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'Text' is used to refer to particular language usages with an identifiable beginning and end situated in time and place. Texts can be considered the outcome of discourse. That is, discourse is a process that produces text (Brown and Yule 1983: 25; Widdowson 1979: 71). On this definition, texts are a 'trace' of the communicative act, or discourse event (Brown and Yule 1983: 6). They may be spoken or written, where written texts represent a (semi)permanent record. Of course, written texts may be records of spoken texts. For some scholars, such as Gunther Kress and Theo van Leeuwen (2001) text is conceived as multimodal rather than limited to linguistic form. Texts are also concrete realisations of discourses (Lemke 1995), which is to say that discourses find their expression in text (Kress 1985: 27).
For Norman Fairclough (1989, 1995) each discourse event is made up of three dimensions or facets. There is the text itself and the discourse practice of producing and interpreting the text. In addition, every discourse practice is seen to be an instance of social practice. Fairclough illustrates these layers in a three-dimensional framework in which the connection between text and social practice is mediated by discourse practice (Fairclough 1995: 133). Against this framework, discourse is seen as a site of social action and as constitutive of social relations and identities. The view of language as action, embodied in the title of Austin's (1962) posthumously published How to do Things with Words, is inspired by both ordinary language philosophy (Austin 1962; Searle 1969; Wittgenstein 1953) and Critical Theory. According to Habermas, for example, ‘language is also a medium of...social force' (1977: 259).
Fairclough's three-dimensional framework
Corresponding with the three dimesions of a discourse event, Norman Fairclough proposes three dimensions of discourse analysis. These are linguistic description of the text, interpretation of the relationship between discursive processes (production and interpretation) and the text, and explanation of the relationship between the discursive process and social phenomena (Fairclough 1995: 97). CDA has mainly been concerned with linguistic description and social explanation. It has paid comparatively little attention to interpretation-stage analysis and especially the cognitive processes involved in discourse (O'Halloran 2003).
Texts also belong to different 'genres'. In contrast to 'register'. what captures the genre of a text is not its lexicogrammatical features but the context itself in which the text is produced (van Dijk 2008,
they belong to historical series' (Fairclough 1989: 127). Interdiscursivity can also refer to the combination in text of context and register features associated with different genres resulting in new hybrid genres. Texts are produced within an 'intertextual context'. That is. utterance about utterance' (1973: 115) Reported speech is especially common in news discourse. performance. there are different social and power relations held between the textproducer and text-consumers (tenor). Milonas (2007: 100) notes that television genres are flexible enough to mix and provide new creative possibilities. This context can be defined according to the three aspects of situation that determine register . Act K. Genre Intertextuality The concept of intertextuality is based on Bakhtin and Voloshinov. Producing a newspaper report and a political speech are two different social activities (field). 2009). And both are delivered via different mediums: written versus spoken respectively (mode). Participants E. given by Blackledge (2007: 11). tenor and mode. as John Richardson (2007: 102) notes. the filmmaker's presence and entertainment' (ibid. newspaper reports and political speeches are two distinct text genres. Genre (or type of 'speech event') has also been modelled by Dell Hymes (1972) using the following mnemonic: S. whereby a current text contains elements of a previous text. Norms G. So for example.). Instrumentalities N.field. ‘one of the most characteristic features of newspaper language is its "embededness": much of what features in the news is actually reported speech' (2006: 59). or a quote from a source either involved in the reported action/event (information) or commenting on it (evaluation)'. Ends A. and at the same time also speech about speech. According to Monika Bednarek. In each case. Intertextuality often involves reported speech. Milonas states that the film's hybrid genre 'has strong elements of the traditional foundations of documentary. texts 'have histories. Another example. would be the use of conversational features of language in the formal context of a speech to . utterance within utterance. Interdiscursivity Interdiscursivity refers to the phenomenon whereby elements from different discourses are combined in textsresulting in new hybrid or nodal discourses. enriched by new stylistic choices. Setting P. which Voloshinov characterises as 'speech within speech. 'a news report may contain elements of a press release. For example. Texts are related to other texts within their intertextual context through intertextuality. For example. With reference to a documentary film on the London transport attacks of 7 July 2005. Key I.
and reproduced by. This worldview. which exists as ameaning potential. Critical Metaphor Analysis applies metaphor theory from Cognitive Linguistics. can be thought of as the formal structures which discourses take (Hart 2010). According to Fairclough (2003). metaphor is seen as a conceptual structure in which one domain of experience provides the basis for our understanding of another more abstract social domain (Lakoff and Johnson 1980). A whole approach dedicated to metaphor now exists under the bannar of Critical Metaphor Analysis (Charteris-Black 2004). According to Charteris-Black. The system is organised into 'strata' at different levels of abstraction. however. The semantic strata is realised in lexicogrammar . metaphor is 'central to critical discourse analysis since it is concerned forming a coherent view of reality' (2004: 28). three basic elements of a semantic configuration are identified: process. Part-for-whole metonymies allow certain elements of an individual's identity to be profiled or for one subtype of a category to stand stereotypically for all its members. where conceptual metaphors ‘privilege one understanding of reality over others' (Chilton 1996: 74). nominals and adverbials. as well as other idealised cognitive models such as frames. CDA is often concerned with transitivity choices at the level of lexicogrammar. Metonymy can be used for a range of ideological purposes. They are related by means of realization. Metonymy Metonymy is a linguistic and conceptual structure where one element stands referentially for another. For example. language is seen as a social system of semiotic resources. interdiscursivity in text creates a hybridity of social practices characteristic of the blurring of social boundaries. These conceptual metaphors are an important part of ideology since they 'provide the cognitive framework for worldview' (Santa Ana 2002: 21). In the semantic strata. The availability of choice in lexicogrammar means linguistic representation is always necessarily ideological. participant and circumstance. Here. linguistic metaphors. instrument-foragent or place-for-person metonymies allow responsibility for an action or process to be glossed over or 'mystified'. Critical analysis of linguistic metaphors in text can therefore reveal underlying ideologies and ideoological reproduction. is only partial.Parliament. Metaphor Metaphor is a linguistic and conceptual structure which has received growing attention in CDA. .the network of lexical and grammatical options available for the expression of meaning. Lexicogrammar In Systemic Functional Grammar. These are realised in lexicogrammar as verbs. Conceptual metaphors. Conceptual metaphors are reflected in.
e. Register Texts belong to different 'registers'. however. particularly in the areas of power-relations and writiers' attitudes' (Fowler 1991: 80) The significance of nominalisation. In deontic modality speakers express obligation and permission. Modality can be deontic or epistemic and is most obviously manifested in modal verbs. which members of a 'speech community' associate with a given situation (Halliday 2007: 182). Nominalisation Nominalisations. there are formal and colloquial registers used in official and everyday settings respectively. Field refers to the activity in which the text-producer is participating. Fowler 1991: 80). has recently been the subject of debate in an issue of Discourse & Society. registers are 'ways of using language in different contexts'. tenor and mode. like agentless passive constructions. And mode refers to the medium by which the text is produced. In epistemic modality speakers express degrees of certainty. Nominalisations are processes transformed into nouns. newspaper reporting is a single genre but different newspapers may vary in register. who is qualified with the knowledge required to pass judgement' (1991: 64). especially Critical Linguistics and the sociosemiotic approach. Nominalisation thus permits 'habits of concealment. Social Cognition . For example. certain informaton. there can be register-variation within a single genre. Tenor refers to the social relations held between text-producer and text-consumers. According to Michael Halliday and Christian Matthiessen (2004: 27). The ideological significance of modality is that it ‘suggests the presence of an individual subjectivity behind the printed text.Modality Modality is a semantic category in which speakers express their attitude and commitment toward communicated propositions. According to Halliday and Hasan (1985: 38) three aspects of situation determine register: field. participants. may be glossed over or 'mystified' in nominal forms. They are 'reduced' representations which offer ideological opportunities (Fairclough 1989: 103. Specifically. It belongs to the interpersonal metafunction. time. For example. and modality. Register therefore describes the linguistic characteristics of a given genre. are a linguistic structure to have received much attention in CDA. In some cases. Modality is therefore 'an important part of the practices by means of which claims to authority are articulated and legitimated authority is expressed' (Fowler 1985: 73). Register is described in terms of the configuration of linguistic resources in lexicogrammar.g.
In argumentation strategies. 1996: 38).). Reisigl and Wodak 2001. predications can function as first premises in topoi which justify or warrent particular courses of action. 'topos' is also translated as a rule or procedure (van Eemeren et al. memory. Social cognitions exist as part of semantic. these include reference. predication. topoi are understood as standard 'argumentation schemes' which 'represent the common-sense reasoning typical for specific issues' (van Dijk 2000: 98). describes 'a more or less intentional plan of practices (including discourse practices) adopted to achieve a particular social. in explicitly cognitive terms. Hart 2010. as defined by Martin Reisigl and Ruth Wodak (2001: 44). predications function as topoi to justify discrimination and/or exclusion. to explain how texts can be socially constructive presupposes an account that relates textual structures to social cognition. In predicational strategies speakers assign to social actors evaluative . For van Dijk. used and changed through discourse (van Dijk 1990: 165). as opposed to episodic. Indeed. or ideologies. Transitivity . Although embodied in the minds of individuals. A number of such strategies and various typologies for them have been proposed (see Chilton 2004. Wodak 2001).positive or negative . It is this latter translation that is used in CDA. and social cognition to social structures (ibid. Crucially. political. perspectivation. argumentation. In CDA. social cognitions are semantic in so far as 'they are shared and presupposed by group members' (van Dijk 1993: 257). and intensification ormitigation (Reisigl and Wodak 2001: 44-56). However. According to van Dijk. they are arguments in which an implicit conclusion is presupposed by a premise (Reisigl and Wodak 2001. Strategies The term 'strategy'. textual structure and social structure are mediated by social cognition. van Dijk (1993: 280) believes that it is theoretically essential for microlevel notions such as text and macrolevel notions such as social relations to be mediated by social cognition. Chilton and Schäffner 1997. Topoi The term ‘topos' has its roots in Rhetoric. In argumentation strategies. van Dijk 2000. these cognitive structures are largely acquired. Wodak 2001). which is defined as ‘the system of mental representations and processes of group members' (1995: 18). where topoi are conceived of as content-related warrants which can be expressed as conditional 'conclusion rules' (Riesigl and Wodak 2001: 74). Referential (or nomination) strategies are strategies by means of which speakers classify social actors (see van Leeuwen 1996) . psychological or linguistic aim'. It translates as a 'place' where arguments can be found.attributes. In intensification or mitigation strategies speakers strengthen or weaken the epistemic status of propositions. In perspectivation strategies speakers express their own point of view by appraising the propositions they are communicating. In racist discourse. In other words.Teun van Dijk views discourses.
and where they occur in the sentence. In syntactic terms. agent and patient) are encoded. Transitivity is of interest in CDA because it has 'the facility to analyse the same event in different ways' (Fowler 1991: 71).According to Roger Fowler (1991: 70). which participants (e. It involves a 'transformation' whereby the affected takes the subject position of the sentence and the agent is left out of the ojbect position. espeically in Critical Linguistics. For example. whether or not a verb takes a direct object. Transitivity choices therefore communicate ideology. The construction is therefore said to conceal or 'mystify' responsbility for the action or process described. reflect (and reproduce) a particular point of view. particularly for readers unwilling to invest the extra effort required to recover the relevant information. the agentless passive voice means there is no direct reference to who performed the action designated by the verb. Agentless passive construction Along with nominalisation . Consequently. how. transitivity in Systemic Functional Grammar concerns what kind of action or process a verb designates.. there is now some doubt as to the significance of the agentless passive. i.g. transitivity is a 'fundamental and powerful semantic concept in Halliday' and the 'foundation of representation' (1991: 71). In contrast to its syntactic definition.e. thus causing a separation of agent and action (Trew1979: 98). . O'Halloran (2003) argues that pragmatic principles of relevance mean that readers can be expected to recover the 'concealed' information automatically based on background assumptions. the agentless passive construction is a linguistic structure which has received much attention in CDA. agent exclusions may not be mystificatory at all but simply based on a co-operative principle of economy. However.
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