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Soy meal for food uses The world soy meal consumption is about 160.

2 million metric tons which approximately 69% of the total protein meal utilization in the world. India exports about 7.9 million metric tons of soy meal to other countries which constitutes 7% of the total exports from different countries. More than 80% of soy meal from India is exported where it is primarily used for animal/poultry/piggery feed, thereby depriving the Indians of the good quality protein. As a whole only 2.5% of the total meal available is being used for food and other industrial uses. The protein fraction of soybeans finds its way into soybean meal as soy protein ingredients for the food industry and for other food uses besides as feed. The main bottleneck in direct food uses of soy meal is the presence of residual hexane, which might cause certain physiological disorders in humans. Hence Gandhi et al 2001developed a HACCPprocedure (Fig 1) for making the soy meal which contains very low residual levels of n-hexane. This meal can be used for direct food uses. The quality characteristics of the soy meal are shown in Table (1).

Table1 Quality characters of soy meal with and with out HACCP Parameter Crude proteins,% Crude fat,% NSI Residual hexane Color Total bacterial counts, per g Total fungal counts, per g Salmonella, no/g Coli forms, no/g HACCP With out With 51.0 51.0 0.9 0.9 25 65 100 12 Dark Pale 7.0x104 6.5x103 8.0x103 7.0x102 Nil Nil 5 Nil

Gandhi et al 2003 also identified iso propyl alcohol, an alternate solvent for the extraction of oil from the soybean which is much safer than the traditional n-hexane and the soy meal is of edible grade which may used for direct food uses. Composition of Soybean Products Soybean meal is a concentrated source of protein and energy, and is lower in fiber than most other oilseed meals available. The higher protein, energy and lower fiber content of soybean meal allow nutritionists to formulate higher-energy diets that are more efficient in providing the nutrients required for the body. The highly digestible protein in soybean meal provides high levels of available amino acids that can complement amino acids in cereal grain. Direct incorporation in the foods: Chapattis: Gandhi et al 2000a incorporated the defatted soy meal in the preparation of chapattis and evaluated their acceptance and textural profile. The studies indicated a wide acceptance of the products. Similarly Gandhi et al 2001 prepared the sweet biscuits with the fortification of defatted soy flour and assessed their liking by the consumers. They are all very much liked. Thus the soy meal can be diverted for the direct food uses.

Soy chapatti

Soy biscuits Preparation of protein isolates: The soy meal may also be used for the preparation of protein isolates which find an important position in various food/pharmaceutical industries. Gandhi et al 2000b prepared and characterized the protein isolates from the soy meal. They were prepared following the aqueous alkaline extraction method. Sodium hydroxide (0.2M) with 1:20 meal to extractant ratio at 300C yielded 45% proteins.(Fig 2 ). The physico chemical and functional characteristics of protein isolates are given in Table 2.

Soy protein isolate

Table 2 Physico chemical and functional characters of soy protein isolates Characteristics Moisture,% Proteins,% Ash,% Color Solubility at pH7.5 In vitro protein digestibility,% Trypsin inhibitor activity, mg/g Phytic acid,% Flatulence galactosides, % Functional property WAC,g/g protein OAC, g/g protein OAC, ml.g protein Gelation capacity,% Foaming stability Values 4.5 91.0 4.0 Creamy to yellowish 63.0 82.0 Nil Nil Nil 4.3 4.7 8.3 14.0 3.5

References: Gandhi,A.P; Kotwaliwale,N; Taimini,V; Kawalkar,J; Srivastav,D.C;Parihar,V and RaghuNadh,P.2000a. Effect of incorporation of defatted soy flour on the texture of chapattis. J.Texture Studies, (USA.)31(6), 609-614. Gandhi, A.P; Khare, S.K and Jha, K. 2000b. Preparation and characterization of protein isolates from soy meal. J.Food Sci and Tech, 37(6), 624-626. Gandhi, A.P; Jha, K and Khare, S.K 2001.Application of HACCP system for the production of edible grade soy meal. J.Food Sci and Tech, 38(1), 71-73. Gandhi,A.P;Kotwaliwale,N; Kawalkar,J; Srivastav,D.C;Parihar,V and RaghuNadh,P.2001, Effect of incorporation of defatted soy flour on the quality of sweet biscuits. J.Food Sci and Tech, 38(5), 502-503. Gandhi,A.P;K.C.Joshi.,KrishmaJha.,Srivastav,D.C;Parihar,V.S.,Kawalkar,J;RaghuNadh,P and S.K.Jain..2003. Studies on the alternate solvent-I Soybean, International Journal of Food Science and Technology(UK),38, 369-375.

Fig:2 Flow chart for making protein isolates from defatted soy meal One Kg defatted soybean meal

Add 20 liter of water and about 160g of NaOH(0.2M)pH

Stir for 1 hour at 30C at low

Speed Centrifuge the material at 5000rpm for 20 min

Discard the debris

Collect the supernatant and adjust the pH to 4.5 with 1N H2SO4

A creamy white precipitate results

Collect the precipitate and wash with distilled water at least six times till free from acid tinge

Centrifuge at 5000rpm for

15minutes & Neutralize with Na salt Vacuum dry/Freeze dry

Store in air tight containers

Fig 1. HACCP flow sheet for the preparation of edible grade soy meal