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CHPR4530: Process Systems (Process System and Design)

Overview of PFD and PIDs: The Design Process

1. Process flow diagrams (PFD) (and Stream tables) 2. Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams (P&ID) 3. Equipment Data sheets

Winthrop Prof. Mike Johns School of Mechanical and Chemical Engineering University of Western Australia

Process Flow Diagrams (PFDs) 1


The process flow diagram (PFD) is a key document in process design The PFD shows:
the arrangement of process equipment the stream flow rates and compositions the operating conditions

The PFD is used for:


development of plant control strategy (and P&IDs) other specialist functions (e.g. plant layout) operations personnel for creating operating instructions comparing operating performance with design performance

The PFD has to therefore conform to strict, universal, standards

Process Flow Diagrams (PFDs) 2


The final PFD is a snapshot of the process at steady state it typically derives from the block diagram. The PFD shows every major item of capital equipment
This generally also includes unit operations required for start up and shut down This also includes duplicate equipment (such as reactors) that is not standby equipment It must be consistent with an equipment schedule (list of equipment required) - which is subsequently used for costing purposes.

The PFD contains (or is accompanied by) a stream table, which shows:
Stream flow rate Stream compositions Stream phase Stream temperature Stream pressure Stream solids fraction (if applicable) Other physical properties such as density, viscosity, mean particle size (if applicable)

The final PFD uses standard sets of symbols, such that any chemical engineer can read it. BS 1553 or BS 5070 are examples of these defining standards.

BS1553 symbols for heat exchange equipment

Basic heat exchanger

Shell and tube heat exchanger; fixed tube sheet

Shell and tube heat exchanger; U-tube, or floating head

Kettle type reboiler

Fin fan cooler

Plate heat exchanger

Double pipe heat exchanger Fired heater

Belt drier

Rotary drier Drying oven Rotary kiln

BS1553 symbols for columns, reactors and tanks


30

14

Packed vessel (reaction or absorption)

Fluid contacting vessel (packed)

Tray column

Tray column showing various pipe stubs, and flanged access point at try 30

Column containing two packed sections

Autoclave Simple pressure vessel or drum Basic CSTR

Open tank

Covered tank

Basic gas holder

Sealed tank showing flanged access point (top) and various piping stubs

Sealed tank with conical roof and sump, showing flanged access point and various piping stubs

Storage sphere showing access points and piping stubs

BS1553 symbols for pumps, conveyors and solid separators

Rotary positive displacement pump

Centrifugal pump or fan

Reciprocating positive displacement pump

Axial flow compressor

Ejector or injector

Roll crusher

Gyratory breaker

Ball mill

Hammer mill

Mixer

Simple filter

Disc bowl centrifuge Filter press Cyclone or hydrocyclone Rotary filter

Screw conveyer Kneader Ribbon blender

Electric motor

Belt conveyer

An example of a simple finalised PFD Nitric acid production


C & R construction Inc
Title: Nitric acid plant, 60% w/w Client: BOP Chemicals Inc. Drawn by: B Hallmark Checked by: A.N. Other Drawing revision: 1.0 Date: 10/07/2009

Off gas

10

11

Water

F-100

2 Air

P-100

2a 1a 3

E-101

C-100

NH3

1
R-100

E-100

4
E-102

5
F-101 E-103

12 7

V-100

13

HNO3

Dealing with batch and continuous processes


When dealing with batch (or both batch and continuous) processes, clarity is paramount The stream table entry shows either
steady-state flows for continuous plant (in kg/hr or equivalent) or the highest flow expected during batch operations (in kg)

This is to assist line sizing, pump sizing, etc. Stream composition relates to flow stated. When showing batch and continuous plant on the same page of the PFD, often a good idea to put feint dashed line around either batch or continuous bit for clarity.

Dealing with batch and continuous processes


DIY Chemicals Ltd
Title : Waste organics recovery unit Client : FPD Chemicals Inc . Drawn by : B Hallmark Checked by : A .N . Other Drawing revision : 1 .0 Date : 1 1/10 /20 10

Continuous operation
13 To flare E 100 12 E 101

6
V 101 14 To C 102

5 1 Mixed organics

V 100

11

8 2 O2 R 100 P 100 9 T 100 7

10

E 100 15 C 100 16

P 101

E 102 To RP unit

Line number Stream Flow Batch cycle time Composition (wt %) MeOH EtOH Formaldehyde Acetaldehyde Formic acid Acetic acid Water Oxygen Nitrogen Phase Pressure (bar) Temperature (deg C)

1 Waste feed 800 kg 5 hours

2 Enriched air 200 kg 5 hours

3 Offgas 50 kg 5 hours

4 Condensate 50 kg 5 hours

5 Cond. Return 45 kg 5 hours

6 Volatiles 5 kg 5 hours

7 Acid feed 860 kg 5 hours

8 Acid feed 860 kg 5 hours

9 Acid product 100 kg/hr

10 Acid product 100 kg/hr

11 Hot acid

12 Light vapour

13 Light condensate 25 kg/hr

14 Reflux 8 kg/hr

15 Reboil vapour 7 kg/hr

16 Residue 90 kg/hr

100 kg/hr 25 kg/hr

0.12 0.25 0.03 0.06 0.20 0.20 0.14 0.00 0.00 Liquid 1.0 25.0

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.35 0.65 Vapour 1.0 25.0

0.10 0.05 0.08 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.04 0.10 0.61 Vapour 1.0 55.0

0.10 0.05 0.08 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.04 0.10 0.61 Liquid 1.0 25.0

0.11 0.06 0.09 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.04 0.09 0.59 Liquid 1.0 25.0

0.05 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.15 0.80 Vapour 1.0 25.0

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.36 0.52 0.12 0.00 0.00 Liquid 1.0 55.0

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.36 0.52 0.12 0.00 0.00 Liquid 1.0 55.0

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.36 0.52 0.12 0.00 0.00 Liquid 5.0 25.0

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.36 0.52 0.12 0.00 0.00 Liquid 5.0 24.0

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.36 0.52 0.12 0.00 0.00 Liquid 5.0 70.0

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.87 0.03 0.10 0.00 0.00 Vapour 5.0 55.0 Liquid

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.87 0.03 0.10 0.00 0.00

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.87 0.03 0.10 0.00 0.00 Liquid 5.0 50.0

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.03 0.87 0.10 0.00 0.00 Vapour 5.0 120.0

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.03 0.87 0.10 0.00 0.00 Liquid 5.0 120.0

5.0 50.0

Showing heat integration


Often, heat integration is used for energy efficiency purposes; this needs to be shown clearly on the PFD. One method is to show a process line on the service side of a heat exchanger in the example below using column residue as column feed preheat:
To RP unit 18 13

12

E 101

V 101 14 To C 102

11

10

E 100 15 C 100

E 103 P 100

16

17

E 102

The piping and instrumentation diagram (P&ID)


Next layer of information that underlies the PFD, and is fully referenced to the PFD

Most important process document as it links all disciplines:


provides all the engineering process and control information required for the design changes need to be controlled and hence there are frequent and formal revisions (this is true to a lesser extent for the PFD) during the design process.

All equipment is shown:


all pipes principal pipes are shown by heavier lines all valves blacked out if closed by default, outlined if open by default all vents and drains all instrumentation & control loops all safety devices materials of construction also shown.

all items are labeled with a unique identifier


duplicate/standby equipment is shown. Piping information is shown using a numbered code. Standard set of symbols used and explanatory notes sometimes added to describe special functionality.

A gas venturi flowmeter


To understand how to draw the P&ID, one has to understand how each piece of equipment looks and how it works.

Main flow through red pipe, which is flanged at both ends Pressure tappings at constriction and at a reference point upstream If flow is a gas that can condense, entire unit needs to be heated (known as trace heating either electric or steam) If gas is toxic, flowmeter and ancillary piping needs flushing with a safe gas before the unit is removed for maintenance For reliability, may want four tappings two at the centre, two at the reference point; sanity check in case of blockage.

Full P&ID segment for gas venturi meter

Main process line, 200 mm diameter with electrical trace heating

Venturi with 300 mm flanges for main process line

Full P&ID segment for gas venturi meter


15 mm steam traced line from flow transducer to reference point. Passes through 2 isolation valves, one with flanged connections 15 mm steam traced line from venturi throat to flow transducer. Passes through 2 isolation valves, one with flanged connections Electrically actuated valve to control flow. Takes control signal from the venturi meter, but also has other inputs that relate to safety systems

Main process line, 200 mm diameter with electrical trace heating Venturi with 300 mm flanges for main process line

Nitrogen inlet for flushing prior to maintenance

A simple shell and tube heat exchanger

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Header Fixed tube plate Shell Baffle Tube O-ring seal Floating tube plate Header Drain socket

Source: http://www.frigotherm.co.za/

P&ID segment for S&T heat exchanger


Automatically controlled valve, with two isolating valves either side (for when valve is removed), drains (for valve removal) and bypass loop (so HEX can still work with valve removed)

Control line (electrical) Process fluid inlet Relief valve in case of overpressure 200 mm pipe stub Vent (20 mm) 15 mm pipe stub 300 mm flange Mechanical support Relief valve on 20 mm pipe Pipe diameter change, 50 mm to 100 mm Temperature sensor (on 40 mm pipe stub)

Drain (50 mm)

Showing running and standby equipment


Pumps, and sometimes other equipment, will typically have both running and standby systems. Typically, one running and either one or two standby pumps. Operation swapped typically each shift change.
Centrifugal pumps cant work if vapourlocked normally closed valve used on start-up to bleed out vapour.

P 100 A

Non-return valve to prevent backflow

Isolation valves used when pump is on standby

P 100 B

Closed isolation valve with flanged outlet used for draining system

Showing control valve assemblies


Control valves require consideration in terms of how theyre maintained:

Isolation valves that can be shut when the control valve is removed for maintenance.

Drain valves to remove fluid from system during maintenance

Orifice plate such that DP on bypass is same as that in normal operation

Isolation valve to prevent flow around bypass loop in normal operation

Abbreviating commonly used assemblies on P&IDs


It gets cumbersome to draw the full arrangement of pumps and valves every time on the P&ID. Perfectly acceptable to abbreviate and give the definition of the abbreviation on the P&ID.
A B C D E F G H

Abbreviated definitions of pumps and control valves shown at the base of the P&ID

NAME

Date

Represents a pump set with a running pump and a standby pump

Represents a control valve with isolation valves and bypass loop.

DWG TITLE

SIZE

DWG NO

CHECKED

SHEET

REV

A3

1/1

Piping and line codes on P&IDs


Each pipe on a P&ID has its own UNIQUE number, which is different to that on the PFD The piping code consists of the line number, nominal pipe diameter, process fluid and material of construction. For example: 150St3015HC
150 mm nominal diameter Unique line number

Contains process steam

Pipe made of high carbon steel

Most companies have standard abbreviations for both process fluid and pipe material. Sizing is carried out based on pressure drops and/or suspension velocities Nominal pipe diameters are a standard:
Nominal pipe size (inches) 1/8 3/8 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 Nominal diameter (mm) 6 8 10 15 20 25 32 40 50 65 80 90 100 115 125 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 600 Outside diameter (inches) (mm) 0.405 10.29 0.54 13.72 0.675 17.15 0.84 21.34 1.05 26.67 1.315 33.4 1.66 42.16 1.9 48.26 2.375 60.33 2.875 73.02 3.5 88.9 4 101.6 4.5 114.3 5 127 5.563 141.3 6.625 168.27 8.625 219.08 10.75 273.05 12.75 323.85 14 355.6 16 406.4 18 457.2 20 508 24 609.6

Material code and 200 mm

Pipe code

Fluid reference number

Electrically trace heated

Nominal pipe size (inches) 1/8 3/8 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24

Nominal diameter (mm) 6 8 10 15 20 25 32 40 50 65 80 90 100 115 125 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 600

Outside diameter (inches) (mm) 0.405 10.29 0.54 13.72 0.675 17.15 0.84 21.34 1.05 26.67 1.315 33.4 1.66 42.16 1.9 48.26 2.375 60.33 2.875 73.02 3.5 88.9 4 101.6 4.5 114.3 5 127 5.563 141.3 6.625 168.27 8.625 219.08 10.75 273.05 12.75 323.85 14 355.6 16 406.4 18 457.2 20 508 24 609.6

Showing flow continuation on P&IDs


P&IDs always span multiple sheets an entire plant can have easily in excess of 1000 (drawn on A0) Flags on process streams give the P&ID number and grid reference of where stream came from or where its going P&ID 001 A4

Utilities streams need only be shown entering and leaving a process item for clarity

Process Water
A B C D E F G H 1 1

All P&IDs have a grid on the border to provide a reference for locating unit operations and process streams

NAME

Date

Represents a pump set with a running pump and a standby pump

Represents a control valve with isolation valves and bypass loop.

DWG TITLE

SIZE

DWG NO

CHECKED

SHEET

REV

A3

1/1

Presenting control schemes on P&IDs


Control schemes are displayed on P&IDs according to ISA-5.1-1984 (R1992), which means that there is a standardised way by which this done. Some of the more commonly encountered symbols are given in the next few pages. Firstly, lets examine how the signal lines are drawn:
Undefined
Pneumatic Electric Signal line or

Hydraulic
Capillary tube
FIC

EM or sonic (guided)

Software or data (internal)


Mechanical Pneumatic binary

Electric binary

or

Presenting control schemes on P&IDs


The ISA-5.1-1984 (R1992) convention for showing instruments, is as follows:
Primary location (operator accessible) Field mounted Auxiliary location (operator accessible)

Individual instrument

Shared display, shared control (for example DCS display)

Computer function

Programmable logic control

N.B. A dashed line signifies that the instrument in question is inaccessible

Presenting control schemes on P&IDs


The ISA-5.1-1984 (R1992) convention for labelling instruments, is as follows:
First letters Letters A B C D E F FQ FF G H I J K L M N O P PD Q R S T TD U V W WD X Y Z ZD Measured variable Analysis Burner/Combustion Users choice Users choice Voltage Flow rate Flow quantity Flow ratio Users choice Hand Current Power Time Level Users choice Users choice Users choice Pressure / vacuum Pressure, differential Quantity Radiation Speed/Frequency Temperature Temperature, differential Multivariable Vibration / Machinery analysis Weight/Force Weight/Force, differential Unclassified Event/State/Presence Position/Dimension Gauging/Deviation Controllers Recording Indicating Blind Self-actuated control valves ARC AIC AC BRC BIC BC Readout devices Switches and alarms Transmitters Recording Indicating High Low Combination Recording Indicating Blind AR AI ASH ASL ASHL ART AIT AT BR BI BSH BSL BSHL BRT BIT BT

ERC FRC FQRC FFRC

EIC FIC FQIC FFIC HIC IIC JIC KIC LIC

EC FC FFC HC

FCV, FICV

ER FR FQR FFR

EI FI FQI FFI

ESH FSH FQSH FFSH

ESL ESHL FSL FSHL FQSL FFSL HS ISHL JSHL KSHL LSHL

ERT FRT

EIT FIT FQIT

ET FT FQT

IRC JRC KRC LRC

KC LC

KCV LCV

IR JR KR LR

II JI KI LI

ISH JSH KSH LSH

ISL JSL KSL LSL

IRT JRT KRT LRT

IIT JIT KIT LIT

IT JT KT LT

PRC PDRC QRC RRC SRC TRC TDRC

PIC PDIC QIC RIC SIC TIC TDIC

PC PCV PDC PDCV RC SC SCV TC TCV TDC TDCV

WRC WDRC

WIC WDIC YIC ZIC ZDIC

WC WCV WDC WDCV YC ZC ZCV ZDC ZDCV

PR PDR QR RR SR TR TDR UR VR WR WDR YR ZR ZDR

PI PDI QI RI SI TI TDI UI VI WI WDI YI ZI ZDI

PSH PDSH QSH RSH SSH TSH TDSH

PSL PDSL QSL RSL SSL TSL TDSL

PSHL QSHL RSHL SSHL TSHL

PRT PDRT QRT RRT SRT TRT TDRT VRT WRT WDRT

PIT PDIT QIT RIT SIT TIT TDIT VIT WIT WDIT

PT PDT QT RT ST TT TDT VT WT WDT YT ZT ZDT

VSH VSL VSHL WSH WSL WSHL WDSH WDSL YSH ZSH ZDSH YSL ZSL ZDSL

ZRC ZDRC

ZSHL

ZRT ZDRT

ZIT ZDIT

Presenting control schemes on P&IDs


The ISA-5.1-1984 (R1992) convention for commonly used flowmeters is:

Orifice plate

Vortex shedding

Pitot tube

Electromagnetic

Venturi tube

Paddle wheel

Example control scheme on P&ID


Level transmitter on tank connected electrically to VDU mounted level indicator control loop. Controller has a pneumatic output to the control valve

IE 1002

IR 1003

LSH 1008 LT 1000

LAH 1009 LIC 1001

Flow transmitter, connected electrically to a vortex shedding flowmeter, sending an electrical signal to a flow recorder on a VDU
FIT 1006 FR 1007

P-101

TW 1004

TI 1005

High level switch, independent from level controller, connected electrically to both a level alarm on a VDU and also to a trip on P-101 Current sensor electrically connected to stirrer motor, sending an electrical signal to a current recorder on a VDU
T-101

Temperature sensor in a temperature well in tank connected electrically to a temperature indicator on a VDU

Process data sheets


They give the basic process parameters for the design of individual items of equipment such as Pumps Static pressure vessels Heat exchangers Fired heaters/furnaces Compressors Pro-forma sheets usually used which act as a prompt The data sheets give other engineers all the information they need in order to be able to complete the design or

purchase the item


It is not usually the job of the process engineer to do mechanical design but he/she must have sufficient knowledge of the principles of design in order to be able to specify correctly.

Typical Pump data sheet

Typical Vessel data sheet

800 mm

5500 mm

2100 mm

Example design project data sheet level of detail required

Instrument data sheets


Ensures each instrument meets specification Similar to vessel data sheets

Gives details of working temperature, pressure, chemical and physical environment


Includes information on range, set points, alarms etc

Relatively comprehensive list of data sheet pro-formas in the appendix of either:


C&R Volume 6, Chemical Engineering Design Towler and Sinnott, Chemical Engineering Design

Interlock Schedules As used for Batch Systems


Lays down requirements for trips and interlocks May take form of ladder diagrams or simple grids

Conclusions
Clear, concise, well version-controlled engineering documentation is essential during the design process

Process flow diagrams show the process road map


Good P&IDs take time to prepare require a high level of understanding of each unit operation Data sheets are an essential communication tool between the chemical engineer and the other engineering disciplines and purchasing engineers that are involved in any given project