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# Name: __________________________________ Chemistry Problem Set 1 Section 1: Stoichiometry, Basic Titrations and Quantitative Analysis 1. Suppose that 10.

0-mL of 3.0 M KOH(aq) is transferred to a 250.0-mL volumetric flask and diluted to the mark. It was found that 38.5-mL of this diluted solution was needed to reach the stoichiometric point (also called equivalence point) in a titration of 10.0-mL of a Phosphoric acid solution. Note that Phosphoric acid has 3 acidic protons and therefore is a triprotic acid. (a) Calculate the molarity of H3PO4 in the solution. (b) What mass of H3PO4 is in the initial sample? (Atkins and Jones F92) 2. A forensic laboratory is analyzing a mixture of the two solids Calcium Chloride Dihydrate (CaCl22H2O) and anhydrous (without any waters of hydration) Potassium Chloride (KCl). The mixture is heated to drive the waters of hydration off the Calcium Chloride dihydrate to form a mix of CaCl2 and KCl anhydrous. A sample of the mixture weighed 2.543 g before heating and 2.312 g after heating. Assuming only water left the mixture, what is the percent by mass of each compound in the original mixture? (Atkins and Jones F92) 3. Thiosulfate ions (S2O32-) can be made to "disproportionate" in acidic solution upon the addition of HCl to give solid sulfur (S) and hydrogen sulfite ion (HSO3-). The following net ionic equation is given for this "disproportionation"reaction:

## 2 S2O32-(aq) + 2 H3O+(aq) 2 HSO3-(aq) + 2 H2O(l) + 2 S(s)

(a) A "disproportionation" reaction is a type of redox (oxidation-reduction) reaction. Which reactant species is oxidized and which is reduced? (b) If 10.1-mL of 55.0% HSO3-(aq) by mass is obtained in the reaction, what mass of S2O32-(aq) was present initially, assuming tthe reaction went to completion. The density of the HSO3-(aq) is 1.45 g/mL. (Atkins and Jones F92) 4. A mixture of 10.325 g of Iron(II) Oxide and 5.734 g of Aluminum metal is placed in a crucible and heated in a high-temperature oven, where a reduction of the oxide takes place, forming elemental liquid Iron and solid Aluminum oxide from solid Iron(II) oxide and elemental liquid Aluminum. (a) Write the balanced reaction for this redox process. (b) What is the limiting reactant? (c) Determine the maximum amount of iron (in moles of Fe) that can be produced. (d) Calculate the mass of excess reactant remaining in the crucible. (Atkins and Jones F100) 5. A folk medicine used in the Anhui province of China to treat acute dysentery is cha-tiao-qi, a preparation of the leaves of Acer ginnala. Reaction of one of the active ingredients in chatiao-qi with water produces gallic acid, a powerful antidysenteric agent. Gallic acid is known

to contain only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. A chemist wanting to determine the molecular formula of gallic acid burned 1.000 g of the compound in an elemental analyzer in the presence of excess O2(g). The only products of the combustion were 1.811 g of CO2(g) and 0.3172 g of H2O(g), which were isolated from the excess oxygen used. (a) Determine the empirical formula of the compound. (b) If the molar mass is found to be 170.12 g/mol, what is the molecular formula of gallic acid? (Atkins and Jones F101) 6. A mixture of 5.00 g of Cr(NO3)2 and 6.00 g of CuSO4 is dissolved in sufficient water to make 250.0 mL of solution, where the cations react. In the reaction, copper metal is formed and each chromium ion loses one electron. (a) Write the net ionic equation. (b) What is the number of electrons transferred in the balanced equation written with the smallest wholenumber coefficients? (c) What are the molar concentrations of the two anions in the final solution? (Atkins and Jones F85) 7. The iron content of ores can be determined by titrating a sample with a solution of potassium permanganate KMnO4. The ore is dissolved in hydrochloric acid, forming iron(II) ions, which react with MnO4-:

## 5 Fe2+(aq) + MnO4-(aq) + 8 H+(aq) 5 Fe3+(aq) + Mn2+(aq) + 4 H2O(l)

The stoichiometric point is reached when all the Fe2+ and is detected when the purple color of the permanganate ion persists. A sample of ore of mass 0.202 g was dissolved in hydrochloric acid, and the resulting solution needed 16.7 mL of 0.0108 M KMnO 4(aq) to reach the stoichiometric point. (a) What mass of iron(II) ions is present? (b) What is the mass percentage of iron in the ore sample? (Atkins and Jones F90) 8. In addition to determining elemental composition of pure unknown compounds, combustion analysis can be used to determine the purity of known compounds. A sample of 2-naphthol, C10H7OH, which is used to prepare antioxidants to incorporate into synthetic rubber, was found to be contaminated with a small amount of LiBr. The combustion analysis of this sample gave the following results: 77.48% C and 5.20% H. Assuming that the only species present are 2-naphthol and LiBr, calculate the percentage purity by mass of the sample. (Atkins and Jones F101) 9. Nicotine, the stimulant in tobacco, causes a very complex set of physiological effects in the body. It is known to have a molar mass of 162 g/mol. When a sample of mass 0.395 g was burned, 1.072 g of carbon dioxide, 0.307 g of water, and 0.068 g of nitrogen were produced. What are the empirical and molecular formulas of nicotine? Write the equation for its combustion. (Atkins and Jones F100)

10. A 6.42% (by mass) Fe(NO3)3 solution has a density of 1.059 g/mL. Calculate (a) The molar concentration of Fe(NO3)3 in this solution. (b) The molar NO3- concentration of the solution. (c) The mass in grams of Fe(NO3)3 in each liter of this solution (Skoog et al. 77)

11. Exactly 0.1120 g of pure Na2CO3 was dissolved in 100.0 mL of 0.0497 M HClO4. (a) What mass in grams of CO2 was evolved? (b) What was the molarity of the excess reactant? (Skoog et al. 77)

12. Exactly 750.0 mL of a solution that contained 480.4 ppm of Ba(NO3)2 was mixed with 200.0 mL of a solution that was 0.03090 M in Al2(SO4)3. (a) What mass of solid BaSO4 was formed? (b) What was the molarity of the unreacted reagent? (Skoog et al. 78) (HINT to find molarity of Ba(NO3)2: What will the approximate density of such a dilute solution be?)

Sources
Atkins, Peter W., and Loretta Jones. Chemical Principles: The Quest for Insight. 4th ed. New York, NY: Freeman, 2008. Print. Skoog, Douglas A., Donald M. West, F. James Holler, and Stanley R. Crouch. Analytical Chemistry: An Introduction. 7th ed. N.p.: Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning, 1999. Print.