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it in another. There are two kinds of concentration units, those that involve mass-mass ratios such as mass percentage, molality and mole fraction, and those that involve mass-volume ratios, such as molarity grams per 100 mL etc. It is relatively easy to convert one type of mass-mass concentration to another mass-mass unit of concentration. It is slightly more complex to convert concentration units from mass-mass type to concentration units that are mass-volume, since we have the additional task of converting mass to volume or vice versa. This is usually done through density. Let's look at some examples now. Conversion of Molality to Mole Fraction Example What is the mole fraction of each component in a 0.500 m aqueous solution of NaCl? From the definition of molality we know that this solution contains 0.500 mol of NaCl in 1.00 kg of water. So let's assume we have enough solution to contain 0.500 mol NaCl. This means that the solution will have 1.00 kg of water, convert this to moles. 1 mol H2O 55.6 1.00 x x --------------------- = mol 103 H2O H2O 18.0 g H2O 0.500 mol NaCl XNaCl = -------------------- = 0.00891 (0.500 + 55.6) mol solution 55.6 mole H2O Xwater = -------------------- = (0.500 + 55.6) mol solution Conversion of Molality to Mass Percent 0.991

Example What is the mass percentage of NaCl in a 0.500 m aqueous solution of NaCl? Again assume that you have enough solution, that it contains 0.500 mol NaCl and therefore 1.00 x 103 g of water. Convert 0.500 mol of NaCl into mass. 58.44 g NaCl 0.500 mol x ---------------- = NaCl 1 mole NaCl 29.22 g NaCl x 100 mass 2.84 % = ----------------------------- = % NaCl (29.22 + 1.00 x 103) g soln Conversion of Mole Fraction to Molality Example What is the molality of NaCl in an aqueous solution in which the mole fraction of NaCl is 0.100? Let's assume we have 1.00 mol of solution. This means that the solution will contain 0.100 mol of NaCl and 0.900 mol of water. Convert 0.900 mole of water to kilograms. 18.0 g H2O 0.900 mol x ---------------- = 16.2 g H2O H2O 1 mole H2O 0.100 mol NaCl molality = ----------------------------- = 6.17 m 0.0162 kg solvent Conversion of Molarity to Molality Example What is the molality of NaCl in an aqueous solution which 4.20 M? The density of the solution is 1.05 x 103 g/L. Let's assume we have 1.00 L of solution. This means that the solution will contain 4.20 mol of NaCl. Convert this to mass. 29.22 g NaCl

58.44 g NaCl 4.20 mol x ---------------- = 245 g NaCl NaCl 1 mole NaCl Subtract this from the mass of one liter of solution (obtained from the density) to obtain the mass of water. mass water = 1050 g solution - 245 g NaCl = 805 g water 4.20 mol NaCl molality = ----------------------------- = 5.03 m 0.805 kg solvent Conversion of Molality to Molarity Example What is the molarity of NaCl in an aqueous solution which 4.50 M? The density of the solution is 1.05 x 103 g/L. Let's assume we have enough solution to contain 4.50 mol NaCl, which means that we will have 1.00 kg of water. Convert 4.20 mol of NaCl to mass. 58.44 g NaCl 4.50 mol x ---------------- = 263 g NaCl NaCl 1 mole NaCl Add the mass of NaCl and the mass of water to obtain the mass of solution. mass solution = 1000 g water + 263 g NaCl = 1263 g solution Next use the density to calculate the volume of solution. 1.26 x 103 g volume = ----------------------------- = 1.05 x 103 g/L 4.20 mol NaCl molarity = ----------------------------- = 1.20 L 3.50 M 1.20 L

CONCENTRATION UNITS This handout will deal with units of concentration and how to convert from one concentration unit to another. It will be important to understand a few terms dealing with solutions, so let's define them: Solution -- a mixture consisting of a solute and a solvent Solute -- component of a solution present in the lesser amount Solvent -- component of a solution present in the greater amount Concentration -- amount of a solute present in a solution per standard amount of solvent There are numerous ways of expressing concentrations. It will be important to know the units used to express each concentration, as these units essentially define the concentration. Let's look at some ways to express concentration. Weight/Weight Percent (w/w%): This unit of concentration is often used for concentrated solutions, typically acids and bases. If you were to look on a bottle of a concentrated acid or base solution the concentration expressed as a weigh/weight percent. A weight/weight percent is defined as:

Molality is often used as the concentration unit involved in calculations dealing with colligative properties, such as freezing point depression, boiling point elevation and osmotic pressure. Parts per million (ppm): This unit of concentration may be expressed in a number of ways. It is often used to express the concentration of very dilute solutions. The "technical" definition of parts per million is:

Mole fraction (X) and mole percent (%X): A fraction is defined as a part over a whole. Multiplying this fraction by 100 would give the percent. Thus, a mole fraction involves knowing the moles of solute or component of interest over the total moles of all components in the solution mixture:

Since the amount of solute relative to the amount of solvent is typically very small, the density of the solution is to a first approximation the same as the density of the solvent. For this reason, parts per million may also be expressed in the following two ways:

Molarity (M): This unit of concentration relates the moles of solute per liter of solution.

Parts per billion (ppb): This concentration unit is also used for very dilute solutions. The "technical" definition is as follows:

You may find it necessary to be able to convert from one concentration unit to another. The key to solving this type of problem is to realize that you may make an assumption to get started. You may need to know the density of the solution, which would be given in the problem. Then, by using dimensional analysis, you try to get to the units of the concentration unit you are seeking to find. To get started, assume the quanitity of solution found in the denominator unit of the concentration unit you are trying to convert. For example, if you are trying to convert weight/weight percent to molarity, assume 100 grams of solution. If you are trying to convert molarity to weight/weight percent, assume 1 liter of solution. Let's look at a typical example. Suppose you are given a concentrated solution of HCl which is known to be 37.0% HCl and has a solution density of 1.19 g/mL. What is the molarity, molality and mole fraction of HCl? Begin with the assumption of 100 g of solution. With this assumption, you now know a few other facts. In 100 g of solution, 37.0 g is due to HCl (grams of solute) and 63.0 g is due to water (grams of solvent). To find molarity, we need to determine the moles of HCl (solute) per liter of solution. First, convert the known amount of HCl (37.0 g) to moles:

Owing to the dilute nature of the solution, once again, the density of the solution will be about the same as the density of the solvent. Thus, we may also express parts per billion as: Molarity is the most common concentration unit involved in calculations dealing with volumetric stoichiometry. Molality (m): This unit of concentration relates the moles of solute per kilogram of solvent. Since the moles of solute (HCl) and volume of solution in liters is now know, calculate the molarity (M) as the moles of solute per liter of solution: Next, convert the known mass of solution, 100 g solution, to liters of solution, using the density of the solution:

From the information above, let's find the molality of the HCl solution. The moles of solute is already known (1.01 mol HCl). We need to find the kilograms of solvent:

Since molality (m) is defined as the moles of solute per kilogram solvent, it becomes easy to find the molality:

Finally, let's tackle the mole fraction of HCl. The moles of HCl is known to be 1.01 mole. We need to find the moles of H2O:

Since the moles of solute (HCl) and moles of solvent (H2O) are known, the mole fraction of HCl may be calculated:

ppm

ppb

ppt

ppq

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