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FINAL REPORT ON WATER QUALITY TESTING

SUBMITTED TO:
CERF project, Oxfam in Nepal, Kathmandu.

[22-28 February 2012]


SUBMITTED BY: Chitra Dahal

TABLE OF CONTAINS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Background..1 Objectives and scope of study.1 Nepal Standards Parameter on Safe Drinking water1 Methodology ..2 Survey Conducted VDCs and Ward2 Survey results3 Conclusions and recommendations .3 Conclusions and recommendations .4

ANNEXES ANNEXES A: Comparison sheet ANNEXES B: Photo glimpse

1. Background With the financial assistance of UNICEF, Oxfam GB has been implementing CERF project in partnership with local based organization (NGOs) Bagmati Sewa Samaj and Nepal Red Cross Society in Sarlahi and Rautahat district respectively, there were altogether 11 VDC in Sarlahi and 12 VDCs in Rautahat district The main objective of CERF project is to provide safe drinking water, promote sanitation activities through mobilization of FCHVs in each ward of concerned VDCs, distribution of hygiene accessories in most vulnerable period, construction of institutional latrine, hand pump and renovation of existing hand pump in most disaster prone VDCs of Sarlahi and Rautahat districts.

2. Objective and Scope of the study The main objective of this study is to find out the condition of drinking water and also to know the access of sanitation situation in Sarlahi and Rautahat district. Other main Objective of this study is to also find out whether the quality of drinking water is as per National parameter or not. The scope of the works covers following activities Survey and identification of hand pump for sanitation inspection and water quality testing as provided by Oxfam standard format collection information on constructed hand pump and renovate hand pump conducted sanitary survey form for assessment of risk of drinking water Collection of water sample from identified hand pump for water quality test through Del-Auga Kit. Analysis of the water sample for: a. E-Coli b. pH c. Turbidity d. Residual chlorine e. Total chlorine 3. Nepal Standards Parameter on Safe Drinking water In Nepal, National drinking water quality standard 2062 has set the minimum standard of safe drinking water whose standard parameter as follows :Sr Quality Units Nepal standard Equipment used Del-Auga kit Pool Comparator Turbidity Tube Pool Comparator Pool Comparator

1 E-Coli CFU/100ml 0 2 pH metre 5.5 to 8.5 pH 3 Turbidity NTU <5-10 4 Residual Chlorine cl2mg/l 0.1-0.2 5 Total chlorine cl2mg/l 0.1-0.2 6 Colour TCU <5 -15 Sources:- National Drinking water quality standard Nepal 2062

4. Methodology A 5 days long water quality test was carried out from 23rd Feb. to 27th Feb. 2012 in 12 VDCs of Rautahat district and 11 VDCs of Sarlahi district. The water quality testing was conducted through transformation approaches which increase partner staff capacity in water quality test. The test was carried out through Del-Agua kit in the field. all water sample were collected from concern hand pump. The following chemical and procedure were adopted for water quality testing Prepared culture Media through used of 38.1 gm MLSB and half litre distilled water and sterilized for 15 min For pH testing, we used phenol red tablets (palintest company name) and pool comparator For free chlorine, we used DPD no1 (palintest company name) tablet and used DPD no 3 (palintest company name) for total chlorine Used membrane filter paper (AXIVA company name) for filtration of collected sample water Used observant pad (PALL company name) and put into pritry dish and sterilized for 10 min. All sample were taken in 100 ml and put all those sample into incubator for 18 hour 5. Survey Conducted District, VDCs and Ward Rautahat Dstrict S. VDC Name N 1 Santapur 2 Rajpur faradawa 3 Rajpur tulsi 4 Katahariya 5 Tejapakad Total collected sample Sarlahi District 1 Pidari 2 Sripur 3 Belhi 4 Maanpur 5 Su.chu. 6 Kabilashi 7 Hajariya 8 Padahariya Total collected sample

Ward no

6 and 8 6 and 8 5 1 and 4 9

Total Sample taken 5 5 2 4 1 17 3 3 2 2 3 2 4 1 20

Number of HP* New+ Rehab 2 New(3 rehab) 3 new (2 rehab) 1 new (1 rehab) 2 new (2 rehab) 1 new

1,2,6 and 7 7,8 and 9 1 and 2 3 and 6 3 and 8 3 and 7 1,2,3 and 8 2

3 new 3 new 2 new 2 new 2 new(1 rehab) 2 new 3 new (1 rehab) 1 new

Note: - HP* = Hand Pump

6. Survey results District: - Rautahat Total Coverage VDCs:- 12 Partner Organization: - Nepal Red Cross Society, District Chapter, Gaur, Rautahat. Total sample collected :- 17 Sample tested:- e-coliform , pH, turbidly. Sample of water: - Ground Water (Hand pump) E-coli Count (CFU/100ml) S. N. Rehab /New New Turbidity (NTU)
Pre Post Pre

VDC/ward

Community Shree Janata Ma. Vi

pH
Post

Pre 6.8 17

Post 1

Remarks

Rautahat
1 Rajpurfardawa-1

<5

<5

6.8

2 3 4 5 6 7

Rajpurfardawa-1 Rajpurfardawa-6 Rajpurfardawa-6 Rajpurfardawa-8 Tejapakad -9 Rajpur Tulsi-5

Shree Janata Ma. Vi Shree Pra. Vi. Shree Pra. Vi. Shree Kisan Ma. Vi. Shree Bhagwan Pra. Vi. Shree Pra. Vi. Shree Pra. Vi. Shree Janata Ma. Vi Mardhar-Nayabasti Mardhar-Nayabasti Mardhar-Nayabasti Mardhar-Nayabasti Mardhar-Nayabasti Shree Janajyoti Pra. Vi Shree Samudayek Pra. Vi Shree Samudayek Pra. Vi Harsha

Rehab Rehab New New New New Rehab New Rehab Rehab Rehab New New New Rehab

<5 <5 <5 <5 <5 <5 <5 <5 <5 <5 <5 <5 <5 <5 <5

<5 <5 <5 <5 <5 <5 <5 <5 <5 <5 <5 <5 <5 <5 <5

6.8 6.8 7

6.8 6.8 6.8 7 6.8 7 6.8 7 7 6.8 6.8 7.2

Hand pump was not in existence 19 21 15 Nil 7 Nil 2 2 Hand pump was not in existence 4 18 13 12 Nil Nil 1 Nil Nil Nil 17 Nil Handpump was not frequently used

8 Rajpur Tulsi-5 9 Santapur-6 10 Santapur-8 11 Santapur-8 12 Santapur-8 13 Santapur-8 14 Santapur-8 15 Katahariya-4 16 Katahariya-1

6.8 7 6.8 6.8

19

7 6.8

6.8

6.8

17 Katahariya-1 18 Katahariya-1

New Rehab

<5

<5 <5

6.8

6.8 6.8

16

11 1

Grade Analysis
Grade A B C D No. Coliform count 0 (Nil) 01 10 11 - <50 >50 Risk No risk, WHO guideline value, no action required Low risk, need action & follow-up Intermediate risk, highly polluted, immediate action needed High risk, gross/highly polluted & not acceptable, suspend the source

Recommendation and conclusion Considering the above table, The Percentages of hydrogen (PH ) in all samples was in between 6.5 to 8.5 which is as per National Drinking water quality standard Nepal 2062. Similarly turbidity was also as per Nepal standard parameter, but regarding to faecal coli form (e-coli) out of 17 sample 8 were fall in grade A and rest were fall in grade B which is low risk but need to follow up or treat water before drinking and one sample from kabilashi -1 fall in in "C" grade, it is highly recommended to use drinking water by chlorination or boiling.

District: - Sarlahi Total Coverage VDCs:- 11 Partner Organization: - Bagmati Sewa Samaj, Sarlahi Total sample collected: - 20 Sample tested:- e-coliform , pH, turbidly. Sample of water: - Ground Water (Hand pump) E-coli Count (CFU/100ml)

Rehab/New

S. N. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

VDC/ward Hajariya-2 Hajariya-3 Hajariya-1 Hajariya-8 Su. Chu.-3 Su. Chu.-3 Su. Chu.-8 Maanpur-3 Maanpur-6 Sripur-3 Sripur-3 Sripur-3 Pidari-2 Pidari-7 Pidari-7 Kabilashi-7

Community Shree Janata Pra. Vi. Nimna Ma.Vi. Dhukdha sahakari ltd. Purano Hajariya Bazar Shree Prathamik Ma. VI. Pipri Bazar Adharsa Pra Vi. Tribhuwon Ma. VI. Bhagwotisthan Sripur tole Bramasthan Health post Shree Ram lakhan School Madrasha Pidari Bazar Shree Prathamik Ma. VI. New New Rehab New New Rehab New New New New New New New New New New

Turbidity (NTU)
Pre Post Pre

pH
Post

Pre 6.8 7 7 6.8 6.8 6.8 7.2 10 16 5 >50 6

Post 2 Nil Nil 1 1 Nil Nil

Remarks

Sarlahi

<5 <5 <5 <5 <5

<5 <5 <5 <5 <5 <5 <5

6.8 7 6.8 6.8 6.8

<5 <10

<5 <5 <10 <5 <300 <5 <20 <50 <20 <5 <5 <5 <5

7.6 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.8

6.8 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.8

8 17 >50 13 28 >100 18 >50

Hand pump was not in existence Nil 1 2 2 2 6 9 3 Newly constructed hand pump and community people used animal dunk as lubricant for boring of pipe

17 Kabilashi-3

Shree Janata Ma. Vi.

New

<10

6.8

>50

18 Padahariya-2 19 Bheli-2 20 Bheli-1

VDC building Ramjanaki Mandir Beli

New New New

<5 <13 <5 <300 <5

6.8 6.8

6.8 6.8 6.8

13 >50

20 2 6

Platform and no proper drainage system was properly maintained

Grade Analysis
Grade A B C D No. Coliform count 0 (Nil) 01 10 11 - <50 >50 Risk No risk, WHO guideline value, no action required Low risk, need action & follow-up Intermediate risk, highly polluted, immediate action needed High risk, gross/highly polluted & not acceptable, suspend the source

Recommendation and conclusion In Sarlahi district, out of 20 sample 5 sample fall in A grade and 12 samples fall in B grade,1 sample fall in C grade and Kabilashi-1 fall in D. So, it is highly recommended to take necessary action against sample fall in B and C grade and suspend the source which fall in D grade.

Reading of turbidity by community people

pH meter read by community people

Women counting e-coli form bacteria

e-coliform in filter paper

e-coli form count by community people

Capacity enhancement of Local partner staff