COMMUNICATION ISSUES LEADING TO ORGANIZATIONAL FAILURES

SUBADESH KANNA S (PGP ROHAN GOPALAKRISHNAN(PGP MATHAN KUMAR S(PGP SARAVANAN V(PGP JITHU PETTAN(PGP

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Table of Contents

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The objective of the study was to develop a set of standards/precautions to be considered by an organization to avoid any chances of a major collapse due to communication issues. Cross-vertical, manager-subordinate and administration-technical side relations were analyzed in a few organizations like Ford, NASA, BCCI, Air India and CIA which failed massively at some point of

time. By learning from their mistakes and studying the practices in successful ones, a set of standards are recommended by us. Managers (both mid-level and supervisors) should be trained to streamline information and foster a channel for honest feedback by being friendly through team outings. They should also be trained to face Cultural & Language barriers and how to communicate bad news when the org gets into bad weather situations. Inter vertical and cross-vertical meetings should be held regularly involving the technical group also, to avoid setting unreasonable expectations. Also, the meetings shouldn’t be too serious or too informal. Neutral negotiators and communication-issues-redressing focus groups should be employed for fresh perspectives and smooth functioning. Most importantly, symptoms of a collapse like decline in productivity or morale should be looked into immediately. Each and every employee in an organization should be aware of its code of ethics and should pledge to serve humanity. This will avoid any ego clashes or information hiding between organizations that might lead to death or damages.

INTRODUCTION
`Forward, the Light Brigade!' Was there a man dismay'd? Not tho' the soldier knew Some one had blunder'd The ‘someone had blundered’ line mentioned in Alfred Tennyson’s epic poem, “The Charge of the Light Brigade”, refers to the wrong command issued to the valiant 600 soldiers which proved to be fatal. Communication has been a part of all organizations, be it a business firm or an army or even a ship! Anything in this world has its share of issues and communication is no exception. Running an organization is a complex art since it involves various departments like Marketing, Administration, Operations, R&D etc. In addition to this vertical diversity, there are numerous levels in every department, thus making the whole organization’s hierarchy a vast and complex one. The responsibilities of each employee and the duties that they have to discharge are interwoven, which leads to ambiguities constantly.

twelve different organizations which faced failures were chosen across different eras and different fields. METHODOLOGY In order to perform a holistic study of how cross-vertical. client’s dissatisfaction over the end product/services. Also. across organizations and between managers and sub-ordinates.4 years. several companies. all the departments have to work amicably in tandem to produce the desired results. But it doesn’t always happen in reality. with an average work experience of 2. That is why a near-comprehensive study of various communication issues which (almost) led to collapses of entire organizations has been done. a survey was conducted on fifty students studying management. The questionnaire collected opinions of the surveyed lot for issues such as manager’s ego. miscommunication amongst verticals. crossorganizational and manager-subordinate relations have been chosen and analyzed. Similarly. .This project is aimed at analyzing a dozen such organizations which have failed due to communication issues across verticals. Conclusions were made after the findings & discussions section of each company. For any successful project. the primary objective of this study is to develop a set of standards or precautions that have to be considered by any organization to obviate any chances of a colossal collapse. Hence. The best way to perfection is by learning from mistakes. cross-organizational and manager-subordinate relations breakdown can lead to organization failures. over a long timespan. These organizations were analyzed methodically on various communication grounds in detail and were compared with contemporary successful organizations. unrealistic expectations and lack of technical knowledge. To understand various issues involved. These were followed up by suggestions and recommendations that any organization should adopt to streamline their communication channels and avoid any unpleasant happenings. The fifty students were from diverse backgrounds to provide a general picture. The instructions and orders passed on from the top echelon of the organization should reach the targeted employees verbatim. with unique communication problems pertaining to cross-vertical. the feedback or issues reported by the lower levels of organization should have a proper medium or channel to find its way up the hierarchy to the management. cultural barriers.

• In absence of Henry Ford II. head lights. with gargantuan expectations. But it created quite a sensation in the late 50s. when Ford aggressively advertised their new car. • Rhymes with weasel/dead cell. Politics • Robert Mcanamara was more dedicated to Ford and powerful since he brought about a turn around to Ford during hard times • He eliminated new design plans of Edsel. Edsel name was given despite his discomfort with the name. DISCUSSION From the above three critical points. design team and the management never came to a consensus about various issues. Ads • Teasers showing glimpses of the car’s design. named after Henry Ford’s son Edsel Ford.FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS EDSEL Ford Edsel is a brand no one probably knows now. Name • Too many names were suggested by the team. which communicates negative vibes to the customers. Only vintage models of it are available for the collectors. whereas the end product was close to the original • Ford Surprise was kept but customers were disappointed due to excessive hype which wasn’t met with by the final product. Final product was almost similar to the usual Ford car. Though the branding manager objected. authority wasn’t defined clearly. he was ignored due to unclear improperly defined hierarchy with respect to communication. the car was unveiled only to face criticism and disinterest. . branding and production. To an astonishing crowd. Glimpses of the car’s tail lights. rear views etc were shown in ads for creating hype and hoopla. Again. despite design team’s suggestions • Clash of interests 3. it is clear that the branding team. Here is an analysis about why the model failed despite heavy investments in design. 1. 2.

People’s car • Fuel efficient. did not showcase those in their ads. Hence an open environment where everyone values and respects the other department’s suggestions is the ideal workplace. the marketing team’s voices went unheard. and provides a way of engaging and responding to customers and other stakeholders. management and the technical team should come to a consensus about various issues for a better working organization. the new Cadillac enjoyed a better reception in USA as compared to the epic failure Edsel turned out to be. Again. Ads • Clearly showcased the new design innovations like power brakes etc. • Whereas Edsel. Only then the company can contend for the award. But. Their suggestions were taken into consideration without any biases. not Ford Edsel. Design team’s proposal was half ignored by Robert Mcanamara. All the different departments had their say in the state of affairs and plans for the future. The branding team suggested the management not to change the name and the management promptly acknowledged it. resale value high as recession struck in 1957 • Whereas Edsel was a car which emphasized on luxury accessories rather than being fuel efficient. DISCUSSION Cadillac has even won the Malcolm Bridge Award. And also. the people liked the name Cadillac.Branding team’s suggestions were either ignored by or never reached the top level management. Name • Since it was in existence since early 1900s. This shows how Cadillac has an excellent organizational hierarchy which makes it successful. CADILLAC Post-war Cadillac was released around the same time as Edsel and at almost the same price tag. co-ordination and trust should exist among various verticals. An organization must have a role-model organizational management system that ensures continuous improvement in delivering products and/or services. It is evident that communication. 2. though ahead of time in a few latent innovations. . Cadillac had traditional value attached and leveraged it. 1. • Whereas Edsel was just Edsel. demonstrates efficient and effective operations. 3. People weren’t attracted to it due the car’s ordinary external make. The factors that made it possible have been listed below.

problems with solid rocket boosters had plagued authorities for a long time. But the second letter to NASA was objective rather than emotional. (MTI was profiting from supplying to NASA). MTI claimed they weren’t notified about the criticality change. Superiors at MTI were like MTI has contract and customers be damned. for inaction. he didn’t stress on it while reporting to NASA since if anything went wrong MTI was liable. NASA asked Marshal and in turn MTI to check test data of SRB. During a Level – 2 meeting. Right before the launch. Marshall Engineers knew the flaws in O-ring but failed to communicate to Thiokol engineers.CHALLENGER Challenger was the second space shuttle to be launched into space after Columbia (which again is known for its disaster more than a decade later). Also. Days before launch. which made the NASA authorities lackadaisical. Marshal Chief was appalled at the suggestion. The Communication shortcomings: News about O-rings faulty was given to Marshal from MTI. MTI informed Marshal that 0. an MTI employee wrote a letter to the head against the launch. though Marshal’s project manager wrote to the head that the rings cannot be fully trusted. MTI assured that secondary rings will take care in the rare case of erosion.005 inch buffer margin was available for safety measures. Though 9 missions had been successfully accomplished before the disaster. Same was the case with the channel of communication between MTI and NASA. Let us analyze what went wrong and how. MTI engineer asked Marshal if they could delay till temperature is up from 17 to 53. it failed to report the magnitude of risk to NASA in level. In a nutshell : Hot gases from Solid Rocket Boosters came out due to improper o-ring sealing and burnt a hole in fuel tank leading to an explosion. The letter ( refer Appendix – I ) sent within MTI was emotional and the top level management were shocked and failed to acknowledge the letter.1 meeting. Though it was alarmingly small. Though Marshal changed the criticality of O-rings since secondary rings were of no good. rather than communicating with their engineers and . MTI claimed it is not serious since there are secondary rings as backup in case of a problem. when temperature was a problem to O-rings functioning. But his report seemed like blaming the mgmt for inaccurate understanding. But the results were never submitted. Later.

• An administrator was appointed to study every aspect of how NASA manages its programs and also the relationships between various field centers and NASA Headquarters. within each of the organizations. then there is no problem. Difficulty in sending bad news to superiors or outsiders. • Several astronauts were appointed for management positions. Having engineers and other personnel from NASA and MSFC resolves any comunmunication shortcomings between the organizations. • Marshall Space Flight Center was directed to form a Solid Rocket Motor joint redesign team to include participation from MSFC and other NASA centers. But if the probability of estimating a system failure is high in the case of engineers when compared to managers. message passed slowly from engineers to managers (Also among the organizations).understanding the situation. info about O-rings had to travel from engineers to manager in a domain. then the project is poised to face problems. 2. So he agreed finally. the management-engineers divide is bridged to a large extent. Hence. AIR INDIA . which in turn was dependent on NASA for funds. 1. tax payers and President. a special Rogers Commission was created for investigation. With astronauts taking up management roles. which was manufactured with the spare parts of Challenger was designed in a much improved NASA organization. Difference in the way managers and engineers see things If the sender and receiver of a message are from the same vertical and work design. then to upper management of the organization and then to the other organization. they came up with a few suggestions which were then implemented in Endeavour Space Shuttle. the disaster couldn’t be avoided. Hence. The team includes personnel from other centers as well. Hence. Morton Thiokol International was dependant on Marshal Space Center (shuttle prog HQ) for contract. DISCUSSION Thus. • An independent oversight group was created to look after any project to address any issues. Senior VP of MTI asked chief engineer to wear management hat. Endeavour. The intensity and gravity of the situation was thereby lost. Meanwhile. ENDEAVOUR After the Challenger disaster reached meteoric proportions due to the involvement of media. After a detailed look into the matter.

spearheaded by the ACEU.000 employees. Merger of Air India and Indian Airlines The Government of India. on 1 March 2007. the oldest and the largest airline of India. if we take the 7C’s of communication. It didn’t finalise the process to be followed post-merger and also did not came up with the salary structure of Air India and Indian Airline pilots. Reacting to the gag order. . Air India Express Crash On May 26. 2010 Mangalore crash killed 158 people out of 166 people on board. approved the merger of Air India and Indian Airlines. Its corporate office is located at the Air India Building at Nariman Point in South Mumbai. Europe and North America. a new Company viz National Aviation Company of India Limited (NACIL) was incorporated under the Companies Act Air India CMD on merger said “The merger safeguards the employees with an assurance that all will be secured as a result of the merger. banning them from interacting with the media. over 12. It hasn’t addressed many open questions. Air India management failed to communicate on the below issues to its employees • Both Air India and Indian Airlines had different ethos and philosophy • Duplicate structures in large number of areas • Pay structure between both varies greatly • Process to be followed post-merger In this case. The AI gag order warns its staff that strict action would be taken if employees speak to the media. Consequent to the above. It is the 16th largest airline in Asia. AI management issued GAG report on employees.Air India is a state-owned flag carrier. It is part of the Indian government-owned Air India Limited (AIL).Going sour by the employee’s reaction. All current benefits and perquisites and career progression will be protected and all employees will be better off as a result of the merger” Even though the speech given by the CMD was fair enough for the employees to be convinced for the merger. went on a flash strike on Tuesday. 136 flights cancelled as AI strike enters Day 2. On response to this accident some engineers claimed that the management had flouted safety norms which lead to the plane crash in Mangalore.The comment led to huge embarrassment for the management which was still trying to come clean on the tragic air crash that killed 158 people. The airline operates a fleet of Airbusand Boeing aircraft serving Asia. The last-minute cancellations left thousands of AI passengers stranded at various airports across the country. the statement was not complete and not of much clarity. Australia.AI had terminated services of 55 employees besides suspending 32 others and Derecognized AIAEA and ACEU unions.

"I would like to use this opportunity to tell my employee to come to the table and discuss the issues they have. it has been analysed. Public To be conveyed: Convey employees about the importance of AI standards Not to take things public which make the situation worse Any issues should be dealt within the organisation Not to be conveyed: Emotions of the AI management Employees can get back to the job with out hard feelings Fear to talk to management Lack of interaction with public will make employees responsible During the strike of employees for the issue of GAG report Purpose Audience Informati on Benefits Objection s Context Employees feel like management followed a "Hitlarian approach" by the above comments from Jadhav. advise them but if they still don't listen we will take very strict action. He felt. I also request you not to make this issue more sensitive by interacting with public thereby they may lose their interest in Air India. the CMDof AI said. Ministry. This is the first thing that we would like to do. Management is also ready to test the standards of security norms followed in the Air India. After the application of PAIBOC analysis. how the communication could have been.Jadhav. If he would have communicated in the proper way.It’s more like an aggressive speech rather he supposed to soothe the employees. he can control the employees and Unions by his aggressive talks and behavior." . If it can be withdrawn just now. Air Corporation Employees Union (ACEU) President Dinkar Shetty said. Jadhav should have said that “I would like to use this opportunity to invite my fellow employees and union leaders to discuss the core problem with me rather than with the media." In response to the above statement. this problem would not have broken out to such a high level. We will counsel them. "We want to warn the management against instigation of any kind." PAIBOC Analysis To soothe the employees The affected employees. I would also like to tell them that the future of the company is in the hands of the employees. with his power. Mr. then management should come forward and withdraw the order otherwise the strike will continue.

Civil Aviation minister told reporters here “The strike is illegal. but due to lack of proper communication. The unions and the employees should come ahead for talks. This speech by Mr. This will impact Air India’s financial health and reputation. If Management feels guilty. “All employees have the right to express their views and we did the same. Shetty has been analysed using PAIBOC techniques and a better speech is formulated with the help of the same. They have to run an organisation. PAIBOC Analysis To remove the GAG report enforced on employees AI Management. this added fuel to burning fire. The ministry will not like to interfere in the process or (in the) way forward for Air India. In the meantime we are also happy to commence our work to serve public. Ministry To be conveyed: Convey AI about the rights of its employees Should not force employees to tell their views Not to be conveyed: Emotions of the employees AI can resurrect the work Ego of Management to lose power During the strike of employees for the issue of GAG report Purpose Audienc e Informat ion Benefits Objectio ns Context Mr. Praful Patel.Jadhav. The matter also came up before the Bombay High Court. Civil Aviation Minister Mr. He could have analysed before speaking out.” On the occasion of strike.Praful Patel said the strike by Air India staff was illegal even as thousands of travellers across the country were livid after as many as 140 flights of the state-run carrier were cancelled or diverted. Shetty should have responded like. The Air India management has our full support.ACEU President Dinkar Shetty also reacted in the same way as Mr. which asked Air India to serve a notice on the agitating unions asking them to resume work after the carrier challenged the legality of the stir and sought restraining orders against the employees. There is no need for a GAG report for the same to enforce the employees not to go public. Purpose PAIBOC Analysis To motivate the employees and make them return for their work . Some sections of employees are behaving irresponsibly. They have a management and a chain of command and they will take further action”. they would have taken steps to test the standards of security norms followed in AI and prove that the crash is not because of the security issue.

Audienc e AI employees. Union. It has a great financial impact and it affects the morale of the organization. “Why are some pilots being impatient. The survival of our own airline.” said Jadhav. Terming the strike by its pilots as "unfortunate and ill-advised". Air India CMD Arvind Jadhav said. the carrier is struggling with daily losses of over Rs 15 crore and its total losses have amounted to Rs 4.000 crore annually. Purpose Audienc e PAIBOC Analysis To motivate the employees and make them return for their work AI employees. it gives a wrong picture about the pilots and employees to the public. Civil Aviation Minister. “the strike makes me and the nation worried. Arvind Jadhav. Mr. being adamant on tarnishing the image of the company and being totally unconcerned towards the convenience of our esteemed patrons and passengers".Patel. being unreasonable. AI Management To be conveyed: How the strike impacts the organisation How it impacts the public people Not to be conveyed: Bad impressions about the employees AI can resurrect the work Fear to talk to Ministry During the strike of employees for the salary issue Informat ion Benefits Objectio ns Context On seeing the note from Mr. He should not have given such an open statement against the employees of Air India. he said in an open letter to all employees. being irresponsible. "This is an hour of crisis. AI Management To be conveyed: How the strike impacts the organisation How it impacts the public people Not to be conveyed: Bad impressions about the employees AI can resurrect the work Informat ion Benefits . I request the employees and union leaders to discuss the issue with the management for a peaceful conclusion. This is a fight for survival. the company’s CMD. Patel should have commented like. Union. We need to consider the importance of the service we are doing and any change will lead to a loss of our customers” In the meantime. on Saturday wrote a letter to all employees and said the airline is fighting for its “survival”.

We need your support to succeed in this activity. of Cumula Cumulative of AI respondents tive Percentage Salary 15 15 30. Civil Aviation Minister.Air India appears heading for more trouble with its ground staff also planning to go on strike. There is no point in going for the strike as it is going to give a bad image for our organization in front of the public and media. Jadhav should have responded like.61 Merger 12 27 55. We are doing our best to pay the salaries for all employees and we are bargaining with the government for the same. We are in a tough situation currently and orgainsation is in need of your help. Mr.Air India CMD Raghu Menon said. We can consider it for about 15. unreasonable and adamant.A section of Air India pilots went on strike on Saturday in protest against cut in their productivity linked incentives (PLI). ruled out the job cuts.”But Praful Patel.000 employees. the morale of other employees would have been affected.Jadhav had quoted that.51 No.67 Lack of freedom of employees 3 44 89. rather we can do our service which would please government and public. Mr. Data Collected From Survey Issues lead to downfall No.80 Hitlarian approach by management 2 46 93. “Itotally understand the emotional concerns of our employees.Objectio ns Context Employees fear on management Dislike of Employees to work for Air India During the strike of employees for the salary issue In an open letter to all the employees. Since he sent a general mail to the entire employees. Also we ensure that the situation will come into control shortly and the employees will be paid as per the norms.Proper process after merger 4 41 83. “We are planning to offer leave without pay for three to five years. some employees are irresponsible. These are the negative aspects and it should not have been communicated to a large group first and it would have been better if he followed a verbal communication only with those particular employees.10 Communication issue 10 37 75.” Employees of the carrier have called for an indefinite strike from July 1 if the management delays their salaries.88 . No proper communication between the AI top management and Aviation ministry leading to conflicting statements which impacted the morale of the employees.

40 19.60 11. When conducted a survey on the issues which led to the downfall of Air India.60% .50 17.Mangalore Crash Order for new air-crafts Pareto-Analysis: 2 1 48 49 97.10 Airways % % % 26% % Kingfishe 12.71 13.70 7. If AI Management would have taken prior steps to control these issues.80 17.40 6.30 13.34 Spice Jet % % % % 14% 17. it shows that 80% of the issue is due to Salary issue.20 Air India % % % % % 15.30 6.90 10.60 Others % 14% % % % Market Share by Indian Aviation Industry for the month of May 2011 For May 2011 Market Airways Share Jet Airways 26.70 28.90 Indigo % % % % % 9.40 13.44 23. Trend of market share for Air India in Indian Aviation Industry for the past 5 years Decline in Market Share for Air India Airways 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Jet 21.00 Pareto Analysis is a statistical technique in decision making that is used for the selection of a limited number of tasks that produce significant overall effect. a large majority of problems (80%) are produced by a few key causes (20%).60 14.96 100.90 26.50 25. the situation would not have been this worse.90 16.90% Spice Jet 14% Air India 13.20% Go Air 6. Rest other issues or just an add-ins to these main issues. Communication issue and merger.10% Kingfish er 20% Indigo 19.50 20.90 r % % % 20% 20% 9.69 12. In terms of quality improvement.

2003. It is a subsidiary of the Air France-KLM Group and a founding member of the SkyTeam global airline alliance. Air France3 and KLM Royal Dutch Airlines (KLM)4 announced their merger plans pending the necessary approvals to be granted by the European commission and the US Department of Justice. And we would not have achieved the growth we have today” In this case. we would have lost the cooperation and support we needed to implement the merger. BEA head Jean-Paul Troadec said that "the situation was salvageable" during the flight's final minutes.3 million passengers. If we had cut back on staff. many mergers have failed because they have concentrated too much on cost-cutting and downsizing and not enough on growing market share and revenues. a procedure which consists of taking an angle . Some industry analysts were disappointed when we decided NOT to cut back on capacity and staff. which was flying from Rio de Janeiro to Paris. (north of Paris). Air France launched a public offer to exchange all the existing ordinary equity shares of KLM Jean-Cyril Spinetta. is the French flag carrier headquartered in Tremblay-enFrance. the statement was complete and the strategy to be followed was also conveyed.The BEA (Bureau d’Enquêtes et d’Analyses pour la sécurité de l’aviation civile) is the French body responsible for technical investigations into civil aviation accidents or incidents and also acts in this capacity abroad. in April 2004.He said that "The first event which triggered it all is the disconnection of the automatic pilot following the loss of the speed indicators. where human resources are critical to the delivery of our joint products. We would partly achieve this by winning market share from competitors. Air France FlightCrash All 228 passengers and crew were killed when the Airbus A330. As of 2010 Air France serves 32 destinations in France and operates worldwide scheduled passenger and cargo services to 154 destinations in 91 countries (including Overseas departments and territories of France) and also carried 71. At this time the pilot should have initiated a procedure known as 'Unreliable IAS (indicated air speed)'. Right from the beginning. Soon after receiving the approvals. In the past. especially from European carriers. Chairman of Air France said “In designing the merger. Leo van Wijk and I focused on profitable growth. very probably after they were frozen by ice crystals. We work in a service industry. we decided on anoffensive rather than defensive strategy. stalled in mid-flight and plunged into the ocean. Merger: (AIR France-KLM Merger) On September 30. and is one of the world's largest airlines. not like Air India.AIR FRANCE Air France. It doesn’t have any open questions.

The angle they took was too much. and the report is expected to come in the mid of May 2012. the plane took a rapid vertical flight of 7. Even in this case. The co-pilots in charge of the plane when the emergency began "had received no highaltitude training for unreliable IAS (indicated air speed) procedure and manual air craft handling". The crew on duty showed professionalism and stayed committed until the end to operating the flight. but the angle they took was far superior. The altitude-loss alarm was activated and deactivated several times. “It is due to the stall warning system in Air Bus”. it agreed to investigate the stall alarm facilities which avoided further trouble." The both the statements are complete as it did not leave any questions and it was courteous and not as in the case of Air India. the management was not willing to prove that they are working under proper security norms which laid the way for all the troubles. saying that "nothing at this stage can allow the crew's technical competence to be blamed for the crash. Air Bus and the Unions. BCCI . The main pilots' union SNPL said. The report also said that the pilots failed to alert passengers to the crisis as they struggled to regain control. which contributed strongly to the crew's difficulty in analysing the situation.In this case.Since the French state has a significant stake in Air Bus. A statement from Air France rejected the BEA's findings. BEA authorities had accused the pilots for the crash saying they had failed to follow standard procedures and were inadequately trained for the situation. Air France. whereas in case of AI. Since the communication was proper between the BEA.of five degrees.. A healthy communication in this case avoids a major issue.000 feet/minute. Finally Air France has agreed for investigation on the warning system in the air bus. contradicting the real status of the aircraft. no such issue arises as in the case of Air India. it downplayed the technical difficulties faced by the pilots."That is why the plane flew upwards. Air France salutes their courage and determination in these extreme conditions..

motivating them and discussing tactics that can be deployed on the field.Chappell’s first overseas tour as the coach of the team was to Zimbabwe in September 2005 where Chappell had asked Ganguly to step down as captain on the eve of the game. A foreign coach always finds it difficult to take in everything a country like India offers and it takes time to settle down. He spoke a common language that the players could understand and handled the big egos and the smaller aspiring stars well. Kirsten is known to be a very motivating person and is the guy who always knows how to motivate his team. Anil Kumble.He came in for criticism for his tinkering with the batting lineup and unorthodox cricket coaching methods. Harbhajan Singh. Communication Issues: Greg Chappell (May 2005-April 2007): Greg Chappell was appointed as a coach of the Indian National Cricket team for a two year term until the World Cup 2007. and Zaheer Khan. Gary Kirsten (December 2007-April 2011): Gary Kirsten officially started as coach after a much controversial time with Greg Chappell. it has the authority to select players. Gary Kirsten had a simple strategy and his relationship with the Indian players was something that most fathers and sons will envy. After some initial success in the 2005-06 season. He has been invited by many institutions to make motivational speech. into the team just a few months before the World Cup. His comments also did not go down well with the Indian public The coaching method. defeating Sri Lanka in the finals during September 2009. he also coached India to its first bilateral series win in Sri Lanka against Sri Lanka and India's first One-Day International series victory against New Zealand in New Zealand after forty years. A highly accomplished batsman himself. Zaheer Khan. He took his team into confidence and encouraged them. the team went through a string of bad performances. including Virender Sehwag. Coaching India is the most difficult place as it has more than 27 languages being spoken and the culture. This enabled them to better understand the cultures and the little intricacies of India and to be a better coach. A rift in the team and the difference between senior members of the team and the coach came out in the open following which Chappell quit as coach. which was personally researched by Chappell and his business partner Frazer. He found a balance between them and made sure that there was no rift within the team. and his alleged modus operandi of leaking potentially damning information about individual players to the media were widely criticized. and just the way of approaching and doing things. But Kirsten preferred to be behind the scenes. traditions and religion beliefs varying vastly from state to state. He looked twice before saying anything and was rewarded by not making a fool of themselves. During his tenure as Coach of India. The Board was formed in 1928 as BCCI replaced by Calcutta Cricket Club. alleged cultural insensitivity. Added to this is the difference in education. umpires and officials to participate in international events. Indian cricket team won a home series against Australia. Several senior Indian players whom Chappell coached have criticized his methods.Chappell had tugged at the fabric of the team by the way in which had ousted India's most successful captain Ganguly in 2005. who were not considered to be in the scheme of things of Chappell. Gary Kirsten has been praised by all players for enhancing their playing techniques. His people management skills. This led to the recall of players like Sourav Ganguly. Coaches form an integral part of the services provided by BCCI and their influence on players and team as a whole is discussed in the subsequent paragraphs. he had brought in a considerable amount of improvement in the batting performances. The team had a disastrous World Cup and Chappell faced a lot of flak for the debacle. Kirsten helped to improve the skills and techniques of many players and he made himself available to the players full time. was unconventional. All the experimentations conducted by Chappell came a cropper and criticisms of the coach gathered momentum. Ganguly was later dropped from the Indian cricket team by the selectors on the grounds of poor form. The BCCI has 27 state association members across five zones in India. It is difficult to manage a team that comprises of players with vast difference in their culture and customs. which is largely associated with his ability to instillbetter confidence among younger players.He is considered the key force behind the clearly visible performance improvement in all players.One of the desirable traits of Kirsten is the effective way he .The Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) is a national governing body for all cricket in India. Apart from clinching the Border Gavaskar trophy. As a member of the International Cricket Council (ICC). In addition to unconventional training drills the team was also subjected to lectures on concepts in lateral thinking and other concepts and methods that are generally used in management training. India also won the Compaq Cup. mannerism. but many in the media suggested his omission was influenced by the previous row with Chappell. observing and analysing their surroundings before making his decisions.

he makes them analyse their own problems and lets them arrive at a solution by themselves. The result was India lifted the World Cup with him as coach. and have wasted plenty of money. This is one of the main reasons why he is successful unlike Greg Chappell or John Buchanan when he coached KKR. He tells things just the way they are and his honest assessments make him a respected leader. Under Kirsten. he says it in a manner that the player doesn’t get offended. 1 rank in the ICC’s Test rankings and have won six of their last seven bilateral ODI series. Kirsten has a simple formula to the way he approaches his job. Discussions . BCCI and India in the past have been like a parent who finds an expensive tutor for their child and hope that alone does well. Team India considered him more as a friend out to help them than an angry teacher with a lashing whip. This helps develop not only a great thinking forum for a player but also makes sure that everyone feels that they are contributing towards the team’s success. He not only tries to make better cricket players. Gary Kirsten was successful purely because he backed players to give their best. He is not always sweet and not everything he says is sugary. Greg Chappell is a standing example of how destructive a coach can be to the team. But with Kirsten they had found a man who does justice to his job and goes the extra mile to fulfill his duties. The Indian team looked more united and was probably one of the best times in Indian cricket. This makes him favourable among the players and earns mutual respect. This was seen in all the players he has interacted with. he has learned to operate with his means. His work ethic is unquestionable and so is his commitment to the job. This also helped him to be a behind the scenes man and is the perfect choice for a coach in a country such as India. He encourages thinking and makes sure that during team meetings that everyone shares their views. Even a player just in the squad as a substitute is made to share his views and thoughts. The uncomplicated way of approach worked big time for Indian cricket.Kirsten has adapted well to the high demands of the job and has taken to India like how an eel takes to water. Any coach with plans to get the best out of his team by flexing his muscles is nothing but destroying himself. Kirsten acted as a manager who was available to his players all the time and instead of just solving their problems. Today the role of coach has to be more a philosopher with the ability to manage the team as a unit. .A coach can flex his muscles to get the best out of a junior team maybe at a school level but not at the international level with a team made up of players who are already legends of the game. Rather than to complain and change the way the Indian system functions. He destroyed Team India with his arrogant approach and loud talking. He sticks to common sense and plain cricketing knowledge and doesn’t over analyse a situation and sticks to the basics. Kirsten is and has been the answer to India’s prayer for a world class coach and in a way has been a messiah in the background of every Indian victory in recent times. He has instilled a sense of self belief into the team and the team looks to maximize any opportunity that comes their way. Kirsten is the type of man who more often than not goes that extra mile above the call of duty. These players look for moral support from their coach rather than someone picking on their mistakes. India has achieved the No. He had the ability to sugar coat the medicine and give it to the players. but also better human beings at the same time.communicates. Communication is the upmost important character in management and Kirsten excels in this. at the same time correcting mistakes through discussion. but when he has something to say that is not all that sweet. He has accepted the culture and has made the most of India.

with ebbs and flows. The role of Steve Jobs was the most important among them. He builds up to it. the capital market always responded with his presence and absence. HONEST AND SHOW ENTHUSIASM Tell the world how big the impact is." He jokes that the touch-screen features of the phone "work like magic” “and boy have we patented it. This is one device…today Apple is going to reinvent the phone!" The crowd goes wild. The first is a widescreen iPod with touch controls. The resurrection of Apple Inc." He repeats the three devices several times then says. The takeaway? Build up to something unexpected in your presentations. under Steve Jobs was the notable phenomenon in the first decade of the 21st century. "Every once in a while a revolutionary product comes along that changes everything…Apple has been fortunate to introduce a few things into the world. including "remarkable." and "cool. a product that he says "changed the entire music industry." After the groundwork. During the iPhone launch. buildups and climaxes. he builds up to the new device by teasing the audience: "Today." Jobs continues by describing the 1984 launch of the Macintosh as an event that "changed the entire computer industry. And the third is a breakthrough Internet communications device." The same goes for the introduction of the first iPod in 2001. The presentation skill of Mr. Steve Jobs SUSPENSE ELEMENT Steve Jobs doesn’t convey the entire plot of the presentation. Jobs uses many adjectives to describe the new product. Jobs conducts a presentation like a symphony." . He begins his presentation by reviewing the "revolutionary" products Apple has introduced. we are introducing three revolutionary products. The second is a revolutionary new mobile phone. The key features of his presentation are discussed in detail below. His association with Apple was noted as the key factor. Steve Jobs is one among the key features that attracted media attention." "revolutionary." Michael Dell said at a conference.APPLE "What would I do? I'd shut it down and give the money back to the shareholders. "Are you getting it? These are not three separate devices. It leaves his listeners wildly excited.

let your listeners know. . Visual Thinking Apple presentations are always a visual extravaganza. When Jobs talked about the popularity of iTunes around the world. If you're passionate about a product. The human mind can only retain three or four “chunks” of information. For example. service. a presentation from Steve have hardly any words. Carmine. They should be made aware of the bottom-up communication channels and the consequences of miscommunication. associates and workers should be trained to know their responsibilities. Psychologists call this picture superiority: Ideas are more easily recalled when presented with text and images instead of text alone.For all those who are afraid of over-hype. They convey more and create impressions. "This sounds great. but I'm not as charismatic as Steve Jobs. He uses images to communicate to people. and express your enthusiasm! Now please don't say. the new price was accompanied by photos of the iPods. Give yourself permission to loosen up." Well guess what—Jobs worked at it and is far more engaging today as a presenter than he was many years ago. • All the staff. or company. When he said the iPhone app store was celebrating its first anniversary.” All the three points to a single device – iPhone. “An MP3 player. a slide appeared with a birthday cake holding one candle. RECOMMENDATIONS • Training should be given for senior-level executives and managers to make them more approachable and involved with their teams. When he talked about lower iPod prices. Good luck! The rule of Three The Rule of Three is one of most powerful concepts in dramatic writing. a phone and an Internet communications device. We all have room to grow and to improve the way we pitch ourselves and our products. Especially mid-level managers and supervisors need it to streamline information and to make sure a smooth functioning of the organization. have fun. While the average number of words in a PowerPoint slide is 40 words. his slide showed 23 flags of different countries instead of country names. he expresses his passion for innovation.

Technical junta should also be taken along for such meetings in order to relay sound information and make commitments which are realistic and achievable. • The mission and vision of organization should be known by the staff which will help them realize the ethical principles they should withhold. attitudes and beliefs of the workers. • Issue centered focus groups should be created for problem redressing by taking into account the opinions. • If the problems are quite vast and have deeply-rooted causes. This will avoid circumstances where adequate rectification is delayed or forgotten. and how to create and manage agreements for achieving objectives. This third party may be able to get inside the problem more thoroughly than an insider because when communication problems crop up. perceptions. who to interact with to produce those results. the group involved may choose to clam up or point fingers rather than admit to their role in creating the problem. This will help avert any embezzlements and disasters. • We want our managers and staff members to know what results they need to produce. no matter what level of authority they have.• Cross-functional meetings should be held regularly for discussing the project in their respective perspectives. . a neutral negotiator’s services can be used. • Clarity about whom to go to if any technical glitches are observed.

• Messages are sometimes not scrutinized for sensitive project and organizational needs like team building. and legal commitments. Smooth negotiating tactics must be a part of their skill set. the source should be traced and rectified rather than waiting for it to result in an impactful consequence. • The project’s expectations should be the same across the board. stakeholders and team members.• The communication skills of leaders should be honed properly to adapt to bad weather situations in the organization. • A group meeting shouldn’t be too informal that it results in lack of seriousness and at the same time. it shouldn’t be too serious that the members are intimidated or reluctant to complain. • Language and cultural differences should be ironed out by sending the candidates to Language & Cultural training programs. They should be trained to write diplomatic yet inspirational letters to workers who are creating problems. Establish a standard project communications audiences list to help deliver the right work management data to the right people. • • • . organizational strategy. Larger projects need a specialist to represent the formal project communication management needs. Team outings should be encouraged. • If the productivity is declining or if the morale of the team is going down due to reasons like blame game and ego. Bosses should be trained to deliver bad news in a cushioned manner to mitigate the repercussions.

This unofficial team is essentially nonexistent at this time. Every organization has its own code of ethics and pledge to serve humanity. should be fully aware of both while performing his duties.• Before talking to clients and superiors. . An unofficial team [a memo defining the team and its purpose was never published] with leader was formed on 19 July 1985 and was tasked with solving the problem for both the short and long term. This position is now drastically changed as a result of the SRM 16A nozzle joint erosion which eroded a secondary O-ring with the primary O-ring never sealing. managers should talk to their teams. This will avoid any unrealistic expectations. the team must be officially given the responsibility and the authority to execute the work that needs to be done on a non-interference basis (full time assignment until completed). The mistakenly accepted position on the joint problem was to fly without fear of failure and to run a series of design evaluations which would ultimately lead to a solution or at least a significant reduction of the erosion problem. Monetary objectives should be placed behind the welfare of humanity. No assumptions should be made. Each and every employee of the organization. The result would be a catastrophe of the highest order-loss of human life. • APPENDIX – I CHALLENGER CASE : Letter from MTI engineer to MTI management “This letter is written to insure that management is fully aware of the seriousness of the current O-ring erosion problem in the SRM joints from an engineering standpoint. from the boss to the security guard. This will help avert any ego clashes or information hiding acts leading to death or damage. If the same scenario should occur in a field joint (and it could). then it is a jump ball as to the success or failure of the joint because the secondary O-ring cannot respond to the clevis opening rate and may not be capable of pressurization. It is my honest and very real fear that if we do not take immediate action to dedicate a team to solve the problem with the field joint having the number one priority. then we stand in jeopardy of losing a flight along with all the launch pad facilities. In my opinion.

. it is almost impossible to cover organizations in wider geographical regions encompassing all the major countries. Also. At 50°F the O-ring did not re-establish contact in ten minutes at which time the test was terminated. though both public and government organizations have been studied. But that proved to be beyond our scope. after the ignition transient. there is a very high probability that the secondary O-ring would hold pressure since the case has not expanded appreciably at this point.” LIMITATIONS The study covers various organizations with diverse backgrounds. situated in different countries. Though we have come up with a nearcomprehensive set of standards to avoid any disasters.. If the primary seal were to fail from 170 to 330 milliseconds. Some other topical issues might have been overlooked in the analysis. 2. will the secondary seal seat in sufficient time to prevent joint leakage? Answer: MTI has no reason to suspect that the primary seal would ever fail after pressure equilibrium is reached.4 seconds. the probability of the secondary seal holding is reduced. i. At 100°F the O-ring maintained contact. 330 – 660 almost no chance. The list is not exhaustive. An international sample of students would be the ideal way of inferring from the survey. The conclusion is that secondary sealing capability in the SRM field joint cannot be guaranteed. Question: If the field joint secondary seal lifts off the metal mating surfaces during motor pressurization. Question: If the primary O-ring does not seal.1. how soon will it return to a position where contact is re-established? Answer: Bench test data indicate that the O-ring resiliency (its capability to follow the metal) is a function of temperature and the rate of case expansion. If the primary O-ring were to fail from 0 to 170 milliseconds. which simulated the nominal squeeze on the O-ring and approximated the case expansion distance and rate. books and the Internet.e. At 75°F the oring lost contact for 2. MTI measured the force of the O-ring against Instron plattens. journals. operating in varying scales of magnitude from different periods of time in history. Hence a diverse group of 50 students from IIM Rohtak were surveyed. the scope of our investigation is restricted to online magazines. The survey was conducted on a sample data of 50 students who have had prior work experience.

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