment and spares. A decision support tool assists the selection of maintenance activities and performs a dynamic grouping of the maintenance activities. An optimization problem requires a formalized and structured decision process. Using stochastic dynamic programming as a decision support tool in long term maintenance planning seems to be a practical approach for modeling complex decision problems. The use of condition classification schemes make it easier to model operating and maintenance costs as functions of specific equipment/system state. Kutanoglu (2003) proposed on integrated model that simultaneously determines

production scheduling and preventive maintenance planning decisions so that the total weighted tardiness of jobs is minimized. Cassady (2005) proposed an integrated model that coordinates preventive maintenance planning decisions with single-machine scheduling decisions so that the total expected weighted completion time of jobs is minimized. Assumptions regarding the failure, repair, and PM characteristics of the machine could be modified or eliminated. Kutanoglu, E. and Cassady, C. (2005) suggest that production scheduling, and &

preventive maintenance (PM) planning are two areas that have received tremendous attention in both the manufacturing industry, and the manufacturing systems operations research literature. Preventive maintenance planning, and producing

scheduling are two activities that are inter-dependent but most often performed 7

Seth Jai Parkash Mukand Lal Institute of Engineering & Technology, Radaur

independently considering that preventive maintenance and repair ;affect both available production time, and the probability of machine failure. An integrated model that coordinates preventive maintenance planning decisions with single-machine scheduling decisions so that the total expected weighted completion time of jobs is minimized. It was noted that the machine of interest is subject to minimal repair upon failure, and can be renewed by preventive maintenance. After investigation the value of integrating production scheduling with preventive maintenance planning by conducting an extensive experimental study using small scheduling problems. Comparison of the performance of ;the integrated solution with the solution obtained form solving the preventive maintenance planning, and job scheduling problems independently. The analysis is based on minimizing total weighted completion time; thus, both the scheduling, and maintenance problems favour processing shorter jobs in the beginning of the schedule. Amri (2006) concluded that Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) is methodology that strives to identify incipient faults before they become critical to enable more accurate planning of preventive actions. For the ultimate success of CBM methodology, one must have sound methods for modeling deterioration (the propagation of faulty conditions), the condition and the effects and the optimal selection and scheduling of inspections and preventive maintenance actions. Dreyer L. Samuel (2006) suggested that Advance Maintenance Planning and Scheduling (AMPS) performs an integral role in reducing maintenance turnaround time and increasing system availability. The virtues of well-executed maintenance planning and scheduling are well documented. One reason for implementing the maintenance planning and scheduling process is because it can be an effective method to leverage real-time health and status date of the mission system, significantly increasing maintenance Productivity. When the occurrence of a failure is discovered wile the mission is still underway, maintenance resources can be prepared in advance. The capability to prepare maintenance resources in advance requires the implementation of AMPS and a maintenance planner to facilitate the process. Maintenance productivity enhancement is an effective untilization of real-time interpretation of health and status information. 8

Seth Jai Parkash Mukand Lal Institute of Engineering & Technology, Radaur

However, it is possible to achieve significant enhancements in maintenance productivity with a maintenance planner. A well thought out maintenance planner implementation, focused on the system mission, will increase the availability of the assets supporting the mission. Wang, L. et-al.(2006) propose a new maintenance philosophy called as intelligent maintenance system, the new advantages and characteristics of intelligent maintenance system, and shows the possible challenges to develop the intelligent maintenance system for generating equipment. The technologies of fault prognosis, maintenance scheduling and sensors etc. as the key elements of intelligent maintenance system in power plants are depicted in detail, and their future research directions are addressed respectively. Intelligent maintenance system is based on condition-based maintenance but beyond condition based maintenance. Although the corresponding techniques of conditions-based maintenance are still developing, the IMS will promote and head the maintenance technique of power plants. Kathy (2006) explain about maximizing the economic performance of machinery. By implication design, operation, maintenance and even revamping should be executed so as to maximize the profit from each unit. Clearly, asset management involves much more than simply implementing a predictive maintenance programmes. The study suggested about the role of condition monitoring to develop the measures required for best profit driven decisions and actions. Optimization of machinery economic performance (asset management ) must be based on quantitative measures attributes such as capacity utilization, efficiency and mechanical condition. Kenne, J.P. Nkeungoue, L.J. (2006) suggests that failure rate of machine depends on its age and with the control of corrective and preventive maintenance rates in the production planning of a manufacturing system with machines subject to random failures and repairs can be reduced. The introduction of preventive and corrective maintenance will increase the availability of the production system, which guarantees the improvement of the systems productivity if the production planning is well done. The objective of this study is to minimize a discounted overall cost consisting of maintenance cost, inventory holding and backlog cost. The decision variables are the production, the machine preventive and repair rates which influence the inventory 9

Seth Jai Parkash Mukand Lal Institute of Engineering & Technology, Radaur

levels and the system capacity respectively. In the proposed model, the failure rate of a machine depends on its age; hence, the corrective and preventive maintenance policies are machine-age dependent. The production-planning problem of a manufacturing system with preventive and corrective maintenance rates control has been proposed. The development of the stochastic optimization model of the considered problem with three decision variables (production rate, preventive and corrective maintenance rates)and two state variables (age of the machine and stock). By controlling both production and maintenance rates (preventive and corrective), obtained a near optimal control policy of the system.


Seth Jai Parkash Mukand Lal Institute of Engineering & Technology, Radaur



Every department or every work station works under planning department of ISGEC so also does the machine shop. Planning department prepares the design of the press or any other job to be manufactured. It prepares the drawing and route card which are directly obtained through the computers installed at shop floor which are directly connected to the computers of the planning department.

Route card is a document at which the whole process to be carried out is printed in sequence i.e. Operation performed on a machine tool and after completion of work on job on one machine then at which machine tool to be transferred and sequence of operation to be performed on that job through that machine tool.



and SKODA horizontal boring and milling machine are intended for

The type

machining of heavy machine parts. They are used for milling, boring, threading, grooving, mainly used as machine tool of floor type execution i.e. Column moves on the bed along the stable work piece clamped on floor clamping plates. Head stock moves vertically on the column. It includes extensible ram with coaxialy built in milling and drilling spindle.

Drilling spindle moves perpendicular to horizontal column ram's phase serves for fixing various additional adopters e.g. angle milling heads, facing heads etc.


Bed Column (Head stock supporting) 11

The main parts of horizontal boring machining are following:

Seth Jai Parkash Mukand Lal Institute of Engineering & Technology, Radaur

Head Stock Saddle Table



Drilling Boring Counter boring Surface finish by face milling Turning Grinding



Poor Finish Over machining Under machining Out drilling



When all economics aspects of prod are taken into account industry attempts to achieve the following objections High Product quality Short Production Time Low Production Costs Using the tools in a proper way one can save 10-20% of total cost tilting the tool. It is fixed on the top slide. It gets its movement by the movement of saddle, cross slide and top slide.



It is most important device for holding the work piece, particularly of short length and


Seth Jai Parkash Mukand Lal Institute of Engineering & Technology, Radaur

large diameter or of irregular shape which can't be conveniently mounted between centres. It can be attached to the lathe by screwing on the spindle nose.

3.7.1 Four Jaw Chuck or Independent chuck:

It has four jaws and each is independently actuated and adjusted by a keys for holding the job. This type of chuck is used for irregular shapes, and in such sides, where a hole is to be positioned off the centre.

3.7.2 Three Jaw or Universal Chuck:

In this case, all the three jaws made simultaneously by turning a key and thus the workpiece may be automatically held in centre of chuck opening. It is used for holding sound, hexagalal bar or other symmetrical work.

Operations Performed on LATHE:

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Cylindrical and Conical Jobs (Turning Plain, Taper, Step, Ecentric) Flat surface (Facing) Grooving (with sharp corners, round corners, bevelled, face grooving) Drill and ream holes Radius Turning (Concave, Convex) Drilling, Boring and Reaming Knurling

The machine, we have noticed in machine shop (ISGEC) have already been mentioned. Among them the main machine in machine shop which have there own importance in the production field, are explained as follows. These are divided into 6 machines, These are: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Shaper Lathe Planer Drilling Boring Milling


Seth Jai Parkash Mukand Lal Institute of Engineering & Technology, Radaur



3.8.1 Introduction
Shaper is a versatile machine which is primarily intended for producing flate surfaces. These surfaces may be horizontal, vertical or inclined. This machine involves the use of a single point tool held in a properly designed tool box. The main significance of this machine lies in it greater flexibility on account of ease in work holding, quick adjustment and use of tools of simple design.

3.8.2 Working Principle of a Shaper

It is shown in figure. In case of shaper, the job is rigidly held in a suitable device like a vice or clamped directly on machine table. The ram of a shaper reciprocates to and fro, in doing so makes the tool to cut the material in forward stroke. No cutting of material takes place during the return stroke of the ram. Hence it is called as idle stroke.

3.8.3 Principle Parts of a Shaper:

Parts as shown: Base Column Cross rail Table Ram Tool Head Vice

3.8.4 Mechanism of a Shaper:

A shaper does the cutting operation only in the forward stroke and backward stroke is idle. This is achieved by a crank slotter mechanism explained below. In fig. AB represents the crank rotating about centre. A Linck CO is fixed at point 0 and can rotates about it. It has a slot through which a block B can slide. Thus when the crank rotates about its center. A, link CO oscillates about its centre 0 between its ultimate positions OCI and OC2. Oscillating motion of CO makes the ram to reciprocate


Seth Jai Parkash Mukand Lal Institute of Engineering & Technology, Radaur

through link CD. As shown in figure. Forward stroke is constituted from the crank position AB1 to AB2 during its anticlock wise movement, where as the return stroke is from AB2 to AB1. Thus the ratio of forward to the return stroke is equal to the ratio of angle and and this is of the order of 3:2.



3.9.1 Introduction
Lathe was actually the first machine tool which came into being as a useful machine for metal cutting. It still proves to be a vital necessity in all modern tool rooms, repair shops and training workshops. Its main significance lies in the variety of its applications in the production of different types of jobes.

3.9.2 Principle of Working

Lathe is machine tool which holds the work between two rigid and strong supports called centres or in a chuck or face plate while the latter revolves. Cutting tool is rigidily held and supported in tool post and is fed against the revolving work. While the work revolves about its own axis the tool is made to move either parallel to or at an inclination with this axis to cut the desired material.

3.9.3 Parts of a Lathe

Block diagram of lathe is as shown in fig. The main parts of lathe are: Bed Headstock Tailstock Carriage Feed Mechanism Legs

3.9.4 Operations Done on Lathe

All the operations performed on a lathe can be divided into two groups:


Seth Jai Parkash Mukand Lal Institute of Engineering & Technology, Radaur

Standard or Common Operations

They include plain and step turning, ecentric turning, facing, taper turning, drilling, reaming, boring, knurling, threading, parting off, chamfering etc.

Special or Rare Operations

With the help of certain lathe attachments like grinding attachment, milling attachments, taper turning attachment some other operations can be performed. With the help of these the operations like grinding, milling, spherical and elliptical turning, taping can be performed on a lathe. With the help of a special attachment even key cutting can be performed on lathe.

3.10 PLANING MACHINE 3.10.1Introduction

Planning is one of the basic operations performed in machining work and is primarily intended for machining large flat surfaces. These surfaces may be horizontal, vertical or inclined. However, a planning machine differs from a shaper in that for machining, the work, loaded on the table reciprocates past the stationary tool in the planer, whereas in the shaper the tool reciprocates past the stationary work.

3.10.2 Working Principle of a Planer

The principle involved in machining in a job on a planer is illustrated in fig. Here, it is almost a reverse case that of a shaper. The work is rigidly fix on the work table and tool is held verticallyin the tool head mounted on the cross rail. The work table, together with the job, is made to reciprocate past the vertically held tool.

3.10.3 Main Parts of a Planer

A planer consists of the following main parts as illustrated by means of a block diagram. Bed Table Housings or Columns Cross Rail


Seth Jai Parkash Mukand Lal Institute of Engineering & Technology, Radaur

Tool Head Controls


3.11.1 Introduction
Drilling is an operation through which holes are produced in a solid metal by means of a removing tool called drill. Boring is a operation employed for enlarging an existing hole. The operation of drilling, boring and remaining can be performed in many ways i.e. by hand feed as well as power feed or a large number of machines such as centre lathe, drilling machine, boring machine etc.

3.11.2 Radial Drilling Machine

This machine is very useful because of its wide range of action. Its principle use is in drilling holes on such work which is difficult to be handled frequently. The machine consists of a base, on which is mounted a cylindrical vertical column. A typical type of RD is shown in fig.

Following are its important parts:

Column Motor for elevating the radial arm Spindle driving motor Base Auxiliary box table Tool Spindal Radial arm Star handle wheel for spindle field Radial arm clamping lever

3.11.3 Drive Mechanism of a Sensitive Drill Machine:

Drive mechanism of a sensitive drilling machine is shown in fig.


Seth Jai Parkash Mukand Lal Institute of Engineering & Technology, Radaur

Operation Done on Drilling Machine: Drilling Reaming Boring Counter Boring Tapping



It is largest and most versatile of the drilling machines and is very well suited for drilling large Nos. of holes It is a single spindle machine intended for handling large and heavy work or work which is beyond the capacity of the small drilling machines. It consists of vertical column with a radial arm that can be swung through an arc of 180 or more. On the radial arm, which is power driven for vertical movement is an independently driven drilling head equipped with power feed. The drilling head may be moved along the arm by hand or power on a gear and rack arrangement, to drill a hole the following procedure is followed: The arm is raised or lowered as needed, the drill head is positioned and locked on the arm, the arm is locked in that position, the spindle speed and feed are adjusted, and the depth is set. the drill will then feed down and return when the proper depth has been reached. The arm and column way then be unlocked and the drilling head moved to a new position without disturbing the work.


A drill consists of a cylindrical piece of steel with special grooves. One and of the cylinder is pointed and the other end is shaped so that it maybe attached to the drilling machine. Twist drill parts are: a) b) BodyShank It is the part of the drill that is fluted and relieved. It is the part that fits into the holding device. 18

Seth Jai Parkash Mukand Lal Institute of Engineering & Technology, Radaur


Dead centre- It is the sharp edge at the extreme tip end of the drill, formed by the intersection of the cone shaped surfaces of the point. It should always be in the exact centre of the axis of the drill.


Lips These are the main cutting edges of the drill and are formed by the intersection of the flank and flute surfaces.


3.13.1 Introduction
The operation of boring differs from drilling in that it implies the enlargement of an already existing hold. This hole can be due to previous drilling or produced in casting or forging. The operation of boring can easily be done on centre lathe of medium size but for large and heavy jobs, special boring machines are to be used, which makes the operation easy and efficient.

3.13.2 Classification of Boring Machine

Boring machines are manufactured in various different designs and sizes. They can broadly be classified into the following three types: 1) 2) 3) Horizontal Boring Machine Vertical Boring Machines Jig Boring Machines

Of the above three, the first two types include production machines, used in general production work, where as the last one is a precision machine used for precision boring operations, such as jig boring.

3.13.3Horizontal Boring Machines

The term horizontal boring machines cover a number types horizontal boring machines viz table type, floor type and multiple head type etc. But of all these the table type or universal type is mostly used. This machine by means of a block diagram is shown in fig.


Seth Jai Parkash Mukand Lal Institute of Engineering & Technology, Radaur

3.13.4 Parts of a Horizontal Boring Machine Bed It is a heavy cast iron structure and is the main supporting member of the machine. It is supports and links all the other units of the machine. It has a closed box shaped cross section and carries wide guide ways at its top.

Main Column

It is another sturdy part of the machine which provides support to the complete headstock unit. At its front, it carries vertical guideways along which the headstock travels up and down. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) Headstock

It is an independent unit of the machine which carries a no. of different mechanism like: Spindle Assembly. Main Driving Mechanism Spindle Traverse Mechanism Feed Gear Box Head Stock Extension Speed and Feed Changing Mechanism. Clamping Device Oil Pumps Turnstile Assembly

Table and Saddle

The complete unit consists of two saddles and a rotary table. Out of two saddles, the lower one moves longitudinally along the horizontal guide ways provided on the bed. The upper saddle moves at right angles to the direction of movement of the lower saddle and also table can be rotated and swivelled to any desired position.

End support column

It is provided to carry the end support (bar, holder) as shown A1 its front its carries vertical guide ways along with moves the bar holder carrying the bearing.


Seth Jai Parkash Mukand Lal Institute of Engineering & Technology, Radaur


3.14.1 Introduction Milling is the name given to the machining process in which the removal of metal takes place due to the cutting action of revolving cutter when the work is fed past it. The revolving is held on a spindle or arbor and the work, clamped on the machine table, fed past the same. In doing so, the teeth of the cutter removes the metal in the form of chips, from the surface of the work to produced the desired shape. Milling machine has acquired an indispensable position in all modern production work shop.

3.14.2 Working Principle in Milling The working, principle employed in the metal removing on a milling machining machine, is that the work is rigidly clamped on the table of the machine, or held between centres, and revolving multi teeth cutter mounted either on a spindle or an arbor. The cutter revolves at a fairly high speed and work fed slowly past the cutter. 3.14.3 Types of Milling machines Milling machine are of following types: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Column and knee type milling machines Fixed bed type milling machines Planer type milling machines Production milling machines. Special purpose machines.

3.14.4 COLUMN AND KNEE TYPE MILLING MACHINE The machines are all general purpose machines and have a single spindle only. They derive their name 'Column and knee' type from the fact that the work table is supported on a knee type casting, which can slide in vertical direction along a vertical column. These machines, depending upon the spindle position and table movements, are further classified as follows: 1) 2) 3) 4) Hand milling machine Plain or horizontal milling machine Vertical milling machine Universal milling machine


Seth Jai Parkash Mukand Lal Institute of Engineering & Technology, Radaur





Fig. 4.1 Dye penetration testing Dye penetrate inspection is similar to liquid penetrate inspection except vividly colored dyes visible under ordinary light are used. Surface cracks and pinholes that are not visible to the naked eye can be located by liquid penetrate inspection. It is widely used to locate leaks in welds and can be applied with austenitic steels and nonferrous materials where magnetic particle inspection would be useless. Liquid penetrate inspection is often referred to as an extension of the visual inspection method. Many standards, such as the AWS D1.1 Code, say that "welds subject to liquid penetrate testing ... shall be evaluated on the basis of the requirements for visual inspection. Two types of penetrating liquids are used -fluorescent and visible dye. With fluorescent penetrate inspection; a highly fluorescent liquid with good penetrating qualities is 22

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applied to the surface of the part to be examined. Capillary action draws the liquid into the surface openings, and the excess is then removed. A "developer" is used to draw the penetrate to the surface, and the resulting indication is viewed by ultraviolet (black) light. The high contrast between the fluorescent material and the object makes it possible to detect minute traces of penetrates that indicate surface defects. Dye penetrate inspection is similar, except that vividly colored dyes visible under ordinary light are used. Normally, a white developer is used with the dye penetrates that creates a sharply contrasting background to the vivid dye color. This allows greater portability by eliminating the need for ultraviolet light. The part to be inspected must be clean and dry, because any foreign matter could close the cracks or pinholes and exclude the penetrate. Penetrates can be applied by dipping, spraying or brushing, but sufficient time must be allowed for the liquid to be fully absorbed into the discontinuities. This may take an hour or more in very exacting work. Liquid penetrate inspection is widely used for leak detection. A common procedure is to apply fluorescent material to one side of a joint, wait an adequate time for capillary action to take place, and then view the other side with ultraviolet light. In thin-walled vessels, this technique will identify leaks that ordinarily would not be located by the usual air test with pressures of 5-20 Ib/in2. When wall thickness exceeds 1/4 in., however, sensitivity of the leak test decreases. ADVANTAGES 1. It can be used on both ferrous and non ferrous materials. 2. Process uses Inexpensive Equipment. 3. Its results can be easily detected. 4. No use of electric energy is there. LIMITATIONS 1. Parts cleaning is required before testing. 2. Surface coatings can hide defects.


Seth Jai Parkash Mukand Lal Institute of Engineering & Technology, Radaur


Working principle

Fig. 4.2 Radiographic testing 1

Fig. 4.3 Radiographic testing view Radiography (X-ray) is one of the most important, versatile and widely accepted of all the nondestructive examination methods. Thicker areas of a specimen being x-rayed or higher density material absorbs more radiation and the corresponding areas on the radiograph will be lighter.


Seth Jai Parkash Mukand Lal Institute of Engineering & Technology, Radaur

X-ray is used to determine the internal soundness of welds. The term 'X-ray quality," widely used to indicate high quality in welds, arises from this inspection method. Radiography is based on the ability of X-rays and gamma rays to pass through metal and other materials opaque to ordinary light, and produce photographic records of the transmitted radiant energy. All materials will absorb known amounts of this radiant energy and, therefore, X-rays and gamma rays can be used to show discontinuities and inclusions within the opaque material. The permanent film record of the internal conditions will show the basic information by which weld soundness can be determined. "Radiography is one of the most widely accepted NDT methods." X-rays are produced by high-voltage generators. As the high voltage applied to an X-ray tube is increased, the wavelength of the emitted X-ray becomes shorter, providing more penetrating power. Gamma rays are produced by the atomic disintegration of radioisotopes. The radioactive isotopes most widely used in industrial radiography are Cobalt 60 and Iridium 192. Gamma rays emitted from these isotopes are similar to X-rays, except their wavelengths are usually shorter. This allows them to penetrate to greater depths than X-rays of the same power; however, exposure times are considerably longer due to the lower intensity. When X-rays or gamma rays are directed at a section of weldment, not all of the radiation passes through the metal. Different materials, depending on their density, thickness and atomic number, will absorb different wavelengths of radiant energy. The degree to which the different materials absorb these rays determines the intensity of the rays penetrating through the material. When variations of these rays are recorded, a means of seeing inside the material is available. The image on a developed photosensitized film is known as a radiograph. The opaque material absorbs a certain amount of radiation, but where there is a thin section or a void (slag inclusion or porosity), less absorption takes place. These areas will appear darker on the radiograph. Thicket areas of the specimen or higher density material (tungsten inclusion), will absorb more radiation and their corresponding areas on the radiograph will be lighter-Fig. 2.


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Whether in the shop or in the field, the reliability and interpretive value of radiographic images are a function of their sharpness and contrast. The ability of an observer to detect a flaw depends on the sharpness of its image and its contrast with the background. To be sure that the radiographic exposure produces acceptable results, a gauge known as an Image Quality Indicator (IQI) is placed on the part so that its image will be produced on the radiograph. IQls used to determine radiographic quality are also called pentameters. A standard hole-type pentameter is a rectangular piece of metal with three drilled holes of set diameters. The thickness of the piece of metal is a percentage of the thickness of the specimen being radio graphed. The diameter of each hole is different and is a given multiple of the pentameters thickness. Wire-type pentameters are also widely used, especially outside the United States. They consist of several pieces of wire, each of a different diameter. Sensitivity is determined by the smallest diameter of wire that can be clearly seen on the radiograph. A pentameter is not an indicator or gauge to measure the size of a discontinuity or the minimum detectable flaw size. It is an indicator of the quality of the radiographic technique. Radiographic images are not always easy to interpret. Film handling marks and streaks, fog and spots caused by developing errors may make it difficult to identify defects. Such film artifacts may mask weld discontinuities. Surface defects will show up on the film and must be recognized. Because the angle of exposure will also influence the radiograph, it is difficult or impossible to evaluate fillet welds by this method. Because a radiograph compresses all the defects that occur throughout the thickness of the weld into one plane, it tends to give an exaggerated impression of scattered-type defects such as porosity or inclusions. An X-ray image of the interior of a weld may be viewed on a fluorescent screen, as well as on developed film. This makes it possible to inspect parts faster and at lower cost, but image definition is but image definition is possible to overcome many of the


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shortcomings of radiographic imaging by linking the fluorescent screen with a video camera. Instead of waiting for film to be developed, the images can be viewed in real time. This can improve quality and reduce costs on production applications such as pipe welding, where a problem can be identified and corrected quickly. By digitizing the image and loading it into a computer, the image can be enhanced and analyzed to a degree never before possible. Multiple images can be superimposed. Pixel values can be adjusted to change shading and contrast, bringing out small flaws and discontinuities that would not show up on film. Colors can be assigned to the various shades of gray to further enhance the image and make flaws stand out better. The process of digitizing an image taken from the fluorescent screen - having that image computer enhanced and transferred to a viewing monitor - takes only a few seconds. However, because there is a time delay, we can no longer consider this "real time." It is called "radioscopy imagery." Existing films can be digitized to achieve the same results and improve the analysis process. Another advantage is the ability to archive images on laser optical disks, which take up far less space than vaults of old films and are much easier to recall when needed. Industrial radiography, then, is an inspection method using X-rays and gamma rays as a penetrating medium, and densitized film as a recording medium, to obtain a photographic record of internal quality. Generally, defects in welds consist either of a void in the weld metal itself or an inclusion that differs in density from the surrounding weld metal. Radiographic equipment produces radiation that can be harmful to body tissue in excessive amounts, so all safety precautions should be followed closely. All instructions should be followed carefully to achieve satisfactory results. Only personnel who are trained in radiation safety and qualified as industrial radiographers should be permitted to do radiographic testing.


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ADVANTAGES: 1. In this process no electrical energy is required. 2. It can be used on any type of material. 3. small and portable 4. low maintenance cost LIMITATIONS: 1. Radiations are hazardous and initial cost is high. 2. Highly skilled operator is required.



Fig. 4.4 Ultrasonic testing Ultrasonic inspection detects discontinuities both on and below the weld surface. Compact, portable equipment makes it easy to use in the field. Ultrasonic inspection is a method of detecting discontinuities by directing a highfrequency sound beam through the base plate and weld on a predictable path. When the sound beam's path strikes an interruption in the material continuity, some of the sound is reflected back. The sound is collected by the instrument, amplified and displayed as a vertical trace on a video screen.


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Both surface and subsurface defects in metals can be detected, located and measured by ultrasonic inspection, including flaws too small to be detected by other methods. The ultrasonic unit contains a crystal of quartz or other piezoelectric material encapsulated in a transducer or probe. When a voltage is applied, the crystal vibrates rapidly. As an ultrasonic transducer is held against the metal to be inspected, it imparts mechanical vibrations of the same frequency as the crystal through a couplet material into the base metal and weld. These vibrational waves are propagated through the material until they reach a discontinuity or change in density. At these points, some of the vibrational energy is reflected back. As the current that causes the vibration is shut off and on at 60-1000 times per second, the quartz crystal intermittently acts as a receiver to pick up the reflected vibrations. These cause pressure on the crystal and generate an electrical current. Fed to a video screen, this current produces vertical deflections on the horizontal base line. The resulting pattern on the face of the tube represents the reflected signal and the discontinuity. Compact portable ultrasonic equipment is available for field inspection and is commonly used on bridge and structural work. Ultrasonic testing is less suitable than other NDT methods for determining porosity in welds, because round gas pores respond to ultrasonic tests as a series of single-point reflectors. This results in low-amplitude responses that are easily confused with "base line noise" inherent with testing parameters. However, it is the preferred test method for detecting plainer-type discontinuities and lamination. Portable ultrasonic equipment is available with digital operation and microprocessor controls. These instruments may have built-in memory and can provide hard-copy printouts or video monitoring and recording. They can be interfaced with computers, which allow further analysis, documentation and archiving, much as with radiographic data. Ultrasonic examination requires expert interpretation from highly skilled and extensively trained personnel. ADVANTAGES: 1. It is most sensitive to the planar type discontinuities. 2. Test result is immediately.


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3. It is portable. 4. It is having high penetration capability. LIMITATION: 1. Coolant is required in this testing. 2. Thin welds are difficult to inspect. 3. Skilled operators are required. 4. No records of the result in most cases. APPLICATIONS: 1. Weld discontinuity and cracks can be detected for any thickness.



GOUSING : This process is also called as Air Carbon Arc cutting process. It removes the molten metal with a jet of air. The intense heat of arc b/w a carbon graphite electrode and work, simultaneously a jet of air of sufficient volume and velocity is passed through an arc to blow away molten metal. The exposed solid metal is then melted by arc and sequence continues. Copper coated electrodes are used. Air pressure of 560-700 kpa is used. Flow of air is required about 8.5 litres per minute. For non-ferrous metals, electrodes at perpendicular position to the weld is used. The depth of groove is produced by travel speed. Slow speed will produce a deep groove and fast speed will produce a shallow groove. The width of groove is determined by size of electrode. Gouging electrode diameter is about 6-9 mm.


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GAS CUTTING : It is an oxygen cutting process. It is an cutting process wherein the severing or removing of metals is effected by means of the chemical reaction of oxygen with the base metal at the elevated temperatures.

The necessary temperature is maintained by means of gas flame obtained from the combustion of a fuel gas (such as acetylene, hydrogen, propane etc.) and oxygen. However, mostly acetylene gas is used as a fuel gas. The cutting process is based on the ability of high purity oxygen to combine rapidly with iron heated to above 8700C. The iron gets rapidly oxidized by the oxygen to form iron oxide. The chemical reaction involves are : Fe + 0 3Fe + 202 Fe0 + Heat (276Kj) Fe309 + Heat (1120 Kj)

The huge amount of heat liberated by second reaction predominates that of the Ist reaction which is supplementary in most cutting operations. The main cutting methods are :- Bevel Cutting : It is a common operation with the cutting torch and is employed for preparing the edges of steel plates before welding them together. It may be carried out by using a single torch or multiple torches. Best cutting results are achieved by positioning torch tip very close to the work.


Seth Jai Parkash Mukand Lal Institute of Engineering & Technology, Radaur Stack Cutting It means cutting a stack of thin sheets of steel. It is employed where a modest quantity of duplicate parts is required but is insufficient in number to justify the construction of a Blanking die. Preplanning of sheets is required. Gas cutting nozzle size and oxygen pressure depends upon thickness of weld.


GRINDING Grinding is a process of removing the material by the abrasive action of a revolving wheel on the surface of a work piece, in order to bring it to the required shape and size. The wheel used for performing the grinding operation is known of "Grinding Wheel".


DRILLING Drilling is an operation through which holes are produced in a Solid metal by means of a revolving tool called drill. Holes are produced in the Boiler Shell.


REAMING It is not possible produce a perfectly true hole by drilling, it is considered as a roughing operation. For such holes drilling is followed by another operation called 'Reaming' in which required dimensional accuracy and fine surface finish is obtained by means of a multi-teeth revolving tool called reamer.


BORING It is an operation employed for enlarging an existing hole. The hole may be previously drilled, cast, punched or produced through any other suitable operation.


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It can be concluded that ISGEC is a modernized and well-equipped industry form every aspect whether it is manufacturing process. During this project period, I got valuable knowledge regarding the most modern techniques used by ISGEC.

This Project also made me familiar with many machines & instruments used in Workshop. The management & employees are very helpful. I hope that the valuable knowledge I have gain here will help me in future.



My training and practical exposure achieved at ISGEC, Yamuna Nagar is definitely

very beneficial for me in my future career. I come through with different mechanical machineries and their working. I got knowledge about the various techniques used in Workshop.



Practical exposure gained at ISGEC is very useful. The report made on the practical experience at Workshop is very beneficial for other also. This report makes a glance on various activities performed at ISGEC Workshop specially in Machine Shop. As we know Indian Boiler has biggest organization in world in terms of infrastructure and employee strength. So, with the help of my study in a big organization like Railway, one can understand about the various mechanical functions and maintenance made on large scale in a big industry.