# ト ポロジー II

[講義録]

2010 年版

An Introduction to Algebraic Topology

Simplicial Homology

— A Short Course

Katsuro Sakai

Institute of Mathematics University of Tsukuba

代数的トポロジー入門

単体ホモロジー 短期課程

筑波大学・数学系

酒井 郎 克

Preface

In Algebraic Topology, topological properties of topological spaces and continuous maps are studied by using algebraic methods (e.g., groups, homomorphisms, etc.). Homology Theory and Homotopy Theory are typical and classical. There are several Homology Theories. Among them, Simplicial Homology is most elementary and geometrical. As an introduction to Algebraic Topology, this course is provided. Our purpose is knowing how to associate Topology (spaces) with Algebra (groups) by learning the process of deﬁning the homology, and how to use Algebra in Topology by applying the homology. The reader is required to familiar with basic language of sets and maps, elementary point-set topology of Euclidean spaces, linear algebra and elementary group theory. To prepare this notes, the author was inﬂuenced from the book “Topology” (Japanese) by Ichiro Tamura (Iwanami Shoten Publ., 1972). In particular, the author owes the use of Mayer-Vietoris’ sequence for the proof of the topological invariance of homology to Tamura’s book. The ﬁrst draft was written in 2001 based on the author’s lecture notes for Topology I, which he had lectured several times the class of Mathematics Majors in the University of Tsukuba. The author is indebted to his colleague Kazuhiro Kawamura and his student Masato Yaguchi for their helpful suggestions on the ﬁrst draft of the manuscript. This has been used as a text in the class of Topology I for Mathematics Majors in the University of Tsukuba, 2001, 2005, 2009. This has been revised and improved after the lectures. Tsukuba, March, 2010 Katsuro Sakai

c 2010, K. Sakai

Contents

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Convex Sets and Simplexes . . . . . . . . Simplicial Complexes and Polyhedra . . Simplicial Maps and Approximations . . Homology of an Oriented Complex . . . Homomorphisms and Simplicial Maps . . Mayer-Vietoris Exact Sequences and the Subdivision Operator . . . . . . . . . Topological Invariance of Homology . . . Homotopical Invariance of Homology and Homologies of Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . Relative Homology for Polyhedral Pairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 12 28 37 50

. . . . . . . . . . . . 57 . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

ii

so called simplexes. A polyhedron is constructed by small pieces. • I = [0.
Notations
We use the following notations: • N = 1. • R = (−∞. . — the set of integers. 2.Simplicial Homology
— A Short Course
In this course. we study Simplicial Homology. . As the most important fact. 1. — the set of natural numbers. ∞) — the non-negative half line. ±1. • R+ = [0. . — the set of non-negative integers. which reveals the geometrical structure of the space. . 2. ∞) — the real line. The homologies of several surfaces are also calculated. . . which is a sequence of additive groups associated with a topological space. The totality of assembled simplexes constructing a polyhedron is called a simplicial complex. and then we see how to deﬁne the homology group for a simplicial complex.
• Z+ = N ∪ {0} = 0. ±2. so called a polyhedron. it is shown that homeomorphic polyhedra have isomorphic homologies. These materials are ﬁrst studied. . .
非負整数全体
(実) 数直線
半数直線 単位閉区間
1
. . Some applications of homologies are given.
自然数全体 整数全体
• Z = 0. 1] — the unit closed interval.

x(i) = 1. y ∈ Rk . x(i) > 0 (1 ≤ i ≤ k)
k − 1 次元 標準開単体
— the standard open (k − 1)-simplex. . . x = ∀x. x = (x(1).• X n = X × · · · × X . .
R2 R3 e3 Δ2 e2 e1 e1
e2
Δ1
2
. tx = (tx(1). ∀t ∈ R. ∀x ∈ X n . ei ∈ Rk (i = 1. . . x(n)). . x(k) + y(k)) — sum. . ∀x ∈ Rk . . . . . x = 1 — the unit (k − 1)-sphere.
k i=1
k − 1 次元 標準単体
• Δk−1 = x ∈ Rk
def
x(i) = 1.
n times
x(i) ∈ X — the i-th coordinate of x.
k 次元 単位球 (体) k − 1 次元 単位球面
x ≤ 1 — the unit k-ball. . . tx(k)) — scalar product. x(i) ≥ 0 (1 ≤ i ≤ k)
• Sk−1 = ∂Bk = x ∈ Rk • Δk−1 = x ∈ Rk
def ◦ k i=1
— the standard (k − 1)-simplex. • Rk — the k-dimensional Euclidean space. . x + y = (x(1) + y(1). pri : X n → X (pri (x) = x(i)) — the projection. 0 if i = j. . k) deﬁned by ei (j) = • B k = x ∈ Rk
def def k i=1
i 座標
射影
k 次元 ユークリッド 空間
ノルム
x(i)2 — (Euclidean) norm. .
和 スカラー倍
1 if i = j.

A map (or a homeomorphism) f : (X. B).
def
直径
• dist(A. B) = inf{ x − y | x ∈ A. we say that (X. • X ≈ Y — X is homeomorphic to Y . y ∈ B}. whence f |A : A → B is also a map (or a homeomorphism). When there is a homeomorphism f : (X. spaces are considered as subspaces of Euclidean space Rk . — the distance between A and B
距離 空間の対 対の間の写像 同相写像
A pair of spaces means a pair (X. A) is homeomorphic to (Y. B) means a map (or a homeomorphism) f : X → Y with f (A) ⊂ B (or f (A) = B). bdX A = bd A — the boundary of A in X. A) ≈ (Y. B) from a pair (X. A) of spaces to another pair (Y.In this course. B) and denote (X. B). A) → (Y. • idX = id — the identity map of X. for beginners. • intX A = int A — the interior of A in X. A) → (Y. clX A = cl A — the closure of A in X.
空間の対の同相
3
. A) of a space X and its subspace A. y ∈ A}
def
同相 恒等写像 内部 境界 閉包
— the diameter of A. • diam A = sup{ x − y | x.

which is the smallest convex set containing A. we simply denote {x0 . 1. x1 . .4 Exercise – For A ⊂ Rk . tx + (1 − t)y ∈ C. . . A ⊂ C . Bk \ A is convex. ∀t ∈ [0. 1.3 Deﬁnition The convex hull A of A ⊂ Rk is deﬁned by A =
def
演習
凸包
C C : convex in Rk . . . x1 . y ∈ C. .1
Convex Sets and Simplexes
凸集合
1.
演習
1. x1 . . .1 Exercise – Show the above equivalence. 1]. . 1. 4
.
演習
1. . x1 . z ∈ Δn . . . hence n k.
i=0 i=0
ti = 0 ⇒ t0 = t1 = · · · = tn = 0. en ⊂ Rn .
線形 (１次) 独立 一般の位置
that is. xn ∈ C. For a ﬁnite set. It is said that A ⊂ Rk is in general position if any k + 1 points of A are aﬃnely independent. .2 Example Every linear subspace of Rk .3 Exercise – For A ⊂ Rk . . ∀z ∈ Δn . xn ∈ Rk are aﬃnely independent (or geometrically independent) if
n n
アフィン独立
ti xi = 0. . . . A ⊂ C . Note that Δn−1 = e1 .
1.
i=0
z(i + 1)xi ∈ C. xn . prove the following: A =
n i=0
演習
z(i + 1)xi n ∈ N. . x1 − x0 . For any A ⊂ Sk−1 = ∂Bk .1 Deﬁnition We call C ⊂ Rk a convex set if ∀x.2 Exercise – Show that if C ⊂ Rk is convex then cl C and int C are also convex. xi ∈ A. . 1. xn } = x0 . . xn − x0 are linearly independent. .4 Deﬁnition We say that x0 . Bk and Δk−1 are convex. This condition is equivalent to the following:
n
∀x0 . . . prove the following: cl A = C C: closed convex in Rk . .

v1 . v1 . . . . We denote σ (0) = {v0 . xn are aﬃnely independent. u1 . . . . v1 . vn } = {u0. . there exist k − n many vn+1 . . 1.5 Exercise – Prove that if v0 . . 0 < z(j2 + 1) ± ε < 1. . 1. . 1. v1 . . v0 = uj ) for all j = 0. we call z = (z(1). . 1. . . . .6 Deﬁnition When a point in an n-simplex σ = v0 . vn = u0 . .e. . z(n + 1)) ∈ Δn the i=0 barycentric coordinate of x with respect to v0 . we can assume that v0 = uj for any j = 0. . .
there are distinct j1 = j2 such that z(j1 + 1). prove that γ : Δn → σ deﬁned by γ(z) = n z(i + 1)vi is a homeomorphism. . then v0 . m. . the i=0 representation n z(i + 1)vi of a point in σ is unique. Let A = {x0 . σ = v0 . . .5 Deﬁnition We call σ ⊂ Rk an (n-dimensional) simplex or an nsimplex if there exist some aﬃnely independent v0 . . v1 . . . . .
5
. . In particular. vn }. Hence. . . . . . vk ∈ Rk such that v0 . . u1 . . v1 . . vn is represented as x = n z(i + 1)vi . vn ∈ Rk and u0 . A is in general position if and only if x0 . . vn = i=0 z(i + 1)vi z ∈ Δ where v0 . vn } = {u0 . . x1 . v1 . . z(j2 + 1) ∈ (0. um ∈ Rk are aﬃnely independent. . . z ∈ Δm . . . 1. i=0 1. . .Remark. u1 . . . . . . . without loss of generality. . . . . . Then. . .6 Exercise – In the above. . 1.. vk are aﬃnely independent. When we represent
m
演習
(n 次元) 単体 n 単体
頂点
(単体の) 次元
演習
重心座標
v0 =
j=0
z(j + 1)uj . Assume that {v0 . . . . vn are called vertices of σ and n = dim σ is the dimension of σ. . . v1 . . um }. v1 . v1 . . . . . Then. . 1) because z(j + 1) = 1 (i. . x1 . vn ∈ Rk such that n n . m. Choose ε > 0 so that 0 < z(j1 + 1) ± ε < 1. um ⇒ {v0 . . . . . vn . . . v1 . u1 . . . um }. . xn } ⊂ Rk and n k.7 Proposition If v0 . . vn ∈ Rk are aﬃnely independent and n < k. v1 . . for each simplex σ ⊂ Rk . . Proof. . . σ (0) and dim σ are uniquely determined.

z ∈ Δn . v1 . . 2 2
which implies 1 z (1) + 1 z (1) = 1 (cf. Proof. . . un ∈ Rk such that σ = u0. vn − v0 are linearly independent.6). x =
i=0
z (i + 1)vi . . whence u1 − u0 . u1 . If σ = v0 . . . v1 . . z (1) ∈ I. . z . let L=
n i=1 ti (vi
− v0 ) ti ∈ R . . . .and let x =
j=j1 . . v1 . . z(j + 1)uj + (z(j1 + 1) + ε)uj1 + (z(j2 + 1) − ε)uj2 . σ (0) = {v0 . v1 . x ∈ v0 . . . . . Note that σ − x ∈ L for each x ∈ σ. . .
It follows that 1 1 v0 = x + x = 2 2
n i=0
1 1 z (i + 1) + z (i + 1) vi . . . . Since z (1). . .
j=j1 . . . u1 . we have aﬃnely independent u0 . 1. . . .8 Proposition Let σ be an n-simplex in Rk . . vn are aﬃnely independent. . . Note that zj (1) = 1 − n zj (i + 1). . .j2
x =
Then. . n. we can write
n n
x =
i=0
z (i + 1)vi .j2
z(j + 1)uj + (z(j1 + 1) − ε)uj1 + (z(j2 + 1) + ε)uj2 . . which means x = x = v0 — a contradiction! Thus we have the result.
which is the linear subspace of Rk spanned by v1 − v0 . Exercise 1. vn − v0 . . To see that v1 − v0 . vn . Exercise 1. un . vj = n zj (i + 1)ui for some zj ∈ Δn . . then v0 . . i=0 i=1
6
. Consequently. . For each j = 0. . Since x . x = x (cf. vn (where n = dim σ). It suﬃces to show that dim L = n. . un − u0 ∈ σ − u0 ⊂ L and u1 − u0 . By the deﬁnition of an n-simplex. . un − u0 are linearly independent. it 2 2 follows that z (1) = z (1) = 1. vn }.6). .

we deﬁne • σ=
◦ def n i=0 n i=0
z(i + 1)vi z ∈ Δn . j = 0. . . . For every n-simplex σ. .
Thus. . . v1 .
n
n i=0 ◦
• b(σ) =
def
i=0
1 vi — the barycenter of σ n+1
◦
(where b(σ) ∈ σ). . diam σ = max vi − vj 7 i. . .7 Exercise – For each k-simplex σ in Rk . . hence {u1 − u0 . . ∀i = 1. z(i) > 0 z(i + 1)vi z ∈ Δn — the interior of σ. which implies dim L = n. Exercise 1. . 1. un − u0 } is a base for L.
◦
重心
Remark. . n + 1. Note that if dim σ = k then intÊk σ = ∅. . ◦ hence σ = intÊk σ. z(i) = 0
(単体の) 境界 ◦ (単体の) 内部
= • ∂σ =
def
= σ \ σ — the boundary of σ.16). . (1) When dim σ = 0. we have σ = σ and ∂σ = ∅.For every j = 0. . . un − u0 . L is spanned by u1 − u0 .10 Proposition For an n-simplex σ = v0 . . ∂σ) ≈ (Bn . .9 Deﬁnition For an n-simplex σ = v0 . . . . vn . show that intÊk σ = ◦ σ and bdÊk σ = ∂σ. . n . ∃i = 1. Sn−1 ) (Theorem 1. 1. .
n n
vj − v0 =
i=0 n
zj (i + 1)ui −
i=0
z0 (i + 1)ui
=
i=1 n
(zj (i + 1) − z0 (i + 1))ui + (zj (1) − z0 (1))u0
n
=
i=1 n
(zj (i + 1) − z0 (i + 1))ui −
i=1
(zj (i + 1) − z0 (i + 1))u0
=
i=1
(zj (i + 1) − z0 (i + 1))(ui − u0 ).
演習
. . . vn (cf. . . (2) The barycentric coordinate of x ∈ σ is uniquely determined with respect to the order v0 . vn ⊂ Rk .6). . . it can be shown that (σ. v1 . 1. . 1. We identify a 0-simplex v0 = {v0 } with the point v0 . z(i + 1)vi z ∈ Δn . v1 . n + 1. .

Then. we deﬁne pA : Rk → R+ as follow: pA (x) = inf s > 0 s−1 x ∈ A = inf s > 0 x ∈ sA . 1.12 Deﬁnition For a compact (= bounded closed) convex set A ⊂ Rk with 0 ∈ int A.8 Exercise – For each k-simplex σ in Rk . When τ σ and τ = σ. i2 such that x−y First. choose i2 so that vi1 − vi2 = maxi vi1 − vi . it suﬃces to ﬁnd i1 . and denote τ < σ. z ∈ Δn . Let
n
vi1 −vi2 . 面
真の辺. whence we denote τ σ. which is called the Minkowski functional. whence vi1 − x vi1 − vi2 by the same argument. and it has the following properties:
8
.
演習
Supplement
1.13 Proposition For a compact (= bounded closed) convex set A ⊂ Rk with 0 ∈ int A. choose i1 so that x − vi1 = maxi x − vi .
y=
i=0
z(i + 1)vi ∈ σ.
i=0
Next.11 Deﬁnition A simplex τ is called a face of a simplex σ if τ (0) ⊂ σ (0) . it follows that
n n
x−y = x−
i=0 n
z(i + 1)vi
i=0
z(i + 1) x − vi
z(i + 1) x − vi1 = x − vi1 . Consequently.Proof. For each x. An n-dimensional face is simply called an n-face (0-face = vertex). x A 0 s−1 x sA tx
ミンコフスキー 汎関数
1. 面
τ. show ∂σ =
τ <σ
辺. 1. x − y vi1 − vi2 . y ∈ σ. the Minkowski functional pA : Rk → R+ is well-deﬁned and continuous. we call τ a proper face of σ.

Thus. Thus. we have δ0 > 0 such that x < δ0 implies x ∈ A. we have δ0 > 0 such that z < δ0 implies z ∈ A. x ∈ int A. it also follows from the deﬁnition that deﬁnition. Since 0 ∈ A. Therefore.. pA is lower semi-continuous. hence b−1 pA (y) = pA (b−1 y) < 1 by (3) and (5). Since k \ A is open in Rk . t−1 x ∈ A if t > x /δ0 . (Continuity) If pA (x) > a > 0 then a−1 x ∈ Rk \ A by the deﬁnition. (5) If pA (x) = 1 then n+1 x= n n n+1
−1
x ∈ A and x = lim
n→∞
n+1 x. Since pA (x)−1 x ∈ A by (2). If x − y < (1 − pA (x))δ0 . (2) pA (x)−1 x ∈ A for every x ∈ Rk \ {0}.
9
. pA (x) 1 implies x ∈ A. 0. Hence. tx ∈ A for suﬃciently large t > 0. Then pA (x) = 0. Conversely. (3) pA (tx) = tpA (x) for each x ∈ Rk and t (4) A = {x ∈ Rk | pA (x) 1}. assume pA (x) < 1. so pA (y) < b. which means b−1 x ∈ int A by (5). we have pA (tx) −1 tx ∈ A. since pA (tx) pA (x) pA (tx)/t. Since A is compact (bounded). Since A is closed in Rk . then y = (1 − pA (x))(1 − pA (x))−1 (y − x) + pA (x)pA (x)−1 x ∈ A because (1 − pA (x))−1 (y − x) ∈ A and pA (x)−1 x ∈ A. (2) We have t1 > t2 > · · · > 0 such that t−1 x ∈ A and ti → pA (x) (i → ∞). (Well-deﬁnedness) Since 0 ∈ int A. s−1 x ∈ A for suﬃciently small s > 0.
(5) int A = {x ∈ Rk | pA (x) < 1}. so pA (y) > a. we have δ > 0 such that x − y < δ implies a−1 y ∈ Rk \ A. i. If pA (x) < b then pA (b−1 x) = b−1 pA (x) < 1 by (3). For each x ∈ Rk . tpA (x) by the since (tpA (x))−1 tx = pA (x)−1 x ∈ A by (2). it follows show that 0 < pA (x) from the convexity of A that x = (1 − pA (x))0 + pA (x)(pA (x)−1 x) ∈ A. n
which means x ∈ int A. R 1 1 hence a−1 pA (y) = pA (a−1 y) > 1 by (3) and (4). Assume x = 0. (1) It is obvious that pA (0) = 0. 1 for every x ∈ A. (3) The case t = 0 or x = 0 follows from (1).e. Moreover.(1) pA (x) = 0 ⇔ x = 0. Since 0 ∈ int A. pA is well-deﬁned. pA is upper semi-continuous. hence tpA (x) pA (tx). Choose δ2 > 0 so that x − y < δ2 implies b−1 y ∈ int A. Thus. pA (x) < 1 for every x ∈ int A. hence bd A = {x ∈ Rk | pA (x) = 1}. i Note that pA (x) = 0 by (1). Proof. it suﬃces to (4) By the deﬁnition. When t > 0 and x = 0. it follows that pA (x)−1 x ∈ A.

if x = 0. these are continuous at x ∈ Rk \ {0}. In fact.1. whence ϕ(xi ) = pA (xi )−1 xi
2
xi diam A → 0 (i → ∞). ψ : Rk → Rk as follows: ϕ(x) = ψ(x) = 0 pA (x)−1 x x 0 x
−1 p
if x = 0. ϕ is continuous at 0. ψ(xi ) = pA (xi ) → pA (0) = 0 (i → ∞). To see the continuity at 0. Sk−1 ).15 Theorem Every compact convex body A ⊂ Rk is homeomorphic to Bk . assume xi ∈ Rk \ {0} and xi → 0 (i → ∞). For each x ∈ Rk \ {0}. Since pA (xi )−1 xi ∈ A.9 Exercise – Show that the Minkowski functional pA in the above has also the following properties: (1) pA (x + y) pA (x) + pA (y) for every x. by the continuity of pA . By using the Minkowski functional pA for A. y ∈ Rk . hence (A.
ϕ 0 A ψ 0 Bk
Since pA is continuous.14 Deﬁnition A convex set A ⊂ Rk with intÊk A = ∅ is called a convex body. hence ψ is also continuous at 0. Without loss of generality.
10
. it follows that pA (xi )−1 xi < diam A. pA (ϕ(x)) = pA (x)−1 x pA (x) = x . bdÊk A) ≈ (Bk .
凸体
1. Proof.
Therefore. On the other hand.
演習
(2) pA is a norm on Rk ⇔ A = −A. observe that ϕ(x) = pA (x)−1 x 2 . 1. we may assume that 0 ∈ int A. we deﬁne maps ϕ. A (x)x if x = 0. if x = 0. there exists a homeomorphism ϕ : Rk → Rk such that ϕ(A) = Bk . ψ(x) = pA (x) and pA (ψ(x)) = x
−1
pA (x)2 .

In connection with the above. ∂σ) ≈ (Δn . n)
< 1. bdÊn Δn ) ≈ (Bn . . . . . Sn−1 ) by Theorem 1. one should remark that X ≈ Y is not given by any homeomorphism of Rk onto itself. e1 . vn − v0 are linearly independent. ∂Δn ) = (Δn . . .hence it follows that ψϕ(x) = ϕ(x)
−1
pA (ϕ(x))ϕ(x) = pA (x) x
−1
ϕ(x) = x and
ϕ(ψ(x)) = pA (ψ(x))−1 ψ(x) ψ(x) = x pA (x)−1 ψ(x) = x Then. . Proof. Then. . X ≈ Y implies int X ≈ int Y . x(i)
0 (i = 1.15. ∂σ) ≈ (Bn . en ⊂ R . . In this theorem. that is. .
Therefore. x(i) > 0 (i = 1. (Δn . . Observe ϕ(Bk ) = {ϕ(x) | x ϕ(S
k−1
1} = {y ∈ Rk | ψ(y) 1} = A and
1}
= {y ∈ Rk | pA (y)
) = {ϕ(x) | x = 1} = {y ∈ Rk | ψ(y) = 1} = {y ∈ Rk | pA (y) = 1} = bdÊk A. 0 0
11
. 0 0 0 0 For each n-simplex σ = v0 . ϕψ = id and ψϕ = id. v1 .
ブラウワーの 領域不変定理
1. n) = ∅. . Sn−1 ). (σ.
Note. hence we can deﬁne a linear injection ϕ : Rn → Rk by ϕ(ei ) = vi − v0 for each i = 1. Sn−1 ). v1 − v0 . . it follows that 0 0 (σ. . . . . Observe that h(Δn ) = σ and h(∂Δn ) = ∂σ. . Y ⊂ Rk . vn ⊂ Rk . . .
Thus we have the result. This follows from the following: Brouwer’s Theorem on Invariance of Domain: For each X. . ∂Δn ) ≈ (Bn . . ϕ is a homeomorphism with ϕ−1 = ψ. . if Bk ≈ A ⊂ Rk then int A = ∅. Let h : Rn → Rk be the embedding deﬁned by h(x) = ϕ(x) + v0 . n. Then. Let Δn = x ∈ R n 0 = 0.16 Theorem For every n-simplex σ. . Δn is a compact convex set in Rn and 0 intÊn Δn = Δn = x ∈ Rn 0 0
◦ n i=1 x(i) n i=1 x(i) n
1.

1 Deﬁnition A ﬁnite collection K of simplexes in Rk is called a simplicial complex if the following are satisﬁed: (K1) σ ∈ K. v1 ∈ K . Proposition 1. we treat only ﬁnite simplicial complexes. the local ﬁniteness is usually assumed because the topology of |K| is unique. In this case. If K is locally ﬁnite. For an inﬁnite simplicial complex K. • |K| =
def def (単体複体の) 次元
K=
σ∈K
σ=
σ∈K
σ ⊂ Rk — the polyhedron of K. the local ﬁniteness is no longer assumed. each point has a ﬁnite-dimensional neighborhood). τ σ ⇒ τ ∈ K. Replacing Rk by inﬁnite-dimensional linear topological space such as Hilbert space 2 . we deﬁne • dim K = max{dim σ | σ ∈ K} — the dimension of K (K is n-dimensional if dim K = n). the metric topology and the weak (Whitehead) topology.. 12
. where K is said to be locally ﬁnite if each v ∈ K (0) is the vertex of only ﬁnitely many simplexes of K. σ ∩ τ = ∅ ⇒ σ ∩ τ
For a simplicial complex K. In the above.2
Simplicial Complexes and Polyhedra
単体複体
2.2 Deﬁnition For an n-simplex σ.
無限次元単体複体 局所有限次元
2. The polyhedron |K| is a compact set in Rk because of the ﬁnite union of simplexes. σ. we deﬁne • K(σ) = τ
def
τ
σ — the simplicial complex of σ. τ ∈ K. we can also consider inﬁnite-dimensional simplicial complexes. In this lecture. τ . K = K (n) if and only if dim K = n. then |K| is locally compact and locally ﬁnite-dimensional (i.
where |K(σ)| = σ and K(σ)(0) = σ (0) . Non-locally ﬁnite simplicial complexes are also very useful.
(K2) σ. inﬁnite simplicial complexes are useful and have many applications.
def
Remark.e. When K is not locally ﬁnite. The name “mesh” comes from the following fact (cf. However.
無限単体複体 局所有限
Note. There are inﬁnite-dimensional locally ﬁnite simplicial complexes.
(単体複体の) 編み目
• mesh K = max{diam σ | σ ∈ K} — the mesh of K. the polyhedron |K| has two typical topologies.10): mesh K = mesh K (1) = max v0 − v1 v0 . n} — the n-skeleton of K
◦
多面体
• K (n) = {σ ∈ K | dim σ (K (0) =
def σ∈K
n 次元骨格
σ (0) is the set of vertices of K).

In other words. we deﬁne the star St(x. K) at x in K as follows: • St(x..
def
The carrier of x in K is the simplex σ ∈ K with x ∈ σ.3 Deﬁnition Let K be a simplicial complex. Let L be a subcomplex of K.5 Deﬁnition For a simplicial complex K and σ ∈ K. L ⊂ K is a subcomplex of K if L satisﬁes (K1) (i.• K(∂σ) = τ
def
τ < σ = K(σ)(n−1) — the simplicial complex of ∂σ. ∀σ ∈ L.
whence |K(∂σ)| = ∂σ. K) = τ ∈ St(σ.
◦
台
13
. K) of σ in K are deﬁned as follows: • St(σ.
• Lk(σ. K) τ ∩ σ = ∅ . Remark.e. K)
For each point x ∈ |K|. A simplicial complex L is called a subcomplex of K if L ⊂ K. K) = τ ∈ St(x. (1) Each n-skeleton K (n) of K is a subcomplex of K. K)
St(σ. 2. σ
τ .
def
K σ Lk(σ. 2. K) = τ ∈ K ∃τ ∈ K such that τ
def
星状体 環状体
部分複体
単体複体の対
dim K. x∈τ . 2. A pair (K. K) = τ ∈ K ∃τ ∈ K such that τ
def
τ. L) of simplicial complexes means a pair of a simplicial complex K and its subcomplex L. K) x ∈ τ .4 Example Let K be a simplicial complex. (2) For each σ ∈ K. K) and the link Lk(x. K(σ) ⊂ L). Then |L| ⊂ |K| and dim L Every subcomplex of L is also a subcomplex of K.
τ. the star St(σ.
• Lk(x. K) and the link Lk(σ. K(σ) is a subcomplex of K.

Let σ ∈ K ◦ be the carrier of x. vn 14
◦ ◦
.7 Deﬁnition For a simplicial complex K and v ∈ K (0) . t ∈ I} and | St(σ. then σ ⊂ OK (vi ) for all vi . which implies σ. . K)| = |K| \
def
{σ ∈ K | v ∈ σ (0) }
開星状体
=
{σ | σ ∈ K. . x ∈ σ. K) for every σ ∈ K. 2. If σ has a vertex other (1) Assume that σ ∩ τ = ∅. Then. K). σ = σ ∩ τ τ . The open star OK (v) is an open neighborhood of v in |K|. . v ∈ σ (0) } — the open star at v. In both (1) and (2). 2. K)|. Proof. (2) Give an example such that | Lk(x. K)| \ | Lk(v. vn ∈ K. i. . v0 . The converse implication “⇒” can be seen as follows: ◦ σ.8 Lemma Let v0 . vn ∈ K. then σ τ and τ σ by (1). v0 . . K)| = bd|K| | St(x. we deﬁne • OK (v) = | St(v. t ∈ I}. K)|. vn ∈ K if and only if OK (v0 ) ∩ · · · ∩ OK (vn ) = ∅. . . ◦ ◦ (2) If σ ∩ τ = ∅. . . St(σ. . the implication “⇐” is trivial. K)| = {(1 − t)x + ty | x ∈ σ. which is a contradiction.6 Proposition Let K be a simplicial complex and σ.. assume that OK (v0 ) ∩ · · · ∩ OK (vn ) contains some x. Moreover.2. . . τ ∈ K. . each vi is a vertex of σ. K)| is a neighborhood of x in |K|. (1) σ ∩ τ = ∅ ⇔ σ
◦ ◦ ◦ ◦
演習
τ. y ∈ | Lk(x. Conversely. . . Thus. K) = St(b(σ). (4) Prove that if x ∈ σ then St(x. .
(2) σ ∩ τ = ∅ ⇔ σ = τ . If σ = v0 . show that | St(x. Proof. K)|. and OK (v) v ∈ K (0) is an open cover of |K|. K) = Lk(σ. (3) Show | St(x. In particular. then any point of σ cannot belong to τ . Recall σ ∩ τ ◦ than vertices of σ ∩ τ . v0 . . . K)| = {(1 − t)x + ty | y ∈ | Lk(x.1 Exercise – (1) For each x ∈ |K|. K) = St(σ. 2.
◦
Remark.e. K) if σ = {x}. Hence. Then. show that Lk(x. vn ∈ K (0) . which implies σ = τ . hence OK (v0 ) ∩ · · · ∩ OK (vn ) ⊃ σ = ∅. . .

there exists a homeomorphism h : (σ. there exists a homeomorphism h : |K| → X such that h(|L|) = Y . that is. there exists a homeomorphism h : |K| → X. |L|) for some pair (K. A polyhedron is compact and metrizable. whence (K. Y ) of spaces is polyhedral if (X. Remark.11 Example In the following.2. Y ). Recall that only ﬁnite simplicial complexes are treated in this lecture. that is. h|∂σ) are triangulations of Bn and Sn−1 . Surface
R2
曲面
多様体
≈
15
. Sn−1 ). (K(σ).16. so (K(σ). An n-dimensional manifold is deﬁned as a space which is locally homeomorphic to the n-dimensional Euclidean space Rn . polyhedra are locally compact. where surfaces are spaces which are locally homeomorphic to the Eucliean plane R2 . L. h) is called a triangulation of X. Then. A pair (X. h) is a relative triangulation of (Bn . h) and (K(∂σ). L) of simplicial complexes.9 Deﬁnition A topological space X is a (topological) polyhedron if X ≈ |K| for some simplicial complex K. K(∂σ). Sn−1 ) by Theorem 1. that is.10 Example For an n-simplex σ. each point has an open neighborhood homeomorphic to an open set in R2 . ∂σ) → (Bn . Y ) ≈ (|K|. we illustrate triangulations of typical surfaces by ﬁgures. A surface is also called a 2-dimensional manifold. In case locally ﬁnite simplicial complexes are considered.
Note. h) is called a relative triangulation of a pair (X. 2. respectively. whence (K.
(位相的) 多面体
単体分割 三角形分割 多面体の対
相対単体分割 相対三角形分割
2.

(1) Sphere S2
v v ◦ ≈ ◦ cut and unfold ◦ v ≈ A triangulation of S2 v
球面
cut and unfold
A triangulation of S2 w u v v w u w u w cut and unfold v u
u
≈
v
w
v
w A triangulation of S2
Not a simplicial complex
16
.

(2) Torus T2
トーラス
paste
cut and unfold
paste
A triangulation of T2
(3) Klein bottle K2
クラインの壷
paste
cut and unfold
paste
A triangulation of K2
17
.

where x ∼ y ⇐⇒ ∃t ∈ R \ {0} such that tx = y .(4) Projective plane P2 = (R3 \ {0})/ ∼ = {[x] | x ∈ R3 \ {0}}. −x ∈ S1 are identiﬁed v v paste v fold v v
≈ u w ◦ v v v
v
◦ u A triangulation P2
w v Not a triangulation P2 v
18
. [x] = (R \ {0})x
def def
射影平面
P2 = S2 / ∼. where x ∼ y ⇐⇒ x = ±y
def
x3 [x] x 1 ◦ ◦ 0 x1
R3
x3 [x] x
R3
x3 = 1
1 ◦ 1 v = [e1 ] x1 ◦ 0 1
x3 = 1
x2
x2
x.

o
u
1
v B2 − M2
2
M2 cut
2
B2 +
1
2
B2 +
v
1
u B2 − paste
1
v
u
2
B2 +
2 1
v B2 −
u
B2 A triangulation of P2
19
.(5) M¨bius band M2 o
メビウスの帯
cut and unfold
A triangulation of M2
M¨bius band is contained in the projective plane.

o
20
. P2 = M2 ∪S1 B2
cut and unfold ◦ ◦ paste S1 ◦
S1
◦
S1
paste B2
The cross cap paste ◦ M2 S1 S1
B2 B2
M¨bius band is also called the cross cap. (1) The projective plane P2 can be obtained by attaching M¨bius o 2 2 band M with the disk B along their boundary circles.Remark.

If K
K and K
K . K2 = M2 ∪S1 M2
1
M+ M2
2
M2 cut and paste M+ M− M2
2
M−
1
2 1
1 2
≈
The under half of Klein bottle
M¨bius band o
2.2 Exercise – Let L be a subcomplex of K and K a subdivision of K. . un are aﬃnely independent. .13 Lemma Let σ0 < σ1 < · · · < σn be a sequence of simplexes and ui ∈ ◦ σ i (i = 0. It is said that K is a subdivision of K or K subdivides K if |K | = |K| and each τ ∈ K is contained in some σ ∈ K. . . b(σ1 ). .Remark. . . In the above. whence u0 . In other wards. Show that L = {τ ∈ K | τ ⊂ |L|} is a simplicial complex which subdivides L. whence we denote K K.12 Deﬁnition Let K and K be simplicial complexes. 1. . . 2. then K
K.
Note. u1. In particular. u1. . . u0 . (2) Klein bottle K2 can be obtained by attaching two copies of M¨bius band M2 along their boundary circles. Then. if inﬁnite simplicial complexes are considered. . un is an n-simplex.
細分
Remark.
演習
2. b(σ0 ). b(σn ) is an n-simplex 21
. it is required that each σ ∈ K contains only ﬁnitely many simplexes of K . . . n). . . K2 can be o obtained by attaching two cross caps arong their boundary circles.

.
The n-th barycentric subdivision is inductively deﬁned as follows: Sdn K = Sd(Sdn−1 K). Observe that
n n i n i
= 0 and
ti ui =
i=0 i=0
ti
j=0
zi (j + 1)vj =
n i=0 j=0 n
ti zi (j + 1)vj ti zi (j + 1)vj .Proof. we can write σi = v0 . . . Since zi (j + 1) = 0 i=j for each i and j. . zi ∈ Δi . . The n-th derived subdivision is also deﬁned by induction. Then. . u1 . . where Sd0 K = K.14 Deﬁnition For a simplicial complex K. (2) Show that if L is a subcomplex of K then Sd L is a subcomplex of Sd K. let n i=0 ti = 0. . . In the above. by replacing the barycenters b(σ) with any points ◦ vσ ∈ σ. . . . . vn are aﬃnely independent and
n n n i n
ti zi (j + 1) =
j=0 i=j i=0
ti
j=0
zi (j + 1) =
i=0
ti = 0. . un are aﬃnely independent. it can be assumed that dim σi = i. vi and
i
ui =
j=0
zi (j + 1)vj . 22
n 階重心細分
導細分
n 階導細分
演習
. 2. . 2. . it can be seen that tn = tn−1 = · · · = t0 = 0 by downward induction. By inserting faces of deﬁcient dimensions. we deﬁne • Sd K =
def
b(σ0 ).
it follows that n ti zi (j + 1) = 0 for each j = 0. . . . . we can deﬁne a derived subdivision of K. n.
n i=0 ti ui
◦
To see that u0. b(σn )
σ0 < σ1 < · · · < σn ∈ K
重心細分
— the barycentric subdivision of K. Remark.3 Exercise – (1) Show that Sd K is a simplicial complex and Sd K K.
=
j i
ti zi (j + 1)vj =
j=0 i=j
Since v0 .

v1 . This theorem is valid for any inﬁnite simplicial complexes. limn→∞ mesh Sdn K = 0.
n
b(τ ) − vj =
i=0 n
1 vi − vj n+1
1 1 vi − vj = vi − vj n+1 n+1 i=0 i=j m n diam τ mesh K. Proof. we have the result. Whitehead): Let K1 and K2 be simplicial complexes with |K1 | = |K2 |.H. vn . It suﬃces to show that. for each σ < τ ∈ K. if K1 K and K2 K. but more preparations are necessary and it won’t be used in this lecture.
Note. We write τ = v0 . Since b(σ) ∈ σ ⊂ τ . n+1 m+1 Thus. We can prove the following theorem. Choose j so that b(τ ) − vj = maxi b(τ ) − vi . m+1
(see the remark for Deﬁnition 2. b(σ2 )
2. it follows from the argument in the proof of 1.C. Theorem (J. b(σ) − b(τ ) m mesh K m+1 m mesh K. then there exists some K3 K subdividing both K1 and K2 .
細分に関する ホワイトヘッド の定理
23
. .1).15 Proposition For an m-dimensional simplicial complex K. Then. mesh Sd K Hence. . . . b(σ1 ). Hence.13 that b(σ) − b(τ ) b(τ ) − vj .σ2
σ1 b(σ1 )
b(σ2 )
σ0 = b((σ0 ) b(σ0 ). Then K has a subdivision K3 subdividing both K1 and K2 . so the proof is omitted.

0). Then. (vj . . b(σ) < b(τ ) ⇔ σ < τ ).
hence we have also follow that
= 0. . Then. 0). . we have
j n n
ti vi +
i=0 i=j j i=0 ti
ti+1 vi = 0 and
i=j
ti+1 = 0.e. . . . 1). Assume
j n n+1
ti (vi . . . . . 1). (vj . (vij+1 . (vj . vn ∈ Rk be aﬃnely independent. (vim . tj (vj . . 0) + tj+1 (vj . the barycentric subdivision Sd K is an ordered complex with the order deﬁned as follows: b(σ) b(τ ) ⇐⇒ σ
def
順序 (単体) 複体
τ (i. 1) = 0. (v0 . . . . 1) ∈ Rk × R = Rk+1 are also aﬃnely independent. v1 . Since v0 . . . vn ⊂ Rk with an order v0 < v1 < · · · < vn (i.
2.. 2. Proof.e. 2. n such that τ (v0 . . . 1) = 0 and
i=0
ti = 0. . 1)
. .19 Deﬁnition For an n-simplex σ = v0 . . . 1) 0 i0 < · · · < ij 24 ij+1 < · · · < im n . 1) ∈ Rk+1 are aﬃnely independent. (vj . 0) +
i=0 i=j
ti+1 (vi . . . 0).. it
t0 = · · · = tj−1 = tj + tj+1 = tj+2 = · · · = tn+1 = 0. .2. .18 Lemma Let v0 .17 Example (1) A simplicial complex K with a total order on K (0) is an ordered complex. we deﬁne K(σ) × I = τ
def
∃j = 0. .
By observing each factor of the ﬁrst equation. 0). . for each j = 0. (vij . . (vn . . . vn are aﬃnely independent. (2) For each simplicial complex K. . n. . . (vn . we have also tj = tj+1 = 0. . v1 .
=
(vi0 . . .16 Deﬁnition A simplicial complex K with an order on K (0) is called an ordered (simplicial) complex if σ (0) is a totally ordered subset of K (0) for each σ ∈ K. 1. . 1). 0). K(σ) is an ordered complex). . . 0). . . (vj . 0). Since (vj . . .

1)
∈ (v0 . . Then. . (vn . If t = 1 then (x. By the deﬁnition. . . . n. t) ∈ σ × I. . it follows that
n
(x.
Then. . |K(σ) × I| = σ × I. Let (x. . t z(i + 1)(vi .1 I v2 0 K(σ) × I v0 v1 σ
2. 0). we have |K(σ) × I| = σ × I. 1) +
i=j+1
z(i + 1)(vi . Proof. let x =
n i=0 n
z(i + 1)vi . t) =
i=0 j−1
z(i + 1)vi . . .
n
z(i + 1)
i=j+1
t<
i=j
z(i + 1) s < 1 so that
for some j = 0. it is easy to see that |K(σ) × I| ⊂ σ × I. . Thus. 1. . 1) ⊂ |K(σ) × I|. (vj . 0).20 Lemma In the above. (vn . z ∈ Δn . (vj+1. 0)
i=0 n
=
+ sz(j + 1)(vj . . whence we can choose 0
n
t = sz(j + 1) +
i=j+1
z(i + 1). . When t < 1. 1). . 1). 0) + (1 − s)z(j + 1)(vj . 1) ⊂ |K(σ) × I|. t) ∈ (v0 . 25
. .

. (vm . . i = 0. . let K ×I = =
def
K(σ) × I
σ∈K
(v0 . that is. vm } ∩ {vj +1 . . . . K × I is a simplicial complex and |K × I| = |K| × I. We write τ = (v0 .
+1
Then. Proof. . 0). . (vm . . . K × I is an ordered complex with the lexicographical order. τ ∩ τ is a face of τ and τ . 26
. 1). . 0). . . . . (vm . . .
def
2. . 1)
(v0 . . (vm . . (vj
+1 . . . . (vj . . 0). . . (vj
+1 . . . Moreover. (vm
= (v0 . 1. it is obvious that K × I satisﬁes (K1). . . (vj . . 0). 0). . 0). (vj . (v. 0). 0). . . . 1) . . . . . . . 1). vn ∈ K. v0 < · · · < vj vj+1 < · · · < vn
and K × {i} = σ × {i} σ ∈ K . (vj +1 . i < j. . (vn . (vj . .
The proof is complete. . . . . vj } ∩ {v0 . . . . vm ∈ vj +1 < · · · < vm . vm ∈ K. (vj . i) < (u. (vj+1. . . . . vm
辞書式順序
} = {vj+1 . 1) ∩ (v0 . . (vj+1. 1) . . . 1) and τ = (v0 . Let K. . (vj +1 . . (vm
. 0). 0). . let τ. . 1). . . . (vj . . The convex hull of the above set is (v0 . 0). .22 Proposition For an ordered complex K. .21 Deﬁnition For an ordered complex K.20. 1). . 1). (vj+1. . . .
Therefore. vm }. . 1) v0 .2. v0 < · · · < vj {v0 . where v0 . . . . . . . . . . v0 < · · · < vj
vj
< · · · < vm and . . . we have |K × I| =
σ∈K
K(σ) × I =
σ∈K
|K(σ) × I| =
σ∈K
σ × I = |K| × I. vj } = {v0 . To see (K2). . j) ⇔ v < u or v = u. . . 1). 0). 1) = τ ∩ τ . 0). vj } and {vj
+1 . . . By the deﬁnition. v0 < · · · < vj vj+1 < · · · < vm and v0 . . 1). By the deﬁnition and Lemma 2. . 0). τ ∈ K × I such that τ ∩ τ = ∅. . . (vj .

1} be the triangulation of I.4 Exercise – Let I = {I. respectively. with the order 0 < 1. 2. Then. Represent them in ﬁgures. In the above.Remark. i = 0. I × I and (I × I) × I are triangulations of I2 and I3 . 0.
演習
27
. are subcomplexes of K × I and |K × {i}| = |K| × {i}. K × {i}. 1.

When ϕ : K (0) → L(0) is injective. (a) dim ϕ(σ) < dim σ
v2 ϕ v0 v1 u0 = ϕ(v0 ) u1 = ϕ(v1 ) = ϕ(v2 )
(b)
ϕ(K (0) ) = L(0) but ϕ(K) = L
v2 ϕ v0 v1 u0 = ϕ(v0 ) u1 = ϕ(v1 ) u2 = ϕ(v2 )
(2) If L is a subcomplex of K. . . show the following: (1) σ τ ∈ K implies ϕ(σ) ϕ(τ ). ˜ ϕ:K σ = v0 . Then. idK (0) : K (0) → K (0) ) is a simplicial map. ϕ(vn ) ∈ L.e. . then the inclusion i : L → K (i. . .1 Exercise – For a simplicial map ϕ : K → L. A simplicial map is a function ϕ : K (0) → L(0) such that ∀σ = v0 . .. ϕ : K → L is injective. . vn ∈ K. that is. . But. . ϕ(vn ) ∈ L. 3. that is. In particular. .3
Simplicial Maps and Approximations
単体写像
3. hence it induces a function ϕ : K → L. 28
演習
. i : L(0) → K (0) ) is a simplicial map. idK : K → K (i. .
Remark. (1) In the above. a simplicial map is denoted ˜ by ϕ : K → L rather than ϕ : K (0) → L(0) by idenstifying ϕ = ϕ. . it is not necessary that all ϕ(v0 ). . . dim ϕ(σ) dim σ but dim ϕ(σ) = dim σ in general. ϕ(vn ) are distinct. vn → ϕ(σ) = ϕ(v0 ). . even if ϕ : K (0) → L(0) is surjective. . . ϕ(v0 ).e. ϕ : K → L is not surjective in general. Then.. . . dim ϕ(σ) = dim σ and σ = τ ∈ K implies ϕ(σ) = ϕ(τ ).1 Deﬁnition Let K and L be simplicial complexes. .

(2) If ϕ : K (0) → L(0) is injective then |ϕ| is an embedding. vn ∈ K and
n
x=
i=0
z(i + 1)vi . (1) |ϕ| : |K| → |L| is continuous. . . |ϕ|(b(σ)) = b(ϕ(σ)) in general.3 Lemma Let ϕ : K → L be a simplicial map. (1) One should observe that | idK | = id|K|. the function |ϕ| : |K| → |L| is deﬁned as follows:
n
|ϕ|(x) =
i=0
z(i + 1)ϕ(vi ).
29
.
単体写像
This |ϕ| is also called a simplicial map. that is.
where v0 . .
演習
(2) For a simplicial map ϕ : K → L and σ ∈ K. 3. 3.
v2 σ ϕ u1 = ϕ(v2 ) ϕ(σ) = τ b(τ )
v0 b(σ)
v1
u0 = ϕ(v0 ) = ϕ(v1 ) |ϕ|(b(σ)) = 2 u0 + 1 u1 3 3
3. Remark. .2 Exercise – Show that |ϕ| is well-deﬁned.(2) ϕ(K) = ϕ(σ) σ ∈ K is a subcomplex of L. z ∈ Δn .2 Deﬁnition For a simplicial map ϕ : K → L. |ϕ|(x) is uniquely determined independently from choice of σ ∈ K with x ∈ σ and an order of vertices of σ.

Proof. (1) For each n-simplex σ = v0 , . . . , vn ∈ K, we deﬁne the homeomorphism γ : Δn → σ by γ(z) = n z(i + 1)vi . Then, for each z ∈ Δn , i=0 (|ϕ| ◦ γ)(z) = n z(i + 1)ϕ(vi ). It follows that |ϕ| ◦ γ is continuous, whence i=0 the restriction |ϕ||σ = (|ϕ| ◦ γ) ◦ γ −1 is also continuous. Since |K| is the union of ﬁnitely many simplexes, it follows that |ϕ| is continuous. (2) For each n-simplex σ = v0 , . . . , vn ∈ K, ϕ(σ) = ϕ(v0 ), . . . , ϕ(vn ) ∈ L is also an n-simplex, hence we have the homeomorphism γ : Δn → ϕ(σ) deﬁned by γ (z) = n z(i + 1)ϕ(vi ). Let γ be the same as above. Since i=0 γ (z) = (|ϕ| ◦ γ)(z) for z ∈ Δn , |ϕ||σ = γ ◦ γ −1 : σ → ϕ(σ) is a homeomorphism. Since ϕ(σ) ∩ ϕ(τ ) = ϕ(σ ∩ τ ) for each σ, τ ∈ K, it follows that |ϕ| is an embedding. Remark. In the above, |ϕ| is not a homeomorphism even if ϕ : K (0) → L(0) is bijective. See Remark (1) for Deﬁnition 3.1. 3.4 Deﬁnition A map f : |K| → |L| is simplicial (with respect to K and L) if f = |ϕ| for some simplicial map ϕ : K → L. A simplicial homeomorphism (or a simplicial embedding) is a homeomorphism (or an embedding) which is simplicial. Remark. (1) In the above deﬁnition, f |K (0) = ϕ. Hence, a map f : |K| → |L| is simplicial if and only if, for each σ = v0 , . . . , vn ∈ K, f (v0 ), . . . , f (vn ) ∈ L and n f

n i=0

単体同相写像 単体埋込写像

z(i + 1)vi =

i=0

z(i + 1)f (vi), z ∈ Δn .

(2) In case |K| = |K | and |L| = |L |, a simplicial map f : |K| → |L| with respect to K and L is not simplicial with respect to K and L in general (even if K K and L L, e.g., K = Sd K and L = Sd L). See Remark (2) after Deﬁnition 3.2

Note. The following can be proved: Theorem: Let f : |K| → |L| be a simplicial map. Then, (1) for any L L, there exists some K with respect to K and L ; K such that f is simplicial L such

K and L L, there are K K and L (2) for any K that f is simplicial with respect to K and L . On the contrary to (1), for some K K, there exist no L is simplicial with respect to K and L .

L such that f

30

3.3 Exercise – A simplicial embedding f : |K| → |L| with respect to K and L is also simplicial with respect to the barycentric subdivisions Sd K and Sd L. 3.5 Lemma Let K1 , K2 and K3 be simplicial complexes. If ϕ : K1 → K2 and ψ : K2 → K3 are simplicial maps, then the composition ψ ◦ ϕ : K1 → K3 is also simplicial and |ψ ◦ ϕ| = |ψ| ◦ |ϕ| : |K1 | → |K3 |. 3.4 Exercise – Prove the lemma above. 3.6 Deﬁnition A map f : |K| → |L| be called a PL map (or a piece-wise linear map) if f is simplicial with respect to some subdivisions K and L of K and L, respectively. A PL homeomorphism (or a PL embedding) is a homeomorphism (or an embedding) which is PL.

Note. By using the theorem in the previous notes and the theorem due to J.H.C. Whitehead in the note after Proposition 2.15, it is easy to prove the following: Lemma: Let f : |K| → |L| be a PL map. Then, (1) there exists some L L such that for any L with respect to some K K and L ; L , f is simplicial

演習

演習

PL 写像 PL 同相写像 PL 埋込写像

(2) if |K| = |K | and |L| = |L |, then f : |K | → |L | is also PL. Then, the following is easily follows: Proposition: Let K1 , K2 and K3 be simplicial complexes. If f : |K1 | → |K2 | and g : |K2 | → |K3 | are PL maps, then the composition g ◦ f : |K1 | → |K3 | is also PL.

3.7 Deﬁnition Let K and L be simplicial complexes. It is said that K is (simplicially) isomorphic to L (denoted by K ≡ L) if there exist simplicial maps ϕ : K → L and ψ : L → K such that ψ ◦ ϕ = idK and ϕ ◦ ψ = idL , where ϕ : K → L is called a (simplicial) isomorphism and ψ : L → K is the inverse of ϕ. (Recall that |ϕ| : |K| → |L| is called a simplicial homeomorphism.) It is said that K is combinatorially equivalent to L (denoted by K ∼ L) if K and L have subdivisions which are isomorphic to = each other. Remark. (1) K ≡ L ⇒ K ∼ L but K ∼ L ⇒ K ≡ L. = = (2) The relations ≡ and ∼ are equivalence relations among simplicial = complexes.

(単体) 同型

(単体) 同型写像

逆写像

組合せ同値

31

Note. It follows from the following theorem that the relation ∼ is transitive. = Theorem: Let K and K be subdivisions of a simplicial complex K. Then, there is a subdivision K of K such that K K and K K . More generally, the following also hold: Theorem: Let K1 and K2 be simplicial complexes with |K1 | = |K2 |. Then, there is a simplicial complex K such that K K1 and K K2 . In other words, |K1 | = |K2 | implies K1 ∼ K2 . =

3.5 Exercise – Prove that a bijection ϕ : K (0) → L(0) is a simplicial isomorphism if and only if v0 , . . . , vn ∈ K ⇔ ϕ(v0 ), . . . , ϕ(vn ) ∈ L. 3.8 Proposition Let h : |K| → |L| be a homeomorphism. Then, (1) h : |K| → |L| is simplicial if and only if there is a simplicial isomorphism ϕ : K → L such that h = |ϕ|; (2) h : |K| → |L| is PL if and only if there are subdivisions K K and L and a simplicial isomorphism ϕ : K → L such that h = |ϕ|. L Proof. (1) Since the “if” part is trivial, it suﬃces to show the “only if” part. If h : |K| → |L| is a simplicial homeomorphism, then h|K (0) : K (0) → L(0) is clearly a simplicial injection (cf. Remark (1) after Deﬁnition 3.4). For each u ∈ L(0) , let σ be the carrier of h−1 (u). Then, h(v) = u for any vertex v of σ, which implies that σ is itself a vertex, i.e., h−1 (u) ∈ K (0) . Therefore, h|K (0) : K (0) → L(0) is a bijection. It remains to show that for each v0 , . . . , vn ∈ K (0) , h(v0 ), . . . , h(vn ) ∈ L ⇒ v0 , . . . , vn ∈ K. Let τ = h(v0 ), . . . , h(vn ) ∈ L and σ ∈ K be the carrier of h−1 (b(τ )). Then, ◦ h(σ)∩ τ = ∅, whence τ h(σ), which means that h(v0 ), . . . , h(vn ) are vertices of h(σ), i.e., v0 , . . . , vn are vertices of σ. Therefore, v0 , . . . , vn ∈ K. (2) The “if” part is trivial. If h : |K| → |L| be a PL homeomorphism, then h is simplicial with respect to subdivisions K K and L L. Hence, the “only if” part follows from (1). 3.9 Corollary For simplicial complexes K and L, K ∼ L if and only if there = exists a PL homeomorphism h : |K| → |L|. Consequently, K ∼ L implies = |K| ≈ |L|.

演習

32

∼ Note. It had been conjectured that |K| ≈ |L| implies K = L. This conjecture was called Hauptvermutung. All attempts in proving this conjecture were in vain. Finally, this has been known to be false.

基本予想 (独語)

**3.10 Deﬁnition Let f : |K| → |L| be a continuous map. A simplicial map ϕ : K → L (or |ϕ| : |K| → |L|) is a simplicial approximation of f if |ϕ|(x) is contained in the carrier of f (x) in L for each x ∈ |K|.
**

ϕ(σ) ϕ(v1 ) σ v0 x v1 f |ϕ| ϕ(v0 ) |ϕ|(x) f (x) f (σ)

単体近似

3.11 Proposition Let K be a simplicial complex and γ : (Sd K)(0) → K (0) . Then, γ is a simplicial map which is a simplicial approximation of id|K| if and only if γ(b(σ)) is a vertex of σ for each σ ∈ K. Hence, id|K| has a simplicial approximation γ : Sd K → K. Proof. First, note that σ is the carrier of b(σ). Then, the “only if” part is obvious. To see the “if” part, assume that γ satisﬁes the condition. To show that γ (0) (0) is a simplicial map, let σ0 < σ1 < · · · < σn ∈ K. Since γ(b(σi )) ∈ σi ⊂ σn , γ(b(σ0 )), . . . , γ(b(σn )) is a face of σn , hence γ(b(σ0 )), . . . , γ(b(σn )) ∈ K. Therefore, γ is a simplicial map. For each x ∈ | Sd K| = |K|, there are σ0 < σ1 < · · · < σn ∈ K such that b(σ0 ), . . . , b(σn ) is the carrier of x in Sd K. Then, σn is the carrier of x in K. As saw in the above, γ(b(σ0 )), . . . , γ(b(σn )) is a face of σn , hence |γ|(x) ∈ σn . 3.12 Lemma Let f : |K| → |L| be a continuous map and ϕ : K (0) → L(0) . Then, ϕ is a simplicial map which is a simplicial approximation of f if and only if f (OK (v)) ⊂ OL(ϕ(v)) for each v ∈ K (0) . Proof. Assume that ϕ is a simplicial approximation of f . Let v ∈ K (0) . For each x ∈ OK (v), let σ ∈ K be the carrier of x and τ ∈ L the carrier of f (x). Then v is a vertex of σ. Since |ϕ|(x) ∈ τ and ϕ(σ) is the carrier of |ϕ|(x),

33

ϕ(σ)◦ ∩ τ = ∅, which means ϕ(σ) τ , hence ϕ(v) is a vertex of τ . Thus, ◦ f (x) ∈ τ ⊂ OL (ϕ(v)). Hence, we have f (OK (v)) ⊂ OL (ϕ(v)). Conversely, assume that ϕ satisﬁes the condition. For each v0 , . . . , vn ∈ K. Then n OK (vi ) = ∅ by Lemma 2.8. By the condition, i=0

n n

OL(ϕ(vi )) ⊃

i=0 i=0

f (OK (vi )) ⊃ f

n i=0

OK (vi ) = ∅,

which means that ϕ(v0 ), . . . , ϕ(vn ) ∈ L by Lemma 2.8. Then ϕ is a simplicial map. For each x ∈ |K|, let v0 , . . . , vn ∈ K be the carrier of x. Since x ∈ n OK (vi ), it follows from the condition that f (x) ∈ n OL (ϕ(vi )). i=0 i=0 Hence, every ϕ(vi ) is a vertex of the carrier τ of f (x), whence |ϕ|(x) ∈ ϕ(v0 ), . . . , ϕ(vn ) τ . Therefore, ϕ is a simplicial approximation of f . 3.13 Proposition Let K1 , K2 and K3 be simplicial complexes. Suppose that continuous maps f : |K1 | → |K2 | and g : |K2 | → |K3 | have simplicial approximations ϕ : K1 → K2 and ψ : K2 → K3 , respectively. Then, the composition ψϕ : K1 → K3 is a simplicial approximation of the composition gf with respect to K1 and K3 . 3.6 Exercise – By using Lemma 3.12, prove the proposition above. 3.14 Theorem Every continuous map f : |K| → |L| has a simplicial approximation ϕ : Sdn K → L for some n ∈ N. Proof. Since |K| is compact, there is a Lebesgue number δ > 0 for the open cover f −1 (OL(u)) u ∈ L(0) of |K| (i.e., A ⊂ |K| with diam A < δ is contained in some f −1 (OL(u))). By Proposition 2.15, mesh Sdn K < 1 δ for 2 some n ∈ N. Then, for each v ∈ (Sdn K)(0) , diam | St(v, Sdn K)| < δ, whence St(v, Sdn K) is contained in some f −1 (OL (u)). Let ϕ : (Sdn K)(0) → L(0) be a map such that f (OSdn K (v)) ⊂ OL (ϕ(v)) for each v ∈ (Sdn K)(0) . Then, ϕ is a simplicial map which is a simplicial approximation of f by Lemma 3.12. Remark. In general, without subdividing K, we cannot obtain a simplicial approximation of a continuous map f : |K| → |L|. For instance, let K = L be the triangulation of [0, 2] with K (0) = {0, 1, 2}. Consider the √ continuous √ map f : |K| → |L| deﬁned by f (x) = 0 for x 1/ 2 and f (x) = 2x − 1 for 34

演習

Then. Proof. 3. Similarly to Theorem 3. ϕ : K → L. when h = |ψ| for a simplicial map ψ : K × I → L. i).14. it is also said that ϕ is simplicially homotopic to ϕ .12. g = |ϕ | for simplicial maps ϕ. ϕ and ϕ are simplicially homotopic.√ x 1/ 2. let δ > 0 be a Lebesgue number for this cover and choose n ∈ N so that mesh Sdn K < 1 δ. ϕ is a simplicial map which is a simplicial approximation of both f and g by Lemma 3. Then. 2 2 − 1) is not contained in any OL(v). 35
単体ホモトピック
単体ホモトピー
演習
. 1. 0) = f (x) and h(x. We call h a simplicial homotopy (from f to g) and denote f = h0 and g = h1 . g : |K| → |L| be continuous maps. By the assumption. It is said that f is simplicially homotopic to g (or f and g are simplicially homotopic) if there exists a simplicial map h : |K × I| → |L| such that h(x. g(x) ∈ OL(u). 1) = g(x). ϕ : K → L be simplicial approximations of a continuous map f : |K| → |L|. ψ is also called a simplicial homotopy (from ϕ to ϕ ). Then. there is a vertex u ∈ L(0) such that f (x). f −1 (OL(u)) ∩ g −1 (OL (u)) u ∈ L(0) is an open cover of |K|. for 2 each v ∈ (Sdn K)(0) . Moreover.7 Exercise – For an ordered complex K and i = 0. it should be noticed that f 2 = f ◦f has a simplicial approximation ϕ : K → L deﬁned by ϕ(0) = ϕ(1) = 0 and ϕ(2) = 1. there is some u ∈ L(0) such that OSdn K (v) ⊂ St(v. for each x ∈ |K|. 3. there exist n ∈ N and a simplicial map ϕ : Sdn K → L which is a simplicial approximation of both f and g. Then. Suppose that. Prove that ini : |K| → |K × {i}| is a simplicial homeomorphism and hi = h ◦ ini . 3. 3. hence we have ϕ : (Sdn K)(0) → L(0) such that f (OSdn K (v)) ∪ g(OSdn K (v)) ⊂ OL(ϕ(v)) for each v ∈ (Sdn K)(0) . Sdn K) ⊂ f −1 (OL(u)) ∩ g −1 (OL(u)). v ∈ L(0) .16 Deﬁnition Let f.17 Theorem Let ϕ. When f = |ϕ|.15 Proposition Let f. g : |K| → |L| be simplicial maps. Then. we deﬁne the injection ini : |K| → |K × I| by ini (x) = (x. f has no √ simplicial approximations with respect to K and L because f (OK (1)) = [0. where K (0) is given some order so that K is an ordered complex. By the way.

vn ∈ K with v0 < v1 < · · · < vn and j = 0. . . 0). .
36
. 0). ψ(vj . . . ϕ is a simplicial map. . For each n-simplex v0 . . Then. 1) ∈ L. . We deﬁne ψ : (K ×I)(0) → L(0) by ψ(v. namely a simplicial homotopy from ϕ to ϕ . . .
j n j n
OL(ψ(vi . f (OK (v)) ⊂ OL (ϕ(v)) ∩ OL (ϕ (v)) for each v ∈ K (0) . . . Since ϕ and ϕ are simplicial approximations of f . .Proof. 1)) =
i=0 n
OL(ϕ(vi )) ∩
i=j
OL (ϕ (vi ))
n i=0
⊃
i=0
f (OK (vi )) ⊃ f
OK (vi ) = ∅.
which implies that ψ(v0 . ψ(vn . Give an order on K (0) so that K is an ordered complex. 1). 0)) ∩
i=0 i=j
OL (ψ(vi . . 0) = ϕ(v) and ψ(v. . ψ(vj . . 1) = ϕ (v) for each v ∈ K (0) . n.

vin ] = −[v0 . . . .
[v1 . . . . v1 ] v0 v2 [v0 . The equivalence class of an (n + 1)-tuple (vi0 . . . . An oriented simplex is a simplex given an orientation. . v1 . j0 . When one of them is decided.1 Deﬁnition Let σ = v0 . . For each n-simplex. For two ordered (n + 1)-tuples (vi0 . . . . . . v2 ] [v2 . . . . . . . in is a permutation of (0. . . In other words. . is odd. Then. . . The equivalence classes are called orientations of σ and one is called the inverse of the other. vin ]. . . . . v0 ] v1 v0 v2
向き (付け ) 逆向き 有向単体
0. . . . . n i0 . where Remark. . . . One should observe the following: • [vi0 . jn def i0 . which has two equivalence classes if n > 0 (only one when n = 0). . . .4
Homology of an Oriented Complex
4.
順序単体
37
. . . vn of σ. . . . . n). vin ) and (vj0 . . . vin ] = [v0 . . in (vi0 . . . an ordered simplex is a simplex given a total order on the vertices. 1. v0 ] v1
v0
v1
v0
v1
Note. . . . . . . . the relation ∼ is j0 . . vin ) is denoted by [vi0 . in 0. . (n+1)! many ordered n-simplexes are deﬁned. an (n + 1)-tuple (vi0 . . . in
is even. jn an equivalence relation on the set of (n + 1)-tuples of all vertices v0 . . . . . . vin ) of all vertices is called an ordered (n-)simplex. . . . n i0 . . vin ) ∼ (vj0 . vin ] and its inverse is by −[vi0 . . vjn ) ⇐⇒ 0 is even. . . . . . vn be an n-simplex. . . . . it is said that σ is given an orientation. In the above. v1 . vn ] ⇔ • [vi0 . . . vjn ) of all vertices v0 . vn ] ⇔
[v0 . . . we deﬁne i . . . . . . . . . . vn . .

By giving an order on K (0) so that K is an ordered complex (i.
The orientation of Sd K by the natural order 4. .2 Deﬁnition It is said that a simplicial complex K is given an orientation when each simplex of K is given an orientation. Let K be a simplicial complex such that K \ K (0) has m many simplexes.e. A simplicial complex K given an orientation is called an oriented (simplicial) complex. the free additive group over Γ (or generated by Γ) is the set of all formal sums r ai γi . . We call Γ the set of generators of
38
.
向き (付け ) 有向 (単体) 複体
An oriented complex
Note. γr }. Then. a1 . For instance. .3 Deﬁnition For a ﬁnite set Γ = {γ1. ar ∈ i=1 Z. K can be given 2m many orientations. we can give an orientation on K. . . ..
生成元
where we write ±1γi = ±γi and 0γi = 0. with the addition deﬁned by
n n n
自由加群
ai γi +
i=1 i=1
bi γi =
i=1
(ai + bi )γi . σ (0) is totally ordered for each σ ∈ K).
Remark. .4. . the barycentric subdivision Sd K is an oriented complex by the natural order.

. For each σ ∈ K. where the addition is deﬁned point-wise (i. f n Then.this group. . vi .
where we mean [v0 .
∂n+1
∂
∂n−1
∂
∂
∂
39
. . When Γ is inﬁnite. In other words. . . . . let K[n] = K (n) \ K (n−1) . . This group is isomorphic to the direct sum Z ⊕ ···⊕ Z. . . −1σ is identiﬁed with −σ. all oriented n-simplexes of K are generators of Cn (K). . . The K boundary operator ∂n = ∂n : Cn (K) → Cn−1 (K) is the homomorphism deﬁned by
n K ∂n ([v0 . vn ].
Note. ZΓ is the group ZΓ f consisting of all functions from Γ to Z.e. (α + α )(γ) = α(γ) + α (γ)). where {γ1 . γn ∈ Γ. vn ] = [v0 . vn ]. . . an ∈ Z. that is. . . . . . whence ZΓ ∼ Zr ∼ Z ⊕ · · · ⊕ Z . with the addition deﬁned as above. . . every α ∈ ZΓ can be written as α = i=1 ai δγi . . In case Γ = {γ1 . vi . . we can deﬁne the free additive group over Γ as ZΓ f the additive group consisting of functions α : Γ → Z such that α(γ) = 0 except for ﬁnitely many γ ∈ Γ. . we ca regard α as the n formal sum i=1 ai γi . a1 . By identifying γ = δγ . Let ∂0 = 0. . γn } = f −1 Γ \ α (0) and ai = α(γi ) ∈ Z. the free additive group over Γ is deﬁned as the set n of all formal ﬁnite sums i=1 ai γi . . . = =
r times
階数
For each γ ∈ Γ. . . . . n ∈ N. .
r times
We call r the rank of the free additive group over Γ. . vi+1 .4 Deﬁnition Let K be an oriented complex. the inverse of σ. Each c = r ki σi ∈ Cn (K) is called an i=1 n-chain. To avoid ambiguity. For each n ∈ Z+ .. . deﬁne δγ ∈ ZΓ by δγ (γ) = 1 and δγ (γ ) = 0 for all γ = γ. we have the following sequence:
n C(K) : · · · −→ Cn (K) −→ Cn−1 (K) −→ · · · 2 1 0 −→ C1 (K) −→ C0 (K) −→ 0. . Thus. . . . The (oriented) n-dimensional chain group Cn (K) of K is deﬁned as the free additive group over K[n]. .
4. γr }. vi−1 . γ1 . vn ]) = i=0
n 次元 (有向) 鎖群
n 次元鎖
境界作用素
(−1)i [v0 . . . . the rank is the number of elements of generators. . .

4.e. . For each n ∈ Z+ . n such that τ = (−1)i [v0 .
def def
Bn (K) = Im ∂n+1 = c ∈ Cn (K) ∃c ∈ Cn+1 (K) such that ∂n+1 (c ) = c . . ∂n )n 0 or the sequence above is called the (oriented) chain complex of K. . τ σ or dim τ = dim σ − 1). an (n − 1)face τ σ is said to be inherited the orientation from σ if there is some i = 0. . . 40
. we can obtain Cn (K) as the free additive group over the set K[n] of all n-simplexes of K without orientations. dim τ = dim σ − 1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ and τ is inherited the orientation from σ. Each c ∈ Zn (K) is called an n-cycle and each c ∈ Bn (K) an n-boundary or (a bounding n-cycle).5 Fact For every oriented complex K with dim K = m. . hence Bn (K) = 0 for n m. Each nsimplex has n + 1 many (n − 1)-faces but we do not know how to make the alternating sum of (n − 1)-faces without orientation. an n-chain is represented by c=
σ∈K[n]
結合係数
aσ σ. . . Remark. it is not necessary to give K an orientation. the K orientation of K is essential to deﬁne the boundary operator ∂n . .. For two oriented simplexes σ. dim τ = dim σ − 1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ and τ is not inherited the orientation from σ. . ⎨ [σ. τ ] = −1 if τ σ. . In the deﬁnition of the chain groups Cn (K).K The system C(K) = (Cn (K). vn ]. vi . However. (1) Z0 (K) = C0 (K) and (2) Cn (K) = 0 for n > m. the incidence number [σ. vn ] ∈ K. . Since K[n] = K (n) \ K (n−1) is ﬁnite. τ ] is deﬁned as follows: ⎧ ⎪1 if τ σ. . .
n 次元輪体 n 次元境界輪体
4. let
(有向) 鎖複体
Zn (K) = Ker ∂n = c ∈ Cn (K) ∂n (c) = 0 . . ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩0 otherwise (i. . τ ∈ K.6 Deﬁnition For an oriented n-simplex σ = [v0 . In fact.

. . . . . vi . . τ ] τ. . . . ∂n ∂n+1 ([v0 . . vn+1 ] = 0. . ∂n ∂n+1 = 0.. . . vn+1 ]
=
i=0 n+1
(−1)i ∂n ([v0 . . .1 Exercise – Prove the above equation. . . For n > 0 and [v0 . . .8 Proposition For each n > 0. Recall the following basic theorem in Group Theory: Fundamental Homomorphism Theorem: For every homomorphism f : G → H between groups. . . Bn (K) ⊂ Zn (K). vn+1 ] ∈ K. The case n = 0 is obvious. . . vi . vj . . . .
Proof. vn+1 ] +
i<j
(−1)i+j−1 [v0 .
演習
4. . . . . vi . . . . vn+1 ])
i−1
=
i=0
(−1) +
i j=0
(−1)j [v0 . . vn+1 ]
=
j<i
(−1)i+j [v0 .By using the incidence number. . 4. . . . . . . .7 Lemma For each n 0. . . . . . . . . . . vi . . vi . vi . . vi . . . . . Im f ∼ G/ Ker f. . . 4. vj . we can write ∂n (c) =
τ ∈K[n−1] σ∈K[n]
aσ [σ. . vn+1 ]
n+1
j=i+1
=
j<i
(−1)i+j [v0 . . . . . . . . . . . Bn−1 (K) ∼ Cn (K)/Zn (K). . . . i. = 41
準同型定理
. . vn+1 ]) = ∂n
n+1 n+1 i i=0 (−1) [v0 . . . . vn+1 ] −
i<j
(−1)i+j [v0 . . it follows that ∂n ∂n+1 = 0. . vj . vj . . . . . vj . = The following is the direct consequence of this theorem. . . . . . . . vi .e.
Then. vj . . vn+1 ] (−1)j−1 [v0 . . . . .

We denote H∗ (K) = (Hn (K))n 0 . The n-dimensional homology group of C is deﬁned as Hn (C) = Ker ∂n / Im ∂n+1 .
Note. The n-dimensional homology group Hn (K) of K deﬁned as the following factor group: Hn (K) = Zn (K)/Bn (K). Hn (K) = Hn (C(K)). When L is a subcomplex of K with the orientation inherited from K. Observe C2 (K(σ)) = Z[v0 . v2 ] (∼ Z ⊕ Z ⊕ Z). 4. v2 ] (∼ Z). (1) H0 (K) = C0 (K)/B0 (K) and Hm (K) = Zm (K).
(一般の) 鎖複体
ホモロジー群
4. so we write z L = z + Bn (L) or z K = z + Bn (K). For this complex. v2 be a 2-simplex and give the orientation of K(σ) by the order v0 < v1 < v2 . which is called the homology class of z (in K). Hn (K(σ)) = 0 for all n > 2.10 Fact For every oriented complex K with dim K = m. ∂n )n∈Z a chain complex if ∂n−1 ∂n = 0. In general. consider a system of Abelian groups and homomorphisms:
n C : · · · −→ Gn+1 −→ Gn −→ Gn−1 −→ · · · . = C1 (K(σ)) = Z[v0 . H0 ({v}) = Z0 ({v}) = C0 ({v}) ∼ Z and = Hn ({v}) = 0 for all n > 0. we denote z K = z + Bn (K) ∈ Hn (K). where Cn (K) = 0 for all n < 0. =
42
. Remark. we have to make clear that the homology class of z ∈ Zn (L) means which class z + Bn (L) or z + Bn (K).9 Deﬁnition Let K be an oriented complex and n ∈ Z+ . v1 . (2) Let σ = v0 . Then. = C0 (K(σ)) = Zv0 + Zv1 + Zv2 (∼ Z ⊕ Z ⊕ Z). Then. Then. (2) Hn (K) = 0 for n > m. v1 ] + Z[v0 . v2 ] + Z[v1 .4. we can naturally regard Cn (L) ⊂ Cn (K).11 Example (1) The simplicial complex {v} of only one vertex is the simplest one. v1 . Zn (L) ⊂ Zn (K) and Bn (L) ⊂ Bn (K).
n 次元 ホモロジー群
ホモロジー類
∂n+1
∂
We call C = (Gn . For each z ∈ Zn (K).

∂2 (c) = a[v1 . Z1 (K(σ)) = Z([v0 . v1 ] + a2 [v0 . = Then. v1 ] − [v0 . v2 ] + a[v0 . Finally. we have C1 (K(∂σ)) = C1 (K(σ)) C0 (K(∂σ)) = C0 (K(σ)) (∼ Z ⊕ Z ⊕ Z). we have B1 (K(σ)) = Z([v1 . v2 ]) = B1 (K(σ)). v1 . Therefore. follows that H1 (K(∂σ)) = Z1 (K(∂σ)) = Z1 (K(σ)) = 43
. Moreover. v2 ] − [v0 . (=
By the same argument as (2). For c = a1 v0 + a2 v1 + a3 v2 ∈ C0 (K(σ)). v2 ] + [v0 . consider a 1-chain c = a1 [v0 . = (3) Consider the subcomplex K(∂σ) of the complex K(σ) in (2) above. ∂2 (c) = 0 if and only if a = 0. ∂1 (c) = (a1 − a3 )(v1 − v0 ) + (a2 + a3 )(v2 − v0 ) because v2 − v1 = (v2 − v0 ) − (v1 − v0 ). v1 ]). Then. we can write c = a2 (v1 − v0 ) + a3 (v2 − v0 ) + (a1 + a2 + a3 )v0 . observe ∂1 (c) = a1 (v1 − v0 ) + a2 (v2 − v0 ) + a3 (v2 − v1 ) = −(a1 + a2 )v0 + (a1 − a3 )v1 + (a2 + a3 )v2 . Hn (K(∂σ)) = 0 for all n > 1. v1 ]. v2 ] + a3 [v1 . v2 ] ∈ C2 (K(σ)). ∂1 (c) = 0 if and only if a1 = −a2 = a3 . = ∼ Z ⊕ Z ⊕ Z). v2 ] + [v1 . H2 (K(σ)) = Z2 (K(σ)) = 0. Hence. v2 ] ∈ C1 (K(σ)). Then. which implies that Z0 (K(σ)) = C0 (K(σ)) = Z(v2 − v0 ) + Z(v1 − v0 ) + Zv0 ∼ B0 (K(σ)) ⊕ Z. in the above. v2 ] − a[v0 . Now. Thus. we have H0 (K(σ)) ∼ Z. Then. which means H1 (K(σ)) = 0.For c = a[v0 . it = ∼ Z. Then. Moreover. Moreover. H0 (K(∂σ)) = H0 (K(σ)) ∼ Z. it follows that B0 (K(σ)) = Z(v2 − v0 ) + Z(v1 − v0 ).

we have G = Z(1. For example. . (v0 .
44
. . . vn ) v0 .. For a simplicial complex K without orientation. .Remark. Although Cn (K) = Cn (K) for an oriented complex K with dim K > 0. vn ). C (K) = (Cn (K). . 1) + (b − a)(0. vn ) =
i=0
(−1)i (v0 . vi .
Note. 1) ⊕ Z(0. . On (K) = 0 even if n > dim K. . H is generated by (2. . 4. O Similarly to the above. . . that is. Moreover. calculate the homology groups (1) Hn (K(σ)). vn ∈ K
is the base for On (K). b) ∈ G can be written (a. 2) = 2Z(1. . = (2) We can also deﬁne On (K) as the free additive group over the set of all (n + 1)-tuples of vertices of simplexes of K. . vn ).4 whose orientation induced by the lexicographic order (cf. hence G/H ∼ = Z2 ⊕ Z. But it = ∼ Z in general. Then. . where the orientation is given by the order v0 < v1 < v2 < v3 . . Let ∂n : Cn (K) → Cn−1 (K) (n > 0) be the homomorphism deﬁned as follows:
n
演習
演習
∂n (v0 . v1 . vn ) = n i=0
n 次元順序鎖群
(−1)i (v0 . We call On (K) the n-dimensional ordered chain group of K.e. ∂n )n 0 is a chain complex.3 Exercise – Let K = I × I be the triangulation of I2 deﬁned in Exercise 2. we can deﬁne the homology of K as follows: (1) We deﬁne Cn (K) as the free additive group over the set of all ordered n-simplexes of K. 1). v2 . . (i. rank On (K) is larger than rank Cn (K). b) = a(1. . Let H be a subgroup of G = Z ⊕ Z (= Z2 ) with H ∼ Z. . . . . . let should be remarked that G/H = H = (2n. . Since each (a. whence rank Cn (K) = (n + 1)!αn (where αn is the number of n-simplexes of K). . .
∼ Then. .22). . 1). 2n) ∈ G n ∈ Z = Z(2. where Z2 = Z/2Z is the cyclic group with order 2 4.2 Exercise – For a 3-simplex σ = v0 . Proposition 2. 2) ∈ G). . . (2) Hn (K(∂σ)) and (3) Hn (K(σ)(1) ). . . vi . v3 . . it can be proved that Hn (K) ∼ Hn (C (K)) for all n 0. Calculate the homology groups (1) Hn (K) and (2) Hn (K (1) ). where it is not required that all vi are distinct. 1). . we deﬁne ∂n : On (K) → On−1 (K) as follows:
O ∂n (v0 .

calculate Euler-Poincar´ characteristic.8 with the theorem above. In general case. e 4. that is. it is not easy to compute directly the homology. it is harder to compute the homology groups even in the simple cases as in Example 4. we have rank Bn−1 (K) = rank Cn (K) − rank Zn (K). we have Hn (K) ∼ Z ⊕ · · · ⊕ Z ⊕ Zθ1 ⊕ Zθ2 ⊕ · · · ⊕ Zθs .12 Deﬁnition We call rank Hn (K) the n-dimensional Betti number of K. The following is also important: Theorem on Free Additive Groups: Every subgroup H of a free additive group G is also free and rank H rank G.
Recall the following very important theorem in Group Theory: Fundamental Theorem on Abelian Groups: Every ﬁnitely generated Abelian group G is isomorphic to the direct sum of some cyclic groups. ∂n )n 0 is obtained. which is called the ordered chain complex of K. avoiding orientation causes the increase in the numbers of generators of the chain groups. another chain complex O(K) = (On (K).O Thus. =
r times
自由加群に関する 定理
where r = rank Hn (K) = rank Zn (K) − rank Bn (K). The alternating sum
m n 次元ベッチ数
χ(K) =
i=0
(−1)i rank Hi (K) (m = dim K)
オイラー・ポアンカレ 標数
is called the Euler-Poincar´ characteristic of K. By these theorems. As a consequence. Z ⊕ · · · ⊕ Z ⊕ Zθ1 ⊕ Zθ2 ⊕ · · · ⊕ Zθs . Moreover. It can be also proved that Hn (K) ∼ Hn (O(K)) for all n 0. =
順序鎖複体
In the above. 4.11 or Exercises 4. rank G/H = rank G − rank H.11. even if we use orientation. each θi is a divisor of θi+1 and r = rank G is the rank of G.
r times
アーベル群に関する 基本定理
where Zθi is the cyclic group with order θi > 1. Combining Proposition 4.4 Exercise – For each oriented complex in Example 4. e 45
演習
.3.2 and 4.

46
演習
演習
. e 4.
Proof.´ 4. Note that Bm (K) = 0 and Z0 (K) = C0 (K). By e e using Euler-Poincar´ characteristic. As saw in the above. |K| ≈ |L| implies χ(K) = χ(L) for every simplicial complexes K and L.11. where a path is a continuous map f : I → X with f (0) = x and f (1) = y. we shall show that |K| ≈ |L| implies H∗ (K) ∼ H∗ (L) for = every oriented complexes K and L.11. Since rank Ci (K) = αi . that is. let αn be the number of n-simplexes of K and m = dim K. By this fact. we have rank Zi (K) + rank Bi−1 (K) = rank Ci (K). it follows that Euler-Poincar´ characteristic is e a topological invariant. and that X is path-connected if each points x. Then. Later. which surfaces are not homee omorphic to each others? Recall that a space X is connected if X cannot be the union of disjoint non-empty open sets. e Remark. This fact is called the topological invariance of homology.
4.6 Exercise – On each surfaces in Example 2. conﬁrm Euler-Poincar´ formula by computation.
m
オイラー・ポアンカレ の公式
χ(K) =
i=0
(−1)i αi .13 Theorem (Euler-Poincare Formula) For an oriented complex K and n ∈ Z+ . we can see that |K| ≈ |L| by computing Euler-Poincar´ characteristics χ(K) and χ(L). apply EulerPoincar´ formula to calculate Euler-Poincar´ characteristic. it follows that
m
χ(K) =
i=0 m
(−1)i rank Hi (K) (−1)i (rank Zi (K) − rank Bi (K))
i=0 m
=
= rank Z0 (K) +
i=1 m
(−1)i (rank Zi (K) + rank Bi−1 (K))
m
=
i=0
(−1) rank Ci(K) =
i=0
i
(−1)i αi . Then.5 Exercise – For each ordered complex in Example 4. y ∈ X can be connected by a path in X.

= (2) |K| is path-connected. We can choose n1 so that v = vn1 . . since ti [vi . u − v = m (ui − vi ). ui] is the sum of ti many [vi . ui ] ∈ C1 (K). ui]. Let σ ∈ K be the carrier of x and u ∈ σ (0) . . . (3) |K| is connected.
m
u − v = ∂1 (c) =
i=1
(ti ui − ti vi ).. (1) ⇒ (2): By (1). .
47
. Proof. Therefore. we may assume that ti > 0 for all i. we have H0 (K) = Zv K for some v ∈ K (0) . Then.. it follows that
m
u=v+
i=1
(ui − vi ) = unk +
j=n1 . Otherwise. Assume distinct n1 .n k
(uj − vj ). . . that is. nk . . In case unk = vj for some j = n1 . vi = v for k < i m.4. Then. that is. i=1 where vi = ui for every i. Observe that if ui = u then i=1 ui = vj for some j. the following conditions are equivalent: (1) H0 (K) ∼ Z. it ui = v for k < i follows that
k
ti −
i=1 k i=k+1
ti = s and
m m
1−
i=1
ti +
i=k+1
ti −
i= +1
ti +
i= +1
ti = 0. ui ] so that vi = v for 0 < i k. let nk+1 be such a j.. Moreover. u − sv = ∂1 (c) for some a 1-chain c = m ti [vi . Thus. we may assume that ti = 1 for all i. . we have
m
sv = u − ∂1 (c) = u −
i=1
(ti ui − ti vi ).
hence we have s = 1. it suﬃces to construct a path f : I → |K| with f (0) = v and f (1) = x. For each x ∈ |K|. nk can be chosen so that uni = vni+1 .
We can rearrange [vi .
By replacing vi and ui when ti < 0.. .14 Theorem For an oritented complex K. uK = svK for some s ∈ Z. ui = v for < i m (ui = v for 0 < i k).

14.
whence we have s = 0. . . ⎨ ni ni k+1 k+1 f (t) = ⎪ k ⎪(k + 1 − (k + 1)t)u + ((k + 1)t − k)x ⎩ t 1. . vi−1 = vi and vi−1 . we have c = i = 1k [vi−1 . u ∈ K (0) . unk = u. (2) ⇒ (1) For each distict v. we show that OK (u) ∩ U = ∅ implies OK (u) ⊂ U. . . nk . It remains to show that sv K = 0 implies s = 0. If sv K = 0 ∈ H0 (K).
k
−
i=1 k
ti +
i=k+1 m
ti = s and
m
ti −
i=1 i=k+1
ti +
i= +1
ti −
i= +1
ti = 0. Consequently. V such that |K| = U ∪ V . f −1 (U) and f −1 (V ) are non-empty open sets in I and I = f −1 (U) ∪ f −1 (V ). k Then. . . Since |K| is path-connected. . vi = v for k < i m. then we have some 1-chain c = m ti [vi . . . . H0 (K) is generated by only one element v K . Let I be the natural triangulation of I. where note that ui = v for 0 < i k. ui = v for [vi . Therefore. . H0 (K) = Zv K ∼ Z. . then |K| has disjoint non-empty open sets U. . we have a path f : I → |K| such that f (0) = x and f (1) = y. vi ] ∈ C1 (K). . ui] ∈ C1 (K) such that kv = ∂1 (c) = i=1 m (ti ui − ti vi ). . Note that vi = ui for each i = 1. . We can rearrange i=1 k. . v1 . Then. m. vk = u. Thus. f has a simplicial approximation ϕ : Sdn I → K for some n ∈ N. . . By Theorem 3. vi ∈ K for every i = 1. Let x ∈ U and y ∈ V . . Then. Since ∂1 (c) = vk − v0 = u − v. it follows that v K = uK . we have a path f : I → |K| with f (0) = v and 48
. (3) ⇒ (2) Fix any point v ∈ K (0) and deﬁne U = x ∈ |K| x can be connected to v by a path in |K| . Let x ∈ OK (u) ∩ U. . . . if k+1 Then. . We can deﬁne a path f : I → |K| as follows: ⎧ i−1 i ⎪(i − (k + 1)t)v + ((k + 1)t − i + 1)u ⎪ if t . . ui] so that vi = v for 0 < i k<i .whence u = vnk because unk = vj for any j = n1 . Then. For each u ∈ K (0) . we can choose distinct n1 . . . f (0) = v and f (1) = x. 2n } so that v0 = v. we have a continuous map f : I → |K| such that f (0) = v and f (1) = u. We can choose v0 . vk from {ϕ(2−n i) | i = 0. = (2) ⇒ (3) If |K| is disconnected. un1 = vn2 . nk so that v = vn1 . ui = v for < i m. This contradicts to the connectedness of I.

Since |K| is connected. we have the result. Observe that. . where Ki ’s are i=1 diﬀerent components of K. = In particular. Then Hn (K) ∼ Hn (K1 ) ⊕ Hn (K2 ) ⊕ · · · ⊕ Hn (Kr ) for each n ∈ Z+ . .
K K Since ∂n i = ∂n |Cn (Ki ) for each i = 1. Thus. it follows that U and |K| \ U are open. For each y ∈ OK (u). =
r times
成分
hence rankH0 (K) is the number of components of K. a maximal connected subset of |K|).e. Since |K| = u∈K (0) OK (u). 4..15 Deﬁnition A component of a simplicial complex K is a maximal subcomplex K0 of K such that |K0 | is connected. for each n 0. 3 3 ⎪ ⎩ (3 − 3t)u + (3t − 2)y if 2 t 1. Therefore. where |K0 | is a component of a space |K| (i.16 Theorem Let K = r Ki be an oriented complex. Bn (K) = Bn (K1 ) ⊕ Bn (K2 ) ⊕ · · · ⊕ Bn (Kr ). g(0) = x and g(1) = y. r. it follows that
Zn (K) = Zn (K1 ) ⊕ Zn (K2 ) ⊕ · · · ⊕ Zn (Kr ). Therefore. OK (u) ⊂ U. which means that every x ∈ |K| can be connected to v by a path in |K|.
Cn (K) = Cn (K1 ) ⊕ Cn (K2 ) ⊕ · · · ⊕ Cn (Kr ). 3 Then. we deﬁne a path g : I → |K| as follows: ⎧ ⎪f (3t) if 0 t 1 .f (1) = x. Proof. |K| = U. . |K| is path-connected. H0 (K) ∼ Z ⊕ · · · ⊕ Z. 4. . we have |K| \ U = ∅. ⎨ 3 g(t) = (2 − 3t)x + (3t − 1)u if 1 t 2 .
49
. that is.

A sequence h = (hn )n 0 of homomorphisms hn : Cn (K) → Cn (L) is called a chain homomorphism from C(K) to C(L) (denoted by h : C(K) → L K C(L)) if ∂n hn = hn−1 ∂n for each n > 0.1 Deﬁnition Let K and L be oriented complexes. we denote h−1 = (h−1 ). h induces the homology homomorphism h∗ : H∗ (K) → H∗ (L) deﬁned by L h∗ (z K ) = hn (z) (i. (gf )∗ = g∗ f∗ : H∗ (K1 ) → H∗ (K3 ). Moreover. Proof. Hence. 5.. h is called a chain isomorphism.e. the following diagram is commutative: h Cn (K) − − −n→ Cn (L) ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ L ⏐ K
∂n ∂n
鎖準同型 (写像)
Cn−1 (K) − − Cn−1 (L) −→
hn−1
Then. Obviously (idC(K) )∗ = idH∗ (K) . which is called the inverse of h. The homologies H∗ (K) and H∗ (L) are deﬁned by using the chain complexes
K C(K) = (Cn (K). ∂n )n 0 L and C(L) = (Cn (L). When all hn are isomorphisms.2 Proposition Let K1 .1 Exercise – Complete the proof above. For chain homomorphisms f = (fn )n 0 : C(K1 ) → C(K2 ) and g = (gn )n 0 : C(K2 ) → C(K3 ). hn (Zn (K)) ⊂ Zn (L) and hn (Bn (K)) ⊂ Bn (L) for each n 0. K2 and K3 be oriented complexes. Remark. idC(K) = (idCn (K) )n 0 is the chain isomorphism. the composition gf = (gn fn )n 0 : C(K1 ) → C(K3 ) is a chain homomorphism. 50
演習
. which is called the homology homomorphism induced by h. In case K = L (with n the same orientation). 5.5
Homomorphisms and Simplicial Maps
5. ∂n )n 0 . See the following diagram: −n→ Cn (K2 ) − − −n→ Cn (K3 ) Cn (K1 ) − − ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ K2 ⏐ K3 K1 ⏐
∂n ∂n hn−1 hn−1 h h
鎖準同型 (写像) の 導入するホモロジー 準同型 (写像) 鎖同型 (写像)
∂n
Cn−1 (K1 ) − − Cn−1 (K2 ) − − Cn−1 (K3 ) −→ −→ The proof is easy. that is. h∗ (z + Bn (K)) = hn (z) + Bn (L)) for each z ∈ Zn (K).

vn ]).
0
is a chain homomorphism from
Proof. . . Then. . vn ]). . Similarly. . . For each n 0. . . . vn ]) = [ϕ(v0 ). ϕn ([v0 . Dividing three cases. 5. . vn ]) = ϕn−1 ∂n ([v0 .
51
. ϕ = (ϕn )n C(K) to C(L). . . . . . let K1 = K3 = K (with the same orientation). .2. . vn ]
=
= ϕn−1
K = ϕn−1 ∂n ([v0 . . . we deﬁne the homomorphism ϕn : Cn (K) → Cn (L) by ϕn ([v0 . . . . . . vn ] be an oriented n-simplex of K. vn ]) = ∂n ([ϕ(v0 ). . . . . vn ])
i=0 n i i=0 (−1) [v0 . .
L L ∂n ϕn ([v0 .4 Deﬁnition Let K and L be oriented complexes and ϕ : K → L a simplicial map. it follows that f∗ (f −1 )∗ = idH∗ (L) . . . ϕ(vn ) = n.5 Lemma In the above.5. . Let [v0 . 5. 0 otherwise
for each oriented n-simplex [v0 . . . . . . ϕ(vi ). f∗ is an isomorphism −1 and f∗ = (f −1 )∗ . . ϕ(vn ) < n. . ϕ(vn )] (−1)i ϕn−1 ([v0 . vn ]) = 0 ⇔ dim ϕ(v0 ). . In Proposition 5. In the above. . . . vn ] of K. vi . . . . A chain isomorphism f = (fn )n 0 : C(K) → C(L) induces a homology isomorphism f∗ : H∗ (K) → −1 H∗ (L) and f∗ = (f −1 )∗ . . . . . . vi . . . . Proof. . . . K2 = L and g = f −1 . we have (f −1 )∗ f∗ = (idC(K) )∗ = idH∗ (K) . . . . . .3 Corollary Let K and L be oriented complexes. Remark. . . that is. .
(1) In case all ϕ(vi ) are distinct. . . . . . we show that
L K ∂n ϕn ([v0 . ϕ(vn )]) n
=
i=0 n
(−1)i [ϕ(v0 ). ϕ(vn )] if all ϕ(vi ) are distinct. . . dim ϕ(v0 ). Therefore.

whence dim ϕ(v0 ). . . Observe that [ϕ(v0 ). ϕ(vk ). ϕ(vk ). . . . ϕ(vn ) = n − 1. . vn ]) = 0. . . The homomorphism (ϕ )∗ is called the homology homomorphism induced by ϕ and simply denoted by ϕ∗ . . . . ϕ(vj ). . . . vi . ϕ(v0 ). . . . ϕ∗ is also denoted by f∗ . . ϕ(vn ) < n − 1 for all i = j. . . . ϕ(vj ). . . . The chain homomorphism ϕ : C(K) → C(L) is called the chain homomorphism induced by ϕ. . . . we have 0 that ϕ(vj ) = ϕ(vk ) and the other ϕ(vi ) are distinct. ϕ(vn )] = (−1)k+j−1[ϕ(v0 ). ϕ(vk ). . .
5. . ϕ(vj ). . . . which is also called the homology homomorphism induced by f . . . . . dim ϕ(v0 ). . . . . In case f = |ϕ| : |K| → |L|. ϕ(vn )]
L = 0 = ∂n ϕn ([v0 . . ϕ(vi ). . ϕ(vj ). . n. ϕ(vj ). . that is. . ϕ(vn ) < n − 1. . .(2) In case dim ϕ(v0 ). . . . . . . . . . . L K Thus. . . vn ]) = 0 = ∂n ϕn ([v0 . it follows that
K ϕn−1 ∂n ([v0 . . . . . . . .6 Deﬁnition Let K and L be oriented complexes and ϕ : K → L a simplicial map. Then. . . . . . . . . . . . for all i = 0. . ϕ(vn )] = (−1)k−1 [ϕ(vk ). . ϕ(vn )] = (−1)j [ϕ(v0 ). . . . . ∂n ϕn = ϕn−1 ∂n . . . . . . . it follows that
K L ϕn−1 ∂n ([v0 . . ϕ(vj ). . . . . . . . . .
j <k (3) When dim ϕ(v0 ). . ϕ(v0 ). vi . . 52
単体写像の導入する 鎖準同型 (写像) 単体写像の導入する ホモロジー準同型 (写像)
. . ϕ(vn )] + (−1)j−1 [ϕ(v0 ). . ϕ(vn )]. . . . . hence ϕn−1 ([v0 . . . . . . . . . ϕ(vn )] + (−1)k [ϕ(v0 ). ϕ(vi ). . vi . . . . Then. . ϕ is a chain homomorphism. ϕ(vn ) < n − 1. . vn ]
n such
=
i=0
(−1)i ϕn−1 ([v0 . . . . . . . . . . . k. . vn ])
= (−1)j [ϕ(v0 ). . vn ]) = ϕn−1 n n i i=0 (−1) [v0 . . . ϕ(vk ). vn ]). . . . vn ]). . ϕ(vn )] = (−1)k−1 [ϕ(vj ).

(ψϕ) = ψ ϕ . In Proposition 5. . . A simplicial isomorphism ϕ : K → L induces a homology isomorphism ϕ∗ : H∗ (K) → H∗ (L) and ϕ−1 = (ϕ−1 )∗ . To this end. ϕ(vn )] ∈ K2 . . . vn ]) for each [v0 . .8 Corollary Let K and L be oriented complexes. it follows that ϕ∗ (ϕ−1 )∗ = idH∗ (L) . . vn ]). hence (ψϕ)∗ = ψ∗ ϕ∗ . . . Therefore. . vn ]). vn ] ∈ K1 . . . . . . but Hn (L) is not a subgroup of Hn (K) in general as seen in Example 4. (1) In case K = L (with the same orientation). since all ϕ(vi ) are also distinct.11 (K(∂σ) ⊂ K(σ)). . . . . Similarly. . . . ϕ∗ is an isomorphism and ϕ−1 = (ϕ−1 )∗ . each chain group Cn (L) is a subgroup of Cn (K) and the boundary opL K erator ∂n is the restriction of ∂n . . Otherwise. K2 = L and ψ = ϕ−1 . . ϕn ([v0 . vn ]) = 0 = ψn ϕn ([v0 . . let K1 = K3 = K (with the same orientation). . . . . ∗ 53
. (2) In case L is a subcomplex of K (with the orientation inherited from K). ϕ(vn )] ∈ K2 or −[ϕ(v0 ). . . . 5. vn ]) = ψn ϕn ([v0 . For simplicial maps ϕ : K1 → K2 and ψ : K2 → K3 . we have (ϕ−1 )∗ ϕ∗ = (idK )∗ = idH∗ (K) . In this case. ψϕ(vn )] = (ψϕ)n ([v0 . . . When all ψϕ(vi ) are distinct. . Proof. Hence. we have (ψϕ) = ψ ϕ . . 5. Then. .7. . K2 and K3 be oriented complexes. . In case f = |ϕ| and g = |ψ|. . . (gf )∗ = g∗ f∗ . . ψϕ(vn )]. (ψϕ)n ([v0 . .Remark. vn ])) = [ψϕ(v0 ). a simplicial homeomorphism f : |K| → |L| induces ∗ −1 a homology isomorphism f∗ and f∗ = (f −1 )∗ . Then. vn ]) = [ψϕ(v0 ). . Thus. . . . . . . ϕ(vn )]. it suﬃces to show that (ψϕ)n ([v0 . . . we have (ψϕ)n ([v0 . . . Note that [ϕ(v0 ). whether ϕ(vi ) are distinct or not. We may only prove that (ψϕ) = ψ ϕ . . vn ]) = [ϕ(v0 ). . .7 Proposition Let K1 . it follows that ψn (ϕn ([v0 . (id|K| )∗ = (idK )∗ = idH∗ (K) . Proof.

. Sometimes. . By Proposition 5. hereafter we do not take care any orientation of a simplicial complex. that is. n [v0 . it is deﬁned that two simplicial maps are simplicially homotopic. We shall show that they induce the same homology homomorphism.16. . . Proof.11 Theorem Let f. Then. On the other L hand. we apply the above corollary to idK : K → L to show that H∗ (K) is determined independent from an orientation of K. If K is connected. Then. . vn ]) =
i=0
1
(−1)i [(v0 .Remark. = Proof. . .
54
.10 Proposition Let ϕ : K → L be a constant simplicial map. ϕn (Cn (K)) = 0. ϕ∗ (Hn (K)) = 0 for each n > 0 and ϕ∗ (H0 (K)) ∼ Z. if L is connected. By this remark. 5. (vi . .
n
Dn ([v0 . 1)]. ϕ∗ : H0 (K) → H0 (L) is an isomorphism. . ϕ∗ (H0 (K)) = H0 (L0 ) ∼ Z. (vi. 0). L) is connected.9 Proposition Let ϕ : K → L be a simplicial map. then ϕ∗ : H0 (K) → H0 (L) is a monomorphism (resp. in case both K and L are connected. . Proof. then H0 (L) = Zϕ(v) . hence ϕ∗ (Hn (K)) = 0. 0). the homology H∗ (K) is deﬁned for a simplicial complex K. .
A homomorphism is called a monomorphism or an epimorphism according to being injective or surjective. (vn . we use the term “a simplicial complex” instead of “an oriented complex”. an epimorphism). Let v ∈ K (0) .9. . In case L is the same simplicial complex as K with a diﬀerent orientation from K. we may consider its orientation. . where K (0) is given some order so that K is an ordered complex. = In Deﬁnition 3. If f and g are simplicially homotopic then f∗ = g∗ : H∗ (K) → H∗ (L). . 1). Let h : K × I → L be a simplicial homotopy with h0 = f and h1 = g.1 Hence. . 5. hence ϕ∗ : H0 (K) → H0 (L) is an epimorphism. If K (resp. vn ] ∈ K. We deﬁne 0. where ϕ(K (0) ) = {v0 }. 5. . g : K → L be simplicial maps. Let L0 be the component of L containing u0 . hence ϕ∗ : H0 (K) → H0 (L) is a monomorphism. In case of necessity. then H0 (K) = Zv K and ϕ∗ (vK ) = L ϕ(v) = 0. as follows: for each homomorphisms Dn : Cn (K) → Cn+1 (K × I). For each n > 0.

vj . . . . . . 0). . . . . (vi−1 . Then. . 1). . 1). . . . . . (vn . . . . . 0). . 0)]. . hn ∂n+1 Dn + Dn−1 ∂n ([v0 . vn ]
=
j=0 n
(−1)j Dn−1 ([v0 . . 55
. . 0). . . vn ]) = Dn−1
j=0 n
(−1)j [v0 . 0). (vi . . . . . . . . (vi+1. .K×I K For simplicity. . 0). . 1)] . 0). (vj . (vi . 0). (vi . . . . . vn ]) = hn ([(v0 . 1). 0)]) = gn ([v0 . . 0). 1). . (vj . 1)] . . (vi+1 . . 0). . (vi. . . 1)] − [(v0 . . vn ]) =
i=0
(−1)i
j<i
(−1)j [(v0 . . . . . 0). . . . . 0). we have ∂n+1 Dn + Dn−1 ∂n ([v0 . 0). 1). .
and
n
Dn−1 ∂n ([v0 . 1)]
n
+
j>i
(−1)j+1 [(v0 . observe n
∂n+1 Dn ([v0 . . . 1). vn ]) − fn ([v0 . . . . vj . . . we denote ∂n+1 = ∂n+1 and ∂n = ∂n . (vn . . 0). . 0). (vi . . . . . 1). . vn ]). (vn . . . . . . 0). (vi. 1)] − [(v0 . . . . . . . (vn . (vi . . 1). (vn . . 0). . 1)]
+ (−1)i [(v0 .
By summing these equations. . 0). . . . . . . . . 1). . (vj . (vn . 0). . . (vn . 0). . . . (vi . 0). . . . . (vi . . (vn . (vn . . . 1). 1). . . (vi. . . 1)]
= [(v0 . . (vi. . . vn ]) (−1)j
j=0 i<j
=
(−1)i [(v0 . . . . 1)] + (−1)i+1 [(v0 . . 1)]
+
i>j
(−1)i−1 [(v0 . Therefore. . . 1). . . . (vn . . . . . . . . (vj . (vn . . . (vn . . 1)] − [(v0 . (vi . . . vn ])
n
=
i=0
[(v0 . (vi−1 . .

= Proof. K)) ∼ H∗ ({v0 }). 0) = v and ϕ(v. for every simplex σ. 1) = v0 for all v ∈ L(0) . K)) is isomorphic to H∗ ({v0 }). We show that H∗ (St(v0 . K) with an = order on L(0) such that L is an ordered simplicial complex. Let L = St(v. Then ϕ is clearly a simplicial map. we have the result by Proposition 5. 1} → L(0) by ϕ(v.12 Corollary For any simplicial complex K and any vertex v0 ∈ K (0) . In particular. we have a simplicial homotopy h = |ϕ| such that h0 = id|L| and f = h1 : |L| → |L| is the constant map with h1 (|L|) = {v0 }. Since f∗ = (id|L| )∗ = idH∗ (L) . since Dn−1 ∂n (z) = Dn−1 (0) = 0. 5. H∗ (St(v0 . Hn (K(σ)) = 0 for n > 0 and H0 (K(σ)) ∼ Z.10. we have gn (z) − fn (z) = hn ∂n+1 Dn (z) ∈ hn (Bn (K)) ⊂ Bn (L).For any z ∈ Zn (K). We deﬁne ϕ : (L × I)(0) = L(0) × {0. Thus.
L L
56
. which implies that g∗ (z K ) = gn (z) = fn (z) = f∗ (z K ).

there are homomorphisms δn : Hn (K) → Hn−1 (K0 ). K1 and K2 be subcomplexes of K such that K = K1 ∪ K2 and K0 = K1 ∩ K2 .1 Deﬁnition A sequence of groups and homomorphisms
is said to be exact if Im fi = Ker fi+1 for each i = 1. i2 : K0 ⊂ K2 . let i1 : K0 ⊂ K1 . G −→ H −→ 0) is exact. Recall that a monomorphism is an injective homomorphism and an epimorphism is a surjective homomorphism. K2 ). −z K2 ). −z K2 ) = z − z 57
K
マイヤー・ヴ ィエト リス 完全系列
= 0 ∈ Hn (K). K1 . 6. . j1 : K1 ⊂ K and j2 : K2 ⊂ K be the inclusions and let ϕn : Hn (K0 ) → Hn (K1 ) ⊕ Hn (K2 ) and ψn : Hn (K1 ) ⊕ Hn (K2 ) → Hn (K) be homomorphisms deﬁned by ϕn (z K0 ) = ((i1 )∗ (z K0 ). . where p is the quotient homomorphism. r. ψn (z1
K1
完全 (系列)
マイヤー・ヴ ィエト リス の定理
(1) (2)
.2 Theorem (Mayer-Vietoris) Let K be an oriented complex and K0 . ψn ϕn (z K0 ) = ψn (z K1 . First. Remark.
ϕ0
ψ0
δ
This sequence is called the Mayer-Vietoris exact sequence for (K.6
Mayer-Vietoris Exact Sequences and the Subdivision Operator
G1 −→ G2 −→ · · · −→ Gr+1
f1 f2 fr
6. Proof. we show Im ϕn = Ker ψn .
. z2
K2
) = (j1 )∗ (z1
K1
) + (j2 )∗ (z2
K2
) = z1 + z2 . A homomorphism f : G → H is injective (resp. n the following sequence is exact: · · · −→ Hn (K0 ) −→ Hn (K1 ) ⊕ Hn (K2 ) −→ Hn (K)
n 1 −→ Hn−1 (K0 ) −→ · · · −→ H1 (K) −→ H0 (K0 )
0 such that
δn+1
ϕn
ψn
δ
ϕn−1
ψ1
δ
0 −→ H0 (K1 ) ⊕ H0 (K2 ) −→ H0 (K) −→ 0. surjective) if and only if f f 0 −→ G −→ H (resp. For each z ∈ Zn (K0 ). If H is a subgroup of G then p ⊂ 0 −→ H −→ G −→ G/H −→ 0 is exact.
K
Then. . −(i2 )∗ (z K0 )) = (z K1 . .

. δn (z K ) = 58
. Therefore. 2). Since z1 + z2
K
= ψn (z1 K1 . z2 K2 ) ∈ Ker ψn ⊂ Hn (K1 ) ⊕ Hn (K2 ). we can deﬁne = −∂n (c2 ) .
there is some c ∈ Cn+1 (K) such that ∂n+1 (c) = z1 + z2 . where z1 ∈ Zn (K1 ) and z2 ∈ Zn (K2 ). z − z = ∂n+1 (c) for some c ∈ Cn+1 (K). z0 K1 = z1 K1 ∈ Hn (K1 ) and z0 K2 = −z2 K2 ∈ Hn (K2 ). Let z0 = z1 − ∂n+1 (c1 ) = ∂n+1 (c2 ) − z2 ∈ Zn (K1 ) ∩ Zn (K2 ) = Zn (K0 ).) Assume z K = K z ∈ Hn (K) for other z ∈ Zn (K) and z = c1 + c2 . i. Then. To see Ker ψn ⊂ Im ϕn . z2 K2 ). ci ∈ Cn (Ki ) (i = 1. ψn ϕn = 0. Ker ψn = Im ϕn . hence ϕn (z0 K0 ) = (z0 K1 . Thus. let z K . we will deﬁne the homomorphisms δn : Hn (K) → Hn−1 (K0 ). ci . let (z1 K1 . n 0. where we write c = c1 + c2 . 2). Therefore. it follows that ∂n (c1 ) = −∂n (c2 ) ∈ Zn−1 (K1 ) ∩ Zn−1 (K2 ) = Zn−1 (K0 ). 2).Hence. ci ∈ Cn (Ki ) (i = 1. Next. Since ∂n (z) = 0. 2). we have ∂n (c1 ) − ∂n (c1 ) = ∂n (c1 − c1 ) ∈ Bn−1 (K0 ). K To verify that δn is a homomorphism. ci ∈ Cn (Ki ) (i = 1. c2 ∈ Cn+1 (K2 ). c1 ∈ Cn+1 (K1 ). z2 K2 ) = 0 ∈ Hn (K).
K0
δn (z K ) = ∂n (c1 )
K0
(3)
where z = c1 + c2 . −z0 K2 ) = (z1 K1 . (Note that Bn−1 (K1 ) ∩ Bn−1 (K2 ) = Bn−1 (K0 ) in general. Then. ci ∈ Cn+1 (Ki ) (i = 1. it follows that c1 − c1 − ∂n+1 (c1 ) = c2 − c2 + ∂n+1 (c2 ) ∈ Cn (K1 ) ∩ Cn (K2 ) = Cn (K0 ).
Each z ∈ Zn (K) can be written as z = c1 + c2 . z ∈ Hn (K). ci ∈ Cn (Ki ) (i = 1. Im ϕn ⊂ Ker ψn . 2). z = c1 + c2 ∈ Zn (K). We can write c = c1 + c2 . where z = c1 + c2 . Then. which means that ∂n (c1 ) = ∂n (c1 ) δn : Hn (K) → Hn−1 (K0 ) by
K0 K0
∈ Hn−1 (K0 ). z0 K0 ∈ Hn (K0 ).e. Then.

Observe that z K0 = ∂n+1 (c1 )
K0 K0 K1 K2
= δn+1 (z ) ∈ Im δn+1 .
K
Thus. −∂n+1 (c1 ) ) = 0 ∈ Hn (K1 ) ⊕ Hn (K2 ). It remains to show Im ψn = Ker δn . where z ∈ Zn (K0 ). z2 K2 ) = z1 + z2 = z K . K2 ∂n+1 (c1 ) = −∂n+1 (c2 ) ∈ Bn (K2 ). Let z K ∈ Hn+1 (K). 59
. K1 Since ∂n+1 (c1 ) ∈ Bn (K1 ). ci ∈ Cn+1 (Ki ) (i = 1. To see Ker δn ⊂ Im ψn .e. we have ϕn δn+1 (z K ) = ϕn (∂n+1 (c1 ) ) = (∂n+1 (c1 ) . Then. it follows that K ψn (z1 K1 . −z K2 ) = ϕn (z K0 ) = 0 ∈ Hn (K1 ) ⊕ Hn (K2 ). Since z = z1 + z2 . Im ψn ⊂ Ker δn . Therefore. Since z − z = (c1 − c1 ) + (c2 − c2 ) and ci − ci ∈ Cn (Ki ) (i = 1. we have z1 K1 ∈ Hn (K1 ) and z2 K2 ∈ Hn (K2 ).
Hence. Since ∂n (c1 ) = δn (z K ) = 0 ∈ Hn (K0 ). we have δn (z K − z ) = δn (z − z ) = ∂n (c1 − c1 ) = ∂n (c1 )
K0 K K K0 K K0
K0
K
K0
− ∂n (c1 )
= δn (z K ) − δn (z ). i. z2 K2 ) = δn (z1 + z2 ) = ∂n (z1 )
K K0
= 0 ∈ Hn−1 (K0 ). z1 + z2 ∈ Zn (K) and δn ψn (z1 K1 . 2). i. Let (z1 K1 . 2). ∂n+1 (z ) = ∂n+1 (c1 ) − ∂n+1 (c2 ) = 0. where z = c1 + c2 ∈ K0 Zn (K). ∂n+1 (c1 ) = 0 ∈ Hn (K1 ). Im δn+1 ⊂ Ker ϕn . On the other hand. 2)..e. there is some c0 ∈ Cn (K0 ) such that ∂n (c1 ) = ∂n (c0 ). let z K0 ∈ Ker ϕn ⊂ Hn (K0 ). Let z = c1 − c2 ∈ Cn+1 (K). hence ∂n+1 (c1 ) = 0 ∈ Hn (K2 ). we have Im δn+1 = Ker ϕn . Im ψn = Ker δn .∂n (c1 ) and δn (z ) = ∂n (c1 ) . let z K ∈ Ker δn ⊂ Hn (K). which means z ∈ Zn+1 (K). To see Ker ϕn ⊂ Im δn+1 . Therefore. Then.
We show Im δn+1 = Ker ϕn . we have c1 ∈ Cn+1 (K1 ) and c2 ∈ Cn+1 (K2 ) such that z = ∂n+1 (c1 ) = ∂n+1 (c2 ). Since (z K1 . ci ∈ C(Ki ) (i = 1. z1 = c1 − c0 ∈ Zn (K1 ) and z2 = c2 + c0 ∈ Zn (K2 ). Then. δn ψn = 0. where z = c1 + c2 ∈ K0 Zn+1 (K). Then. δn+1 (z K ) = ∂n+1 (c1 ) ∈ Hn (K0 ). Thus. Thus. ϕn δn+1 = 0.. where z1 ∈ Zn (K1 ) and z2 ∈ Zn (K2 ). z2 K2 ) ∈ Hn (K1 ) ⊕ Hn (K2 ).

. . . . n is odd. . . bθ ]. . . . let O(σ) be the set of all ordered (n + 1)-tuples (vi0 . n ⎪ ⎪1 if ⎪ is even. vin ) ∈ O(σ). ∂n Sdn ([v0 . . .9. we have the following exact sequence: · · · −→ Hn (K0 ) −→ Hn (K1 ) ⊕ Hn (K2 ) −→ Hn (K)
n 2 −→ Hn−1 (K0 ) −→ · · · −→ H2 (K) −→ H1 (K0 ) 1 −→ H1 (K1 ) ⊕ H1 (K2 ) −→ H1 (K) −→ 0. . . . . .17 (2). . . . . bθ . where ∂n = ∂n K K and ∂n = ∂n . . Then. ⎪ ⎩ i0 . in sgn θ = ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪−1 if 0. . . we have j the oriented n-simplex [bθ .Remark. in and let bθ be the barycenter of the j-face vi0 . bθ ]) 0 n (−1)i sgn θ [bθ . . . . 0 n i
θ∈O(σ) i=0
=
60
.
δn+1
ϕn
ψn
δ
ϕn−1
ψ2
δ
ϕ1
ψ1
δ
6. One should note that bθ is the 0 n n barycenter of σ for any θ ∈ O(σ). . . . that is. . . bθ ] of Sd K(σ). . vn ]) =
θ∈O(σ) n
sgn θ ∂n ([bθ . . ⎪ ⎨ i0 . vn ]) =
θ∈O(σ)
sgn θ [bθ . ∂n Sdn = Sdn−1 ∂n for each n 0. . . . . . . Then. . . . . . . vn ] be an oriented n-simplex of K. . The barycentric subdivision Sd K is considered as an oriented complex with the orientation given by the natural order in Example 2. . . . . . let sgn θ be deﬁned by ⎧ ⎪ 0. . vin ) of all vertices v0 . Let σ = [v0 . .
6. . For each θ = (vi0 . . 0 n
細分作用素
We call Sd = (Sdn )n
0
the subdivision operator. . In case K0 is connected. vn of σ. hence δ1 = 0. . bθ ]. . . . . . . . vn ]. . Proof. Let K be an oriented complex. vij of σ. . . We deﬁne the homomorphisms Sdn : Cn (K) → Cn (Sd K) as follows: Sdn ([v0 . Then.3 Deﬁnition For an oriented n-simplex σ = [v0 .4 Lemma The subdivision operator Sd : C(K) → C(Sd K) is a chain Sd homomorphism. ϕ0 is a monomorphism by Proposition 5. .

. . . . . 0 n−1
˜ O(σi ) = θ θ ∈ O(σi ) ⊂ O(σ). . we deﬁne σi = [v0 . we shall prove the following theorem: 61
. . .For each θ = (vk0 . vki = vki+1 . sgn θ = (−1)n−i sgn θ and [bθ . i i (v0 . . bθ ] 0 n−1
i=0 θ∈O(σi ) ˜
˜
˜
(−1)n sgn θ[bθ . . Observe that O(σ) = follows that
n i=0
O(σi ) and O(σi ) ∩ O(σj ) = ∅ if i = j. vi ) ∈ O(σ). . bθ . . . . . vn ]) =
θ∈O(σ) i i i For each i = 0. n. . . . . . . vki+1 = vki and vk = vk for − sgn θ . . Hence. . . . . Then. . it follows that ∂n Sdn ([v0 . Let 0 n−1 0 n−1
= i. that is. . vn−1 ] by vj = vj for j < i i and vj = vj+1 for j i. ˜ ˜ ˜ Then. . . . vkn−1 ) ∈ O(σi ). . . . . . vi . . . . . . it
n i i (−1)i Sdn−1 ([v0 . . . The proof is completed. . vn ). vkn ) ∈ O(σ) and i < n. . . . . Then. . . . . . . . vn−1 ) = (v0 . . . bθ ]. . vn−1 ]) i=0 n
Sdn−1 ∂n ([v0 . . . . . . bθ ] = [bθ . . 0 n 0 n i i Indeed. . . . bθ ] 0 n−1
i=0 θ∈O(σi ) n
= =
θ∈O(σ)
˜ (−1)n sgn θ[bθ . vkn ) ∈ O(σ) such that θ = θ but [bθ . . . . sgn θ =
(−1)n sgn θ [bθ . there exists a unique θ = (vk0 . . i i For each θ = (vk0 . Applying Mayer-Vietoris exact sequences. . . . vkn−1 . . . . bθ ] = [bθ . . vn ]). bθ ]. bθ ] 0 n−1
= ∂n Sdn ([v0 . . . . i + 1. . . . . . we denote i i ˜ θ = (vk0 . . . vn ]) = =
(−1)i sgn θ[bθ . bθ . bθ ]. . . . .

6 Lemma (Five Lemma) Consider the following commutative diagram of groups and homomorphisms: −→ −→ −→ −→ A1 − − A2 − − A3 − − A4 − − A5 ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ ⏐h ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ ⏐h h h h
1 2 3 4
5 項補題
f1
f2
f3
f4
5
B1 − − B2 − − B3 − − B4 − − B5 .. h5 f4 (x ) = g4 h4 (x ) = g4 g3 (y) = 0. h1 is an epimorphism and h5 is a monomorphism. h2 and h4 are isomorphism.. Therefore h3 (x + f2 (x )) = h3 (x) + h3 f2 (x ) = y. Then. Since h5 is a monomorphism. so x = f2 (x ) = f2 f1 (x ) = 0. Since h4 f3 (x) = g3 h3 (x) = 0 and h4 is a monomorphism.6.. Then. Since h2 is a monomorphism. g3 (y) = h4 (x ) for some x ∈ A4 . f3 (x) = 0. Then. f4 (x ) = 0. x ∈ Ker f3 = Im f2 . whence h3 f2 (x ) = g2 h2 (x ) = g2 (y ) = y − h3 (x). Then. = To prove this theorem. since Sd K(σ) = St(b(σ).5. Indeed. let x ∈ Ker h3 ⊂ A3 . −→ −→ −→ −→
g1 g2 g3 g4
Suppose that the top and bottom sequences are exact. y − h3 (x) ∈ Ker g3 . Proof of Theorem 6. 62
. we need the following lemma: 6. let y ∈ B3 . hence x = f3 (x) for some x ∈ A3 . Sd K(σ)). i. Furthermore.e. i. The theorem is trivial if dim K = 0 because Sd K = K.e. hence h2 (x ) = g1 (y ) for some y ∈ B1 . Since h4 is an epimorphism. the theorem holds when K = K(σ) for some simplex σ. the subdivision operator Sd : C(K) → C(Sd K) induces the homology isomorphism Sd∗ : H∗ (K) → H∗ (Sd K). h2 (x ) ∈ Ker g2 = Im g1 . hence H∗ (K) ∼ H∗ (Sd K). x ∈ Ker f4 = Im f3 .5 Theorem For every oriented complex K. Since h2 is an epimorphism. hence x = f2 (x ) for some x ∈ A2 . g2 h2 (x ) = h3 f2 (x ) = h3 (x) = 0. f1 (x ) = x . Proof. whence h2 f1 (x ) = g1 h1 (x ) = h2 (x ). we have x ∈ A1 such that h1 (x ) = y . hence y − h3 (x) = g2 (y ) for some y ∈ B2 . g3 (y − h3 (x)) = g3 (y) − g3 h3 (x) = h4 (x ) − h4 f3 (x) = 0.e. h3 is an isomorphism. To see that h3 is surjective.. To show that h3 is injective. Since h1 is an epimorphism. i. we have x ∈ A2 such that h2 (x ) = y .e. i.

that is. Choose c1 ∈ Cn (K1 ) so that z−c1 ∈ Cn (K(σ)).12. Sd∗ : H0 (K(σ)) → H0 (Sd K(σ)) is also an isomorphism. Let σ be a maximal dimensional simplex of K. H0 (K(σ)) = Zv K(σ) and H0 (Sd K(σ)) = Zv Sd K(σ) . Since Sd0 (v) = v by the deﬁnition. and as seen in the above. Assume that the theorem holds for simplicial complexes with m − 1 many simplexes and that K has m many simplexes. dim σ = dim K > 0. where z ∈ Zn (K). In the case K has the only one simplex (hence dim K = 0). we may assume that dim K > 0. Sd K = Sd K1 ∪ Sd K(σ) and Sd K(∂σ) = Sd K1 ∩ Sd K(σ). To see Sd∗ δn = Sd∗ δn . By the above remark. Sd K1 and Sd K(σ) are subcomplexes of Sd K. K = K1 ∪ K(σ) and K(∂σ) = K1 ∩ K(σ).Hn (K(σ)) = Hn (Sd K(σ)) = 0 for all n > 0 by Corollary 5. where v is a vertex of σ. Now.14. hence Sd∗ : Hn (K(σ)) → Hn (Sd K(σ)) is an isomorphism for each n > 0. Then. Consider the following diagram: −→ ··· − −
δn+1
Hn (K(∂σ)) ⏐ ⏐ Sd
∗
−− −→
ϕn
Hn (K1 ) ⊕ Hn (K(σ)) ⏐ ⏐ Sd ⊕ Sd
∗ ∗
· · · − − Hn (Sd K(∂σ)) − − Hn (Sd K1 ) ⊕ Hn (Sd K(σ)) −→ −→
δn+1 ϕn
−− −→
ψn
Hn (K) ⏐ ⏐ Sd
∗
−− −n→
δ
Hn−1 (K(∂σ)) ⏐ ⏐Sd
∗
− − ··· −→
ϕn−1
− − Hn (Sd K) − − Hn−1 (Sd K(∂σ)) − − · · · . K1 = K \ {σ} is a subcomplex of K. Sd∗ : H∗ (K(∂σ)) → H∗ (Sd K(∂σ)) and Sd∗ : H∗ (K1 ) → H∗ (Sd K1 ) are isomorphisms by the inductive assumption. Sd∗ : H∗ (K(σ)) → H∗ (Sd K(σ)) is also an isomorphism. we prove the theorem by induction on the number of simplexes of K. By Theorem 4. Moreover. let z K ∈ Hn (K). −→ −→ −→
ψn δn ϕn−1
where the top and bottom sequences are Mayer-Vietoris exact sequences. It is easy to see that (Sd∗ ⊕ Sd∗ )ϕn = ϕn Sd∗ and Sd∗ ψn = ψn (Sd∗ ⊕ Sd∗ ). it has proved in the above. whence Sdn (c1 ) ∈ Cn (Sd K1 ) and Sdn (z)− 63
.

In this case. 6. then Cn (K(∂σ)) = Cn (K(σ)) and ∂n = ∂n . Hence Zn (K(∂σ)) = k and Bn (K(∂σ)) = Bn (K(σ)) for n < k. It remains to show that Hk (K(∂σ)) ∼ = ∼ Z in case k = 1 (Example 4. Then.12. we have Hk (∂σ) ∼ Hk−1(∂τ ).
64
.Sdn (c1 ) ∈ Cn (Sd K(σ)). we have the following exact sequence: Hk (K(τ )) ⊕ Hk (St(v. Since = K(∂σ) = K(τ ) ∪ St(v.11). Therefore. It follows from the Five Lemma that Sd∗ : H∗ (K) → H∗ (Sd K) is an isomorphism.12. In Corollary 5. Hn (K(σ)) = 0 if n > 0 and H0 (K(σ)) ∼ Z. Now. By induction. applying Mayer-Vietoris exact sequences. Therefore Zn (K(σ)) for n Hn (K(∂σ)) = Hn (K(σ)) for n < k. If n K(∂σ) K(σ) k. the above diagram commutative. we have shown that for every simplex σ. Hn (K(∂σ)) ∼ = Z if n = 0. the both side groups are trivial by Corollary 5. Z. hence H0 (K(∂σ)) ∼ Z ⊕ Z and Hn (K(∂σ)) = 0 = for all n > 0. In the above sequence. hence Hn (K(∂σ)) = 0. it suﬃces to show that Hk (∂σ) ∼ Hk−1 (∂τ ). = Remark. = we can calculate the homology groups of K(∂σ).7 Proposition Let σ be an (k + 1)-simplex (k > 0). 0 otherwise. we have excluded the case k = 0. We have shown that Hk (K(∂σ)) = In case k > 1. Then. ∂σ consists of just two points. k. let τ be an k-face of σ. K(∂σ)) −→ Hk (K(∂σ)) −→ Hk−1 (K(∂τ )) −→ Hk−1 (K(τ )) ⊕ Hk−1 (St(v. Let v be the vertex of σ with v ∈ τ .4 that Sd∗ δn (z K ) = Sd∗ (∂n (c1 ) ) = Sdn−1 ∂n (c1 ) = ∂n Sdn (c1 )
Sd K0 K0
K0
and δn (Sdn (z)
Sd K
) =
Sd K0
= δn (Sdn (z)
Sd K
) = δn Sd∗ (z K ). For n > k = dim ∂σ. K(∂σ)). K(∂σ)) and K(∂τ ) = K(τ ) ∩ St(v.
Thus. δn (z K ) = ∂n (c1 ) Sd K0 ∂n Sdn (c1 ) . Cn (K(∂σ)) = 0. In the above. K(∂σ)).
Proof. It follows from Lemma 6.

.7
Topological Invariance of Homology
7. Then. . vin . . . . . . bθ ]) = 0.1 Lemma Let K be an oriented complex. . 7.. . bθ ]. . . . . In particular. Recall Sdn ([v0 . . . . . . . . whence θ0 ∈ O(σ) is a unique element such that all γ(bθ0 ) are distinct. . we can show γ Sd = idC(K) . bθ ]) 0 n
= sgn θ0 [vi0 . . Since all γ(bθ0 ) are distinct. . . vi0 are inductively determined. Then. it follows that 0 n γn Sdn (σ) = γn Sdn ([v0 . . it should be noticed that γ(bθ0 ) = vij for each j = 0. . . Then. . vn ] each oriented n-simplex of K. γ(b(σn−1 )) = vin−1 . . . . ⎪ ⎩ i . Indeed. . vin ) ∈ O(σ) such that all γ(bθ0 ) are distinct. . .. . . If γ : Sd K → K a simplicial approximation of id|K|. . ϕ∗ Sdn = ψ∗ Sdm : H∗ (K) → H∗ (L). Since the subdivision operator Sd : C(K) → C(Sd K) induces the homology isomorphism Sd∗ : H∗ (K) → H∗ (Sd K) by Theorem 6. . vin ) of all vertices v0 . Then γ(b(σn−2 )) = vin−2 . . if such a θ0 exists. ⎪ ⎨ i0 . . . . . . γ(b(σ)) = vin . vij of σ and j ⎧ ⎪ 0. then each γ(bθ0 ) is a j j vertex of vi0 . . . .5. n ⎪ ⎪ if ⎪1 is even. . . . 0 n
where O(σ) denotes the set of all ordered (n + 1)-tuples θ = (vi0 . vn ] = σ. it suﬃces to show γ∗ Sd∗ = idH∗ (K) . n is odd. . In fact. . bθ is the barycenter of the j-face vi0 .. in sgn θ = ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪−1 if 0. Let n 0 and σ = [v0 . . . .. Let j j σn−1 be the (n − 1)-face of σ which does not contain vin . . . . Proof.i
0 n
We shall observe that there is a unique θ0 = (vi0 . . vij because γ is a simplicial approximation of id|K| . ∗ ∗ 65
. vn ]) =
θ∈O(σ)
sgn θ [bθ . . Therefore. . . then γ∗ : H∗ (Sd K) → H∗ (K) is an isomorphism −1 with γ∗ = Sd∗ . γn Sdn = idCn (K) for every n 0. . . . vn ]) =
θ∈O(σ)
sgn θ γn ([bθ . we have γ(bθ0 ) = vij . . Thus. vin ] = [v0 . vn . . Let σn−2 be the (n − 2)-face of σn−1 which does not contain vin−1 . . . . n and j θ = θ0 implies γn ([bθ . . . vin−1 . j Now.2 Lemma Let f : |K| → |L| be a continuous map and ϕ : | Sdn K| → |L| and ψ : | Sdm K| → |L| simplicial approximations of f .

we have f∗ = (γϕ)∗ Sdm = γ∗ ϕ∗ Sdm . Proof.1. Let γ : Sdn K2 → K2 and ϕ : Sdm K1 → Sdn K2 simplicial approxi∗ mations of id|K2 | and f . Then. ∗ ∗ On the other hand.. f∗ = g∗ Sdn ). we have m m ϕ∗ (γn )∗ = (ϕγn )∗ = ψ∗ : H∗ (Sdm K) → H∗ (L). by Proposition 3. Then. Then. 7. we have (gf )∗ = (ψϕ)∗ Sdm = ψ∗ ϕ∗ Sdm = ψ∗ Sdn γ∗ ϕ∗ Sdm = g∗ f∗ . It follows from Theorem 3. ∗ ∗ ∗
H∗ (K) R
m6 mmm mmm mmm mmm
Sdn ∗
H∗ (Sdn K)
S
RRR RRR RRR Sdm RRR( ∗
Sdm−n ∗
m (γn )∗
QQQ QQQϕ∗ QQQ QQQ Q( m6 mmm mmm mmm mmm ψ∗
H∗ (L)
H∗ (Sdm K)
7. ψϕ : Sdm K1 → K3 is a simplicial approximation gf by Proposition 3. it follows that ∗ ∗ m ϕ∗ Sdn = ϕ∗ (γn )∗ Sdm = ψ∗ Sdm : H∗ (K) → H∗ (L). Then. respectively. Remark.13. m respectively. f : |K1 | → |K2 | and g : |K2 | → |K3 | continuous maps. m Since (γn )∗ Sdm = Sdn by Lemma 7. By Theorem 5. the homomorphism f∗ is determined independently from a simplicial approximation of f .11. We deﬁne the homology homomorphism f∗ : H∗ (K) → H∗ (L) induced by f as g∗ Sdn : ∗ H∗ (K) → H∗ (L) (i.e. let γ i : | Sdi K| → | Sdi−1 K| be a simplicial approximation of id|K| . Let ψ : Sdn K2 → K3 be a simplicial approximation of g.3 Deﬁnition Let f : |K| → |L| be a continuous map. ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ 66
ホモロジー準同型 (写像)
.13. Since γϕ : Sdm K2 → K2 is a simplicial approximation of f by Proposition 3. where g : | Sdn K| → |L| is a simplicial ∗ approximation of f .Proof.13. For each i > 0. By Lemma 7.17 that ϕγn is simplicially homotopic to ψ. We may assume that m > n. Recall that (id|K| )∗ = idH∗ (K) .4 Theorem Let K1 . (gf )∗ = g∗ f∗ : H∗ (K1 ) → H∗ (K3 ). g∗ = ψ∗ Sdn .2.
m γn = γ n+1 · · · γ m−1 γ m : | Sdm K| → | Sdn K| m and ϕγn : | Sdm K| → |L| are also simplicial approximations of id|K| and f . K2 and K3 be oriented complexes.

that is. hence (f∗ )−1 = (f −1 )∗ . and Hi (Sn ) = Z if i = 0. that is. we can deﬁne the X homology H∗ (X) independently from a triangulation of X.8. Then. Moreover. = For each n > 0. for another triangulation (KY .7 that Hi (Bn ) = Z if i = 0. 0 otherwise. 7. 7.5 Theorem (Topological Invariance of Homology) Let K and L be oriented complexes. |K| ≈ |L| implies H∗ (K) ∼ H∗ (L). 7. = Proof. For a continuous map f : X → Y . we deﬁne f∗ = (h−1 f hX )∗ : H∗ (X) = H∗ (KX ) → H∗ (KY ) = H∗ (Y ) Y which is called the homology homomorphism induced by f . Hence. The following follows from Theorem 4. we can show the topological invariance of dimension of Euclidean spaces. for another triangulation (KX . hY ). hX ) of X. H∗ (KY ) is identifying with H∗ (KY ) by the isomorphism (h−1 hY )∗ .Using this theorem. by identifying (hY −1 f hX )∗ : H∗ (K ) → Y H∗ (L ) with (h−1 f hX )∗ : H∗ (K) → H∗ (L).12 and Proposition 6. (f −1 )∗ f∗ = (id|K| )∗ = idH∗ (K) and f∗ (f −1 )∗ = (id|L| )∗ = idH∗ (L) . By using this observation. we deﬁne the homology H∗ (X) = H∗ (KX ). given a triangulation (KX . the homology homomorphism Y f∗ : H∗ (X) → H∗ (Y ) can be deﬁned independently from triangulations of X and Y .6 Deﬁnition For a (topological) polyhedron X. where H∗ (KX ) is determind independent from an orientation of KX as observed in Remark for Corollary 5.14. Let Y be another polyhedron with a triangulation (KY . 67
. n = m implies Sn ≈ Sm . identifying H∗ (KX ) = H∗ (KX ) by the isomorphism (h−1 hX )∗ . By the above theorem. it follows from Corollary 5. n. hY ) of Y . every homeomorphism f : |K| → |L| induces a homology isomorphism f∗ : H∗ (K) → H∗ (L) with (f∗ )−1 = (f −1 )∗ .
連続写像の導入する ホモロジー準同型 (写像) ホモロジーの 位相不変性
(位相的) 多面体の ホモロジー
By comparison between the homology groups. 0 if i > 0.7 Theorem A (topological) polyhedron X is connected if and only if H0 (X) ∼ Z. Then. Remark. we can show that H∗ (K) is a topological invariant of |K|. hX ). In the above.

Applying the homology. it follows that r∗ i∗ = (ri)∗ = idH∗ (Sn−1 ) . Therefore. every continuous map f : Bn → Bn has a ﬁxed point x0 ∈ Bn . where s : Bn → [0. Since ri = idSn−1 .
68
. Hn−1 (Bn ) = 0 and Hn−1 (Sn−1 ) ∼ Z. s(x) is the non-negative root of the following equation: x − f (x) 2 t2 + 2 f (x). Then. we can deﬁne a continuous map r : Bn → Sn−1 as follows: r(x) = (1 − s(x))f (x) + s(x)x = f (x) + s(x)(x − f (x)). we have the result. Proof. Applying this No Retraction Theorem. Hence. ∞) is a map satisfying r(x) = 1. respectively. x − f (x) t + f (x)
2
次元の位相不変性
レトラクション 不存在定理 レトラクション
ブラウワー 不動点定理 不動点
− 1 = 0. we can also show the following: 7. r∗ : Hn−1 (Bn ) → Hn−1 (Sn−1 ) is surjective. Such a map r is called a retraction. Then. f (x0 ) = x0 . then Sn ≈ Rn ∪ {∞} ≈ Rm ∪ {∞} ≈ Sm . Proof.9 Theorem (No Retraction Theorem) For each n ∈ N. If Rn ≈ Rm .7. we can show the following ﬁxed point theorem: 7. However. n − 1 > 0). there exist no continuous map r : Bn → Sn−1 such that r|Sn−1 = idSn−1 . that is.. This is a = contradiction. hence S0 is not the image of any continuous map of B1 . n = m by the above observation. When n = 1. assume that there exists a retraction r : Bn → Sn−1 . Proof. equivalently Rn ≈ Rm implies n = m. B1 is connected but S0 is disconnected.e.10 Theorem (Brouwer’s Fixed Point Theorem) For each n ∈ N. that is. In case n > 1 (i.8 Theorem (Topological Invariance of Dimension) If n = m ∈ N then Rn ≈ Rm . where Rn ∪ {∞} and Rm ∪ {∞} are the one-point compactiﬁcations of Rn and Rm . Suppose that there exists a continuous map f : Bn → Bn such that f (x) = x for any x ∈ Bn . Let i : Sn−1 ⊂ Bn be the inclusion.

For each x ∈ Rk and ε > 0.where x. ε). ε)) ≈ (Bk . Y ⊂ Rk .9. we denote B(x.
Note. 69 ε}. ε) = {y ∈ Rk | x − y Then. y is the inner product of x. This contradicts to No Retraction Theorem 7.11 Theorem (Invariance of Domain) For each X. Applying Tietze Extension Theorem coordinate-wise. s(x) = 1 x − f (x)
2
− f (x). B(x. ε) = {y ∈ Rk | x − y < ε}. (B(x. show that every continuous map f : A → In extends to a continuous map ˜ f : X → In . We use also the following extension theorem: Tietze Extension Theorem: Let A be a closed subset of a space X (⊂ Rk ). The above is valid for every normal space X. bd B(x. Every continuous map f : A → I has a continuous extension ˜ f : X → I. x − f (x) + f (x).
ティーチェ拡張定理 領域不変定理
7. r(x) = x for each x ∈ Sn−1 .
r(x) x f (x) Bn Sn−1
We can apply No Retraction Theorem to prove the following theorem mentioned in §1: 7.1 Exercise – Let A be a closed subset of a space X (⊂ Rk ). Sk−1 ). x − f (x)
2
− x − f (x) 2 ( f (x)
2
− 1) .
演習
. y ∈ Rn . X ≈ Y implies int X ≈ int Y .
As is easily observed. Actually.

h(V ) is a neighborhood of h(x) in Y such that h(V ) ⊂ U. δ). Let V = B(x. For each x ∈ bd X and each neighborhood U of h(x) in Y . Then. δ)) ⊂ Bk \ {0}. It is easy to construct a retraction r : Rk \ {x} → bd B(x. δ) ⊂ X. r|X \ V extend to a retraction r : X → bd B(x. δ). Then.11.1). Then B(x. which contradicts to No Retraction Theorem 7.9 because (B(x. Since Bk ≈ Ik .7. The following is the topological version of Theorem 6. for each neighborhood U of x in X.2.12 Lemma Let X be a closed subset of Rk and x ∈ X. r(y) = y −1y) Since x ∈ bd X. bd B(x. δ) ⊂ X for some δ > 0. ˜ bd B(x. Then. By the condition. we have z ∈ B(x. δ) contains a neighborhood V of x such that every continuous map f : X \ V → Sk−1 extends to a continuous map ˜ f : X → Sk−1 . which contains a neighborhood V of x such that every continuous map ˜ f : X \ V → Sk−1 extends to a continuous map f : X → Sk−1 . ε − δ) \ X. δ). ε). choose ε > 0 so that B(x.e. Proof of Theorem 7. and every continuous map ˜ g : Y \ h(V ) → Sk−1 extends to a continuous map g : Y → Sk−1 . To see the “only if” part. x ∈ bd X if and only if each neighborhood U of x in X contains a neighborhood V of x such that every continuous map f : X \ V → Sk−1 extends to a continuous ˜ map f : X → Sk−1 . 70
. assume that x ∈ int X. h−1 (U) is a neighborhood of x in X. every continuous map f : X \ V → Sk−1 can be extended to a continuous map g : X → Bk by Tietze Extension Theorem (cf. ε) ∩ X. λ) = id and h(y) = z + λ (y − z) for y ∈ X ∩ B(z.. Let h : X → Y be a homeomorphism. we can ﬁnd 0 < δ < ε so that g(X \ B(x. To see the “if” part. Therefore. Proof. λ) ⊂ X \ B(x. k−1 ˜ : X → Sk−1 . δ)) ≈ (Bk . Then. λ). Let r : Bk \ {0} → Sk−1 be the canonical radial retraction (i. δ) is a retract of B(x. δ) ⊂ B(z. λ) ⊂ B(x. rgh : X → Sk−1 is a continuous extension of f . Sk−1 ). whence gh : X \ V → S extends to a continuous map f ˜ f h−1 : Y → Sk−1 is a continuous extension of g. ε) ∩ X ⊂ U. δ) be the continuous map deﬁned by h|X \ B(z. B(x. Exercise 7. Indeed. δ) ≈ Sk−1 . y−z
Then. x ∈ bd X. Let λ = δ + x − z > 0. Let h : X → X \ B(z. Since B(x. Observe that B(x.

j1 : X1 ⊂ X and j2 : X2 ⊂ X be the inclusions and let ϕn : Hn (X0 ) → Hn (X1 ) ⊕ Hn (X2 ) and ψn : Hn (X1 ) ⊕ Hn (X2 ) → Hn (X) be homomorphisms deﬁned by ϕn (α) = ((i1 )∗ (α).
マイヤー・ヴ ィエト リス の定理
0 such that
δn+1
ϕn
ψn
δ
ϕn−1 ϕ0
ψ1
δ
ψ0
δ
71
. −(i2 )∗ (α)).13 Theorem (Mayer-Vietoris) Let X be a (topological) polyhedron and X0 . α2 ) = (j1 )∗ (α1 ) + (j2 )∗ (α2 ). Then. there are homomorphisms δn : Hn (X) → Hn−1 (X0 ). i2 : X0 ⊂ X2 . n the following sequence is exact: · · · −→ Hn (X0 ) −→ Hn (X1 ) ⊕ Hn (X2 ) −→ Hn (X)
n 1 −→ Hn−1 (X0 ) −→ · · · −→ H1 (X) −→ H0 (X0 ) 0 −→ H0 (X1 ) ⊕ H0 (X2 ) −→ H0 (X) −→ 0. let i1 : X0 ⊂ X1 . ψn (α1 .7. X1 and X2 be subpolyhedra of X such that X = X1 ∪ X2 and X0 = X1 ∩ X2 .

t) = by ht = f . namely the homotopy type of X is a topological invariant of X. or X and Y have the same homotopy type (denoted by X Y ) if there exist continuous maps f : X → Y and g : Y → X such that gf idX and f g idY . Z). f ∈ C(X. Every convex set is contractible. the identity idX is null-homotopic.3 Deﬁnition It is said that X is homotopically equivalent to Y . Y ). g ∈ C(Y. f f by the homotopy deﬁned f by the homotopy deﬁned by h (x. t) = h (x. f ∈ C(X. g . whence f is called a homotopy equivalence and g a homotopy inverse of f . then f h(x.1 Deﬁnition Let f. (1) Let f. 2t) if 0 t 1 . Here. is an equivalence relation among
−1
ホモトピー同値 ホモトピー型
ホモトピー同値 (写像) ホモトピー逆写像 可縮
演習
72
. that is. f gf g f . then f f by the homotopy deﬁned by h (x. If h : f f and h : f f . f and g g imply
ホモトピー
零ホモトピック
(2) For each f. 8. X ≈ Y implies X Y . 2 (2) Let h : f f and h : g deﬁned by ht = ht ht . gf g f by the homotopy
8.8
Homotopical Invariance of Homology and Homologies of Surfaces
8. or X has the homotopy type of Y . It is said that f is homotopic to g (denoted by f g) if there exists a continuous map h : X × I → Y such that h0 = f and h1 = g. f . Remark. 1 − t). A space X is contractible if X has the homotopy type of a one point space. so every simplex is contractible. Y ) be the set of all continuous maps from X to Y. where ht : X → Y (t ∈ I) are deﬁned by ht (x) = h(x.1 Exercise – The relation spaces. Hence. 2 h(x.2 Proposition Let C(X. we call h a homotopy from f to g and denote h : f g. Then. (1) The relation is a equivalence relation on C(X. Y ) and g. A map f : X → Y is said to be null-homotopic (denoted by f 0) if f is homotopic to a constant map. 8. Then.
Proof. Y ). If h : f f . t) for all x ∈ X. g : X → Y be continuous maps. A homeomorphism f : X → Y is a homotopy equivalence with f a homotopy inverse. 2t − 1) if 1 t 1.

and any two simplicial approximations of f are contiguous to each others. h({x} × [(i − 1)/n. If f : |K| → |L| is a homotopy equivalence with a homotopy inverse g : |L| → |K|. Since h(i−1)/n and hi/n have a common simplicial approximation by Proposition 3. 8. For each continuous map f : |K| → |L|.7 Theorem Let K and L be simplicial complexes. they induce the same homology homomorphism. 8. Using Theorems 7. if f g then f∗ = g∗ : H∗ (K) → H∗ (L).. i/n]) ⊂ OL (u). By Deﬁnition 3. It is said that f is contiguous to g (with respect to L) if each f (x) and g(x) are contained in the same simplex of L.2 Exercise – Let f : X → Y be a continuous map. then f∗ : H∗ (K) → H∗ (L) is an isomorphism with (f∗ )−1 = g∗ . f (x) and g(x) are contained in the same simplex of L. Since |K| × I is compact. every simplicial approximation of a continuous map f : |K| → |L| is contiguous to f . each {x} × [(i − 1)/n. Then.10. For continuous maps f. t) = (1 − t)f (x) + tg(x).8 Theorem (Homotopical Invariance of Homology) Let K and L be simplicial complexes.5 Proposition Let L be a simplicial complex and f. we can deﬁne the homotopy h : f g by deﬁned by h(x. Hence.4 Deﬁnition Let L be a simplicial complex and f. i/n] is contained in some h−1 (OL(u)). so any two simplicial approximations of f is homotopic to each others. g : |K| → |L|. g : X → |L| continuous maps. Remark. we can strengthen Theorem 7. Then. Choose n ∈ N so that 1/n < δ.7.15.8. then f is homotopic to g. |K| |L| implies H∗ (K) ∼ H∗ (L). 8. For each x ∈ X. Let h : |K| × I → |L| be a homotopy with h0 = f and h1 = g. every simplicial approximation of f is homotopic to f . If f is contiguous to g.5 as follows: 8.e. there is a Lebesgue number δ > 0 for the open cover h−1 (OL (u)) u ∈ L(0) of |K| × I. g : X → |L| continuous maps.4 and 8. Proof.6 Corollary Let K and L be simplicial complexes. = 73
演習
隣接する
ホモロジーの ホモトピー不変性
. If X or Y is contractible then f is null-homotopic. 8. Proof. hence f∗ = (h0 )∗ = (h1/n )∗ = · · · = (h1 )∗ = g∗ . i.

Hence. X Y implies H∗ (X) ∼ H∗ (Y ).8.9 Corollary For simplicial complexes K and L.13. Then. Hn (M2 ) ∼ Hn (S1 ) ∼ = = Z if n = 0. hence (rj)∗ (α) = 2α for each α ∈ H1 (S1 ) ∼ Z.10 Theorem (Homotopical Invariance of Homology) Let X and Y be (topological) polyhedra. we have the following: 8. we calculate the homologies of surfaces. 0 otherwise. Consequently. hence i∗ : H∗ (S ) → H∗ (M ) is an isomorphism. |K| |L| implies dim K i=0 dim L
(−1)
i
K αi
=
i=0
L (−1)i αi . then f∗ : H∗ (X) → H∗ (Y ) is an isomorphism with (f∗ )−1 = g∗ .
メビウスの帯 のホモロジー
Let j : S1 → M2 be the natural embedding of the circle S1 to the boundary circle ∂M2 of M2 . rj : S1 → S1 is the map winding S1 round itself 2 times. Then. If f : X → Y is a homotopy equivalence with a homotopy inverse g : Y → X. There is a continuous map o idÅ 2 .11 Corollary For every contractible polyhedron X. αn be the numbers of n-simplexes of K and L. let αn . we have the result.Proof. Hn (X) ∼ = Z if n = 0. respectively. 0 otherwise. =
74
.
ホモロジーの ホモトピー不変性
Homologies of Surfaces
In the rest of this section. 8. 1. we have the following: e
K L 8. = In case Y is a singleton. Since g∗ f∗ = (gf )∗ = (id|K| )∗ = idH∗ (K) and f∗ g∗ = (f g)∗ = (id|L| )∗ = idH∗ (L) . i is a homotopy r : M2 → S1 such that ri = idS1 and ir 1 2 equivalence. M¨bius band M2 : Let i : S1 → M2 be the natural embedding of the o circle S1 to the middle circle of M¨bius band M2 . By Euler-Poincar´ Formula 4.
The following is the topological version of Theorem 8. Then.

11). ⎪ ⎩ 0 otherwise.9.−1)
Z ⊕ Z. that is.
75
. we o 2 have H2 (P ) = 0. we can calculate the homologies of the projective plane P2 and Klein bottle K2 as follows: Projective plane P2 : First. ⎨ 2 ∼ Hn (P ) = Z2 if n = 1. From the deﬁnition of ϕ1 and the observation in calculation of the homology of M¨bius band. Let S1 = ∂M2 = ∂B2 . it follows that ϕ1 is a monomorphism. and H1 (P2 ) ∼ Z/2Z = Z2 by Fundamental Homomorphism = Theorem of Group Theory. H0 (P2 ) = Z. ϕ0 is a monomorphism by the deﬁnition of ϕ0 and Proposition 5. P2 = M2 ∪ B2 (cf. Remark (1) for Example 2. Then. Since P2 is connected. Consequently. Thus. We can consider P2 as the space jointed M¨bius band M2 and the disk B2 along the boundary circles o 1 ∂M2 and ∂B2 . ⎧ ⎪Z if n = 0.Using the homology of M¨bius band M2 and the Mayer-Vietoris exact o sequences. we have the following Mayer-Vietoris exact sequence: 0 = H2 (M2 ) ⊕ H2 (B2 ) − − H2 (P2 ) − − −→ −2→
epi 0 ψ2 δ
射影平面の ホモロジー
H1 (S1 ) − − H1 (M2 ) ⊕ H1 (B2 ) − − H1 (P2 ) −→ −→
mono epi
ϕ1
ψ1
Z
−− −→
(2. note Hn (P2 ) = 0 for all n > 2 because dim P2 = 2.0)
Z⊕0=Z − − H0 (S1 ) − − H0 (M2 ) ⊕ H0 (B2 ) −1→ −→
0 mono δ ϕ0
Z
−− −→
(1.
In the above.

⎪ ⎩ 0 otherwise. 1) and h(0. 0) and (0.11). −1) = (1. −2).Klein bottle K2 : Since dim K2 .∗) = Consequently. that is. Hn (K2 ) = 0 for all n > 2.−1)
Z ⊕ Z. Let H be the subgroup of G generated by (2.9. From the deﬁnition of ϕ1 and the observation in calculation of the homology of M¨bius band. We can consider K2 as the space jointed two M¨bius band M2 and M2 along the boundary circles ∂M2 and ∂M2 .−2)
Z⊕Z − − H0 (S1 ) − − H0 (M2 ) ⊕ H0 (M2 ) −1→ −→ 1 2
0 mono δ ϕ0
Z
−− −→
(1. whence G/H ∼ G/h(H) = Z/2Z ⊕ Z = Z2 ⊕ Z. o 1 2 1 2 2 K = M2 ∪ M2 (cf.
∗)
The group G = Z ⊕ Z is generated by (1. Thus. =
76
. Let S1 = ∂M2 = ∂M2 . 0) = (1. 1) = (0. 1). Remark (2) for Example 2. it follows that ϕ1 is a monomorphism. 0). 1 2 1 2 Then. ⎨ 2 ∼ Hn (K ) = Z2 ⊕ Z if n = 1. h(H) = 2Z ⊕ 0 ⊂ G = Z ⊕ Z. we have the following Mayer-Vietoris exact sequence: −→ −2→ 0 = H2 (M2 ) ⊕ H2 (M2 ) − − H2 (K2 ) − − 1 1
epi 0 ψ2 δ
クラインの壷 のホモロジー
H1 (S1 ) − − H1 (M2 ) ⊕ H1 (M2 ) − − H1 (K2 ) −→ −→ 1 2
mono epi
ϕ1
ψ1
Z
−− −→
(2. Since h(1. 1). ⎧ ⎪Z if n = 0. H0 (K2 ) = Z. o 2 we have H2 (K ) = 0 and H1 (K2 ) ∼ Z2 ⊕ Z by Homomorphism Theorem. By connectedness of K2 .
In the above. We deﬁne an isomorphism h : G → G by h(1. ϕ0 is a monomorphism by the deﬁnition of ϕ0 and Proposition 5.

Observe that r|C : C → Sl ∪ Sm is a map winding C round Sl and Sm and then conversely Sl and Sm . Take a disk D ⊂ T2 missing Sl ∪ Sm and let C = ∂D be its boundary circle. ⎨ ∼ Hn (Sl ∪ Sm ) ∼ Z ⊕ Z if n = 1. = ⎧ ⎪Z if n = 0. We call Tp = T2 \ (D \ C) a punctured torus. Hn (Tp ) = = ⎪ ⎩ 0 otherwise. hence i∗ : H∗ (Sl ∪ Sm ) → H∗ (Tp ) is an isomorphism by the Homotopical Invariance of Homology. it is easy to see that Hn (Sl ∪ Sm ) ∼ Hn (Sl ) ⊕ Hn (Sm ). T2 = Tp ∪ D and Tp ∩ D = C. We have a map r : Tp → Sl ∪Sm such that ri = r|Sl ∪ Sm = id and ir idÌp . Then. hence the homomorphism (r|C)∗ : H1 (C) → H1 (Sl ∪ Sm ) ∼ H1 (Sl ) ⊕ H1 (Sm ) is the null homomorphism.Punctured torus T2 : Let Sl and Sm be a latitude circle and a meridian p circle of T2 .
孔開きトーラス のホモロジー
孔開きトーラス
Sm v S
C D S r C
v Sm D v
v Sm
S
v
Let i : Sl ∪Sm → T2 be the inclusion. =
77
. Sl and Sm meet each other at a single point v. i is a homotopy equivalence. By using the Mayer-Vietoris exact sequence. Then. Consequently. Then.

H2 (T2 ) ∼ H1 (C) ∼ Z and H1 (T2 ) ∼ H1 (Tp ) ∼ Z ⊕ Z.
78
.−1)
Z ⊕ Z. if n = 2.0)
(Z ⊕ Z) ⊕ 0 − − H0 (C) − − H0 (Tp ) ⊕ H0 (D) −1→ −→
0 mono δ ϕ0
Z
−− −→
(1. otherwise. Consequently. = = = = ⎧ ⎪Z ⎪ ⎪ ⎨Z ⊕ Z 2 ∼ Hn (T ) = ⎪Z ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ 0 if n = 0. we can calculate the homologies of the torus T2 as follows: Torus T2 : First. Consider the following Mayer-Vietoris exact sequences: −→ −2→ 0 = H2 (Tp ) ⊕ H2 (D) − − H2 (T2 ) − −
0 iso ψ2 δ
トーラスの ホモロジー
H1 (C) − − H1 (Tp ) ⊕ H1 (D) − − H1 (T2 ) −→ −→
0 iso
ϕ1
ψ1
Z
−− −→
(0. note Hn (T2 ) = 0 for all n > 2 because dim T2 .
where ϕ0 is a monomorphism by the deﬁnition of ϕ0 and Proposition 5. if n = 1. Then.Using the homology of Tp and the Mayer-Vietoris exact sequences.9.

dim τ = dim σ − 1. L) be the subgroup of the n-chain group Cn (K) generated by K[n] \ L. The (oriented) (K. L).L)
∂
(K. τ ∈ K.9
Relative Homology for Polyhedral Pairs
有向複体の対
9. the n-dimensional (oriented) relative chain group Cn (K. L) −→
qn−1
Moreover. L) of oriented complexes means a pair of an oriented complex K and its subcomplex L with the orientation inherited from K. Then. Remark. When L = ∅. L) −→ Cn−1 (K. L). L). L) → Cn−1 (K.L) K
∂n ∂n qn
Cn−1 (K) − − Cn−1 (K. L) − − 0. τ ]L = −1 if τ σ. τ ∈ L ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ and τ is not inherited the orientation from σ. ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩0 otherwise. dim τ = dim σ − 1. ⎨ [σ. L) : · · · −→ Cn (K. −→ −n→ −→ −→ where i : L ⊂ K is the inclusion simplicial map. as is easily observed.L) boundary operator ∂n : Cn (K. that is. L) = (Cn (K. (1) Let Cn (K.1 Deﬁnition A pair (K. L). 79
i qn
相対結合係数
. the following diagram is commutative: Cn (K) − − − → Cn (K. ∂n )n 0 :
n C(K. we can regard C(K. L) −→ · · ·
n 次元相対鎖群
相対境界作用素
n 次元相対鎖複体
∂n+1
(K. But it should be noticed that ∂n = ∂n |Cn (K. L) −→ 0
(K. L) is the homomorphism K induced by the boundary operator ∂n : Cn (K) → Cn−1 (K). τ ∈ L ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ and τ is inherited the orientation from σ. The relative (K. ∅) = C(K). For such a pair (K.L)
∂1
(K. we have the following short exact sequence: 0 − − Cn (L) − − Cn (K) − − Cn (K. (2) For two simplexes σ. L) is a chain homomorphism from C(K) to C(K.L)
∂0
(K. the relative incidence number relative with respect to L is deﬁned as follows: ⎧ ⎪1 if τ σ.L) K Cn (K.L)
The sequence q = (qn )n 0 of the quotient homomorphisms qn : Cn (K) → Cn (K)/Cn (L) = Cn (K. L) −→ C0 (K. L).L)
∂n−1
(K. all oriented n-simplexes in K \ L. L) is naturally isomorphic to (K. the relative n-chain group Cn (K. L) is deﬁned as the factor group Cn (K)/Cn (L).L)
∂2
−→ C1 (K.L) relative chain complex is the system C(K. L) ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ (K.

L).L)
The following factor group is called the n-dimensional relative homology group: Hn (K. = hence H∗ (K0 . H∗ (L) and H∗ (K. 9. L) as follows: ∂n (c) =
τ ∈K[n−1]\L σ∈K[n]\L
aσ [σ. Zn (K.4 Theorem For a pair (K. L) −→ Hn−1 (L) −→ ∗ · · · −→ H0 (K) −→ H0 (K. We denote H∗ (K.
演習
9. we denote z (K. If K0 is a subcomplex of K such that K = L ∪ K0 (i.3 Theorem (Excision Theorem) Let K be an oriented complex with a subcomplex L.e. The above sequence is called the homology (long) exact sequence for (K.2 Deﬁnition For a pair (K. L ∩ K0 ) ∼ C(K. L). L)/Bn (K. L) by the natural isomorphism. let
(K.1. L) = (Hn (K.
Then. = The following shows the relation between H∗ (K). there exist homomorphisms ∂ : Hn (K. L) as in (1). L) −→ 0.L)
aσ σ. When L = ∅. 9. 80
ホモロジー完全系列
. L). L). L) = Cn (K.We deﬁne ∂n : Cn (K. For z ∈ Zn (K. L) ∈ Hn (K. L) → Hn−1 (L). K \ L ⊂ K0 ).L) = z + Bn (K. By the remark for Deﬁnition 9. L). such that the following sequence is exact:
∗ ∗ · · · −→ Hn (L) −→ Hn (K) −→ Hn (K.. L) of oriented complexes.
相対ホモロジー群
相対ホモロジー類
切除定理
∂
i
q∗
∂
i
i
q∗
0
where i∗ is the homomorphism induced by the inclusion i : L ⊂ K and q∗ is the homomorphism induced by the quotient chain homomorphism q = (qn )n 0 : C(K) → C(K. L). L ∩ K0 ) ∼ H∗ (K. L). L))n 0 . L) = Im ∂n+1 . τ ]L τ for each c =
σ∈K[n]\L (K.1 Exercise – Prove the remark (1) and (2) above. we have ∂n
= ∂n by identifying Cn (K. which is the relative homology class of z.L) and Bn (K. L) = Zn (K. n > 0. then C(K0 . we can regard H∗ (K. L) = Ker ∂n (K. L) → Cn−1 (K. ∅) = H∗ (K). L) of oriented complexes. we have the following: 9.

L) = Cn (K)/Cn (L). we can deﬁne ∂ : Hn (K. (K.L) K Since Ker qn = Im in . Then. As same as above. L Since in−2 is a monomorphism.. it follows that L K K K K in−1 ∂n (b) = ∂n (c − c − ∂n+1 (x)) = ∂n (c) − ∂n (c ) = in−1 (d) − in−1 (d ) = in−1 (d − d ) L Since in−2 is a monomorphism. we have b ∈ Cn (L) such that in (b) = c − c − ∂n+1 (x). i. which implies that d ∈ Zn−1 (L). we have K d ∈ Cn−1 (L) such that ∂n (c) = in−1 (d).L) ⏐ ∂L ∂K
n+1 n+1
in+1
qn+1
∂n+1
−n→ Cn (K) − − − → Cn (K. whence there is x ∈ Cn+1 (K) such that qn+1 (x) = y. See the following commutative diagram: 0 − − Cn+1 (L) − − Cn+1 (K) − − Cn+1 (K.e. we have (K. On the other hand. L) such that z (K. L) and d ∈ Zn−1 (L) such that z = qn (c) and in−1 (d) =
in−2
qn−2
81
. there is c ∈ Cn (K) such that qn (c) = z because (K.L) = z .L) the homology class z (K. L) ⊂ Cn (K. L). L) − − 0 −→ −→ −→ −→ ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ (K.L) K Zn (K.Proof.L) y ∈ Cn+1 (K.L) ) = d . Thus. where z ∈ Zn (K. it follows that d − d = ∂n (b) ∈ Bn−1 (L). it follows that ∂n−1 (d) = 0. L L Therefore. L) such that ∂n+1 (y) = z − z . L) − − 0 −→ −→ −→ −→ ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ (K. Observe that K qn (c − c − ∂n+1 (x)) = qn (c − c ) − ∂n+1 (y) = 0.L) L K
∂n ∂n ∂n
i
qn
0 − − Cn−1 (L) − − Cn−1 (K) − − Cn−1 (K.L) of z. L Now. choose c ∈ Cn (K) and d ∈ Zn−1 (L) K so that qn (c ) = z and ∂n (c ) = in−1 (d ). it follows that ∂n (c) ∈ Ker qn−1 = Im in−1 . we show that the homology class d of d is uniquely determined for (K. Since qn−1 ∂n (c) = ∂n qn (c) = (K. L) − − 0 −→ −→ −→ −→ For each z ∈ Zn (K.L) ⏐ ∂L ∂K
n−1 n−1
in−1
qn−1
∂n−1
0 − − Cn−2 (L) − − Cn−2 (K) − − Cn−2 (K. Let z ∈ Zn (K. d = d .L) K ∂n (z) = 0. whence
L K K K in−2 ∂n−1 (d) = ∂n−1 in−1 (d) = ∂n−1 ∂n (c) = 0. L). L Consequently. L) → Hn−1 (L) by ∂(z (K. z−z ∈ Bn (K. L) − − 0 −→ 0 −− − → Cn (L) − − ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ (K.

L) − − Cn−1 (M. N) − − 0. N). L) − − 0 −→ ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ ⏐h ⏐ ⏐¯ h |C (L)
n n n
演習
i
qn
hn
0 − − Cn (N) − − Cn (M) − − Cn (M. To see that ∂ is a homomorphism. L) → Cn (M. h induces the relative chain homomorphism ¯ ¯ h = (hn )n
0
相対鎖準同型 (写像)
: C(K. and h = (hn )n 0 : C(K) → C(M) a chain homomorphism such that hn (Cn (L)) ⊂ Cn (N ) for every n 0.
L
L
which means that ∂ is a homomorphism. The proof of the exactness is left to the reader. z ∈ Zn (K.L) − z
(K. −→ −→ −→ −→
in qn
whence ∂n
(M. L) → C(M. Observe that z − z = K qn (c − c ) and in−1 (d − d ) = ∂n (c − c ).L)
¯ hn−1
Cn (M. c ∈ Cn (K). N): −n→ −→ −→ 0 − − Cn (L) − − Cn (K) − − Cn (K. d ∈ Zn−1 (L) such that z = qn (c).
∂(z (K. N).5 Deﬁnition Let (K.
and the relative homology homomorphism ¯ h∗ : H∗ (K.2 Exercise – Complete the proof above by proving the exactness of the homology sequence. N) − − Hn−1 (N) −→ −→
q∗ ∂
82
. L) − − −n→ ⏐ ⏐ (K. L) and (M. the following diagram is commutative: Hn (K) − − Hn (K. L) → H∗ (M. z = qn (c ).N )
∂n
Cn−1 (K. Each homomorphism hn : Cn (K) → Cn (M) induces ¯ the homomorphism hn : Cn (K. N) be pairs of oriented complexes. N) ⏐ ⏐ (M.L)
) = ∂(z − z
(K.L)
:
¯ h
∂n
Cn (K.K ∂n (c) for some c ∈ Cn (K). in−1 (d) = K K ∂n (c) and in−1 (d ) = ∂n (c ) for some c. 9. let z. N).L)
)=d−d
L
=d −d . L) and d. L) − − Hn−1 (L) −→ −→ ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ ⏐h ⏐ ⏐(h|L) h
∗ ∗
相対ホモロジー 準同型 (写像)
q∗
∂
∗
Hn (M) − − Hn (M. 9.N ) ¯
¯ hn = hn−1 ∂n
(K. Then. Then. −→ that is.

Let (K.7. Remark. for simplicial maps ϕ : (K1 . 9.4 Exercise – Prove the remark (2) above. L) be a pair of oriented complexes. N).5 Exercise – By using Five Lemma 6. ϕ(σ) ∈ N for every σ ∈ L). L) → C(Sd K. Then.6 Deﬁnition The relative subdivision operator Sd = (Sdn )n
0
演習
相対細分作用素
: C(K. Then.9.3 is induced by the inclusion i : (K0 .
This relative subdivision operator induces the relative homology isomorphism Sd∗ : H∗ (K. L). the following diagram is also commutative: −∗→ Hn (L) − − Hn (K) ⏐ ⏐ ⏐h ⏐ (h|L)
∗ ∗
演習
i
Hn (N) − − Hn (M) −→
i∗
(2) The isomorphism H∗ (K0 . 9. ψ∗ ϕ∗ = (ψϕ)∗ : H∗ (K1 . L3 ). N).L) . and (2) for the inclusion j : (K.3 Exercise – Show that the above diagram is commutative. L3 ). we write ϕ : (K. L2 ) → (K3 .. which induces homomorphism ϕ∗ : H∗ (K. L). hence j∗ = g∗ : H∗ (K) → H∗ (K.L) )∗ = idH∗ (K. ϕ induces the relative chain homomorphism ϕ = (ϕn )n 0 : C(K.7 Deﬁnition When a simplicial map ϕ : K → M satisﬁes f (L) ⊂ N (i. (1) By Proposition 5. L1 ) → H∗ (K3 . L2 ) and ψ : (K2 . L) → C(M. ∅) ⊂ (K. L) → H∗ (M. 2. L∩K0 ) ∼ H∗ (K. (1) (id(K. Sd L). show that the relative homology homomorphism induced by the relative subdivision operator is an isomorphism. be pairs of oriented complexes.1. 3. L) → H∗ (Sd K. Sd L). L). Li ). N).
is the chain homomorphism induced by the subdivision operator Sd = (Sdn )n
0
: C(K) → C(Sd K). 9. 83
演習
相対鎖準同型
.e. 9. In this case.8 Proposition Let (Ki . 9. i = 1. Remark.6. j = q in Deﬁnition 9. L1 ) → (K2 . L) in the Excision Theorem = 9. L ∩ K0 ) → (K. L) → (M.

|N |) implies H∗ (K. 9.6 Exercise – Prove the proposition above. Remark. Sdn L) → (M.9. |N |) be a continuous map. 2. 9. |L2 |) and g : (|K2 |. L) → H∗ (M. be pairs of oriented complexes.9 Exercise – Prove the theorem above. 9. L) of oriented complexes. |L|) → (|M |. Sdm L) → (M. N).13 Theorem Let (Ki . =
演習
演習
相対単体近似
演習
相対ホモロジー 準同型
演習
84
. N).9 Lemma Let f : (|K|. N). N). 9.L) .L) )∗ = idH∗ (K.e. |L|) → (|M |.7 Exercise – Prove the lemma above. If g : (Sdn K. L) → H∗ (M. Li ). we deﬁne the relative homology homomorphism f∗ = g∗ Sdn : H∗ (K. N) are relative simplicial approximations of f .8 Exercise – Prove the lemma above. 3. |N |) induces to a relative homology isomorphism f∗ : H∗ (K. |N |) be a continuous map. |N |). which is called the relative homology homomorphism induced by f . L1 ) → H∗ (K3 . 9. N) and g : (Sdm K. |N |).12 Deﬁnition For a continuous map f : (|K|. |L3 |). N) as in the above lemma a relative simplicial approximation of f : (|K|. L3 ). Then. |L1 |) → (|K2 |. f : |K| → |M | has a simplicial approximation g : Sdn K → M such that g(Sdn L) ⊂ N (i. 9. 9. then g∗ Sdn = g∗ Sdm : H∗ (K. Sdn L) → (M. i = 1. L) → H∗ (M. L) ∼ H∗ (M. whence g| Sdn L is a simplicial approximation of f ||L| : |L| → |N |. |L|) → (|M |. 9.. (id(K. N).14 Corollary A homeomorphism f : (|K|. For any continuous maps f : (|K1 |. |L|) ≈ (|M |. |L|) → (|M |.10 Deﬁnition A simplicial map g : (Sdn K. Sdn L) → (M. N)). Sdn L) → (M. For each pair (K. g : (Sdn K. g∗ f∗ = (f g)∗ : H∗ (K1 . (|K|. |L2 |) → (|K3 |. by using its relative simplicial approximation g : (Sdn K. |L|) → (|M |. 9.11 Lemma Let f : (|K|. Hence.

15 Deﬁnition For a polyhedral pair (X. A) = H∗ (K. identifying H∗ (K . The following is the topological version of Theorem 9. B). A) be a polyhedral pair. Let (Y. ∅) → (X. B) can be deﬁned independently from relative triangulations of (X. L ) → H∗ (M . by identifying (g −1 f h )∗ : H∗ (K . A) independently from a relative triangulation of (X. A) = H∗ (K. n > 0. B). we deﬁne the relative homology H∗ (X.17 Theorem For a polyhedral pair (X. L) by the isomorphism (h−1 h )∗ . for another relative triangulation (M . N) by the isomorphism (g −1 g )∗ . N). N ) with (g −1 f h)∗ : H∗ (K. A). A) −→ 0. L. A) and (Y. N. A) → (Y. L) → H∗ (M. A). such that the following sequence is exact:
∗ ∗ · · · −→ Hn (A) −→ Hn (X) −→ Hn (X. h). A) with a relative triangulation (K.
ホモロジー完全系列
85
. for other relative triangulation (K . A) induces to the isomorphism i∗ : H∗ (X0 . g). the relative homology homomorphism f∗ : H∗ (X. N) = H∗ (Y. L) → H∗ (M. A). If X0 is a subpolyhedron of X such that X = A ∪ X0 . we can deﬁne the relative homology H∗ (X. Remark.9. By the remark after Deﬁnition 9.7. L ) = H∗ (K. B) be another polyhedral pair with a relative triangulation (M. g ) of (Y. B). B). we have the following topological version of Theorem 9. which is called the relative homology homomorphism induced by f . A) −→ Hn−1 (A) −→ ∗ · · · −→ H0 (X) −→ H0 (X. N . L .4: 9. A ∩ X0 ) → (X. we deﬁne f∗ = (g −1f h)∗ : H∗ (X. A). h ) of (X. A). N ) is identifying with H∗ (M. L).
相対ホモロジー
相対ホモロジー 準同型 (写像)
切除定理
∂
i
j∗
∂
i
i
j∗
0
where i∗ is the homomorphism induced by the inclusion i : A ⊂ X and j∗ is the homomorphism induced by the inclusion j : (X. there exist homomorphisms ∂ : Hn (X.16 Theorem (Excision Theorem) Let (X. A) → Hn−1 (A). A). then the inclusion i : (X0 . H∗ (M . The above sequence is called the homology (long) exact sequence for (X. Then. A) → H∗ (Y.3: 9. In the above. A ∩ X0 ) → H∗ (X. Moreover. For a continuous map f : (X.

85 face. 39 chain complex. 39 chain homomorphism. 33 homeomorphism between pairs. 67 — a simplicial map. 73 contractible. 7 barycentric coordinate. 72 homotopy equivalence. 62 ﬁxed point. 68 free additive group. 72 incidence number. 10 convex hull. 45 boundary of a simplex. 8 Five Lemma. — ordered. 40 Brouwer’s Fixed Point Theorem. 40 derived subdivision. 5. 72 homotopy inverse. 11. 57 Excision Theorem. 4 generator of the free additive group. 49 contiguous. 50 combinatorially equivalent. 80. 68 Brouwer’s Theorem on Invariance of Domain. 7
86
. — a simplicial map. 4 cross cap. 42 homology homomorphism. 52 chain isomorphism. — ordered. 72 convex body. 13 chain. 85 homology class. 50 homology homomorphism induced by a chain homomorphism. 74 homotopically equivalent. 39 boundary. 4 barycenter of a simplex. 22 dimension. 5 barycentric subdivision. 42 chain complex.Index
aﬃnely independent. 73. 4 convex set. 72 homotopy type. 66. 57 Euler-Poincar´ characteristic. 44 — oriented. 45 — oriented. 67 Homotopical Invariance of Homology. 52 homology isomorphism. 50 chain homomorphism induced by. bounding cycle. 50 homology homomorphism induced by. 45 e Euler-Poincar´ formula. 38 Fundamental Homomorphism Theorem. 50 homology of a polyhedron. 69 carrier. 42 homology group. 38 geometrically independent. 12 epimorphism. 7 boundary operator. 4 Hauptvermutung. 80. 72 homotopy. 20 cycle. 22 Betti number. 40 interior of a simplex. 31 component. 45 general position. 46 e exact sequence. 40 chain group. 41 Fundamental Theorem on Abelian Groups. n-dimensional. 3 homology (long) exact sequence. — a continuous map.

67 torus. 79 — chain group. 82. 78 triangulation. 15 map between pairs.J. 19. 12 M¨bius band. in a simplicial complex. 15 projective plane. topological. 31 PL homeomorphism. 45 Tietze Extension Theorem. subdivide. 57 Mayer-Vietoris’ Theorem. 20. 84. 3 Mayer-Vietoris exact sequence. 3 PL (piece-wise linear) map. 80 — homology group.C. Whitehead Theorem on subdivision. 31 PL embedding. 72 open star. 12 locally ﬁnite-dimensional. 12 polyhedron. 39. 8 monomorphism. 31 simplicial map. 24 ordered simplex. 4 link. 12 simplicial embedding. 79 — chain homomorphism. 19. 15 vertex. in a simplicial complex. 68 simplex. 17. 18. 79 pair of simplicial complexes. 12 Minkowski functional. 30 simplicial homotopy. 69 Topological Invariance of Dimension. 35 simplicially isomorphic. 45 relative. 60 subdivision. 80 — homology homomorphism. 31 skeleton. 30 simplicial homeomorphism. 57. 21. 12 sphere. 15 Theorem on free additive groups. 79 — simplicial approximation. 16 star. 85 — homology class. 74 o manifold. 15 retraction. 17. 83 — triangulation. — of a simplex. 33 simplicial complex. 5
87
. 13 subcomplex. 13 subdivision operator. 38 oriented simplex. 75 proper face. 29 simplicially homotopic. 28. 5 simplicial approximation. 14 ordered complex. 85 — incidence number. 35 simplicial isomorphism. 68 Topological Invariance of Homology. 84 — subdivision operator. 13 locally ﬁnite simplicial complex. 31 polyhedral pair. 13 pair of spaces. 76 linearly independent. 82. 38 oriented complex. 21 surface. 37 pair of oriented complexes. 71 mesh. 83
— homology. — boundary operator. 15 polyhedron. 8 punctured torus. 68 null-homotopic. 57 No Retraction Theorem. 77 rank. 79 — chain complex. 23 Klein bottle.H. 37 orientation. 37 — of a simplicial complex.