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1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
A manufacturing concern needs finance not only for acquisition of fixed assets but also for its day-to day operations. It has to obtain raw materials for processing, pay wage bills & other manufacturing expenses, store finished goods for marketing & grant credit to the customers. It may have to pass through the following stages to complete its operating cycleConversion of cash into raw materials – raw material procured on credit, cash may have to be paid after a certain period. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. Conversion of raw materials into stock in process Conversion of stock in process into finished goods. Conversion of finished goods into receivables/debtors or cash. Conversion of receivables/debtors into cash A non-manufacturing trading concern may not require raw material for their processing, but it also needs finance for storing goods & providing credit to its customers.
Similarly a concern engaged in providing services, it may not have to keep inventories but it may have to provide credit facility to its customers. Thus all enterprises engaged in manufacturing or trading or providing services require finance for their day-to-day operations, the amount required to finance day-to-day operation is called “working capital”
The assets & liabilities are created during the operating cycle are Page 2 of 47
called current assets& current liabilities.
There are two components of working capital
NET WORKING CAPITAL CURRENT LIABILITIES OPERATING CYCLE :
CURRENT ASSETS –
When entrepreneurs for financing working capital requirements approach the banks, the bank has to examine the viability of the project before agreeing to provide working capital for it. Financial institutions & bank while providing term loan finance to unit for acquisition of fixed assets does a detailed viability study. They have to ensure that the project will generate sufficient return on the resources invested in it.
The viability of a project depends on Technical feasibility, Financial Page 3 of 47
feasibility, Flash report, Credit analysis, sensitivity analysis etc.
Technical feasibility : This aspect involves a detailed assessment of the goods and the services needed for the project – land, building, raw material, transportation, technology etc. The important feature regarding technical feasibility relates to the type of technology to be used for the project. The project needs to be examined with particular reference to the following points regarding the technical feasibility. Land and Building Plant and Machinary Technical Competence Financial feasibility : The institution while advancing loan is quite
keen about the financial feasibility of the whole project. In finding out financial feasibility, the following facts should be taken into account: Cost of Project Means of Financing Cost of Production and Profitability Cash Flow Estimates Proforma Balance Sheets.
: The banks prepares a flash report. The flash report is
to gauge whether it is feasible to provide the cash credit to the applicant. It determine the amount of money that the bank will earn by providing the cash credit
Credit analysis :
It involves investigation of the capacity of the
applicant to borrow and his willingness to repay the debt in time according to the agreement. To analyse the creditworthiness of the applicant there are five „C‟ s of credit. Character (Good Citizen) Capacity (Cash Flow) Capital (Wealth)
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After assessing the total requirement of working capital. which depends on the nature of the activities of an enterprise & the duration of its operating cycle. a part of working capital requirement should be financed for the long term & partly by determining MAXIMUM PERMISSABLE BANK Page 5 of 47 . the expected cash flow. Sensitivity analysis provides different cash flows estimates under three assumptions The worst (most pessimistic) The expected (the most likely) and The best (most optimistic) it is necessary to make a proper assessment of total requirement of the working capital. It has to be ensured that the unit will have regular supply of rawmaterial to facilitate uninterrupted production. The unit should be able to maintainadequate stock offinished goods for smooth sales operation. namely. the discount rate and the project life are to estimation errors.Collateral (Security) Conditions (Economic. especially downside vulnerability) Sensitivity analysis :One measure which expresses risk in more precise terms is sensitivity analysis. The method adopted under sensitivity analysis is to evaluate a project using a number of estimated cash flows to provide to the decision maker an insight into the variability of the outcomes. Sensitivity analysis takes care of estimation errors by using a number of possible outcomes in evaluating a project. It provides information as to how sensitive the estimated project parameters. The analysis on these lines is important as the future is always uncertain and there will always be estimation errors.
The bank has branch officesacross the length and breadth of the country. Sector No. Regional offices. Page 6 of 47 .2 COMPANY PROFILE: Name of the company : Location and address : BANK OF MAHARASHTRA Shop No. It has three tier organizational setup consisting of Central offices. Sicily Marvel Apartment.FINANCE 1. 12/B. Navi Mumbai. In the state of maharashtraitself it has the largest network of branches. branches. All the branches of the bank are under CORE BANKING SOLUTION (CBS).5.4. Koperkhairane. 3. Type of organization Type of industry Organizational set up : : : Nationalised Bank Banking Bank of Maharashtra is a nationalized bank with a standing of more than 7 years.
To be a vibrant. To enhance the shareholders‟ wealth through best practices and corporate governance. techno-savvy. forward looking. To innovate products and services to cater to diverse sections of society. Mission To ensure quick and efficient response to customer expectations. Maharashtra Bank". professional and involved workforce. in the whole country. customer centric bank serving diverse sections of the society. Its dream is "One Family. One Bank. enhancing shareholders' and Page 7 of 47 . To build proactive.ONE FAMILY ONE BANK (CELEBRATING PLATINUM JUBILEE YEAR) Our Aims The bank wishes to cater to all types of needs of the entire family. To adopt latest technology on a continuous basis.
LOGO The Deepmal : With its many lights rising to greater heights The 3 M's Mobilisation of Money Modernisation of Methods and Motivation of Staff. Page 8 of 47 .employees' value while moving towards global presence.
1936 with a mere authorized capital of ` 10 lakhs and issued capital of ` 5 lakhs. K. The bank has fully-computerized branches. has its headquarter located in Pune. The bank has joined national electronic funds transfer (NEFT) with 510 branches going live during the year and also launched an insta remit facility on its RTGS platform. 1935 by Prof. tie-ups with Hero Honda Motors and tractor and power tiller manufacturing companies for loans to farmers. 2007. The bank has a tie-up with Franklin Templeton for distribution of mutual fund products. industrial finance. Bank of Maharashtra did reasonably well in quick period of time.etc. The CBS network will be extended to 600 branches during the year 2007-2008. The bank also got listed on the Bombay Stock Exchange in 1958. multi city check facility. . The bank has a branch network comprising 1. The Bank has 302 automated teller machines operating as of March 31. Multiple delivery channels like internet banking. Kale and late Mr. It includes 22 specialized branches in the area of foreign exchange. crore.. It has implemented core banking solution (CBS) in 66 branches which offer customer convenience products like any branch banking. Registered on September 16. The bank opened 29 new branches during the year. mobile banking and so on will be introduced in 2007-2008. small-scale industry and hi-tech agriculture. Bank of Maharashtra started its operation on February 8. a tie-up with United Nations environment program (UNEP) for implementing solar home systems. G. D. New Initiatives like the corporate agency tie up with United India Insurance Company for sale of general insurance products and with LIC of India for sale of life insurance products are available at all branches. one of the leading banks in India. V.345 branches and 13 extension counters spread over 22 states and two union territories as on March 31. Sathe.BRIEF PROFILE OF BANK OF MAHARASHTRA Bank of Maharashtra. Page 9 of 47 . The deposits crossed 1crore mark within the year 1945. 2007. The bank was established with a goal to meet the banking needs of the common people.
SOCIAL ASPECTS OF BANK OF MAHARASHTRA The bank excels in Social Banking. Bank has captured 95.25% of its total business through computerization. Page 10 of 47 . it has a good share of Priority sector lending having 46% of its branches in rural areas. overlooking the profit aspect. OTHER ATTRIBUTES Bank is the convener of State level Bankers committee Bank has signed a MOU with EXIM bank for co-financing of project exports Bank offers Depository services and Demat facilities in Mumbai.
3 PRODUCTS & SERVICES Bank of Maharashtra offers a range of financial products and services to its customers. SAVINGS DEPOSITS o o o o o o Mahabank – YuvaYojana MahabankLokBachatYojana Mahabank – SwasthyaYojana NRI Ordinary Account NRI External Account CURRENT DEPOSITS o Mahabank – Pearl & Sapphire TERM DEPOSITS o o o o o o o o o Mahabank – SulabhJamaYojana Monthly Interest Deposit Scheme Mahabank – SheetalJamaYojana Mahabank – Trust Deposit Scheme FCNR Account Cumulative Deposit Scheme (CDR) Quarterly Interest Deposit Scheme Mixie Deposit Scheme Mahasaraswati Scheme Page 11 of 47 . Following are the products and services of Bank of Maharashtra.1.
LOANS o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o Educational Loans Loans for Corporates Loans for Exporters Loans for Professionals Loans for Agriculturists Loans for Individuals Housing Finance Scheme Mahabank Platinum Housing Loans: Festive Offer MahabankAdhar Scheme Mahabank Gold Card Scheme for Exporters Mahabank Salary Gain Scheme Mahabank Vehicle Loan Scheme Mahabank Renewable Energy Equipments Mahabank Realty Finance Personal Loans Mahabank Solar Home Systems Mahabank Consumer Loan Scheme OTHER SERVICES o ATM Services o Demat Services o Bank assurance o Credit Card o Mahabill Pay o MahabankInsta Remit Scheme o NEFT FUTURE PLANS OF BANK OF MAHARASHTRA To increase finance to Self Help Groups in rural areas. Page 12 of 47 .
83 crore during the financial year ended on March 31.52 crore in FY 2011-12.40%. PROFIT IN CRORES year 2012 profit in crores year 2011 0 100 200 300 400 500 Net worth of bank has also increased form 2709. Singapore & Dubai.24 crore in FY 201011 to 3775. To substantially increase the Savings Bank Deposits. NET WORTHIN CRORE year 2012 net worthin crore year 2011 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 Page 13 of 47 . 2012. London. 1. comparing to a net profit of 330. 4 FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE Bank of Maharashtra registered a net profit of 430.39 crore in 2010-11 by recording a growth of 30. Bank is planning setting up of overseas representative offices in New York .
03 Quick Ratio 21. 2012 as compared to Rs.37 Operating Expense / Total Funds 2. total business of the bank registered a growth of 16.77 Return on Assets Including Revaluations 70.On the business front .52 Earnings Per Share 6.52 Total Income / Capital Employed(%) 9.77 Page 14 of 47 .13 MANAGEMENT EFFICIENCY RATIOS Interest Income / Total Funds 9. 133508 crore in MARCH 31.09 LEAVERAGE RATIOS Current Ratio 0.28 Book Value 63. TOTAL REVENUE IN CARORE year 2012 total revenue in carore year 2011 100000 110000 120000 130000 140000 SOME IMPORTANT FINANCIAL RATIOS FOR THE FY 2011-2012 PROFITABILITY RATIOS Return on Assets Excluding Revaluations 63. 114332 crore in MARCH 31.52 Total Assets Turnover Ratios 0.75 Net Profit / Total Funds 0.77% to Rs.
To analyse in detail the procedure of assessment of working capital finance extended by bank. Page 15 of 47 . To apply these procedure at a practical level with the help of case studies.1.5 OBJECTIVES OF STUDY To know the process of working capital finance provided by banks.
INTRODUCTION TOWORKING CAPITAL FINANCE Page 16 of 47 .II.
The „study group to frame guidelines to follow-up of bank credit‟ (Tandon Study Group) appointed by Reserve Bank of India had suggested the norms for inventory and receivables regarding:Major industries on the basis of company finance studies made by Reserve Bank process periods in the different industries. It keeps a watch on the various issues relating to working capital Page 17 of 47 . It also consults the representative from industry and trade. discussions with the industry experts and feed-back received on the interim report. Proper assessment of working capital requirement may be done as under- If the bank credit is to be linked with production requirements. it is necessary to assess the requirements on the basis of certain norms.1 ASSESSMENT OF WORKING CAPITAL A unit needs working capital funds mainly to carry current assets required for its operations. The norms suggested by Tandon Study Group are being reviewed from time to time by the Committee of Direction constituted by the Reserve Bank to keep a constant view on working capital requirements. Inadequate levels of working capital may result in under-utilization of capacity and serious financial difficulties. The committee has representatives from a few banks and it generally once in a quarter. Similarly excessive levels may lead to unproductive use of credit and unnecessary interest Burdon on the unit. Proper assessment of funds required for working capital is essential not only in the interest of the concerned unit but also in the national interest to use the scare credit according to production requirements.2.
).requirements and gives various suggestions to suit the changing requirements of the industry and trade. receivables. etc. it is necessary to project them correctly while calculating need of bank finance for working capital requirements. Page 18 of 47 . Banks may also consider suitable internal guidelines for accepting the projections made by the borrowers regarding sundry creditors as sundry creditors are taken as a source of financing current assets (inventories. Banks make their own assessment of credit requirements of borrowers based on a total study of borrowers‟ business operations and they can also decide the levels of holding each item of inventory as also of receivables which in their view would represent a reasonable built up of current assets for being supported by banks‟ finance.
It may be observed from the above that borrower‟s contribution from long term funds would be 25 per cent of the working capital gap under the first method of lending . The above minimum contribution of long-term funds is called minimum stipulated Net Working Capital (NWC) which comes from owned funds and term borrowings. i. A certain level of credit for purchases and other current liabilities inclusiveof bankborrowings will not exceed 75 per cent of current assets.e.2. CURRENT LIBILITES AMT CURRENT ASSETS AMT CREDITORS 200 RAW 380 Page 19 of 47 . owned funds and long term borrowings. owned funds and term borrowings b.e. .2COMPUTATION OF MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE BANK FINANCE (MPBF): The Tandon Study group had suggested the following alternatives for working out the maximum permissible bank finance:- a. Bank can work out the working capital gap. projected as at the end of next year. Above two method of lending may be illustrated by taking the following example of a borrower‟s financial position. total current assets less current liabilities other than bank borrowings and finance a maximum of 75per cent of the gap. i. e. Borrower should provide for a minimum of 25 per cent of total current assets out of long-term funds. the balance to come out of long-term funds. i.
MATERIALS OTHER CURRENT LIBILITES BANK BORROWINGS INCLUDING BILLS DISCOUNTED WITH BANKERS RECEIVABLES INCLUDING BILLS DISCOUNTED WITH BANKERS OTHER CURRENT ASSETS 700 700 30 110 400 FINISHED GOODS 180 300 STOCK TRADES IN 40 FIRST METHOD TOTAL CURRENT ASSEST LESS:.CURRENT LIABILITIES (OTHER THAN BANK BORROWINGS) WORKING CAPITAL GAP 440 740 300 Page 20 of 47 .
In the second method.33:1.17:1. Page 21 of 47 . the borrower has to provide a minimum of 25 per cent of total current assets from long-term funds and gives a minimum current ratio 1.33:1 740 185 555 300 of It may be observed from the above that in the first method. the borrower has to provide a minimum of 25 per cent of working capital gap from ling-term funds and it gives a minimum current ratio 1.17:1 SECOND METHOD TOTAL CURRENT ASSETS 25% OF ABOVE FROM LONG TERM SOURCES WORKING CAPITAL GAP LESS:.25% OF ABOVE FROM LONG TERM SOURCES MBPF EXCESS BANK BORROWINGS CURRENT RATIO 110 330 70 1.CURRENT LIABILITIES (OTHER THAN BANK BORROWINGS) MBPF EXCESS BANK BORROWINGS CURRENT RATIO 255 145 1.
credit creation and agency functions.2. the bank credit is available in the following forms: CASH CREDIT– Under this facility. the borrower can not borrow the entire sanctioned credit in lump sum.3 WORKING CAPITAL FINANCING BY BANKS A bank is a business organization which deals in money i. Usually. However. There is no commitment charge involved and interest is payable on the amount actually utilized by the borrower and not on the sanctioned limit. the bank may approve separate limits for „peak season‟ and „non-peak season‟. Besides these usual functions. Similarly. he can draw it periodically to the extent of his requirements. it is maximum fund which a firm can obtain from the bank. repayment can be made whenever desired during the period. Thus. lending and borrowing of money. In determining working capital requirements of a firm. the bank takes into account its sales and production plans and desirable level of current assets. The amount approved by the bank for the firm‟s working capital requirement is called credit limit. They perform all types of functions like accepting deposits. These advances were usually given against the security of the current assets of the borrowing firm. Working capital advances forms major part of advance portfolio of banks. Page 22 of 47 . one of the most important functions of banks is to finance working capital requirement of firms. the bank specifies a predetermined limit and the borrower is allowed to withdraw funds from the bank up to that sanctioned credit limit against a bond or other security. In the case of firms with seasonal businesses. advancing loans.e.
the bank satisfies itself about the creditworthiness of the drawer and genuineness of the bill. LETTER OF CREDIT– While the other forms of credit are direct forms of financing in which the banks provide funds as well as bears the risk. The borrower has to pay interest on the total amount of loan. Overdraft facility is generally available against the securities of life insurance policies. of the corporate sector. Interest is charged on the amount actually withdrawn by the borrower. irrespective of how much he draws.OVERDRAFT– Under this arrangement. subject to some minimum(commitment) charges. BILLS FINANCING– This facility enables a borrower to obtain credit from a bank against its bills. As a form of financing. Within the stipulated limits any number of withdrawals is permitted by the bank. fixed deposits receipts. They can also be renewed from time to time. shares and debentures. the borrower is allowed to withdraw funds in excess of the actual credit balance in his current account up to a certain specified limit during a stipulated period against a security. the total amount of borrowing is credited to the current account of the borrower or released to him in cash. loans imply a financial discipline on the part of the borrowers. Loans are payable either on demand or in periodical installments. Under this facility. The bank purchases or discounts the bills of exchange andpromissory notes ofthe borrower and credits the amount in his account after deducting discount. Before purchasing or discounting the bills. etc. letter of credit is an indirect form of working capital financing in which banks assumes Page 23 of 47 . the amount provided is covered by cash credit and overdraft limit. LOANS – Under this system. Government securities.
The bank opens letter of credit in favour of acustomer to facilitate his purchase of goods.only the risk and the supplier himself provide the funds. This arrangement is presently applicable to borrowers having working capital requirement of Rs. This arrangement passes the risk of the supplier to the bank. On such additional credit.10 crore or above. renewed or rolled over. WORKING CAPITAL LOAN– Sometimes a borrower may require additional credit in excess of sanctioned credit limit to meet unforeseen contingencies. Banks provide such credit through a Working Capital Demand Loan (WCDL) account or a separate „non–operable‟ cash credit account. The customer pays bank charges for this facility to the bank. The minimum period of WCDL keeps on changing. WCDL is granted for a fixed term onmaturity of which it has to be liquidated. the bank shall make the payment to the seller. Page 24 of 47 . A letter of credit is the guarantee provided by the buyer‟s banker to the seller that in the case of default or failure of the buyer. the borrower has to pay a higher rate of interest more than the normal rate of interest.
sell the goods. the banks provide working capital finance to the borrower against the security of movable property. Under this mode. LIEN – Lien means right of the lender to retain property belonging to the borrower until he repays the debt. Sue for the sale of goods pledged. PLEDGE – A pledge is bailment of goods as security for the repayment of a debt or fulfillment of a promise. Page 25 of 47 . It can be of two types: (i) (ii) Particular lien and General lien. . The bank can retain the possession of goods pledged with it till the debt (principal amount) together with interest and other expenses are repaid.4 SECURITY REQUIRED IN BANK FINANCE Banks generally do not provide working capital finance without adequate security. or After giving due notice. In the case of default the bank has the legal right to sell the property to realise the amount of debt. The bank provides credit on the basis of following modes of security: HYPOTHECATION – Under this mode of security. generally inventories.2. In case of non-payment of loan the bank may either. It is a charge against property for the amount of debt where neither ownership nor possession is passed to the creditor. the possession of goods offered as security passes into the hands of the bank. The nature and extent of security offered play an important role ininfluencing the decision of the bank to advance working capital finance. Sue the borrower for the amount due.
In case of mortgage. A charge may be created by the act of parties or by the operation of law. while the lender enjoys the full legal title. MORTGAGE – Mortgage is the transfer of a legal or equitable interest in a specific immovable property for the payment of a debt. It is only security for payment. General lien is applicable till all dues of the lender are paid. Page 26 of 47 . the possession of the property may remain with the borrower. Mortgages are taken as an additional security for working capital credit by banks. The mortgage interest in the property is terminated as soon as the debt is paid. On the other hand. Banks usually enjoy general lien.Particular lien is a right to retain property until the claim associated with the property is fully paid. CHARGE – Where immovable property of one person is made security for the payment of money to another and the transaction does not amount to mortgage. the latter person is said to have a charge on the property and all the provisions of simple mortgage will apply to such a charge.
For borrowers with requirements above Rs. The recent changes made by RBI in the guidelines for bank credit for working capital finance are discussed below: 1. Now it is not essential to have consortium arrangements. the entry of term lending institutions into working capital finance and the emergence of money market borrowing options gives the best possible deal.5 RECENT RBI GUIDELINES WORKING CAPITAL FINANCE: REGARDING In the past. However. 5 crore.This has given banks greater freedom and responsibility for assessing credit needs andcredit worthiness. the cash budget systemmay be used to identify the working capital needs. RBI permits banks to follow Tandon/Chore Committee guidelines and retain MPBF concept with necessary modifications. The disintegration of consortium system. credit limits will be computed after detailed discussions with borrower. Page 27 of 47 . The notion of Maximum Permissible Bank Finance (MPBF) has been abolished byRBI and a new system was proposed by the INDIAN BANKINGASSOCIATION (IBA). 50 crore. banks may themselves decide to form consortium so that the risks are spread. 25 lakhs. without going into detailedevaluation. creditlimit can be offered upto 20% of the projected gross sales of the borrower. However. The salient features of new system are: For borrowers with requirements of uptoRs. 25 lakhs. working capital financing was constrained with detailed regulations on how much credit the banks could give to their customers. 2. Earlier RBI had prescribed consortium arrangements for financing working capital beyond Rs. but uptoRs.2. For large borrowers not selling in the above categories.
RBI has also suggested that the units engaged in export activities need not bring in any contribution from their long term sources for financing that portion of current assets as is represented by export receivables. after taking into account the operating cycle of an industry as well as other relevant factors. 1 crore. 4. viz maintenance of minimum current ratio. which would make it easier for smaller borrowers to comply with these guidelines. under which the banks would decide the levels of holding of inventory and receivables. Other aspects of lending discipline. submission and use of data furnished under quarterly information system etc.3. who had credit export of not less than 25% of there total turnover during the previous accounting year. provided that their fund based working capital needs from the banking system were less than Rs. which should be supported by bank finance. would continue through with certain modifications. Banks were advised not to apply the second method of lending for assessment of MPBF to those exporter borrowers. RBI had also issued lending norms for working capital. Page 28 of 47 .
000 and on a another day it may be Rs. 1 lakh only Page 29 of 47 . Limit is say Rs.07.000 on one day and he will require Rs. some small amount will have to be funded by the businessman and the balance amount will be funded by a bank as a loan The amount so worked out is given as loan and is called as "limit" this is because under this kind of loan the borrower may not take up the entire amount of loan as working capital requirement every day is not the same. 92. on one day the amount of working capital required may for eg.e.000 as some debtor might have paid up some amount. 92. He on a particular day may require Rs.07300 he will get loan upto Rs. The entire amount of working capital required is not funded by the bank.96. 1. 1 lakh then when he requires Rs. If in the above eg. 96.000 on the other day only. WHAT IS CASH CREDIT A/C Cash credit is an arrangement under which a customer of a bank or financial institution is allowed an advance up to certain limit against credit granted by bank. That means a loan may be granted say for Rs.2.6 WORKING CAPITAL FINANCING AT BANK OF MAHARASHTRA Bank provides working capital finance to their customers through funded facilities like CASH CRDIT (Running account facility) Against the collateral security. i. 1 Lakh however the customer/borrower of the loan may take the amount of loan to the extent required by him but not exceeding the limit of Rs. 1. Hence the businessman will require Rs. 1 Lakh In Cash Credit facility an amount of loan is given to the borrower/businessman for his working capital needs.300 but the loan amount that he can get is any amount which is not more than the "limit" of the loan given. may be Rs.
Assets and Liabilities of the guarantors along with latest income tax returns file. Projected balance sheet for the next year. Position of accounts from the existing bankers and confirmation about the assets being standard with them. Photocopies of lease deed/ title deeds of all the properties being offered as primary and collateral security. In case of takeover of advances.7 PROCEEDURE OF WORKING CAPITAL FINANCING AT BANK OF MAHARASHTRA PRE SECTION PROCESS Obtain loan application: Customer who wants to avail the cash credit facility should submit complete application form along with requited information.2. The information generally required to be submitted by the customer along with the application form are: Audited balance sheet and profit and loss account for previous three years along with income tax or sales tax returns. Memorandum and articles of association of the company/ partnership deed of partnership firm. production . Project report containing details of all the assets. CMA report Industry exposure restriction and related risk factors Government regulation and its impact on the industry. projected profit and loss and balance sheet for next 7 to 8 years till the loan is paid. capacity of utilization. Estimated balance sheet for the current year. section letters of facilities being availed fromexisting bankers. (in case of takeover) Page 30 of 47 . sales . name of suppliers.
A timely action is possible only close supervision and followed up by using following techniques. o Monthly stock statement o Inspection of stock o Scrutiny of operation of account o Quarterly/ half quarterly statement o Under information system o Annual audited report Page 31 of 47 .POST SECTION PROCESS: Section credit of credit limit of working capital requirement after proper assessment is not alone sufficient. close supervision and follow up is required to ensure the safety and proper utilization of fund lend.
project implementation risk. cash flow adequacy etc. compensation. post project implementation etc. operating efficiency of the company etc. Page 32 of 47 . PROJECT RISK: It includes the project cost. ability of the company to raise capital. MANAGEMENT RISK: It covers the track record of the company. corporate governance etc. FINANCIAL RISK: Financial risk includes the quality of financial statements.8 CREDIT RATING CREDIT RATING MODEL The various risk faced by any company may be broadly classified as follows: INDUSTRY RISK: It covers the industry characteristic. financial data etc. COMPANY/ BUSINESS RISK: It considers the market position.2. their attitude towards risk. propensity for group transaction.
100 lakh as working capital limit sectioned to him by a bank. lower the interest”. each borrower is graded or credit rating is assigned to them and interest is charged on the principle of “Lower the risk. Therefore.9 CREDIT RATING AT BANK OF MAHARASHTRA The banks evaluate the borrower depending on the risk involved in the financing to them. “Higher the risk. higher the rate of interest” CREDIT RISK RATING AAA+ AAA AA A B C D PRIME EXCELLENCE GOOD SATISFACTORY RISK PRONE HIGH RISK HIGHEST RISK DRAWING POWER OF BORROWER Suppose a borrower has a Rs. Security provided by borrower is hypothecation of inventory Borrower needs to hold inventory of 130 lakh Actual level of inventory with borrower is 100 lakh Margin prescribed by bank is 25% Therefore with this level of inventory. the borrower enjoys only 82.2.5 lac of his working capital limit of 100 lakh Page 33 of 47 .
2% of the amount) MORTAGAGE Format A Memorandum declaration (Rs. Page 34 of 47 .2% of total amount of loan) Format C Mortgage of letter of conformation It consist of Form I : (Creation and modification) includes: Title deed Third party mortgage Form I : Satisfaction of any existing security interest Form III : Particulars of securitization or construction of fixed asset Form IV : particulars of satisfaction of securitization & reconstruction of transaction.100 franking is required) and notary also Format B Memorandum of record of equitable mortgage (Franking of 0.10 DOCUMENTATION MAHARASHTRA RF 45 - AT BANK OF Request letter for making CASH CREDIT facility available F 260 F273 Receipt for amount of loan Loans/advances/facilities granted/ to be granted to (Right of set-off) (Required for guarantor as well as borrower) RF 46/47 Demand promissory note (Required for all types of loan) F 154 (A) RF 66(J) Guarantee bond (franking of Rs. 100 required) Composite deed of hypothecation for all facilities (0.2.
indication of availability of current assets to pay current liabilities. Trend for company over a period should be encouraging. Indicate what proportion of the company finance is represented by the tangible net worth. Generally it should be at least 1. DSCR (DEBTSERVICECOVERAGE RATIO)= DEPRICIATION+INTREST ON TERM LOAN/ INTREST ON TERM LOAN+INSTALLMENT OF TERM LOAN It indicates the number of times total debt service obligation consisting of interest and repayment of the principal in installment is covered by the total fund available after Page 35 of 47 . stability and degree of solvency. OPERATING PROFIT RATIO=OPERATING PROFIT/NET SALES×100 This ratio indicates operating efficiency. TOL/TNW=TOL/TANGIABLE NET WORTH Indicate size of stakes. Anything over 5 should be viewed with concern. 100 sales. Indication of net margin of profit available on Rs.11 IMPROTANT FINANCIAL RATIOS FOR ASSESSMENT OF WORKING CAPITAL FINANCE CURRENT RATIO=CURRENT ASSET/ CURRENT LIABITIES Help to measure liquidity and financial strength. greater the solvency.33.2. The lower the ratio. The higher the ratio betters the liquidity position. Indicates how high the stake of the creditors is.
we can find out whether the loan taken for acquisition of fixed assets can be rapid conveniently.5 to 2 considered adequate. This ratio of 1. Higher the ratio more is the security to the lender. Page 36 of 47 . It is in order to ask for this sum in reduction of loan. INTEREST COVERAGE RATIO=EARNINGS BEFORE TERM LOAN AND TAXATION / INTEREST ON TERM LOAN The ratio indicates adequacy of profit to cover interest.taxes. We have already touched upon depreciation as non-cash expenditure and since the funds are available with the enterprise to that extent. With the help of this ratio (popularly known as DSCR).
Research Type Source Of Data Sample Sample Technique Analysis Tool Used Analytical Primary And Secondary Case Study Allocation of cases Financial analysis Primary Data : Observation.III. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This is an analytical research area where we analyse information with cause and its effects relationship. Discussion with branch manager Secondary Data : Old section proposals RBI guidelines Reference books Page 37 of 47 . This analysis leads to the simple conclusion of weather to lend to the institutions for their working capital needs.
IV. DATA PROCESSING AND ANALYSIS Page 38 of 47 .
09 TCL 9.38 20.53 18. Tot Ass 40.88 81.66 Page 39 of 47 .26 0.05 Audited 26.85 Net NW 17.91 51.91 12.71 55.15 Reserves Depr.61 31.76 Scred Bk Borr 9.03. 5.2 13.38 RM WIP FG RecDom Export OCA TCA Inv Tot NCA Acc Loss Tot.06 Prov.05 31.32 31.96 184. Audited Capital 17.46 1.96 184.35 Tot Liab 40.08 0.4.1 CASE STUDIES COMPARATIVE BALANCE SHEET AND PERFORMANCE / FINANCIAL INDICATORS: ABRIDGED BALANCE SHEET Liabilities 31.84 17.03.7 15 35.15 13.84 31.53 12.03.66 51.43 15.42 129.73 21.04 31.06 Assets 31.31 2.18 1.64 6.13 2.47 Bank Unsec Ln TL from BOM TL(car) 1.77 8.3 Block Cash & TL 12.11 OCL 0.98 2.51 16.98 1.03.53 18.03.84 FA 23.19 23.Intan g Ass.41 84.41 84.46 0.01 2.23 15 15 2.04 Audited Audited Prov. 150.03.
00 88 % 0.1 8 Page 40 of 47 . 03. 03. 84 PERFORMANCE / KEY FINANCIAL INDICATORS: (Rs in Lacs) PARTIC ULARS NET SALES % INCREA SE / DECREA SE NET PROFIT AFTER TAX % TO NET SALES CASH ACCRUA LS 6. 1% 31.9 3% 8.4 2 7. 03. 11 56. 03. 70 70.0 1% 0. 13 180 . 03.8 9 0.5 3 18.20 11 * NET WORTH LESS: REVALU ATION RESER VES LESS: INTANG IBLE ASSETS TANGIB LE NET WORTH 17.7 9% TNW EXCL REVALU ATION RESERV E TOL / TNW RATIO 17. 41 84.5 7 1.8 2 1. 13 84. 12 18.0 3. 11 71.5 3 - 31.2 8 30. 53 18. 41 84. 04 31. 84 1.3 3 1. 41 - 31.31. 55 % 31. 84 - - - - 17.6 2 4. 12 95.
250.00 lac from BHEL (Hardwar) are on hand scheduled to be completed before March‟13.00%. Orders worth Rs. This payment was to the tune of 25% (apt) of the Page 41 of 47 . 35 . Agreement with NTPC through BHEL (Hardwar) is exclusive supply (not to any other companies) for annual turnover of Rs. Against this backdrop the estimated profitability of 4. NTPC. During the year up to Nov‟11 the firm has already done sale of Rs. 150.00 lac by this year end. 41 2.5 7 18. The firm has also been able to secure orders from HAL (Koraptut) for DSC & ESC. The orders are of repetitive nature.NWC 14. 250. During the year 2012 the firm has obtained approval from BHEL.00 Lac. and HAL for use of its products – DSC & ESC. It used to pay for job works to other companies/firms for the machining purpose. PROFIT: Hitherto the net profit in terms of sales has been about 1. 47 2. 100.4 0 40. This is acceptable. Completion of this of these orders will enable the firm to achieve a sale of Rs. During discussion it is clarified that as the firm has shifted its focus from mare job work to direct selling the margin will be high.79% in the current appears unreasonable. In fact it has set up its own machining plant and has secured approval from BHEL for the Quality of its own materials. Besides BHEL (Hid) have also started placing sample orders.69 CURREN T RATIO SALES: As partners have been engaged in marketing the new technology to various users for the initial 2/3 years vigorously and their efforts are started yielding results.00 lac besides the job work.
30.00 lac from internal accrual.95 lac p. Accordingly the net profit for the 2nd year would be Rs. margin of direct selling of its materials is better. 32. This appears to be on the higher side. Moreover with increased sales the marginal revenue would be proportionately high adding to the increased yield. 46. Besides.79% as acceptable for the year 2005.00 lac we may accept the profitability of 4.00 lac for the year 2012 followed by Rs. 312. In the year 2012 for the expansion plan the partner have agreed in bring in additional capital of Rs.62 lac respectively. We have discussed the issue of infusion of capital by partners. 14. CASH ACCRUAL: With addition to fixed assets the depreciation shall be high.00 lac. As the sales are estimated to stabilize at Rs. Thus with accepted profitability the accrual would be Rs. Page 42 of 47 . Since the existing work is being carried out from their own sources the branch is advised to obtain a CA‟s certificate certifying the amount investing that will beconsidered as their contribution.70 lac and then Rs. Remaining Rs 20.5% to 12. In view ofthe above factors we may accept the profitability estimates made by the firm. TNW: Up to 2011-12 the TNW has been increasing with retention of profits. a. 30. 20. 30.03 lac.00 lacs the remaining contribution of Rs.job work revenue. Since the cash accrual for the year 2012 is accepted at Rs. In the coming 7 years the firm has estimated profitability ranging from 8.00 lac from partners appears reasonable. For the year 2011 as the job work is being done inhouse the expenses are estimated to be hardly 5%. The position is acceptable.5%. Rs. It is informed that depending upon the advice of their auditors they would be either increasing the amount of individual capital and/or brings in unsecured loans from friends/relatives to be converted to capital over a period of time. 13.
TOL/TNW: The ratio has been below 2.03. During discussion it is gathered that with direct selling the payment term would be 90 % against supply of materials which would improve its cash flow and hence there will not be additional requirement of working capital.00 up to 31. Page 43 of 47 . NWC & CURRENT RATIO: Both the parameters have been well above their respective benchmark levels and are estimated to improve further over the existing levels. It may be mentioned that even though the firm is increasing its production capacity and consequently sales it has not requested any additional working capital.18 which is acceptable being well within benchmark level.12 and with proposed capital infusion the same is estimated to be about 1. However the partners have informed that after the expansion is completed in March 13 they may approach us for additional working if required at that point of time. Thus the overall financial position of the firm is satisfactory.
00 lac worth of orders from BHEL in next 4 months ( At least Rs 80. The holding level of receivables has been year it has estimated the 1.33 months.75 months sales. INVENTORY & RECEIVABLES: Except the receivables the firm has estimated other current asset as per past trend and hence acceptable.ASSESSMENT OF PRESENT PROPOSAL: A. For the current same to be 2. Creditors estimated to be nil too.5 month to 1. WORKING CAPITAL ASSESSMENT: SALES PROJECTIONS: Already discussed. It is clarified that as the firm would be executing Rs150.00 lac as accepted by us) there will be concentration Hence the estimates appear reasonable. Against this background MPBF is calculated as under. of debtors at the year end. have been nil and are Page 44 of 47 .
51 15.11 31.62 13.70 0. OTHER CURRENT LIBILITIES OTHER THAN BANK BORROWINGS c.55 31.11 AUDITED a. MBPF i.93 18. EXCESS BORROWINGS IF ANY 23. PARTICULARS 31.00 7. MIN.35 - 23. ACTUAL/PROJECTED NWC f. 55. WORKING CAPITAL GAP d.03.52 5.03.35 13.13 ESTM.90 14. TOTAL CURRENT ASSEST b.03. STIPULATED NWC e. ITEM c-e h.11 9. ITEM c-d g.84 40.15 31.61 0.08 13.62 9.35 41.00 15.09 55.47 23.41 17.08 Page 45 of 47 .WORKING OF MPBF: -WORKING OF MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE BANK FINANCE: (Rs in lacs).12 AUDITED 31.
Hypothecation and mortgage are generally used to create securities for the bank. CONCLUSIONS The need for working capital is ever increasing. The documentation part used by Bank of Maharashtra is very prompt and is as per the guidelines of RBI. Bank has their own credit rating procedure . If the applicants have banking with bank since inception stage then they are given preference as creditable and loyal party over their financial indication.IV. Page 46 of 47 . Bank of Maharashtra follows Tondon Commiittee guidelines for lending money.
The bank must further secure themselves by holding a second charge on the fixed assets of the borrower so as to ensure the safety.V. Statement of financial transactions should be review at regular interval to minimize losses due to irregular payments and defaulters. Page 47 of 47 . Sensitivity analysis should be done before sectioning cash credit facility to get the insight into the variability of the outcomes. RECOMMENDATIONS Closely monitoring and inspecting the activities and stock of the borrowers from time to time can avoid the misuse of working capital.