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Copyright 2012 All Rights Reserved by Clare Nattress

Online Presence Through Live Broadcast An enquiry into how the body can perform beyond the boundaries of its skin and beyond the local space that it occupies presenting its physical presence elsewhere (online).
Practice-led-enquiry appropriate to furthered arts practice with regard to concepts, readings and theoretical frameworks.

York St John University Independent Project September 2012

Table of Contents
diary of a body Independent Project Work Page 3 Page 4

Introduction Brief Summary of Previous Knowledge / Knowing-in-Practice Starting Points / Web-Based Context Initial Research Problems & Key Issues Initial Methodology Beginning of Practice-led-Enquiry Engagement with Theories of Cyborg Stelarc - Disassociation of The Body into Third Person Creating Digital Identity Stelarc and Feminist Critique, Haraway - Issues of Body and Gender Artists Documenting the Everyday- in NON DIGITAL Broadcasting and Online Surveillance Artworks Issues of Surveillance / Data Mining Technical Side - Creating Online Site Artists who create net.art and Online Artworks Drawing Together Theoretical and Practical New Knowledge Conclusion Bibliography Appendices of Various Screenshots During the Performance

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Diary of a Body - Performance Dates 11th - 16th September 2012.


Online Performance Broadcasting Platform. Five day durational performance broadcasting my location through a GPS electronic ankle tagging device connected to Google maps. Data concerning my activities in locations were uploaded to the interface via hourly tweets through social media site Twitter. Available at : www.diaryofabody.co.uk

Project Information Page - Explaining Project and How to Navigate the Site

Broadcast Page when website is accessed. My seconds since birth, my GPS location and updating Twitter Feed.

Twitter Feed of The Body when Twitter Widget on website interface is accessed.

Selected Screenshots of both image and sound attachments uploaded to Twitter feed at points throughout the five day performance. 4

Introduction This document will articulate the form of a research-led-enquiry, which builds upon, shapes and resolves elements of my continuing arts practice over the course of the MA Fine Arts, specifically highlighting the past three months of development within my Independent Project. The work, diary of a body, involved continually broadcasting my present location through wearing a GPS electronic tagging device. I also provided hourly twitter updates of data concerning my activities in these locations where I was able to share image, sound and text through social media. I did this to experiment with the operation of the body and extend my experiences within the mediated realms of social and online media interfaces. Here various questions, methodologies, theories and contexts have been pinpointed in practice alongside developing observations, speculation, self-awareness, analysis and synthesis, and self reflection. Additionally, the document will also demonstrate a sustained engagement with concepts, readings and artists practices appropriate to my developing research interest. Specifically, discourse of surveillance and notions of locative media, new media art, interface theory and artists On Kawara, Pete Horobin and Tehching Hsieh, who interrogate the everyday and their bodily data. I will further consider how my research project contributes and challenges the wider context to which this body of knowledge and field of practice within Conceptual Art and New Media art is located. This will be confidently articulated through my own practice and research activity. Brief Summary of Previous Knowledge / Knowing-in-Practice The work leading up to my Independent Project was directed into specific fields of discourse through my process of working and reflecting over the last year. I looked to similar models, case studies, theories and to the work of other practitioners. With forms of enquiry repeatedly rooted in explorations of the body through the use of digital and scientific technologies, I recently positioned my work within Performance/Action Art, Conceptual Art and New Media frameworks. Over the last six months I have unpacked and further discussed the issues arising out of creative practice and questioned the proliferating relationships between creative work and research. Leading up to the Independent Project I also considered the relevance to these questions as a part of broader issues: What is knowledge? What is research? What is dissemination? and How can we understand the creative process?

With regard to my practice over the period of the postgraduate course, different conceptualizations of my body have been an ongoing observation through artistic process, specifically in my previous works Daylight Saving Time (2010), Reel Time (2011) and 48.869288,2.35425 (2009) [accessed at www.clare-nattress.com]. Through this development I became interested in how my work creates physical situations which communicates the existence of a live being. The use of bodily endurance as a marker of time and interests in time-based art particularly the work of On Kawara (whom I will discuss in detail later) became pivotal in the making and production of work as I toyed with the idea that the art itself only lasts for the duration of the action/gesture performed. Working between this gap of body-as-image and body-as-lived reality has not only encouraged performative tendencies but also questioned the nature of selfportraiture and more recently, active presence.

Daylight Saving Time 2010, Original Documentation of 12 Hour Performance. Dual Perspectives of myself and my view taken every hour on the hour.

Photographs Printed on Acetate, encased in Perspex and Suspended for Installation.

Installation View, Perspex positioned one infront of the other representing every hour.

Reel Time 2011, Photography Documentation of 1 Hour Performance exploring ideas of body in trance learnt through Hypnosis

The Documentation Reel of Photographs from 1 Hour Performance

Photograph and Video Documentation Installation view In Basement, Bar Lane Studios, York.

Realising my work sat outside of traditional modes of portraiture I questioned whether the work conceptualized a live body in existence, exploring the body itself as a part or being in, and of, time and space. Ultimately this elucidates how the body can become a tool of representation, dematerialization and immateriality and questions how our existence comes first and whether our awareness of it follows. While not all of these images and experiments such as Daylight Saving Time and Reel Time are self portraits, all of them, as Amelia Jones discusses in Self/Image - enact the self in the context of the visual and performing arts. All of them, then, participate in what I call self imaging, the rendering of the self in and through technologies of representation (Jones:2006:4). As portraiture would suggest to delineate the character of the individual my realisation in the work became not portraiture, but self imaging. In a recent exhibition in April 2012 at Bar Lane Studios, now here displays the body as a site of social interaction. The exhibition has helped me question how artists go about making something previously private into public, and how I make work in response to a context - particularly one within a non-institutional and non academic environment. I considered location, medium, economy, discourses, communication and spectatorship and also stated research questions throughout my process such as: Is it still possible to be present without an image of my physical body, and what does it mean to have visibility or have live presence within the work? which, through practice led to the question; How can I create a work whereby viewers engage with a live body, a live presence in time whilst also constituting and sharing knowledge in the discourse I am thinking about. These discourse involve Cyborg, Surveillance, Broadcasting and New Media.

now here 2012 Digital / Online media displaying Tagging Device Map and Milliseconds Since Birth Bar Lane Studios, York.

Upon reflecting on this exhibition my Independent Project enquiry became concerned with; How can the body be broadcasted live through an online platform (accessible on all devices) for a durational period of time allowing the viewer to engage with interfaces, commentary, image, sound and location of everyday actions, social interactions, conversations and locations?

Starting Points / Web-Based Context


now here was a test of nascent ideas and a development in specific software (Processing.org, Firefox, Microsoft Silverlight etc) which was the key in materalising work more successfully than before. Not only this, the work mapped out a body of knowledge and field of practice that I wanted to further throughout the course of my Independent Project. It is here that I can question the implicit nature of now heres own form of dissemination, being through dual screens connected to Internet enabled computers which allowed the flow of data to be fed to the screens through these online programmes. Engagement with online technologies is a strategy and starting point that I took forward in formal work. What is the work? Post Bar Lane exhibition, my initial aim was to move the work from what I considered part-online into a more definitive online context. Reflecting back I can begin to understand that now here was a work produced through the internet and online programmes but the context of the piece sat firmly within the realms of the gallery space. Now however both performance and interface exist solely in an online context. Net art demands the context of the Internet and the browsable World Wide Web and yet curatorial approaches on how to present it have varied hugely as curators come to grips with what the Internet is and how deeply embedded it is in the work of art itself. What I will be referring to as the work within this document is the broadcasted performance on the created interface.What I must state is that the work is not in an online exhibition (an exhibition whose venue is cyberspace) but is a broadcasted online performance produced and distributed via the Internet. Given that web based works can be accessed anywhere by anyone whom has a computer connected to the Internet, the question Why put this immaterial-seeming online work into the gallery? is raised repeatedly by New Media writer Matthew Mirapaul, stating; art on the Internet - its not that its hard to understand, but its hard to find for some people and its hard to contextualise. Unless you go to some place that contextualises the art for you, in some cases Im not sure youre going to understand what youre looking at. I do think the gallery context has a benefit in terms of audience and potential for didactic material. (Graham&Cook:2010:69-86). I must state, art can be hard to contextualise anywhere, whether online, in public space or in a gallery space. Isnt this why we have blurbs in situ with the work? This more physical presence and a network presence in both of these spaces are equally important. One can say the gallery context has a benefit in terms of audience but we must remember that the Internet is a globally accessible platform which by nature unfolds in a hyper linked contextual network.
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To pinpoint here the links between conceptual art practices of the 1960s to 90s including networked and system-based practice to Internet-based art is the approach to the question of the dissolution of the autonomy of the art object (Lippard:1973) This approach has then, by extension, had to address a critique of the institutions that present art and that thus precondition its autonomy. True to say that this white cube gallery space does not exist online and because of this I am engaging with context more directly.

Initial Research Problems & Key Issues


Being that the works medium is social and online media, the issues, questions and problems I faced were: - How can I make my audience feel they are part of an active event in an effective way which communicates this idea as a work of art. - How might spectatorship work differently across online spaces, by this I mean, how can the work develop in terms of engagement. What I learnt from the experience of exhibiting initially in a white cube space was the limitations within the gallery space of how the data could only be engaged with and experienced within that space alone. - How can the body be broadcasted live through an online platform (accessible on all devices) for a durational period of time allowing the viewer to engage with interfaces, commentary, image, sound and location of everyday actions, social interactions, conversations and locations? - and What are the implications and motivations of moving or making a work online? With regard to my research project these were the initial surrounding questions, issues and problems that drove this enquiry. In order have explored and investigated the issues around these specific questions an initial developing methodology was also implemented.

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Initial Methodology
My methodologies have included rigorously analysing specific texts on related theoretical discourses inherent in the making of the work, particularly writings specific to The Body, Broadcasting Online and Surveillance. Key texts include Jason Farmans Mobile Interface Theory, Embodied Space and Locative Media, Geert Lovinks Networks Without a Cause - A Critique of Social Media and Donna Haraways Simians, Cyborgs and Women: The Reinvention of Nature. These sources were identified through artistic practices and research into current digital arts practice. Additionally, I was actively engaged in the works of other key practitioners through secondary documentation. Key artists through this enquiry have been On Kawara, Pete Horobin and Tehching Hsieh and their non-digital means of meticulous methods of the self and everyday documentation. Additionally, net artists such as Layla Curtis and Man Bartlett whom produce art on the Internet particularly Barletts exploration with social media site, Twitter. As regard to making the work, I have acquired technical skills and knowledge through engaging web based material and web developers to produce a website and online platform which is fully functional on all Internet enabled devices. I have also managed in this respect to create an online platform integrating social media which has enabled a scrolling feed of the projects commentary post-performance as a sort of archival document. A key aspect of preparation was to do a test run of the performance broadcast for a twelve or more hour duration before going live to the public. This crucially enabled a remould of the broadcasting interface and certain aspects of the performance but also altered specific decisions about the duration of the performance from what was acknowledged as problematic or indeed possible from this test period. These approaches and strategies have helped identify modifications to and impact on existing knowledge structures, theoretical frameworks and proposes possible new areas for investigation.

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Beginning of Practice-led-Enquiry - Engagement with Theories of Cyborg


- Why I am not what is called a Traditional Cyborg - Mapping Contradiction and Ambiguity in this Field of Discourse
Cyborg discourse inspired my decision to attach an electronic tag to my body for a durational period. My interest in human-technology interfaces and prosthesis began through considering the work of performance artist Stelarc. Stelarcs use of the Internet as a platform for connecting people in other places seen in works such as Ping Body (1996), Fractal Flesh (1995) and ongoing project Ear on Arm, became a strategy I was beginning to explore, and can be compared in the manner in which they inter-relate due to the works engagements with online technologies. When we think of a Cyborg, short for cybernetic organism, we tend to think of a human body whose physiological functioning is aided by or dependant upon a mechanical or electronic device. Through engagement with readings and texts it must be said there is much more to this discourse than a human/machine interface.

Stelarc, Ping Body 1996.

diary of a body 2012 Representation of a Body wearing an electronic tag.

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Firstly, In terms of historical context, fictional cyborgs or what we might assume as a traditional idea of a cyborg, are portrayed as a synthesis of organic and synthetic parts, and frequently pose the question of difference between human and machine as one concerned with morality, free will, and empathy. Fictional cyborgs may be represented as visibly mechanical from films in the 1980s such as The Terminator and Robocop. In fiction, cyborgs often play upon a human contempt for over-dependence on technology, particularly when used for war and in menacing ways that seem to threaten free will as well as portrayed with physical or mental abilities which far exceeded a human counterpart. In current prosthetic applications, a human fitted with a heart pacemaker or an insulin pump, artificial limbs or hearing aids might be considered a part-cyborg, since these mechanical parts enhance the bodys natural mechanisms. Past President in Science Fiction Dr Charles Sheffield cite such modifications as contact lenses, hearing aids or intraocular lenses as examples of fitting humans with technology to enhance their biological capabilities; however, these modifications are as cybernetic as a pen or a wooden limb (Sheffield:2000). In a TED talk in 2012 cyborg anthropologist Amber Case said; Were all cyborgs now. For thousands of years, tool-use had been a physical modification of self. Now what were looking at is not a physical extension of the self but an extension of the mental self, i.e the Internet. Our devices allow us to compress time and space in a way that were able to mentally transport ourselves between planes of existence with the touch of a button, such as with the use of a mobile phone or online gaming platforms. Case examines the way humans and technology interact and evolve together. She discusses how technology is evolving us as we become a screen-staring, buttonclicking new version of homo-sapiens (TED TALK: 2012). We now rely on mobile phones and computers to communicate or even live secondary lives. This poses the question which is more real? GPS locative media devices and mobile phones in my works case, can be seen as the ubiquity of digital technologies woven into the fabrics of our daily lives (Farman:2012:6). Although in 2012 we currently do not have fully bionic bodies, this reality of technology being intrinsically connected to our person is not so far removed. So through technological advancements and dissolving this idea of fictional sci-fi machinist beings which have enhanced abilities far exceeding a human counterpart, we can question what makes people cyborgs today? Is it like Case believes, the mechanical or electronic devices that help them lead a normal life? Craig Klugman has pointed out in article The Cyborgs of Today that some confuse cyborgs with robots and androids. Robots are machines that perform programmed tasks. Androids are robots that look like and mimic humans. Cyborgs are people with devices that automatically perform functions (Demeza:2007). If indeed cyborg has extended from the physical extension of machine parts that enhance human function to devices with extend the mental self it can be said that my mobile phone, like Case would suggest, defines the cyborgian self today.
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Returning to Stelarc, his many performances mentioned previously all point towards the idea of the body as cyborg and the body as obsolete through localising these specific areas of research. One thing which strikes me as being clear from looking at Stelarcs performances is that they cannot demonstrate the obsolescence of the body, they can only suggest it. From my engagement with Stelarc and these particular readings, what is interesting is the possibility to rethink the ways in which our bodies interact with our environment, especially through interfaces such as the Internet and how we receive and process information and use it to inform ourselves in space and time that is key.

STELARC - Disassociation of The Body into Third Person Creating Digital Identity
What becomes interesting is Stelarcs disassociation with the body into third person. Stelarc never refers to my body but only to the body ultimately disassociating it from identity and gender, something which feminists especially have often critiqued him for (Marsh:1993:107) though perhaps wrongfully (Goodall:1999:162). By using the body it suggests he is referring to the phenomenological and operational entity immersed in the world. When this body speaks as I it does so in the realisation of itself in context i.e I go to York or I make artworks. However when using this body goes to York or this body makes art the realisation becomes a metaphysical leap to imagine that I refers to a possible inner self. What is interesting here, regarding the body, is this question of agency. When referring to agency we tend to think of something separate and unconnected - (to sever the association of oneself). This issue of disassociation is valuable with regards to the construction of an online presence or in fact construction of an online identity. During my engagement with social media site Twitter, I recognised that identity was something often spoken about in key texts concerning social media and online platforms. Geert Lovinks publication Networks Without a Cause - specific chapter Facebook, Anonymity, and the Crisis of the Multiple Self discusses issues of social media sites and how they have unleashed a collective obsession with identity management, which in turn led to question who we are and how we should present ourselves online (Lovink:2011:38). This strategy examines these platforms in and of themselves. The personal twitter deck on my online platform enabled the construction of the self through negotiations with fellow twitter users, particularly the 27 followers the Twitter account accumulated during the performance. In agreement with visual semiotician, Daniel Chandler, constructing a personal homepage can be seen as shaping not only the materials but also in part through manipulating the various materials of ones identity (Chandler:1996). It was from these key readings and the further engagement with social media, by this I mean actively participating in the media platform myself, that I decided to resolve the I / Body dichotomy and create a new Twitter account called The Body.
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This mesh and broadcast of both locative and social media has become a response to the construction of identity and otherness in the age of new technologies. Referring to my initial aim, Twitter now became my platform to provide commentary, image, sound and location of everyday actions, social interactions and conversations, and through this generated an awareness with regards to performance and how it changes within a technological context and operates in multiple spaces simultaneously for instance online, offline, social, sexual, cultural and political.

My Avatar? The Body Identity, diary of a body 2012. Loads from website platform when clicked.

Stelarcs Avatar in Second Life. 16

This construction of a digital identity in this case re-naming the Twitter account as The Body was to represent activity during my tagged performance. What I considered here is that while these personal spaces can, some may believe, enrich our notions of the self within online spheres they undoubtedly are a presentation of this self to other online identities, in this case other Twitter identities that have been made aware of The Body. Is what I have produced then a creation of an avatar? When we think of the word avatar we tend to think of the graphical representation of the user or the users alter ego or character. An avatar may take either a three-dimensional form, as in games or virtual worlds, or a two-dimensional form as an icon in Internet forums and other online communities. It is an object representing the user. Franco Mattes, also known as, 0100101110101101.ORG reflected on the nature of performance art as a collective hallucination taking place in real time in perceptually immersive 3D space. He states: In our synthetic performances the performers and the audience only interact thorough avatars, they never meet. Everything is mediated, but this doesnt mean the relationship is not real, as much as, for example, a phone conversation is a real conversation (Gaskins:2009). Stelarc also focuses heavily on extending the capabilities of the human body and performs as his avatar in Second Life, (an online virtual world) allowing computers to speak on his behalf (Stelarc Website).

Reenactments 0100101110101101.ORG 2007-10. Historical Performances (Marina Abramovic and Ulays Imponderabilia, Vito Acconcis Seedbed, Chris Burdens Shoot) inside Video Games, performed through avatars constructed from artist faces and bodies.

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It can be considered that what I have created is a written and locative representation of the body within this online broadcasting platform but one without a face or pictorial representation and a genderless identity. One could say The Body is a creation of an avatar with regard to its graphical representation being of data but not in the case of visually looking like or resembling myself.

Stelarc speaking about his Avatar in Second Life.

Stelarcs avatar interacting within virtual space.

Here we can see the comparison in Stelarcs avatar performances that explore an actual-virtual interface where the artists gestures in actual real life navigate and actuate his avatar in the virtual world of Second Life. The virtual objects are mapped with the artists amplified body signals and sounds which are triggered by the avatar as it interacts within the virtual space. Stelarc states: the performance actuates and animates the avatar to generate a sense of aliveness (Stelarc Website). Here we can briefly think about, even though not entirely pivotal to my enquiry, how this elucidates the potential for body preservation in both life and death and how they can exist simultaneously.
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Stelarc and Feminist Critique - Haraway - Issues of Body and Gender


During my engagement with theories of cyborg and artist Stelarc I have also engaged with secondary texts relevant to his practice. In Donna Haraways 1991 updated essay Simians, Cyborgs and Women: The Reinvention of Nature and Joanna Zylinskas text The Cyborg Experiments - The Extensions of the Body in the Media Age, both attempt, in simple terms, to articulate the notion of interrogating the status of the body and self in a developing technological age. The key concern within this discourse is that because of the blurring between what is natural and what is artificial, the cyborg subverts what counts as nature and as Haraway insists, the technological determinism does not necessarily guarantee the destruction of man by the machine but rather as cyborgs, our amalgamation with machines is necessary to ensure our survival because such fusions adapt, alter and enhance our bodies (Harawary:1991:155). Cyborg theory was created by Donna Haraway in order to criticise traditional notions of feminism, particularly its strong emphasis on identity rather than affinity. Haraway uses the metaphor of a cyborg in order to construct a feminism that moves beyond dualisms and the limitations of traditional gender and politics. Similarly, Joanne Zylinska analyses some of the challenges posed to corporeality by technology. Her text, with many contributors, raises a number of questions in relation to new conceptions of embodiment, identity and otherness in the age of new technologies and questions if the body, as Stelarc believes, is obsolete. Zylinska goes on to question if transgender challenges traditional ideas of agency? Have we always been cyborgs? (like previous cyborg-anthropoligist Case states that we are now) as well as highlighting the playful character of digital aesthetics. The contributors investigate ethical issues concerning the ownership of our bodies and the experiments that we perform on them. In this way, these ideas explore how humanism, and ideas of the human have been placed under increasing scrutiny due to new developments in media, science and in communications. Stelarc utlises Haraways theories in an attempt to defend his own ideas from feminist critiques of his work as patriarchal echno-fetishism (Farnell:2000:120). Stelarc links the objectives of Haraways cyborg ontology to that of his re-designing shall we say, of the human. He also discusses Haraways use of technology as a means of redefining the social role of the female, rather than seeing technology as a patriarchal construct that has male power and bias (Toffoletti: 2007:21). Haraways agenda of situated embodied knowledge repudiates Stelarcs operational images. To elucidate, Haraway rallies against the passive, absent body striving for an active body as agent rather than resource. Here, dialectically the positioning of reason and thought have opposing views with regard to the positional status of the body.

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- Gender
On the contrary, as Farnell discusses while many feminists are hostile towards the post human loss of biological reproduction to such male technologies, Stelarc has pointed out that one strain of feminism promotes the advantages of such a release from what he calls the burden of birth (Farnell:2000:122). Stelarc has stated that: technology is not all about toys for the boys but instead equalises the physical potential of bodies and blurs sexuality - revising gender roles (Interview Stelarc Website). This is something that is inherent in the identity and work I have created as The Body and through using the Internet has the ability to revise gender roles in an online world full of gender ambiguity. Stelarc continues [in references to his performance practice]; by stating the body is seen as an evolutionary object, as a structure rather than a psyche. So with that premise the performances were about other things. In feminist critique, it is very difficult to get away from the political action, but in these performances there is not a deliberate intentional strategy to make a political stance, either in terms of gender or in terms of artistic practice. In feminist critique however, the answer to that statement would be that in trying to be neutral is a political statement in itself (Miss M:1997). With regard to diary of a body then, gender and questions of social status became exposed in the enquiry. I considered the issues of how women were believed (by some) to be estranged from technology - weighted in male bias (Toffoletti: 2007:21). Here Haraway and issues of cyber-feminism, despite finding many ambiguities and various terms, stressed the inherently masculine nature of techno-science and now of course, the perception of Internet technologies. Even though there are several approaches to cyber-feminism, what cyber-feminists share is the belief that women should take control of and appropriate the use of Internet technologies in an attempt to empower themselves. In other words refers to women using Internet technology for something other than shopping via the Internet or browsing the World Wide Web (Vitanza:1999:5). Despite my active engagement with digital technology, online software and learning coding, Im am unsure if this resolves any conventional myths attached to women and technology today. It was not only through briefly recognising these developing issues that gender became considered due to the technologies used but also the nature of the performative element. The idea of my location being accessible for a durational period is obviously invasive but also creates an obvious distinction in the context to where the work is located. By this I mean, to follow someone means a very different thing in the virtual world. Twitters Follow tags which when clicked enables further communication with that person however is very different from the idea of Following someone in the actual world, particularly that of a female. This has the potential to spark issues of voyeurism across online and offline spheres.

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With regard to the changing and developing aspects of the work, how will this then change spectatorship, and will it change my behaviour in the performance? Will the performance be consciously effected by my awareness of exposing my every location online and does this bring in to question issues of danger and security.

- Decisions I Made Within the Works Progress


To summarize a little here, through engagement with cyborg discourse despite complexity, engagement with artist Stelarc and secondary texts within this field of practice, I have pinpointed interesting issues and questions with regard to the online broadcast that I performed and created. Theories of cyborg offered ambiguity but also areas regarding technological prosthesis which I can relate to the works dependence on my electronic tag and mobile phone. It became apparent that cyborg theory has become not only a physical extension of the self but an extension of the mental self. What I can recognise now is that what my work does not engage with or speak of is such machine-like, cloned fantasies about hybrid, and certainly does not claim that this type of GPS technology attached to the body expands its capabilities or in fact enhances them like a hearing aid or pacemaker would for example. One issue that became apparent in cyborg theory is this question of mortality and whether technology has or will have the capabilities to set us free from mortality. Despite Stelarcs interest in the body is obsolete and his interest in the evolutionary body, he has become a useful source with regard to the notion of disassociation and is ultimately how I came to create a digital identity called The Body. This notion of disassociation allowed me to also briefly question gender through consideration of cyber- feminism. Throughout this engagement it became a little problematic, should we say, that I was not doing the same thing as Stelarc as I thought it would be a way of becoming cyborg. Saying this however, I revised my view in light of further reading and research and in developing notions of technological extension of the body I recognized an idea that is not anymore about the progressive and optimized body, but became more about a coded, net based and communicative body.

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Artists Documenting the Everyday- in NON DIGITAL


This idea of forensically documenting or broadcasting every detail of life is a method used by many artists. My case studies and models of practice are artists Pete Horobin, On Kawara and Tehching Hsieh. All these particular artists in some form or another forensically document their life under rules which sparks issues of surrendering the body to control in constraints which are set by themselves. Tehching Hsieh is noted for his many One Year Performances. In Rope Piece 19831984 Hsieh and fellow artist Linda Montano spent one year between 4th July 1983 and 4th July 1984 tied to each other with an 8-foot-long rope. They had to stay together for the entire duration but were not allowed to touch each other until the end of the one year period, also, both of them shaved their hair in the beginning of the performance (a ritual which Hsieh has done previously in Time Clock Piece 19801981). Here the rope is a mechanism for both Hsieh and Montano to photograph daily encounters and actions together.

On Kawara, I Got Up, 1968, Rubber Stamped Postcard

Rope Piece, 1983-84.

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The Bodys Twitter Feed. My Electronic Tagging Device

Similarly On Kawaras series of works actions or gestures are under a repetitive nature including the I Went and I Met series of postcards sent to his friends detailing aspects of his life, and a series of telegrams sent to various people bearing the message I am still alive. Between 1968 and 1979, On Kawara created his information series, I Got Up, in which he sent two picture postcards via the mailing system from his location that morning. All of the cards list the artists time of getting up, the date and the name and address of the receiver. In addition to this Kawaras work One Million Years is one of the artists best-known works about the passage and marking of time. It was first made in 1969 however the first audio presentation of the reading of One Million Years occurred in 1993. The longest public reading of the work took place at Documenta 11 in 2002, where male and female participants sat side by side in a glass enclosure and took turns reading dates for the duration of the 100-day exhibition, switching between [Past] and [Future]. In April 2012 I was one of the female readers to immerse myself into the work reading alternate dates with a male for a 90 minute period.

On Kawara, 90 Minute Durational Performance I participated within April 2012.

These practitioners both document the simple fact of their own existence through the passage of time, Hsieh through his one year performances bound by specific rules and self-imposed limits (one in particular that of hourly time stamping being a constant reference point in time), to Kawara whom under strict regime is bound by discipline documenting the times he got up, whom he met, but also creating the Date Paintings which simply recorded the date on which they were made. Both artists to the extreme explore the human condition.
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Artist Pete Horobin documented his daily activities every day for a period of ten years on an A4 sheet of paper. While the format changed annually, the A4 paper scale remained the same integral part of his routine. This project like On Kawara and Tehching Hsieh was a simple declaration of being alive. Horobins social relationship to that of his physical and material environment imposed various limitations upon his possibilities as an artist. Here, a varied and challenging environment might produce a richer and more complex practice. An ongoing, self-conscious examination of nature and the environment, then, is a prevailing preoccupation throughout DATA (Peter Haining: Data Archive Website). DATA is a self-regulating system in its own right, that evolves in relation to the flexible parameters and indeterminate environments that Horobin encountered. This indeed is a behaviorist strategy for engaging creatively with everyday environments. It dramatises what is otherwise held to be the sphere of naturalised practice, where practice is a habit in some respects, an accumulation of knowledge of everydayness in tactic form Peter Haining: Data Archive Website). Kawara work, in similarities to Horobins is a matter of life and death, a question of existence. Kawara never agrees to interviews and is always absent from his private views, he too seems to exist as pure consciousness, recording his persistence. According to writer Jessica Brier, Kawaras work is both simple and seemingly impossible in its exhaustive scope (Brier:2012).

The Bodys Photographic Documentation During the Five Day Performance.

Pete Horobin - DATA Project Picture of Sealed TopMan labels and receipts.

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Kawaras telegrams which were sent to friends and other artists always contained the same message: I am still alive. Here we can suggest that the telegram is an obsolete method of communication. It must be said even though the contents of the telegram was true at the moment it was sent, it may not be so by the time it is received. With regard to Twitter however, the live status of the work and viewing of the work is what Jellicoe describes as live actors on stage in front of a live audience (Jellicoe:1967:67). As my Tweets were sent they immediately appeared onto the website platform through the Twitter widget. Here the information, sound, image etc could be viewed instantly.

Pete Horobin, The D.A.T.A (Daily Action Time Archive) Project. Picture of Collected Items. The Bodys Twitter Feed of data concerning my activities in locations.

Through making diary of the body and documenting The Bodys daily existence I have recognised that it has generated a process rather than a product in this daily action time archive of meticulous self-documentation. There are two important points to make here with regard to the work. Firstly Horobins documentation of his own life began under the identities of Marshall Anderson and Peter Haining whom have also served to signify a shift in this practitioners approach to art making. What is important here, like previously discussed, is this notion of disassociation as the artist invented a new or changing identity every few years. Secondly, during this intensive ten year documentation and archive, media hardly changed like today. In archiving his existence, paper, pen, camera, audio cassette, VHS video and photocopier helped form what was the bulk of the project. However, recently this type of technology is almost obsolete and is constantly renewing and reinventing into new models. How has this or could this effect these particular artists today and how does it create discourse around the nature of my research?
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Here we can think about the digitalisation of existence and the abilities of liveness within this context. The artists, Horobin, Hsieh and Kawara, strategically instigated a entirely new way of thinking about the idea that the life of the artist and the process of living is, in itself, a form of art. Although much of the material is mundane, as one might expect, it has a cumulative effect not least because of the artists total commitment to their own self-historicisation. Data becomes information and is thus transformed from bare fact into narrative. These works like my own previous research such as Daylight Saving Time (2010), whereby I stood in a town centre in the same area for twelve hours and marked the passage of time with a photograph every hour on the hour, is not only documenting the mundane but is reiterating the issues of existence and narcissism - the I am still alive. So why is this meticulous self-documentation different on social media and the online interfaces that I am broadcasting through? Will this mode of documentation create more data? less data perhaps because of its immateriality, and how will it change the work?

- Decisions I Made Within the Works Progress


With this In mind, I can summerise a little here by stating that these artists work within a non-digital means to collate daily documentation, they use audio casettes, data sheets, and framing mechanisms to collate data such as Hsiehs rope. It can be said that what I have done and what I am interested in is very similar but it has been through my process of making and thinking that the work exists within the realm of digital and social media constructing a digital identity called The Body. Here the work plays upon the narcissistic qualities of the interactive web and social networking sites such as Twitter as my mechanism in producing archival data of self. In thinking about the digital and non digital, we can discuss Claire Bishops September 2012 article Digital Divide. Here Bishop talks in length about how technology may in fact be shaping our condition when making artwork. She states that; when we examine these dominant forms of contemporary art more closely, their operational logic and systems of spectatorship prove intimately connected to the technological revolution we are undergoing. I am not claiming that these artistic strategies are conscious reactions to (or implicit denunciations of) an information society; rather, I am suggesting that the digital is, on a deep level, the shaping condition, even the structuring paradox, that determines artistic decisions to work with certain formats and media (Bishop:2012). With this in mind, and by questioning previously how could the technological revolution we are undergoing shape these particular artists today, I have since found a 2011 work by On Kawara which takes him over into a digital and online framework.
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- The Digitalisation of Existence - On Kawara Digital Media.

On Kawara, Date Paintings, 1966 onwards.

On Kawara, Time Machine 2011 Digital Online Work Screenshot, Uses CSS like (now here 2012) to provide fast counting dates.

In September I discovered On Kawaras Time Machine, a ongoing Website created in 2011 which uses HTML, Javascript and CSS coding, accessed at [http://caesura. cc/gallery/on-kawara-time-machine/]. In the work the viewer is given a heightened awareness of death and the passage of time. A javascript counter (just like the one I produced for the work now here) automates the On Kawara time-based Date Paintings from his Today series. The script begins on January 4, 1966, the date of Kawaras first painting, and counts upward toward the actual date checked in the operating system clock. The CSS code produces the look of the paintings, using specific typography on a black background. The project will be completed on the date of On Kawaras death, at which time a new variable will be added to the code to make the counter end on that day. What is interesting here is Kawaras use of digital technology and coding in 2011 to produce the digitalisation of existence ultimately moving his work from a non-digital to a digital online framework.

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Broadcasting and Online Surveillance Artworks


Here we can examine how the Internet as a virtual parallel to the physical world, makes evident questions of the relationship between art in technology and issues of identity, power and control therein. Who creates art on the Internet? For what audience? To what purpose? Many people now have the freedom to express themselves creatively through personalised home pages such as Facebook and Twitter, furthering their self identity through self expression. This concept of broadcasting yourself has been increasingly interesting within my enquiry, especially with regard to cultural context being surrounded by that of hugely popular online services and living within a over-hyped, networked world. Alone, Youtubes tagline is indeed Broadcast Yourself. This is a tagline that has been considered in the artworld, for example exhibition Broadcast Yourself (2008) [http://www.broadcastyourself.net/] which was an international group exhibition that contextualised the current trend of sharing videos online (on websites such as YouTube) through the presentation of works of video art and web-based art from the 1970s, 80s and 90s. The artists included challenged television culture specifically and questioned what it meant to undertake the personal act of putting oneself on-air. What is valid in the works in this exhibition with regard to my work, are the examples of how individuals have established themselves in relation to the dominance of broadcasting networks, by this I mean, the exhibition considers the types of televisual platforms which have been used by artists, but also commercial networks, sponsored TV and the Internet. These artists question televisions cultural influence and authority. Taking the concept of our broadcasting habits further, in the exhibition Being Social (2006) [http://www.furtherfield.org/programmes/exhibition/being-social] artist Liz Sterry showed her installation piece, Kays Blog. Sterry had collated not only one form of online social engagement but all she could find about a Canadian blogger called Kay. Using everything from photographs to things Kay had mentioned in videos, blogs and posts on social networks as well as her favourite music, Sterry recreated Kays bedroom in the gallery. This project questions how we are not only under surveillance by entities we do not trust, we are also tracing each other online.

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Screenshot of Website for Exhibition Broadcast Yourself.2008.

The Internet offers the potential to reclaim space as publicly generated and used, consumers have a greater opportunity to become active users and creators. How do these corporations make money exploiting our social relations and in what way is this process really facilitating the public and artists? With society now being very dependent on technology, this becomes a rapid strategy used in the making of work with regard to cultural context. Artists Stelarc, Blast Theory, Craighead & Thomson all use interactive media to create ground breaking new forms of performance and interactive art that mixes audiences across the internet, live performance and digital broadcasting. Taking this on board, with regard to broadcasting my location through surveillance and locative media, artist group 0100101110101101.ORG work Vopos (2002) was a system of three different networks that documented on a daily basis locational updates. Similarly to diary of a body with a GPS transmitter the artists would send their location via a mobile telephone network which was then entered on a map at their web site. The subject of their work examined the consequences of society arising from the new technologies, consequences which are never questioned as long as things go well. The two media artists excise on themselves the feared public data horror which leads to a loss of privacy and simultaneously the possible loss of artistic production on the internet. In similarity to my work, Vopos is presented in an online map with GPS locations from January 3, 2002 to December 31, 2002 and can be respectively selected in a drop down menu. From there, viewers are able to select a specific time to see the artists locations on a map and the specific latitude and longitude coordinates. The audience is also given the option to zoom in or out to get a better idea of the artists whereabouts relative to the surrounding area. Interaction here demonstrates a certain behaviour it allows the user to interact with the interface allowing further levels of engagement. Firstly, we can make comparisons in Tetching Hsiehs One Year Performance Rope Piece 1983-84 and Vopos 2002 as the duration of both these performance were one year long. Here there are also differences, of course, Hsiehs daily documentation is through photography and writing however Vopos uses digital and online media to document the artists daily location updates. This sense of intimacy produced in social media and the move to locative media transforms the metaphor of closeness into geographical actualisation. Similarly to Vopos, diary of a body viewers are able to zoom in and out of the mapping panel to get a better idea of the artists location and see data coordinates and speed positioned on the left hand side of the interface. Unfortunately, unlike Vopos I was not able to create or embed a mapping panel where the viewer could select a specific time to see my location throughout the duration. This being said, my performance was only five days and not a year long.

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Vopos Mapping Panel, One Year Performance 2002. Drop Down Boxes to Select Specific Day and Time.

Diary of a Body Mapping Panel Interface 2012.

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With these issues in mind my work has not only provided a locative interface so my whereabouts can be tracked, but has customised an interface where multiple broadcasting windows are placed in communication with one another. This is not solely a locative media work like Vopos or a self documentation piece like Tetching Hsiehs but is an accumulation of both concepts, by using digital and social media however, has created a new kind of broadcasting platform. In Broadcasting my location online meant it became publicly available for people in other places as users followed The Body through Twitter or logged in to the project website itself. It became a real time communication at a distance which illustrated my desires to register the bodies activities and data as a live transmission and broadcast. I think this desire is partly narcissistic, partly to do with existence and is to comment on the state of the world around me, highlighting my place within it or reaffirming the existence of an outside reality full of conflicts, politics, and life.

Diary of a Body 2012 , Embedded Twitter Feed (Widget).

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Issues of Surveillance / Data Mining


Surveillance technology from the position of a civilian, or myself as an artist under its gaze is interesting because of its potential as a type of tool that offers specific qualities, in this case simply as a visualisation which demonstrates and intuitively shows and records your day. This notion of surveillance creates a locative framework which demonstrates the possibility of the body existing in a particular place. The sense of being observed is becoming a widely common state of mind whereby the subject has the potential to become dissolved in the ubiquitous surveillance which interrogates the status of the public and private opposition. In 1993 Pat Naldi and Wendy Kirkups project SEARCH used the closed circuit TV network installed by Northumbria Police in the streets of Newcastle upon Tyne to broadcast their performances in front of those cameras to audiences of millions on Tyne Tees television. This footage was then transmitted unannounced during the commercial breaks on Tyne Tees television between 21st June and 4th July 1993. Pat Naldi has said about the work that: SEARCH was a project that highlighted the capabilities of the new CCTV systems and their impact on our personal freedom (Naldi Website). In my work, by attaching an electronic tagging device to my ankle sparked issues of surrendering my body to control, yes, but we must consider that this notion of surveillance can be achieved now, though less invasive, through mobile interfaces, social networking sites and Facebooks application Check-In whereby users regularly display their location online which 26% of the UK do every hour. (Farman:2012:68). It can be said that the bodys experience of social space formulated by GPS is an accurate portrait, a fundamental print of reality and certainly this notion of a physical proof of existence. In agreement with artist Nam June Paik,technology has become the bodys new membrane of existence (Kaganskiy:2011). What becomes of more interest is the reaction to this form of mediation and how people comprehend new forms of mediation when it is a part of their daily life. These issues of surveillance through mobile devices for example, highlight how the connections of using mobile technology and online platforms such as Twitter force us to re-examine the nature and status of proximity and intimacy (Farman:2012:58). Surveillance today has moved on since the project SEARCH in 1993 to a surveillance which records and logs information online, everything we look at, everything we buy, and groups these together to form an idea of what we do, what we like and what we look at. In order to expand on this further, I recently discovered artist Heath Buntings research work The Status Project & The Netopticon. This project raises issues regarding surveillance and the ownership of our bodies, which can be linked back to ideas of cyborg and identity. The Status Project and ideas of the Netopticon is a study of the construction of our official identities and creates what Bunting describes as an expert system for identity mutation. His research explores how information supplied by the public in their interaction with organisations and institutions are logged on an international level, producing maps of influence and personal portraits for both comprehension and social mobility.
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The project draws on his direct encounters with specific database collection processes and the information he was obliged to supply in his life as a public citizen in order to access specific services which includes data collected from the Internet and information found on government databases. This data is then used to map and illustrate how we behave, relate, choose things, travel and move around in social spaces (Garrett:2012).

- Has the concept of surveillance then in terms of data-mining changed? - Issues of visibility in surveillance contexts.
Buntings work is well placed as observation and practical research into the depths of legal and illegal infringements on privacy or restriction of individual freedom. The Status Project & The Netopticon draws on Buntings direct encounters with specific database collections processes and the information he was obliged to supply in his life as a public citizen. The data is then, as just mentioned, used to map and illustrate how we behave in social spaces (Garrett:2012) What is interesting with regard to diary of a body is how the use of data in contemporary life has made individuals an accessible resource to commercial and political interests. True to say, we are a rich source of data mining material with even social networking sites such as Twitter and Facebook and institutions such as Google obsessed with our online behaviour. This data was something I was very interested in with regard to communicating the existence of a body, in time, as a live transmission and the communication of the mundane daily actions and activities of everyday life. The Status Project also taps into questions concerning technology, hierarchy and power. We are entwined in a complex game where the sacrifice of our information is part of the deal of being connected with others across digital networks. This opens up the issue of our human status being aligned to and as objects, of measurement. Bunting discusses this through our cars, passports, ID cards, library cards, mobile phones, alongside information about our health. We have mutated into networked (information carrying) beings. Buntings own position on this matter is that technology is becoming more advanced and the administration of this technology is becoming more sophisticated (Bunting Website). This new aspect of surveillance involves programmatic algorithms that discover previously unnoticed relationships within data. Jim Giles in article Mind-reader: Facebook of Revelations speaks of these algorithms which can glean a surprising amount of detail about your life and personal data. Facebook can map humans via their relationships even those who choose not to reveal their physical addresses, and how its possible to infer the general location of the majority of users based on the few who do. (Giles:2012). Here assembling information about a particular individual generates a profile, a picture of our online and offline patterns and behaviours. This can link back to my exploration of avatars and digital identity, describing a human identity which is caught between the idea that the self is becoming other than itself, and the image of that self which is being mediated by the very technology that determines it. Here what we are addressing is this online identity which is not consented. By this I mean, we are in control of our creations of avatars or identities such as The Body but are unaware of our identities which are built around our online behavioural patterns. 33

This isnt just about surveillance cameras now, but chips implanted into credit cards, emails locations and what we buy online, everything we do is electronically stored. With regard to surveillance on the Internet, a skilled analyst can discover facts about a person that they might not even be consciously aware of themselves through social network analysis alone. Google tracks users (known as user generated content) across all of these sites, and gather information about personal web surfing habits, keeping track of which sites are visited. This information, along with the information from email accounts, and search engine histories, is stored by Google to use for building a profile of the user to deliver better-targeted advertising (Lovink:2011:38-50). Here we can further address Buntings use of the word Netopticon which can be derived from English philosopher and social theorist Jeremy Bentham who in the late Eighteenth Century designed the Panopticon. The Panopticon allowed officers in institutions, particularly in prisons, to observe (-opticon) all (pan-) inmates without them knowing whether or not they are being watched. In the end it was not built, but the French philosopher Michel Foucaults 1975 publication Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison said that we are not only monitored in prisons, but in all hierarchical structures like the army, schools, hospitals and factories (Foucault:1975:195-228). Now in 2012, we are not only monitored in these areas, but are under scrutiny with regard to the way we act, who we talk to, who we email, what we look at and what we buy within the online sphere.

A photographic representation of a Panopticon Prison.

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This process has evolved through history to resemble Benthams Panopticon. In terms of surveillance and questioning if this concept of surveillance has changed in terms of data-mining we can now think of the up-dated version of Panopticon, as the Netopticon - where individuals are complicit in feeding their own forms of collective co-surveillance, as well as being traced by corporations, governments and spammers (electronic messaging systems). This poses questions about voyeurism through the net, and what challenges are posed by archival bodies on the Internet like The Bodys? In response to this, through my engagement and reading of Geert Lovinks key text Networks Without a Cause he speaks of Microblogging as the pacemaker of the realtime internet. He states; we can also look at it from the reverse perspective of social media urging the user to cough up as much as possible. Twitter first asked, What are you doing? Whats on your mind? Whats happening here? If the machine is not reading your thoughts, you are kindly requested to insert and share them. Of course our profiles remain cold and incomplete if we do not expose, at least, aspects of our private lives (Lovink:2011:12). Lovink critically provides the statement to live a tweet-less life is constructed as not living (Lovink:2011:44)

Heath Buntings concept of what we now call Netopticon. Surveillance on the Internet.

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Surveillance artist Hasan Elahi, fully exposes himself in his work, his daily life, his whereabouts through GPS tracking along with images of every location he visits. In similarity to diary of a body the bodys activities becomes a deluge of data which, to him is meaningless due to its sheer volume. He believes: the reason information has value is because no one else has access to it, the secrecy is what makes it valuable (Farman:2012:70) So does tweeting every hour on the hour mean the data then becomes useless? meaningless? This inevitably prompted the decision that The Body will tweet every hour on the hour to provide hourly information, image, sound and text about its whereabouts and activity in order to provide commentary on societies over usage of such social media platforms. In order to sum up, publicly sharing the information of my constant GPS tracked location did indeed make a larger statement about the limits of privacy in our everdeveloping world of technology and how our information can be readily compiled by anyone that tries hard enough to get a hold of it. In the context of this work the tracking done can be viewed as a commentary of the inherent lack of privacy caused by the technology we choose to use in our daily lives. In considering this; does this mean by wearing an electronic tagging device the work not only speaks of a simple declaration of being alive, but also the surrendering of my body to control? This production of making my bodily monitoring public means that I am stating where I am and what I do, making clear how the body operates. It must be said that through reading and acquiring knowledge, conceptual understanding and managing certain ambiguities within these specific fields of discourse I can now discuss my critical awareness and creativity in the decisions I made through the technical side of producing my online broadcasting website. Here I will discuss developing ideas, audience, observations, speculation, analysis, synthesis, and self reflection.

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Technical Side - Creating Online Site Artists who create net.art and Online Artworks
In the initial process of making the broadcasting platform, Post Bar Lane Exhibition, my first step was to place the work now here into an online context. To do this I needed to gain knowledge in the logistics of embedding the Processing applet (digit screen, below left) and the mapping panel (below right) into a website interface. I used my own personal website [www.clare-nattress.com] as a test site for all experimentation and a place to formalise specific javascript coding that I was exploring and receiving help with. The digits below are the milliseconds since my birth, they are live to the millisecond from the date and time that I was born in 1988, and the mapping panel was the previous interface used before the current interface in diary of a body.

The Processing animation of my running digits were exported, the applet file was then compressed as a zip file, that zip file was converted into an iframe through an iframe generator. That iframe coding was then copied and pasted into the test page to see it embedded into the page when viewed. The mapping panel for my electronic tag was also converted into an iframe and embedded into my test site.

After becoming confident that the data used within the work now here could successfully function inside of a website interface (as the starting point in the building of the platform) I began to make decisions about the works curation and how the platform could lend to the user feeling like they are a part of a live broadcast. What was interesting about the curation of the last work within a gallery context was this concept of dual screens which suggested equivalence between the data that documented my being in real time. During this period of researching online net.art sites I began to manage areas of similarities and links between the theoretical and practical activity. Looking at online net. art sites and artists whom have created work solely to exist in the context of the Internet became a methodological approach and a crucial strategy in my research in order to look to, experience and engage with other models of online artworks.
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Milliseconds now in a Website Page.

Mapping Panel now in a Website Page June 2012.

Artist Olia Lialinas one of many online net.art websites titled Still There 2012 accessed at [http://myboyfriendcamebackfromth.ewar.ru/] leads the viewer through a narrative which begins with a single browser screen. This screen then multiplies into more and more frames as the user is led to deliberately select links. It was at this time that key texts such as Re-thinking Curating: Art after New Media and The Language of New Media particularly the chapter Spatial Montage became of interest when thinking about the works accessibility and readability online. Here Lev Manovich discusses the definition of spatial montage as; two images at once, positioned side by side. This can be thought of as a simplest case of a spatial montage. Spatial montage would involve a number of images, of possible different sizes and proportions, appearing on the screen at the same time (Manovich:2001:269).
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This concept of spatial montage then seems to be the term to describe the consideration of two or more screens together. The structure of this creative presentation leads the viewer through information, it functions as a logical progressive narrative, ultimately the content of the windows are framed separately but both can be viewed together simultaneously. What is useful to observe when looking at Lialinas site is its process into repetitive actions, into micro-narratives which when clicked link to more and more new visuals which often prompts questions and text. The construct of the desktop which presents the user with multiple icons are all simultaneously and continuously active (since they all can be clicked at any time) which follows the same logic of simultaneity that of being two events happening at the same time in at least one frame of reference.

Artist Lialinas online work Still There 2012. Page to the right was loaded when I clicked the windmill on the page to the left.

The variability and modularity of new media works implies that there usually are various possible presentation scenarios: artworks are often reconfigured for the specific space and presented in very different ways from venue to venue. However the changes in the curatorial role tend to become most obvious in online curation. Monica Rosss website accessed at [www.justfornow.net] is a series of unfolding pop-up navigational windows which when clicked, the links direct to further Pop-Up windows and in turn further clickable links. This can be recognised as a creative decision which would allow the user to move the windows around the desktop, continuing to function even if the Internet browser was closed. This could potentially increase the amount of time the user engaged with the work or conversely the opposite and annoy someone into not using it. In any case, this strategy of creativity had aesthetic appeal to me in the beginning of making the online broadcasting platform.
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Monica Ross Website www.justfornow.net is Pop-Up Windows Navigating you through the Website Content. Here I have followed three links to open the folowing windows.

Testing Further Coding, Help from Web Developer.

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Testing specific Java-Script coding in order to make Pop-Ups Function Successfully.

- Implications and Problems Experienced with Pop-Ups


After two weeks of coding, sourcing, re-coding and testing I achieved a single Pop-Up of my millisecond digit window. This achievement however quickly became problematic to the nature of the project. From testing my developing webpage on varying machines it soon became apparent that most computers had an automatic Pop-Up blocker installed. Even if the Pop-Ups were overruled by the user, the millisecond digits became an issue because they needed to have an updated Java software install. In simple terms, the software that the digit screen used to function would need to be preinstalled on the users system. With similar issues, my mapping panel linked to my electronic tagging device needed software Microsoft Silverlight installed followed by the device username and password keyed in to access the live map of my location. This obviously became hugely problematic to the nature of the project and the accessibility of it for a user. It was here that I needed to erase these problems and issues so I decided to contact a web developer for advice. Previously, I believed the Pop-Up screens would be less likely to interfere with whatever else is happening on the users desktops and could potentially increase the amount of time viewing the work. It was due to these limitations that I looked to further online artworks and models of online creative strategies, not only for inspiration but to access such sites as a user myself with hope to garner knowledge and a clearer view of what it is that I am trying to achieve. 41

My Millisecond Digit Pop-Up Window Working Successfully Within Dreamweaver

Mapping Panel Login Screen which needed Device ID and Password to Access Live Tracking

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- Solving Inaccessibility Issues (Late June Early July)


From this research, I decided on this basis that the platform needed to be redesigned due to logistical issues of using these types of software. Working with online technologies has proved that the work tends to become problematic and solving inaccessibility issues is paramount due to the nature of the Internet being a twenty-four hour access point. Here I can reiterate my initial aim of the project which was: How can the body be broadcasted live through an online platform (accessible on all devices) for a durational period of time allowing the viewer to engage with interfaces, commentary, image, sound and location of everyday actions, social interactions, conversations and locations? It is here that I can state the platform needed to be accessible, readable and connectable through all devices such as mobile phones, IPads and other various networked devices. This was not going to be successful if I used Pop-Ups due to their inaccessible nature, by this I mean the inability to work on most devices without Pop-Up blockers or, windows prompting users on arrival if they wanted to allow the Pop-Ups. Following this, I decided to re-design the site looking to the model of Layla Curtis online work found during my research, titled Polar Wandering (2005). This design model was simple, easy to navigate and had brief elements of interactivity. The site consisted of a first page explaining the work followed by a clicked page which loaded the work itself. Through the curatorial and creative strategies Curtis considered, the site became easy to navigate and accessible for a viewer to feel a part of a live event. It was at this point that the tagging company and a web developer were also able to change the tagging device so it was linked up to Instamapper maps instead of through Microsoft Silverlight software. Instamapper is a widely usable software displaying a Google mapping interface, like previously in work now here, and tagging which is 100% accurate with my location. Additionally, the black and white applet screen of the millisecond digits have been removed and reworked so they process within the browser. This means that the browser functions the digits and as this takes a couple of milliseconds to function the counter now must be in seconds. This is designed to render on all platforms with 100% accuracy with no Plug-Ins or downloads required for the user. A defining characteristic of online art is that it can be seen anywhere by anyone with an Internet connected device. With extensive writing within the field of New Media Art; Graham & Cook elucidate further on issues of spectatorship inherent when viewing online artwork. They state; even though cyberspace is a vast all access gallery, the artworks that are hung there are usually experienced by an alone viewer sitting in front of a single monitor(Graham&Cook:2011:69-86).

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Above, Layla Curtis First Page Explaining Project. Relevant Information, funders, email newsletters sign up etc. Below diary of a body Project information page.

In light of Graham and Cook, what became a major concern was that the project needed to be fully accessible on all devices such as Phones, IPhones, Blackberrys etc, IPads and all laptops and computers. This was paramount to the context of the work being on a global platform. This ultimately led to questioning; Will having this work so accessible change my behaviour during the performance?
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Image of diary of a body loading on Iphone.

Working Designs for Both Pages of What Will be the Platform Interface

It was only through the development of the platform that I became aware of the limitations but also the possibilities of what could be achieved during the live broadcast. Here questions such as; What will I be doing in real-time? Are people going to want to listen to what I am listening to? Are they going to be able to speak to me? were considered. With this initial idea of live streaming in mind I looked at and tested a range of Apps which could do this. IPadio was the closest software to provide live streaming, however, the streaming time took approximately five-ten minutes ultimately reducing the liveness of the recording, not to mention that the Ipadio App does in fact use Flash player which unfortunately also prompted the viewer to install recent updates on their computer in order to listen to the recorded broadcast. Ultimately, in my performance this was achieved through Soundcloud which was downloaded as an App on my Iphone. This App has the ability to be linked to Twitter and any sounds recorded had the capability to be immediately uploaded.
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Testing of IPadio live streaming software which was embedded into website but took 5-10 minutes.

Two Screenshots of two recorded sounds through Soundcloud linked to The Bodys Twitter page and attached into Tweets.

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Drawing Together Theoretical and Practical Experience of Online Context whilst Creating the Broadcasting Interface

- Theorising the Interface

Throughout my investigation of building a broadcasting interface, It can be said that I have used the notion of interface very broadly. What exactly is an interface? When I have used this term throughout the document so far, it has in my mind been with regard to ideas of a medium through which we connect to data, in this respect, The Bodys data. It is through my developing reading that I feel this term needs refinement. It is here that I can address and agree with Johanna Druckers idea that the interface is the mediating environment that makes the experience, a critical zone that constitutes a user-experience (Farman:2012:62). We then can think of the interface as a fixed structure, in this case that supports performance activities. These critical zones of user experience that Drucker discusses have been further questioned by Alexander Galloway whom elucidates that metaphorical definitions of the interface are so prevalent today that they are often taken to be closely associated with media themselves (Haltiwanger:2010) Here Galloway questions; what would it mean if both media and interface are the two names for the same thing. In reference to Galloway, Farman elaborates with an interesting question: Do interfaces lead us to connections with each other or do they simply recycle the process of connection as we repeatedly connect with other forms of media? With regard to creating and building the interface of diary of a body, I began to consider that the medium and its content are inseparable from one another, contact with a medium is contact with content. Like previously mentioned through the making of the work the performance and the online interface both exist in communication with each other and would be invalid without both elements deeply embedded in the work of art itself. Here the production, dissemination and consumption is all happening within the online realm. The process of this developing interface appointed both Google Maps and Twitter as two conjoining global platforms that undoubtedly hold readability within the online sphere. The user has the ability to interact with the interfaces that have become a part of our cognitive unconscious (Farman:2012:63) In order to elaborate here, I will discuss my developing ideas with regard to the readability of the interface and further decisions made with regard to the tacit knowledge of online platforms.

How does new media work influence the process of communication?

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By incorporating interfaces such as Google Maps the online users can view the live broadcasting of my location as well as hourly Tweets updating data concerning my activities in these locations. Google Maps is a familiar existing interface which allows certain functionality, by this I mean clicking and moving the map, changing the viewpoint to terrain, hybrid or satellite views, zooming in and out, checking speed and heading data information. Despite the mapping panels functionality I have also become interested in such interfaces because of their aesthetic and intellectual possibilities. These types of software and interfaces that have been creatively implemented into the broadcasting website were key in previous exhibition now here and are still key in a communicative exchange between the work and the viewer. In order to explain this further, Henk Slager explains in text Is the Medium the Message; At the moment, I am trying to develop the concept of information culture simply starting from the way we interact and the interfaces we use. As several theorists and curators have noted, such forms of interaction, social exchange, participation, and transformation serve as this common ground which becomes implicit in how the artwork communicates what it communicates (Slager:2010). This is now the opportunity to discuss what common ground is and how it becomes implicit in the artwork communicating what it communicates. In order to do this Linguistic Herbert Clark discusses these ideas further in his 1996 text Using Language; Everything we do is rooted in information we have about our surroundings, activities, perceptions, emotions, plans, and interests. Everything we do jointly with others is also rooted in this information, but only in that part we think they share with us. Common ground is important to any account of language use that appeals to context. Most accounts dont say what context is, but rely on our intuitions about the circumstances of each utterance (Clark:1996:92). Even though Clarks research is heavily rooted in language we can still use this to question the use of these interfaces with regard to how they may in fact influence the process of visual communication. What I mean by this is, a kind of joint action occurs between the artist and the users acting in coordination with one another. The online broadcasting platform created communicates the broadcasting of the bodys location, its existence, its relationship to new forms of online communication through the form of Twitter, inevitably through the website but also through social media and its networked followers. Users within the online realm then, have a feel for the interfaces in front of them, they have a cognitive unconscious about how to use them or what they can do. So how does this relate to knowledge? It is here we can address Michael Polanyi and his key text The Tacit Dimension, Polanyi termed this pre-logical phase of knowing that I am talking about as tacit knowledge. He states that we know a persons face, and can recognise it among a thousand, indeed among a million. Yet we usually cannot tell how we recognise a face we know. So most of this knowledge cannot be put into words (Polanyi:1967:4).
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With this idea of tacit knowing in mind and with reference to Clark, what if we consider this tacit knowing of faces to be the same as the tacit knowing of interfaces such as Google Maps and social media sites like Twitter, which we immediately recognise but maybe cannot find the language to tell how we recognise them. Working within this mediation of data and this connectivity of the body through such technologies presents a possibility to connect to these interfaces with a kind of pre-installed language. If this idea indeed holds some truth then it could be suggested that the user is familiar (holds common ground) to contemplate the discourses and materiality that I am thinking about, for instance the body, liveness, surveillance and the use of technology to achieve bodily data. As technology, specifically the technology I am using, within this work is so pervasive in contemporary life, highlights whether digital media is a tool for an artist to use or a sociocultural prism through which we actually live. Through Claire Bishops text Digital Divide, I can consider that in the making of this work the digital media has been both a tool and a sociocultural prism in the technology to which we are glued (Bishop:2012) Bishop understands that digital technology forms a seedbed for art as well as life, but fails to uncover the artists who are already critiquing that context. This idea of tool or condition can be further linked to Bishops enquiry. How many people confront the question of what it means to think, see, and filter affect through the digital? How many thematize this, or reflect deeply on how we experience, and are altered by, the digitisation of our existence? I believe in the past three months of my process of working from the now here exhibition to the production of the work diary of a body I have began to contemplate and address these issues and question how we can or should experience the digitalisation of our existence within digital media and the online realm.

Google Homepage, recognisable interface for internet users.

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New Knowledge - Interface, Audience, Tacit, Value, Economy, Discourse.


What kind of knowledge has my artistic research produced? During my research I have importantly refined the terminology of interface through my developing reading which can now be referred to the mediating environment that makes the experience, a critical zone that constitutes a user-experience (Farman:2012:62). This knowledge allowed me to think of the interface as a fixed structure, as a function of the works existence. Interfaces such as Google Maps and Twitter one could say, are pre-existing structures within the online realm. Using such existing structures within an artistic context have been questioned by theorists such as Guy Debord. In his article Report on the Construction of Situations and on the International Situationist Tendencys Conditions of Organization, Debord elaborates; the only valid experimental proceeding is based on the accurate critique of existing conditions and the deliberate supersession of them. It must be understood once and for all that something that is only a personal expression within a framework created by others cannot be termed a creation. Creation is not the arrangement of objects and forms, it is the invention of new laws on such arrangement (Debord:1957). There is an important issue to raise within this statement and it is here that I can elaborate into how my research project contributes and challenges the wider context to which this body of knowledge is located. Firstly, if we consider Google, Twitter and even the World Wide Web as, in Debords case, pre existing structures then how can the use of these be termed a creation? What I have considered in the process of making the work and what my work begins to challenge is a critique of these existing conditions whereby the end creation becomes a deliberate supersession of the individual platforms alone. Here the created platform diary of a body then, takes place of something less appropriate. True to say, such individual components are not unique creations in terms of what I have produced, but when combined as a whole, the experience creates a unique procedure. Indeed, I have succeeded in amalgamating the platforms creatively and curatorially to be experienced as one interface whilst doing so creating fresh knowledge, discovering new things and developing new skills.

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Project Information Button added. The Body Twitter Widget added to site.

The artwork considers and challenges the types of online platforms which have been used by artists as well as the wider population, but also has questioned their cultural influence and authority. In terms of acquiring knowledge, I have learned new skills in creating the interface composition which invites equivalence between the data that documented The Body in real time. This ultimately allowed the potential to see the body in existence/digit format, an accurate pinpoint of location whilst also allowing the user to engage with commentary, image and sound during everyday actions and social interactions. This indeed targeted my initial aims in my Independent Project, acquiring a new knowledge base to discover the unknown within this short period of time. What we must consider is, unlike the first wave of net artists during the mid 1990s (the term described practitioners who were interested in the fundamental structures of the web, typically incorporating hacking culture and coding expertise) there is now little distinction between creating art on or off-line. What is now interesting is that the online realm is not the radical space it was in the 1990s but now it has a more complex relationship with the offline dimension.
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With regard to new contextual knowledge in this specific field of practice, artist Man Bartlett turns social media into playful social critique. Bartlett acts as a critical voice provoking his audience into rethinking how they engage with their favorite websites. The digital platform becomes a network of production as his projects are charted, developed and often displayed through the running record of his Twitter feed, like his work Occupy Man 2012, an ongoing project where Bartlett publicly tweets his financial exchanges. He is also a leading practitioner of what has come to be known as social media art. A genre which gathered some momentum in recent years with 2010 exhibition The Social Graph as well as countless articles and essays. Here Bartlett describes social media art as art that uses social media such as Twitter as a function of its existence, taking advantage of the possibilities of the online social space but also pushing its existing boundaries. With regard to diary of a body this project has not only been about pursuing knowledge for the passion of acquiring knowledge but how my research project contributes and challenges this developing field of new and online media practice. It is here that I can state that the work has more actively challenged the online platforms, like Bartlett, that we have come to rely so heavily on. These new procedures inevitably target new audiences, Twitter for example has been my main target audience for this work. Users who accessed the site (with Twitter accounts) followed The Body through that interface. This allowed them to access the archive of tweets over the five day performance. Not only this, the broadcasting platform was widely advertised and also featured in a local magazine in York accessed at [http://www.oneandother.com/articles/conceptual-art-goes-digital/] enabling the site to be viewed by members of the wider public. What I can consider here is that I have never produced a work before for an online audience but can now consider that online users are an essential tool of knowledge economy.

Man Bartlett Occupy Man 2012 Twitter Digital Performance - Ongoing

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By this I mean, Bartletts many online projects question the self-defined, self-contained economy of the art market. The project simultaneously dissolves the need for physical space as it runs without needing a gallery space yet succeeds to occupy the public sphere. Here we can suggest that the value in the work diary of a body is not in a monetary sense but the value is in the necessity of knowledge exchange. This value is acquired in the sharing of knowledge communicated in the works production, dissemination and consumption allowing users to contemplate the discourses that I am thinking about. What is also important with value in mind is how a web-based project is often an economically sustainable solution, a useful skill to garner knowledge working in forms that are reproducible in financially strenuous times. In agreement with Ric Allsopp; If we believe that artwork has a cultural function other than participating in the general proliferation of commodity values, then the question of how artwork is disseminated and distributed and of the economies that it moves within would seem to be a necessary and timely focus for research (Allsopp:2006). The work not only brings an online audience to the table but how this connectivity of the body through such technologies presents a possibility to connect to these interfaces with a kind of pre-installed language. To reiterate Polanyi identification with tacit knowledge, that we know a persons face, and can recognise it among a thousand, indeed among a million. Yet we usually cannot tell how we recognise a face we know. So most of this knowledge cannot be put into words (Polanyi:1967:4). Here the user is familiar, they hold common ground to contemplate the discourses and materiality that I am thinking about particularly for the exchange and sharing of this tacit and technical knowledge. Also, toward the end of my time in academia I have become aware of further readings and further research. The term Cyberformance for example, as I currently understand in my preliminary reading, refers to live theatrical performances in which remote participants are enabled to work together in real time through the medium of the Internet, employing technologies such as chat applications and social media. Cyberformace is also known as online performance or networked performance, like diaryofabody.co.uk, and is commonly employed by such online users like myself to designate a specific type of performance art activity which takes place in a cyber-artistic environment. Here the Internet is often a subject and inspiration of the work as well as being the central enabling technology. What is interesting is Cyberformers often works with the dual identities afforded by avatars, exploiting the gap between online persona and offline self. Moreover, In the 2012 publication, Mobile Interface Theory Jason Farman discusses a new knowledge base in terms of how developing technologies are transforming our everyday lives. We communicate, we locate, we network and we play using our mobile devices. Farman goes into detail about how the adoption of such technologies are causing a reestablishment and re-structuring of what it means to live our everyday lives. It can be said that diary of a body contributes heavily towards this in terms of current knowledge as we can consider how this may produce a new sense of self among online spheres, and how these technologies can produce lived embodied spaces.
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In reflection, making upon action where this knowledge is generated has helped me acknowledge fundamental epistemologies in the making of work. By this I mean, all of my experiments, test days etc, did broaden my technical abilities, skills and understanding of digital performance and technology, giving me knowledge on how the performance could be produced. Making and doing things for this kind of information, knowledge or data which things or activities reveals has an emphasis on knowledge production. With regard to practice and knowledge Painter states: Practice-as-research acknowledges fundamental epistemological issues that can only be addressed in and through practice, that practice can be both a form of research and a legitimate way of making the findings of such research publicly available. (Painter:1996)

Post Test Day Alterations Made to allow knowledge exchange and Method of Self Publicity - Linking my Name to my Personal Website.

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A selection of The Bodys mentions on Twitter during the Performance.

It is here that I can consider my methodological strategy of having a test day of the performance. The knowledge garnered during this time was pivotal in order for me to re-access and re-structure the website interface information. After the test day I added more detail to the project information page on the platform and highlighted clare nattress as a link to my personal website from thinking about correspondence as a professional strategy and method of self publicity. Within the interactions on Twitter, one artist mentioned to another my previous works and my website link. This would have been unlikely unless I made this last minute decision upon reflection of the test period. Knowledge has been acquired not only through learning technical skills but also garnered through readings and practice concerning Interface, current 2012 artistic research practice, economy, value and discourse engagement throughout process.
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Conclusion
This document has articulated the form of a research-led-enquiry, which over the last three months has explored how the body can perform beyond the boundaries of its skin and beyond the local space that it occupies, presenting its physical presence online. Through making the work, diary of a body, I was able to experiment with the operation of the body and extend my experiences within the mediated realms of social and online media interfaces. In doing this I have successfully addressed the projects initial enquiries. Through an analysis of performance artist Stelarc and engagement with cyborg discourse, despite complexity, I have pinpointed issues and questions with regard to the making of diary of a body. I examined the ways in which this discourse offered ambiguity but also areas regarding technological prosthesis that became of interest. This led to distinguish how cyborg theory has become not only a physical extension of the self but an extension of the mental self. It became clear that my work did not engage with machine-like, cloned fantasies about hybrid, and certainly did not claim that GPS technology attached to the body expanded or enhanced its capabilities. Moreover, despite Stelarcs engagement with human-machine interfaces he became a useful resource with regard to the notion of disassociation and the creation of my digital identity called The Body. In reflection of my own experience, I recognised an idea that was not anymore about the progressive and optimized body, but became more about a coded, net based and communicative body. What became interesting was the ways in which we interact with our environment, especially through interfaces such as the Internet and how we receive and process information and use it to inform ourselves in space. Throughout contextual enquiry of key artists, On Kawara, Pete Horobin and Tetching Hsieh, despite their work being within a non-digital framework, I have been able to map and interrelate the comparisons between their work and my own due to their monotonous daily documentation of everyday life. Through this critical awareness I considered key texts and questioned our connection to the technological revolution we are undergoing and how this has indeed shaped the condition that determines artistic decisions to work with such media. Here we can reiterate my consideration of tool or sociocultural prism of digital technology and how it forms a seedbed for art as well as life. Here the work played upon the narcissistic qualities of the interactive web and social networking sites such as Twitter enabling a critique of that context. I further analysed artists and exhibitions with regard to digital broadcasting, surveillance and online surveillance works. This led to current artistic research into data-mining and issues of visibility in surveillance contexts, it was here the comparison was made between Benthams Panopticon and Heath Buntings online Netopticon. These issues of voyeurism through the net ultimately questioned if I was surrendering my body to control? True to say, my creation went to further lengths to surrender information and data. What I can state is that despite having these GPS software available on mobile phones now, the electronic ankle tag was much more of a fixed attachment which commented on these issues with more impact. 56

My other research problems and aims were addressed through my technical enquiry. Here accessibility of the broadcasting platform and curatorial strategies were vital. PopUp windows were problematic due to their inaccessibility on this globally accessible platform. User engagement was considered through the use of interfaces which provided an exchange of knowledge in tactic form. The website was also functional on all internet enabled devices which was important due to the nature of spectatorship in this context and how the alone user engaged with the work sitting in front of a single monitor or portable device screen. diary of a body was successful in terms of creating a broadcasting platform which used recognisable interfaces, Google Maps and Twitter. The work could not have been achieved solely through these interfaces alone, but through the amalgamation of all did this work become a supersession of the individual platforms and replaced something less appropriate with a unique creation. What was also important in the work was how each tweet The Body sent began with the live bodys existence digits. I think this was crucial in allowing the user to form a relationship between each piece of data on the interface. This leads me to discuss the individual elements of the interface. The visual counting seconds alongside the static map and the hourly tweets were all functioning at various times. The digits were updating every second, the map was static unless refreshed regularly and the written commentary was tweeted every hour on the hour. This obvious visual distinction between static and continuous is something which could be developed in future with regard to how often the data would become available. With this in mind I can also consider the mapping panel. Unfortunately due to legality of the software the mapping panel was not live unless frequently refreshed. The panel in work now here however enabled a live transmission that refreshed itself when my location changed. This being said, I had more issues with the previous panel due to its limitations and inaccessibility of the software downloads required and device password log in screens which needed to be entered by the user. With this in mind, the restrictions of the mapping panel software is an element which I can clarify as undeveloped. What could be developed further in the work is this question of participation and interactivity. This was something I previously considered but felt I had my hands full at this point in my enquiry. The work had the potential to invite participation, especially due to the nature of social media which supports interactive dialogue, but also the handful of responses and followers The Body received throughout the performance duration. Lastly, post performance, I have come to acknowledge that the work realised a process rather than a product which generated an immaterial archive of bodily data. This meticulous self-documentation was different on social media and the online interfaces because it created less physical data in immaterial form. Also, the unfolding process focused upon the nature of time when it is stripped of the activities that often occupy it. The performance made me extremely self aware of how I move around in social space and my social interactions but also in key life elements such as time, space, endurance and intimacy in active engagement.
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In terms of my current interests and what I wish to develop further is this notion of avatar, digital identity, broadcasting and the digitalisation of existence. I want to continue to use the brief knowledge I have acquired in technical ability to create further online net.art and develop my online presence. Through the short period of making diary of a body and with all these questions and realisations in mind I have been able to consider my work as an original application of knowledge conquering the pragmatic issues of sustaining practice.

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Bibliography
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Kellner, D. (1994) Baudrillard - A Critical Reader. Massachusetts: Basil Blackwell Ltd.

Krysa, J. (2006) Curating Immateriality: The Work of the Curator in the Age of Networked Systems. Brooklyn: Autonomedia. Kuppers, P. (2007) The Scar of Visibility: Medical Performances and Contemporary Art. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Lovink. G. (2011) Networks Without a Cause: A Critique of Social Media. Cambridge: Polity Press. Manovich, L (2002) The Language of New Media. England: MIT Press. Marsh, A. (1993) Body and Self:Performance Art In Australia. Melbourne: Oxford University Press. Mcgrath, M. (2006) Java-Scipt in Easy Steps. United Kingdom: Computer Step. Merleau-Ponty, M. (2002) Phenomenology of Perception. New York: Routledge. Murphie, A & Potts, J (2003) Culture and Technology. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Page, R. (2012) Stories and Social Media- Identities and Interaction. New York: Routledge. Poster, M. (2001) Whats the Matter with the Internet. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Sawyer. A & Seed. D. (2000) Speaking Science Fiction. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press. Scoble, R. (2008) Twitter Revolution - How Social Media and Mobile Marketing is Changing the Way We Do Business and Market Online. Las Vegas: Xeno Press. Toffoletti, K. (2007) Cyborgs and Barbie Dolls, Feminism, Popular Culture and the PostHuman Body. London: I.B Tauris & Co. Ltd. Zylinska, J. (2002) The Cyborg Experiments - The Extensions of the Body in the Media Age. London: MPG Books Ltd.

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Journals and Online Articles


Adams, C., Cole, T., DePaolo, C. and Edwards, S. (2001) Bringing the Curatorial Process to the Web. In Museums and the Web, [online] Available at: http://www.archimuse.com/ mw2001/papers/depaol o/depaola.html, (Accessed 1st April 2012). Bishop, C. (2012) Digital Devide [online] Available at: [http://artforum.com/inprint/ issue=201207&id=31944] (Accessed 12th August 2012). Boyd, D. and Ellison, N. (2007) Social network sites: Definition, history, and scholarship. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 13(1), article 11, http://jcmc.indiana.edu/ vol13/issue1/boyd.ellison.ht ml, (Accessed 1st April 2012). Brier, J. (2012) The Whole Earth on a Page: Jessica Brier on Stewart Brands Whole Earth Catalogue [online] Available at: [http://blog.sfmoma.org/2012/07/brier-brand/] (Accessed 19th July 2012). Chandler, D. (1996) Shaping and being shaped: engaging with media. ComputerMediated Communication Magazine (February) [online] Available at: http://www.december. com/cmc/mag/1996/feb/chandler.html. (Accessed 13th September 2012). Chorost, M. (2005) Rebuilt: How Becoming Part Computer Made me More Human. [online] Available at: http://www.politics-prose.com/cyborg-theory-and-practice (Accessed 13th July 2012). Demeza, T. (2007) The Cyborgs of Today [online] Available at: [http://nevadasagebrush. com/blog/2007/12/11/the-cyborgs-of-today/] (Accessed 12th July 2012) Gaskins, N. (2009) Performative Interventions: The progression of 4D art in a Virtual 3D world. [online] Available at: http://blog.art21.org/2009/12/31/ (Accessed 13th September 2012). Giles (2012) How the Internet can read your mind - Mindreader Facebook of revelations. [online] Available at: http://www.newscientist.com/blogs/nstv/2012/04/how-the-internet-canread-your-mind.html, (Accessed 20th April 2012). Kaganskiy, J. (2011) Original Creators: Nam June Paik. [online] Available at: [http://www. thecreatorsproject.com/blog/original-creators-nam-june-paik] (Accessed 20th August 2012). Kalem (2010) Becoming through Performance An analysis of the body in Stelarcs performances. [online] Available at: http://www.bodig.org/texts/stelarc.pdf (Accessed 3rd March 2012). Lovink, G (2010). Interview with Jill Magid; [online] Available at: http://www. networkcultures.org (Accessed 2nd August 2012).

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Magid, J. (1995) Monitoring Desire (MIT Thesis Paper 1995. [online] Available at: http:// www.jill-magid.net (Accessed 10th August 2012) Miss M. [S.a.]. An Interview with Stelarc. [Online]. Available at: http://t0.or.at/stelarc/ interview01.htm (Accessed 15th July 2012). Sheffield, C. (2000) Borderlands of Science. Are you a Cyborg? [online] Available at: http:// www.fenrir.com/free_stuff/columns/science/sci-006.htm (Accessed 15th August 2012). Slager, H (2010) Is the Medium the Message. [online] Available at: http://www.mahku.nl/ research/mahkuzine1.html, (Accessed 5th April 2012).

net.art sites, Exhibition sites and Artists Websites Accessed.


Blast Theory - [http://www.blasttheory.co.uk/bt/work_cysmn.html http:// www.0100101110101101.org/blog/] Peter Hainings Website - [http://www.interface.ulster.ac.uk/arkivecity/peter_haining. html] Monica Ross Website - [http://www.justfornow2007.net] Olia Lialinas net.art site- [http://myboyfriendcamebackfromth.ewar.ru/] Layla Curtis - [http://www.laylacurtis.com/work/display/5-mixed_media] Stelarc Website - [http://stelarc.org/_.swf] Pat Naldis Website - [http://patnaldi.co.uk] On Kawaras Time Machine online artwork- [http://caesura.cc/gallery/on-kawara-timemachine/]. Being Social Exhibition - [http://www.furtherfield.org/programmes/exhibition/beingsocial] Broadcast Yourselfs Exhibition - [http://www.crumbweb.org/newsDetail. php?sublink=1&id=21] Amber Case TED TALK 2010 - [http://www.ted.com/talks/amber_case_we_are_all_ cyborgs_now.html] Yorks One& Other Magazine Article on diary of a body - [http://www.oneandother.com/ articles/conceptual-art-goes-digital/]
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Appendices of Various Screenshots During the Performance

Cyberspace gives a person the opportunity to try out behaviours and methods of self expression in new situations with new people.

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Here we can see various locations that The Body was located during the performance. The Body used various modes of transport, which altered the speed, altitude and coordinates on the mapping panel screen. Even though the mapping panel was static, if updated every few seconds the tracker would move in response to my updated location and would be instantly accurate with up to 60ft.

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After the performance dates, I logged into my Instamapper account and retrieved the archived location data from the website. You have the ability to click on certain days and information and locations of that day can be viewed. Unfortunately this could not be achieved on the project mapping panel due Instamappers legal requests.

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