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Name:-Deore Surekha Bhivsan Class:-M.A.II English. Roll No:-78 Paper:-VI. Seat no:-632 Topic:-Satire in the Short-Stories of Khushwant Singh.

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Introduction. Satire in short s.of k.s. I. satire on Bureaucracy II.satire on the snobbish Anglicized Indians. III.satire on political leaders & process. Iv.satire on custom officers & system. V.satire on Indian superstitions.


Khushwant singh is one of the Indian English short-story writers of

merit, thought not one of the major short story writers of India. He is wellknown for his novel train to Pakistan which has been honored with sahitya Academy prize. He is a successful writer of short stories also.R.K.Dhawan says:The short story for Khushwant singh has been more successful than the novel, poetry or drama. Because as he says, it has Its roots in tradition. In the realm of the short story, khushwant singh is like R.P.Jhabvala, Bhabani Bhattacharya & K.A.Abbas.All of these writers have written many good stories. They have features which definitely further the cause of the short story as aform.Above all the stories of the writers present a faithful & vivid picture of the Indian scene, especially the post independence one commenting on the importance of khushwant singh. Shiv.K.Kumar says:With the publican of the mark of Vishnu in 1950, khushwant singh shot in to world reputation. The short stories of Khushwant singh have many features. So one of the remarkable features of the short stories of Khushwant singh is his satirical mode. He is famous for his satirical attitude in his short stories. So let us discuss about it in detail as follows.


Satire in the prescribed stories:Khushwant singh is a great satirist.infact; he is a great humorist

whose jokes are widely read. Even the serious stories of him are not free from a thing of smile. Most of his stories contain satire too. Most of his stories contain fine notes of social criticism. Being on intellectual person, his stories are full of comments. All this made Pradeep Trikha to say: - A large majority of Khushwant singh stories have a characteristic note of a rather heavy handed satire on several aspects of Indian rise. The above view Are applicable to the prescribed stories too. Most of the stories are highly satirical. The satire on several in these stories can be discussed as follows. A) Satire on Bureaucracy:In the story entitled Man, how the government of India, Runs?Khushwant singh satirizes the Indian bureaucr-cy.the whole story is steeped in satirical comments. The protagonist, mr.sunder singh & his colleagues Samamurthy & ghosh symbolize all the in efficient & showy clerical staff in the Indian government offices. In the story, first sunder singh & he exposes the follies of the secretaries. According to him, they do not know anything. They only attend parties, drink tea, attend meetings, dictate a few memos & when go home tell their wives that they are very tired.Secondly, Sunder singh & his colleagues themselves reveal their. Own follies when they boast themselves. They say that the valuable decisions are based on their work.Similarly, they can vanish a file mysteriously & make it reappear equally mysteriously .The colleagues are of the opinion that. They stop working; the whole bureaucracy will come to a standstill. The irony here is that these clerks do not do any work at all. Sunder singh types only a half tine during the whole day. They spend the whole day in having tea, eating food, playing volleyball & in gossiping. Yet they decide to propose

for the elevencesi.e.tea break for half on hour before lunch break as the clerks in Europe have. Thirdly, the conversation between the restaurant manager & sunder Singh is full of satiric note. The manager knows that sunder Singh does not work at all. So he comments on his nature when sunder Singh says that he has to do too much work in the office. The manager saysSomebody has to do the work. Sunder singhji, said the manager trying to makeup if you dont, who will? Sunder Singh acknowledged the gesture gracefully but did not want to leave the manager. Take the following for example Sunder Singh saysMany people run private businesses to supplement their services salaries. I dont know how they find the time to do so. I dont get a moment to raise my head off the table. Here Khushwant Singh attacks those government servants who do it is also satirical that Sunder Singh says that he does not get any time to do private buiseness.From the conversation of the manager & Sunder Singh ,one more point become clear. The author satirizes those who do private business though the government gives him comfortable salary. It is also satirical that the three colleagues speak about the matrimonial things & read the concerning ads with interested though they are not married & do not have children. Further, Sambamurthys view abut the success in the government service are sarcastic. According to him, for success in government service, a man must praise his senior. He should say Yes sir, yes sir. To everything he says. He should visit his family frequently with sweets or other things. He should play with his children or even first with his with it needed. He should do small domestic works of the man. Then he would get promotion after promotion. One may even become on under secretary which is the dream as a stenographer. This account is given about the corrupt officers in government offices. Not only is this but it

ironically comic that Sunder Singh says that he will never do it. But he has done it & his colleagues know it. Then three as them promise not to debate themselves but complete with hard work & merit.So, all these three men are false & they symbolize the government officers of their lot. The ending of the story is also satirical. Sunder Singh behaves like a secretary or higher officer as described by Sambamurthys.He does not buy things. He does not show love to his children. He shows too much tired.Actually, he has done nothing but typed half a sentence only. Yet to his wife he saysThere is too much to do every day.Woman, how you think the government of India runs it we did not work. It shows that the story has full of satirical note. Sunder Singh represent all the inefficient & showy government officers. The fact is realistic to great extent. B) Satire on the snobbish anglicized Indians: In karma, Khushwant Singh satirises the snobbish Anglilicized Indians who felt proud of their superior culture.Mohanlal represents such persons. He is an anglophile & is proud of his oxford background & perfect English accent. He hates his countrymen & calls them dirty, indifferent & inefficient. Addressing the damaged mirror mohanlal says- You are so very much like everything else in their country, inefficient, dirty, indifferent.He uses the words Koi hai.In the air of being an aristocratic man.Mohanlal is proudly man. He travels in the first class compartment with his wife. She is fat & fair & is chewing a betel leaf & is fanning herself with a newspaper. She tells the coolie that her husband meets English people & so he is going to travel in the first class compartment. She herself does not know English as she is a simple native woman. So she travels in the second class ladies compartment.Lachmi loves talking. Her husband hardly speaks with her. He does not like her poor ittiterate relatives. She has not given birth to any children. The train comes & lachmi gets a seat in the Zenana.She gives the coolie money & starts chewing betel leaves calmly.Mohanlal does not hurry.

He follows the manners of rich people. He has been abroad for five years. He speaks perfect English. Even English man have praised him saying that he speaks like an Englishman .Whenever he travels, he wears his battle tie, drinks whisky, reads the times & smoke English cigarettes from a golden case. Everything like an Englishman. He remembers his five years in England with good, clothes, dinners & prostitutes. Those five years for him were worth more than forty-five years in India with dirty people & lachmi with smell of sweat & onions. The compartment is empty & mohanlal takes the seat near the window & starts reading the times which he have read for several times. He feels sad as he has no Englishman to speak with him. Soon two English soldiers coming to his compartment.Mohanlal feels so happy to see them.Mohanlal protests in oxford accent. Both they come in & through out his luggage on the platform.Mohanlal are beaten by them & almost thrown out of the compartment.Bill & Jim paused again. It did sound like English, but it was too much of the kings for them. keep yet ruddy mouth shut! & Jim struck sir Mohanlal flat on the face. On the contrary, the simple Indian woman, Lachmi, travels happily spitting out the betel leaf juice from her mouth. Thus Khushwant Singh has to say that the anglicized Indians unnecessarily imitate the west. Actually they must respect their own culture. Otherwise they will lose their selfrespect. Individuality & identity. The story also reveals the truth that mere imitation of English language & manners cannot conceal the latent snobbery in a man. c) Satire on political leaders & process: - in the story the voice of god Khushwant Singh attacks the notorious political leaders & the faulty election processes to India. The story presents the graphic picture as typical Indian electioneering & the inevitable results. The most notorious of the candidates wins the election & the saintly & highly respected candidate forfeits his deposite.The author then ironically says-

The people had spoken. The voice of the people is the voice of god. Khushwant Singh also attacks the vices of the leaders severely. He describes them realistically. The whole story is highly satirical. The target here is that political. The election for the legislative assembly. The most notorious of the candidates, sardar Gandhi Singh, wins the election but the saintly & highly respected, Baba ram Singh, forfeits his deposite.Yet the writer says the above mentioned remark. Khushwant Singh has made satire of our notorious & false leaders. Even the voters are attacked by the author. The first candidate, Gandha Singh is described as a lecherous man who sells liquor & who has bribed the police department. He promises the lambardars to solve their problems. He blames the other rivals. He adds that he belongs to the sub-caste of the Sikhs of bhamba.Then karter Singh also is an immoral person. He is a lawyer & is known for his high fees. He blames his rivals. He is accompanied by Seth sukhatankar who too is a corrupt leader. The third candidate Babaji is a saintly person. He is a homeless. He does not blame his rivals but the irony is that the voters too are so foolish or greedy that they elect the most evil candidate. This is the true picture which we come to across mainly in the states like Bihar. Khushwant Singh does not spare the voters from his attack. They get themselves sold for wine & promises for solving problems. It is realistic but ironical that they drink wine of Gandha Singh & come in the Lorries of Kantar Singh. This shows that they do not have their own views & opinions. They symbolize most of the ignorant rustic voters in our country. Thus the author artistically explains election procedures in India. It is the reality in India Khushwant Singh satires upon it in his story the voice of god. D) Satire on custom officers & system: my own my native land. is also satirical story. The custom officers are satirised.The author satirises the officials in the custom system. The narrator reaches Bombay. He sang a song. The narrator enquired at the

Inquiry section where he should go. The lady officer told him to see the numbers on the borders above the officers. The author went & come back. He got in his queue & reached the officers table. But the officers told him that his declaration from was not with him. The narrator went again to the inquiry queue. The lady went to the custom officers & gave the form which was trying on the floor near officers. He somehow reached the custom officer asked him whether he was claiming exemption for transfer of residence. The narrator explained positively. The officer asked him to fill in another from. It took forty minutes but then the officer told him that could not claim for exemption because he had come home for a fortnight. The officer then told the narrator to meet the inspector. The narrator to go through the queue again. When his turn comes the inspector tore the form & told the narrator to fill another form. He added that the narrator should say that he never had come home. He did so but the officer said who told you to girl in this form! The narrator told the name of the inspector. The officer went to the inspector & both started arguing. The inspector becomes victorious. So the author here satirises the officials in the custom system. The story is highly satirical. e) Satire on Indian superstitions: The story the mark of Vishnu is also satirical. It deals with satire on superstitions.Gunga ram is an illiterate superstitions Brahmin. He has superstitions views about the Kala nag. He feeds the cobra with milk every night, He feeds him & worships him in the school but the cobra bited Gunga ram & he dies. He dies because of his superstitions views. The story the man with clear conscience is highly satirical. The writer has to say that there are several men who feel sympathy for the poor or sufferers. They do not help them concretely .They live aristocratic life but do not help others. The story is pathetic too. We feel sympathy for the poor man though he is a think. The title of the story is ironical too. The narrator repeats the phrase

man with a clear conscience for several times.

3. Conclusion: Thus the above discussion shows that satire is the most favorite weapon of Khushwant Singh & he uses is artistically. Satire makes the stories of Khushwant Singh pleasant & interesting Khushwant Singh stories are essentially satirical.Infact, Khushwant Singh is widely known for his jokes & satirical expressions. M.K.Naik has said: - A large majority of Khushwant Singh stories have a characteristic note of a rather heavy handed satire.

Bibliography 1} The text of the prescribed short stories by---Khushwant Singh. 2} The Indian short story in English---C.V.Venugupta.

Name:-Deore Surekha Bhivsan Class:-M.A.II English. Roll No:-78 Paper:-VII. Seat no:-632 Topic:-Element of the novel.

Index 1) 2)

Introduction. Element of the novel. plot. Characterisation. Dialogue. Setting. The novelists philosophy of life or point of view. Style. Theme. II. III. IV.


3) Conclusion.

Introduction The novel or the fiction is one of the important & popular forms of literature. The term novel has been derived from the Latin word Novelous & the Ilion word Novella. It means something new .The novel as compared with other forms of literature is recent of new. So the term is suitable. The novel deals with the story or action which is fictitious or imagery. So the term fiction too is apt & suitable. According to Henry fielding, The novel is a comic epic in prose. So it is the meaning of the novel. Let us discuss about the elements of the novel.

II. Elements of the novel. The various elements of the novel (or fiction) as given by Hudson can be discussed in detail as follows: 1) Plot: - plot is one of the most important elements of the novel, the other being characters. Plot is the content of the novel.E.M. Faster differentiates it from the story. Both are narratives of events but in plot the emphasis is on causality. The king died & then the queen died. Is a story but the king died & then the queen died of grief? Is a plot. According to Hudson, The row material for the plot of a novel is life. The novelists are concerned with passins, conflicts & problems of human life. The novelists most possess fidelity to ones experiences. This means that the novelist must show the quality of authenticity & realism. He should not write the things with which he is not familiar Jane Austen can be given as the best example of the fact.Infact; good literature is the mirror of life. The novelist thus should take material from the life & present it with his narrative power. Types: - from the point of view of construction, the plot of a novel may be loose or organic. So we have to kinds of novel-the novels of loose plot & the novels of organic plot. The first type of the plot of a novel is loose plot. In the novel of loose plot, the story is formed of many detached incidents which do not have necessary & logical connection among themselves. In such a novel, the story derives its unity not from the action but from the character of the hero who brings the scattered incidents together. A fine example of the novels of loose plot is dickns pick-wick papers. The novel has at list twelve episodes which are linked together by the hero of the novel, Samuel pick-wick. In the case of the novel of loose plot, the novelist does not think it necessary prepare an outline as a details. He starts with a broad general notion of the course of the story & then leaves the story to unfold itself. The

great examples of the novel of loose plot are Joseph Andrews Robinsons crusue, Roderick Random & vanity fair. The second type of plot is organic plot. The novel of organic plot is just the opposite of that plot. In it, different episodes are dovetailed together as integral parts of an organic whole. If one of the episodes is taken out, the novel will look as awkward as a man who has lost one of his legs. In writing the novel of an organic plot, the novelists has to make an entire plan of the story before writing it. The organic plot is thus a systematic pattern. In such a novel each incident brings us a point nearer to the final catastrophe or solution. Jane Austens pride & prejudice can be crated as a fine example of the novel. Of an organic whole. Nothing in the novel is superfluous. All the incidents & characters contribute to the development of the story. Different chapters of the novel too follow one another logically. Other examples of the novel of an organic plot are tom Jones, Black house & Adam Bede. The third type of the plot in a novel is simple plot. It consists of one story only. There are no sub plots or under plots in such a novel. For examples, Hardys the mayor of caster bridge has simple plot. It deals with the ups & down in the life of its opposite to simple plot. In such type of novel, there is one main plot & one or more sub plots. However the sub plats are inter-related with the main plot. The best example of the novel of compound plot is Dickenss David copper field. The novel contains various stories which form sub plots. Thus plot is very important element of the novel. It can be called the axis of the novel. Thats why it is true that the plot occupies the highest place in the structure of a novel. Aristotle supported this view in case of tragedy.

2. Characterisation Characterisation is one of the most important elements of the novel. It is second only to plot & sometimes important than it too. The story cannot take place without characters. So there may not be a plot in a novel or drama but there must be characters. For example, the stream of consciousness novels may not have plot but they have characters.Thus, characters novelists have to make many efforts to delineate the characters. I) Types of characterisation: According to E.M.foster, characters are of two types flat & round.E.M.faster has discussed them in his book aspects of the novel. These two types of characters can be explained as follows: A) Flat character: - According to faster a flat character is informed by a single idea or quality. It has no individualizing details. on the other hand they do not change in the course of the action. They are also called static characters. Flat characters were called types & caricatures. Flat characters do not surprise. E.g.Mrs.Micawler in Dickenss David Copperfield does not surprise us. She always repeats certain statements. One more advantage of flat characters is that they are easily recognized. They remain in the minds of the readers because they cannot be changed by circumstance. E.g. the hero of the outsider, Meursault, never changes. B) Round character: - Round character is opposite in nature to a flat character .According to forester round character must be capable of surprising the reader in a convincing manner. It is does not surprise, It is a flat character. Similarly, it does not convince, it is a flat character pretending to be a round one. Round character of Jane Austen are round characters. They under go changes & surprise the readers. It should be noted that both flat & round characters have their own importance.

II) Methods of characterisation: There are various methods of character delineation used by the novelists. Some important of them can be discussed in detail as follows: A) Direct method: - The method is called the analytical method. In it the novelists himself describes the characters, their passion & motives. He also comments on their actions. Most of the conventional novels are of this type of the prescribed novels, portrait servers as a fine example of thin method. B) Indirect method: - It is opposite to the direct method. It is also called the dramatic method. In it the novelists allows his character to reveal themselves through speech & action, comments & judgments of other characters. E.g.Kanthapura. C) Symbolic method: - Some novelists use symbolic method to delineate their characters. E.g. Kurtz in the heart of darkness & pearl in Lord Jim by Conrad are symbolic characters. D) Allegorical method: - Some novelists like George Orwell use the allegorical method to delineate the characters. His animal farm has animals that represent certain political leaders. E) Dialogue: - One more method of representing characters in the use of dialogues. The characters are given asides, soliloquis & other devices to express their natures. So characterisation is important element of the novel. 3. Dialogue:The third & the most important element of the novel is Dialogue. The novelists can produce effect through the devices like narration, decription & commentary. However, Dialogue remains a medium of highest intensitys have the immediate relation with the characters. It is only through their conversation that we come in touch with the characters. Dialogue ads must to the charm of the narrative. Its proper use

shows the authors technical skills & maturity Dialogue servers two purposes. In the second place, it is valuable in the exhibition of characters & their motives. According to W.H.Hudson, there are two chief requirements which good Dialogue must fulfit.First it should be an organic element & inseparable part of the novel. It should contribute to the movement of the plot.secondly, Dialogue should be natural & dramatic .The language of the Dialogue should be suitable from the point of view of character & situation. It should be colloquial & effective. The prescribed novels have fine pieces of conversation. The Dialogue in the mayor of costarring, for instance are suitable & effective. They have made the characters alive of the story interesting. 4. Settings setting are one of the prominent novel elements of the novel. It plays an important role in both the drama & the novel setting may shift from one place to another. In the case the work of art does not follow the unity of a portrait the setting shifts from one place to another. However in two on a tower the settings are limited to the tower & the village. The mayor of Caster Bridge too has unity of place. Thus the settings of the novel are the location & its surrounding. I) Kinds of settings: According to W.H.Hudson, there are two kinds of settings. 1. The social setting: - novelist like Hengry fielding tired to reproduce a complete picture of the life of their times in their novels. Their novels are called social documents.E.g. Tom Jones. In the modern age, the approach of the novelists has changed. The tendency is towards specialization & sub division of the subject matter. In our timed the novel deals with only or two aspects of novels deal with the sea life of the middle classes. Sub-division of area too is founel.for instance there are scotch novels, Irish novels, Essex novels & so on. In these novels, the manners

customs & behaviors of people a certain areas only are described.Thus, in the part a fairly complete picture of society was depicted by the novelists. But today fragmentary description of society is found. 2. The material setting: - The material setting refers to the physical background of the story. It may be a description of a room; house building or its national surroundings where the story takes place various novelists use material setting in various ways. Novelists like Jane Austen pay very little attention to the physical background of the scenes. On the other hand novelists like Charles Dickens are very fond of giving minute description of places. Such setting makes the novel interesting. 5. The novelists philosophy of life or point of views: One of the important elements of the novel is point of view. It is one of the starting points of modern criticism also. It is Henry James the American novelists, who has paid due attention to point of view in his novels. Later on point of view become important aspects of criticism. The concepts of point of view have certain sub concepts. They are: First person, second person & third person. A) The First person: It gives a more personal view of the story. The reader feels that the narrator is actually present & is telling him the story. The point of view also gives more intense view of the story.E.g.Dickens novel David Copperfield & R.K.Narayans novel the guide. B) The second person: It is used so rarely. There are very few examples of such novels. It cerate a very complex effect. The recent example of this point of view is Mclnnemys Bright Night big city. C) The third person: It is maximally used by novelists it is objective & so is reliable. It is not attached to any person us such. Unlike the first & second points of view,

the third point of view can move in time & place in a unique manner. There are number of sub-classes in this point of view. Finally, it can be started that most of the novels in the past were written in the third person point of view. But in modern age, it is given less importance than the other two points of view. This change has taken place mainly because of the psychological nature of the modern novel. The stream of consciousness novel can be given as an example of the fact. Great novelists of the world have expressed their philosophy of life for instance, in Tom Jones, fielding has given a panoramic commentary on England in 1745.Here,fielding criticizes the domestic values which are respectctually accepted in his age.Simillarly ,Dickens gives his criticism of some aspects of the Victorian society in David Copperfield. Cervantes Don Quircote too offers the author criticism. 6. Style: Style of the narrator or the language of the novel is one of the notable element of the novel. It is a part of the narrative technique in the novel. It makes the novel meaningful as well as effective. Various novelists use various types of languages. The novelists should use the language which is used by most of the people of the area or country.Similarly; the readers should know the narrator & the characters. The novelists need not have any special Genius or Greatness for creating effects. Different novelists use different styles.infact Style is mean. Style generally is the arrangement of typical words. It is related to the question Why thin word rather then any other? for example, why the little Sound & fuzzy & Things fall apart? the novelists really spends much of his energy for using proper language in his books. The reader too should spend much energy to find out the paper meaning of the language used by the novelists. The

novelists use artistic & ornamental style. He can make use of figures of speech. He can use ample symbols .he can use the first or third person narrative technique. He can use his mouthpiece who can also be the narrator of the novel.Conrods novel have such styles. 7. Theme: Theme also is one of the notable elements of the novel. It is similar to plot & story. The heros development from creature to creator is the theme of the novel of Joyces portrait of the artist as a young man. The theme of the novel, simply speaking answers the question. What is the novel about? the theme is not preplanned. It comes naturally. So it would not be wrong to say that the theme chooses itself & finds for itself the appropriate plat, character, language & settings. Thus, it becomes clear that the theme as the novel is an abstract idea. It is found by the reader through the class reading of the novel. Thats why it is important to identity the theme after a very careful reading of the novel.

III) Conclusion: Thus, the novel as a form as literature has its own elements. They distinguish it from other genres of literature. It is true that the Drama & the novel share some elements. All the element of the novel is very significant for the novel & also for the novelists to write complete, compact & well knit novel.

Bibliography 1} Aspects of the nove l-E.M.Foster. 2} Novel & Interpretation Naizi 3} Background of English Literature -B. Prasad

Name:-Deore Surekha Bhivsan Class:-M.A.II English. Roll No:-78 Paper:-VIII. Seat no:-632 Topic:-Hardys Pessimism.

Index I)

Introduction. Sources of Hardys Pessimism. Pessimistic Note in Prescribed Novels. Personal point of view (Conclusion). Bibliography.

IV) V)

Introduction Thomas Hardy is a great Victorian & modern novelists. There are more than two do dozens novels to his credit of which for from the madding crowde, the mayor of casterbridge, jude the obscure & tess of the Urbervills & also two on a tower are the superb creation by Hardy. Hardy has written short stories like there in the volume Wessex tales. Hardy has also written four volumes of poetry.Similarly, his dramatic lyric, the qynasts, can be called the characteristic achievement of his life. Thomas Hardy was awarded honourary doctorates by universities. The order of merit also was conferred upon him in 1910.Hardy remains a great pessimistic & even tragic. It is said that in the world of Hardys suffering is endless. In fact, Hardys outlook on life was primanity gloomy, his novels & poems are charged with a deep note of pathos.However, his tragedies inspite of their pessimism are inspiring. They help us in purging our souls. Hardys pessimism is not like that of swift. On the other hand, it is elevating & enriching.

II.source of Hardys pessimism. There are various sources for Hardys pessimism. Few of them can be discussed as follows: The first source of Hardys pessimism is Hardys physical illhealth & his serious temper. Secondly, Hardys outlook on life is primarily gloomy & sombre.To him, life is a tale told by an idiot full of sound & fury signifying nothing. Thirdly, Hardy had pessimistic philosophy about man. According to him, man is caught in a perpetual net of suffering & nothing can liberate him. He opposes browing & says that. God is not in the heaven & everything is wrong with the world. Another factor which formed Hardys pessimism is the social conventions. For example, the conventions of marriage institution play a vital role to bring about tragedies of Jude & Henchard.Sex problem & unrequited love is the next source of hardys pessimism.The mental agony of Jude is a fine example of the fact. Finally, woman is the cause of tragedy in the world of Hardys novels.hardys heroines often proves a source of eternal misery of their lovers. Bathsheba, sue, Lucetla & even Susan viviette serve as examples of the point. So these are some important sources on which Hardys pessimism depends.

III.Pessimistic note in prescribed novels: - Whatever is said above is true of the prescribed novels, I.g.The mayor of casterbridge, Tess of the DUrbervilles & two on a tower. The following study of pessimism in these novels will bring out the validity of the fact. A) The mayor of Caster Bridge: The mayor of Caster Bridge is a highly pessimistic novel. The novel is full of tragic atmosphere. Many events in the novel touch us.Many places; the reader is moved by the pitiable condition of the hero. Henchard, the hero of the novel, suffers much. His qualities like hard-work & determination list him from the position of an ordinary hay-trusser to the mayorality of casterbridge.But these heroic traits do not help him in his rival farfrae.He cannot raise his head again. The furmity woman degrades him socially by disclosing his act as selling his wife.Luccetta,the beloved of Hen chard deserts him by her imfidelity.She goes to farfrae,the rival & Henchard.So Hen chard is broken emotionally also. Susan dies but gives him pangs of separation. Elizabeth rejects him in his severe misery. This Hen chard becomes a tale of unending sorrow. Inspite of misery caused by man & destiny, Henchard rives courageously, He goes on facing the hard realities of life boldly. He fearlessly saysMy punishment is no greater than I can bear. Hen chard thus, is the hero to the very backdone.Thus, Hardy wants to teach us that man learns more from calamities.Hardys characters pass through sufferings & rise to nobility. Elizabeth Jane, the daughter of Susan of newson.rightly says, Happiness is the occasional episode in a general drama of pain. Secondly, we feel pity for Susan & her little daughter who are told to a third person. Before it, the very opening of the novel is pathetic.

Susans death touches our heart. Elizabeth is left without maternal love. The next touching event is the pitiful condition of Elizabeth Hen chard rejects her as he comes to know that she is not his real daughter. Elizabeth loves farfrae.She gets a job to lucetta soon luccetta herself falls in the love with farfrae & Elizabeth cannot bear the fact & leaves lucetta. Then we feel pity for Hen chard that is rejected by Lucetta, is all alone & comes to live with Elizabeth for salace, But soon he has to leave Elizabeth too. As her real father comes to demand her. Finally, we have the tragic ending of the novel. Elizabeth & farfrae are in search of Henchard.Abel whittle in forms them that Hen chard died of wont as food & trouble. Thus, the novel is full of tragic elements. It is really, the record of the rise & fall in the rise of a common man. B) Tess of the DUrbervilles:The next prescribed novelties of the DUrbervilles also are pessimistic. It remains one of the most pessimistic novels of Hardy. In this novel pity is supreme. Fate of co-incident also contributes to the suffering of tess.Both human beings & circumstances conspire against Tess, the heroine. Two men, alec & angel are responsible for the destruction of the libe of the tess.Tesss own mistakes also are the minor causes of her suffering chance & co-incidence play a big part in the melancholic plight of tess.The statement Justice was done, & the precedent of the Immortals had ended his sport with tess sums up the emotional effect of the story. Tess is the most suffering character in the novel. She is destroyed by every side,mently or physically.Tess is destroyed partly by Angel Clare & partly by Alec DUrbervills.These two authors of tess microtones are however the symbols of certain forces.Tess becomes an unmarried mother.Alec,the villainous character seduced her. This is the most turning points in Tesss life. From thin incident, she suffers in her whole life. She is pregnant from alec.One night the baby become seriously ill & dies soon. The

priest denied to bury the child as it was not baptized by church .80 Tess herself buried the baby in the common graveyard. It is really pathetic thing for Tess. One day angel Clare is proposed to marry with tess.But tess has rejected the proposal, because she feels guilty for her seducing. She tries to acquaint Angel with her past history but all the efforts to do so prove futile for one reason or another. Both get married. But after marriage Angel comes to know about her part history & he leaves tess.tess becomes sadder. Tesss sister brings her news that their mother is seriously ill.Tess rushes to her parents. But her mother recovers & father dies. So it is another sad incident for tess.Tesss life is full of misfortunes. The first of them comes in the form of her seduction. It is the most tragic incident in her life. Then Tess has to leave her parents. The death of her father. The accidental death & prince also create tragic atmosphere. After marriage with angel, she is not happy. She struggles & faces more problems. One day, Alec made marriage proposal to tess.but Tess rejected, as she was already a married woman & had no love for him. but unfortunately, one day towards the close of the novel,tess surrender to Alec.because her family is in bad condition alec has told her a tie that Angel with not come day, she has murdered Alec.she is not feel guilty for thin crime. Angel comes back. His thinking has changed. But Tess got arrested. So, this is the pathenatic story of Tess, the heroin of the novel. Hardy has shown Tess as anobler specimen of womanhood. The heroic endurance of Tess of her misfortunes reaches her to a high position. We not only feel pity for Tess but adore & admire her. C) Two on a tower: Two on a tower two is a pessimistic novel by thomar Hardy. It is a tragic love story. Both the important characters suffer in life. Lady viviette Constantine is the heroine of the novel. She is a young & charming woman. People like swithin & Bishop Helms dale are

attacked towards her. They want to marry her. However unfortunately she has married the suspicious man. Sir Blount. She is not happy with him. She becomes alone & frustrated. Her husband has left for Africa. He suspects on her character .she has promised him that would not mixed herself with society. She becomes bored in the large house. So she goes to the tower where she meets swithin & falls in love with him. Both become lovers. They also want to get marry. But viviette already married woman. So she feels guilty for do it. But even through both get marry. But their marriage has not successful. because the date of the death of Mr. Blount is not correct. So their marriage becomes invalid. Later, swithin test for a long journey.viviette becomes all alone.helmsdale repeated his proposal to vivitte.vivitte soon learnt that she had become pregnant. She tired to contact swithin by letters but in vain. so she has no way other than marrying & Helms dale dies soon.vivitte becomes a widow for the second time.Swithin returned to welland.He learnt from Wokingham that vivitte had come back to the great house. The next day, swithin meet vivitte in the tower. She was accompanied by her little son.vivitte looked rather old. She asked him to go awy.swithin turned to go but returned & said that he wanted to marry her again. Instantaly, the lovers got locked together. The little boy wondered to see them. Soon he said loudly that his mother was sleeping.swithin found her dead. Her weak body could not bear the sudden Joy.swithin look the little boy & decided to take his care. Thin is the tragic story of the heroine, Lady Constantine. Like, other novels of Hardy thin novel too end with a melancholic note. Yet the story is quite interesting. Hardy creates hear picture.galacy-like Tess, vivitte suffers much in her life. Every time she faces problems.axcept some happy incident, like her every meeting with her lover, swithin. So like the mayor of casterbridge, Tess of the

DialogueUrbervilles, this novel. Two on a tower is very pessimistic novel by hardy.

Iv) Personal point of view:-conclusion : Thus, the above discussion about Hardys pessimism is really noteworthy. Hardy really is pessimistic writer.Hardys views of life is unduly somber. The popular image of Hardy is that of a pessimistic writer. In his prescribed novels, Hardy concentrates on human suffering & shoes that there is no escape for human beings from the suffering to which they are doomed. According to hardy, happiness is an occasional episode in the general drama of pain.So,Hardy was pessimistic in nature. The thread of which hardys novel are woven is a dark one of pessimism.Tess, which depicts a souls tragedy, is certainly a pessimistic novel.Itdefinetly express Hardys twilight view in life. The novel is full of pessimism which is expected from the pessimistic writer like Thomas Hardy. The mayor of Caster Bridge is also a fine pessimistic novel by Thomas Hardy. The novel is tragic in nature. It gives us an idea of the pessimistic views of the novelists. The novel touches our hearts, mistic novel. It is the masterpiece of hardy. We cannot forgot, Henchard Susan etc. Like, those novels, two on a tower are also a fine pessimistic novel by Hardy. The novel has tragic end. The novel is full of a tragic incident. The death of the heroine, vivitte is really so pathenic.Hardy right to bring to him heroine. It is the main questions here we can defend Hardy here on the basis of one factor. The first of them is Hardys pessimism. Pessimism does not allow his protagonists to surview.It Hen chard & Tess die, why should vivitte survive? Hardy believes that Life is drama of pain with a scene of joy. Vivitte gets the moment of joy & then should die. In other words being a tragedy, the heroine needs to die.Eventhough we feel sad for the death of the heroine. We cannot forget the characters like Tess, Henchard, Susan, Lady Constantine (vivitte) etc.They are immortal for us. We feel sympathy for them. They are the creation of Hardys pessimism.

Bibliography 1} the texts of the prescribed novels by-Thomas Hardy. 2} Hardy, the novelists-lard David Cecil.

Name:-Deore Surekha Bhivsan Class:-M.A.II English. Roll No:-78 Paper:-V. Seat no:-632 Topic:-Teaching of skills.

Index I) Introduction. II) Teaching of Skills. A.) Teaching of listening. B.) Teaching of speaking. C.) Teaching of reading skills. D.) Teaching of writing skill. III) Conclusion.


introduction Language is essentially a skill It is not a content subject .There are

four fundamental skill & language They are the most important skill of language they are 1) Listening. 2) Speaking. 3) Reding. 4) Writing. Of there, speaking and writing are active or productive skill ,whill listening are active or Productive skill ,while listening and reading are passive are receptive skill similarly listening and reading are skill and reading and writing are written skill .The teaching of the four skill can be discussed as follows.

II) A)

Teaching of skill:Teaching of listening:Listening is an very important skill and must be learnt and laugh 1) ITS TYPES:-

Skill and must be learnt and laugh carefully while teaching listening it is Essential to consider its types which are as follows. 2) INTENSIVE LISTENING:It aims at detailed comprehension of meaning and linguistic exercise. II) EXTENSIVE LISTENING:Here the student is primarily concerned with following a story or finding something out form the passage he is listening to III) CASUAL LISTENING:It is the listening without any particular purpose IV) FOCUSSED LISTENING:It is the type of intensive listening it is for information or for transacting business the listener here needs to be attentive 2) TEACHING METHODS:The various methods of teaching listening are as follows. a) The teacher should make the students want to do the listening activities He can do it by arousing their curiosity, appealing to their imagination, and by creating in formation gaps in their minds. b) Ignorance about the importance of listening sometimes comes in the way of teaching so; first the teacher must estalalish the importance of listening. c)The teacher can employ the passage based method the cider to facilitate the student listening the teacher should give them a set of global questions welfare he starts readingies the passage the learners listen to the left and answer the questions then the teacher can give another set of questions meant for the detailed understanding of the passage. He would read the passage again.

The teacher may ask true or false questions or multiple choice questions in the While listening activities In Post listening activities. The teacher should ask the students to read the passage & correct their answers. D) The teacher can use the story based method for teaching listening. He can tell the listeners a story narrating the story; he may pause & ask them questions like, what would happen next. The teacher should try to get as many answers from the listeners as possible. He should assure that the listeners as possible. He should assure that all the learners take part in the discussion. Thin method of teaching listening their ability to predict which an important sub-skill of listening is. B) Teaching of speaking: Another important skill of language is speaking. It means communication goes hand in hand with listening. The various ways of teaching oral communication skills can we given as follows: 1) the teacher should list the problems of teaching communications skill. Such a thing will help him to decide what kind of treatment is needed in order to develop. The learners spoken skill.E.g.student may not have confidence to speak as feel shy to speak.Here,the teacher should create confidence in his students & remove their fear to speak in English. 2) The teacher would use the question and answer method for developing the oral communication skill.Here, the question answers will be according to the nature as the activity. 3) The third teaching technique of developing communication skill is the lecture mode. the teacher may draw the attention of the students to the presentation skill while lecturing. 4) The forth method of teaching speaking is the group discuss on technique. Thin method has many advantages such as development of sense of team work & self confidence. However the student conversation. Finally, the teacher may use of the following strategies of developing the

speaking skill:say a piece of dialogue. Information gap activities. dramatization & guessing games. ladle & conversation dills. techniques. C)Teaching of reading skill:I) Its meaning:-

A) Asking the class to B) Making use of c) Using a role play, D) Using substitution E) Using pair work

Reading is an active process. it is a decoding process. The writer writes the massage, while the reader reads it & understand it. Thus reading does not get value its is not followed by compression.Thus,reading is going through the text with proper understanding. II) Its kind: The various kinds of reading according to the purpose of reading are as follows:a)Skimming:it is taking quickly over a text to get a general superficial idea of the content.E.g.before reading a book, we try to see what it is about for this purpose, use see the rotate, go through the contents & flip through the pages quickly. B) Scanning:It is looking quickly through the text searching for specific piece of information.E.g when wee see a particular word meaning in a dictionary we are thin technique. c) Extensive reading:Sometimes, we read longer length like novels mainly for pleasure .Thin time ,we read rapidly & aim at a global understanding of the text. This type of reading in called Extensive reading.

D) Intensive reading: Intensive reading is reading a passage in depth for complete compression of analysis. it aims at reading shorter text & extracting specific information. Here we read slowly & intensively.

III) Reading speed & comprehension:Reading implies the act of reading with compression of understanding. So we should have proper comprehension. The speed of reading depends on the purpose of the reading.E.g.we may read a novel at the rate of 400 hundred words a minute, but a legal contract at the rate of 80 words per minute. Some slow & poor readers develop bad habits of reading which prevent them from mastering the mechanics of reading. So the teacher should help the students to overcome such habits or fault. He can do it by using flash cards, timed exercises & other items for practice in speed reading.

IV) Teaching strategies:In order to help his student developing their reading skills, the teacher should follow the following strategies:1) The aim of the teacher in a reading class is to enable students to read unfamiliar text at an appropriate speed & with reasonable comprehension. 2) The teacher should give student adequate practice in reading. Student should be motivated to read with greater speed. In thin regard he teacher should explain to them the importance & need of learning English. The teacher thus will prepare a willing group of learners. Finally, the teacher should follow the three stage formula which contains the phases of pre-reading, while reading & post reading. In the pre-reading phase. The teacher will ask him guiding question. In the post-reading stage the teacher may ask the student to do certainthings.E.g.He may ask him to write a letter to a friend.

V) Silent reading & reading aloud:Both loud reading & silent reading are mainly concered with reading comprehension. Both have their own advantage & limitations. Both the types of reading can be discussed as follows:1) Silent reading:Silent reading means reading the text completely silently, even without moving the lips. Its requires full attention for comprehension. It helps developing speed of reading with understanding. It also helps for concentration. Silent reading has the following advantages:a) It helps to get significant details in the passage. B) It helps to get the implied meaning of the text. c) It is quicker & saves time. d) It keeps the whole class busy at the same time. e) It makes the process of reading pleasurable. F) It helps to concentrate on the meaning of the treat. G) It does not bore or disturb the other student in the class. 2) reading aloud:reading aloud simply means the skills of what is written. Robert Lade calls it an artistic skill. We start teaching reading by teaching them reading aloud first. The teacher reads some sentences from the flack. Board & the students speak after him. For this purpose the teachers reading it must be a model one. Reading aloud has the following purposes or advantages: 1) It provides practice in acquiring correct pronunciation-stress, rhythm & intonation. 2) It develops in student the art of reading with feelings & expression. 3) It texts the students knowledge of words & phases. It provides both practice & test. 4) Reading aloud is the basis of silent reading. 5) It enables the teacher to find out the mistakes of the students & to

correct the same. Though reading aloud has its own advantages, it should be kept in mind that it is relevant at the primary level only. It disadvantages are as follows:1) It slows down the speed of reading. 2) It bores the other student. 3) It is different for average students. 4) It produces embarrassment to the reader. 5) Reading aloud integers with the proper business of the reading of the text. Both the kinds of reading have their place in language learning.However, we recommend slient reading for our student. This is because we want to train them in real-life reading & silent reading is a natural activity which helps for comprehension. d) Teaching of writing skill: in order to know how to teach writing, we should know what writing is. Broadly speaking, writing is the combination of things like handwriting, spelling, correct grammatical sentences, linked paragraphs, writing composition,description,narration & good expression. 1) Its function: For teaching writing effectively we should also know the functions of writing which are invitation,refusal,agreement,disagreement,complaint,asking for directions etc. 2) Its types: The teacher should also know the types of writing before teaching it. These are:- descriptive, narrative, expository, argumentative, reflective & interpretative etc. 3) Its sub-Skill:For proper teaching of writing the teacher should know the subskill of writing. These are: - organization & sequencing of ideas, connecting

sentences. To communicative effectively, knowing what to say & how to say it ;& presenting ideas logically & coherently. 4) Teaching methods of writing skill:the teaching of writing depends upon the class & focuses on the what& how of writing. the teaching strategies for writing are as follows:a)hand writing:- the teacher should pay attention to the improvement of hand writing too. B) Technique of writing: - the teacher should also improve the technique or how of writing. He can do this by making students express their ideas with cohesion & coherence. c) Guided & free writing: - the teacher should help the students in the content (what) & technique (how) or writing. the teacher should give practice in both the content & technique of writing than is called guided writing student have to be involved with guided writing then the teacher can go into free writing it is important to develop creativity on The contrary, guided writing contributes to the mastery of structers.It also helps for the development of ideas with a structured framework. To do thin effectively the teacher should use right material & tasks linked to them. D) Material:- The teacher should use proper material for teaching writing. It may include flash cards, Black-board & repetition. E) Developing content:- The second strategy of teaching writing is the development of the content or what of writing. One of the best ways to do thin is to write points of an article or essay on the black-board & ask students to develop them into students describe objects, events & institution.

III) Conclusion: The above discussion shows that all the skills of teaching are so much important skills. Expect them teaching process becomes incomplete. So, it is very significant process.

Bibliography 1} English Language Teaching---- A.K.Paliwal. 2} English Language Teaching-----S.Kudchedkar.