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Partido State University College of Education Goa, Camarines Sur

A/Y 2012-2013

1st Semester

Project in ENG107
(The Teaching of Speaking)
Prepared by: Quennie N. Quiobe BSED 3A

Prepared for: Ms. Jesica Bacares Instructor

The Letter of the Day!
This is a great activity to begin during your morning routine and plug in throughout the day. Before gathering your class together, choose a,e,i,o,u and if you want to focus on the long or short vowel sound. With your group, list words on chart paper that utilize that letter and sound. Throughout the day, provide opportunities for students to make words using the letter and sound of the day. This can be incorporated into a center activity or independent practice.

Flashcard Drills
Make a flashcard for each vowel and vowel combination. Show the students the flashcards one at a time. Have them collectively state the name of the vowel and make the sound(s) the vowel makes. For instance, a flashcard with an "a" on it would elicit the response, "'a' says /a/." Repeat these often so the students begin to associate the vowel sound with the grapheme or printed representation of the sound.

Vowel Songs
Teach the students songs that emphasize a particular vowel sound. Have the class sing the song in unison. Hold up a flashcard with the printed vowel on it and have a kinaesthetic learner point to the flashcard whenever the sound is made in the song. For example, use the song "Old Macdonald," but change the words as follows: Old Macdonald had a farm, A-E-I-O-U, and on this farm he had an cat, A-E-I-O-U. With an "a- a " here and an "a- a" there, here an "a", there an "a", everywhere an "a- a" Old MacDonald had a farm, A-E-I-O-U.

Game Activities
Create a long vowel themed scavenger hunt for students. Hide objects that have a long vowel sound such as an "open" sign, a baby doll or an apron. Let children take turns looking for and finding an object. Have the children say the name of the object and identify the long vowel sound in the word. Another way to play the game is to have the children look for objects already in the classroom that feature a long vowel sound like a teacher or a can of paint.

The “Tissue Test” – voiceless stop-consonants (p, t, k) are usually heavily
aspirated in English, especially at the beginning of stressed syllables. This means there‟s a big “puff” of air when you say them, in contrast to voiced counterparts (b, d, g). To hear and see the difference, let students hold a tissue in front of their mouths and say “p…p…p…” and watch the tissue fly around, in contrast to saying “b…b…b…” where the tissue barely moves. You can model this first so they can see what the difference should “look” like for each sound.

The “Buzz Test” – all voiced sounds, whether vowels or consonants, require use
of your voice, which means your vocal cords vibrate inside your voice box when you make the sound. So if you put your fingers on the front of your throat (your voice box) and say “mmmmm,” “aaaaaah,” or “zzzzz,” you should feel it vibrate or “buzz,” which tickles your fingers. When you make voiceless sounds, such as “sssss,” “ffffff,” or “p,” you won‟t feel anything. (Note: since the “p,” “t,” and “k” are voiceless, try not to say “puh, tuh, kuh” when doing the “tissue test,” so they don‟t create bad habits for phonemic awareness.)

The “Mirror Test” – Although you may often give suggestions such as “watch me”
or “look at my mouth,” the problem is that they can’t see themselves, and thus are unaware of what they are doing that differs from your modeling. If you have little toy mirrors of some sort, you can fix this problem! First, let them watch you make a sound, and be sure to point out what to look for. E.g. “Let‟s make the „v‟ sound. Watch my lips; can you see that my top teeth are touching mybottom lip? „vvvvvvv.‟ Okay, now look in your mirror, and make your top teeth touch your bottom lip too. Ready?…” (Note: be sure to give them 30 seconds or so, upon getting the mirrors, to look at their hair, teeth, etc… they‟re going to be momentarily distracted by their own appearance anyway, so let them get it out of their systems first!)

“Finding Game”- Ask students to find as many objects as they can with a specific
vowel or consonant sound. If the weather is nice, send them outside. Bring in books or magazines with lots of pictures to stimulate their minds. Example: Find things in the classroom that have an /r/ sound. • room • clock • blackboard • eraser

Name of Activity: Intonation Fun
Level: Medium Instructions: Use this activity to underline the importance of intonation when your students, as they often do, talk like robots. Basically, get them to say the words in quotation marks in the contexts that follow. 'Hello' to a friend to a friend you haven't seen for 3 years to a neighbour that you don't like to a 6 month old baby to someone you have just found doing something they shouldn't to someone on the phone when you're not sure if they are still on the other end 'Goodbye' to a member of your family as they are going through the boarding gate at the airport to someone who has been annoying you to a child starting his very first day at school 'How are you?' to someone you haven't seen for 20 years to someone who has recently lost a member of the family to someone who didn't sleep in their own bed last night 'I never go to pubs' by a person that totally disapproves of drinking alcohol to someone who often goes to pubs as a response to someone who has told you they sometimes go to pubs said before: '…but I quite like discos.' 'What have you done?' to someone who claims to have fixed your television only that now it's worse than before to someone who is scolding you for not doing anything when you suspect the same about them. to someone who has just done something very bad and which has serious consequences

The Intonation Awareness Activity
This activity can be used as a good icebreaker or, if developed, could form the basis of a whole class. It would then combine conversation with a certain amount of conscious learning.

This activity does not need a huge amount of preparation and may help students to loosen up while speaking. The idea also hopes to sensitise students to the concept of tone and lessen the amount of monotonous, seemingly un-emotional exchanges that occur between learners. It could inject a bit of life and humour into the class. I used it as a warm-up. Working on the assumption that some expressions or words can have as many as 9 or more different meaning or connotations depending on how they are said, try the following activity:

Say the following in five different ways.  Goodbye  Hello  How are you?  Do we have to speak English, teacher?  I never watch TV  Etc. (Add more expressions liable to spark several interpretations when delivered with a different tone)

One-word conversations
  

Write a number of single words (e.g. yes, today, sorry, bread etc.) on scraps of paper. Make groups of three - and give each group one of the pieces of paper. Tell the class a situation - (e.g. "Two people think the third person is a thief." or "It's one person's birthday."). The learners must now have a conversation - but the only word anyone can say is the one on their paper!To express different ideas and emotions (e.g. anger, requesting, apologising etc) they will have to vary their intonation. The resulting dialogues are usually funny, but there's also a real teaching purpose. Without the resources of vocabulary and grammar, students have to find ways to express much more with intonation. Repeat it a few times - with new words and new situations.

Humming. Put students in pairs. Give student A a list of questions or

statements. Give student B a list of replies. Student A should hum the intonation patterns of his utterances. Student B should reply with the correct response. We like to make sure that all of the sentences have the same number of syllables so that Student B really has to listen to the intonation to get the sentence. Example utterances: Student A I like pizza, pickles, and chips. (list intonation) Would you prefer coffee or tea? (choice intonation) Would you like some ice cream and cake? (double-rising intonation) Next week we are flying to Rome. (falling intonation) Is he going to the dentist? (rising intonation) Student B Not all together, I hope. Tea, please. No, thank you. I'm not hungry. Really? How long will you be there? Yes. He has a toothache.

A TELEGRAM WARMER & PROMINENCE
This is a fun activity to use as a warmer & as an introduction to prominence. Ask the students to write a three or four word telegram in secret - elicit an example to give them the idea. When all have one written, assign roles in pairs of sender & receiver. The receiver sits in front of the sender with her/his back to the sender who writes, letter by letter, the telegram on their partner's back with a pen. Not with the nib - the other end so that the student 'receiving' the message can feel each letter being drawn on her/his back. While the message is being conveyed the receiver can write each letter down. When all of the telegram has been written they check to see if it has been received correctly. Then the students change roles. After this you could then ask the students to write their telegrams out in full & then you could tell them about prominence (sentence stress). E.g. we hear the prominent words the content words (nouns, verbs..) - not the grammar words (prepositions, auxiliaries..). The content words carry the important information. This is the first function of prominence - to convey important information. The idea of telegrams is the same. Then you could transfer this all to a listening activity - the students listen to isolated utterances & have to mark the stressed words/syllables. They then see if they could get the message across with just these words - telegram style!

SYLLABLES SNAP
Students take turns turning over cards with words written on them from their packs. If the two words have the same number of syllables, the first person to say “Snap” and/ or slap their hands down on the cards wins all the cards that have been turned over so far. The person with most cards at the end of the game is the winner. This also works with vowel sounds in one syllable words and word stress.

WORD STRESS PELLMANISM

Pellmanism (= pairs/ memory game) can be played with the same cards as Snap, but is a slower game. All the cards are spread face down on the table and students take turns trying to find matching pairs of cards by which syllable is stressed. This is easier if all of the words have the same number of syllables. This game can also be played with students matching by vowel sounds or number of syllables.

THE YES?! GAME

Students try to give as many different feelings and meanings to one word or sentence as they can by varying the stress and intonation. The other students guess what feeling they were trying to convey.

RHYMES. Apply the rhythm of nursery rhymes to the rhythm of ordinary sentences.
The reason for this is that students can easily learn nursery rhymes and catch their rhythm without too much effort. Practicing this way helps them to maintain the rhythm patterns in sentences unconsciously and naturally. HICKory DICKory DOCK The MOUSE ran UP the CLOCK Do it according to plan. I‟d like to cash a check. Give me a burger with cheese. He‟d rather take the bus. Who is the man I should see? I‟ll have her call you back.

JAZZ CHANTS. A Jazz chant is a fragment of authentic language presented with

special attention to its inherent natural rhythm. It has a very clear and strong one-twothree-four beat, so it is easy for students to practice the sentence rhythm through Jazz chants. To establish the tempo, students can count out the rhythm by clapping, finger snapping, or tapping on the desk. 12341234 Chicken, chicken soup. Rice and beans, rice and beans. 1234 I‟d like a bowl of soup. Chicken soup. 1234 I‟d like a large bowl of chicken soup.

LEARNING THE RHYTHM. The first step in teaching English rhythm is to
make students aware of stress points within sentences. All students learn that long words, such as "impossible", have one stress point (imPOSSible), but phrases within sentences are the same. Teacher Joe uses the following sentences to illustrate this point when he teaches: 1. Joe likes jokes. (3 syllables, 3 stress points) 2. Kathy isn't hungry. (6 syllables, 3 stress points) 3. Amanda doesn't like elephants. (9 syllables, 3 stress points) Say these sentences to students slowly, letting them hear that all three take about the same amount of time. The key to English rhythm is the number of stress points, NOT the number of syllables!

Now, students must practice. Here are four ways that to do it: 1. Repeat and Clap - Lead the students by clapping your hands with each stress point. Repeat until all students can follow along. Make it like a song! 2. Repeat with Body Movements - Move your body up with each stress point. Make it seem like a silly dance. Students always laugh at this, but they remember! 3. Mark the Stress Points - Give students five or six sentences on a sheet of paper. Students must listen and put a dot over each stress point. Give feedback and have students repeat each sentence out loud at the end. 4. Count the Stress Points - Read five sentences or play them from a CD or cassette tape. Students must write down how many stress points there are in each sentence. Do the first sentence quickly as an example, then go through the rest rather quickly. (It is better if students write the number on a piece of paper, rather than say the number out loud, because it forces all students to listen carefully!)

BEING EMINEM FOR A DAY (RHYTHM)
Many students are unaware that English has stress and intonation, areas of pronunciation that are often neglected, and a good way to show them is to use rap music. This will also introduce to them the Rhythm of the English language. You can use the following inoffensive Eminem song: Put the following on the board: "I'm Slim Shady Yes I'm the real Shady All you other Slim Shady's Are Just Imitating So won't the real Slim Shady Please Stand Up Please Stand Up Please Stand Up" Show the Ss where the stresses are in each line and tell them that English is like music, it has a beat. Get all students to try to say the lyrics together with you, the teacher, before asking individual students to say it for the class (perhaps it's better to start with a student you think will do a reasonable job with it, to begin). You can also incorporate "Rap Actions" as they do it to make it fun. My students got a kick out of this and left the class "chanting" together... Get other rap songs and you could even get studets to teach the other students a portion of a rap song they've prepared as a presentation. This also works well with tongue twisters!

Activity 1

Games and competitions provide more variety in recognizing both reduced forms and stress patterns. One example is to divide the class into teams. The members of each team are allowed to discuss possible answers, but only the captain of each team is allowed to give the answer. The teacher reads out sentences containing one or more reduced forms. The team captains who correctly repeat the sentences in their full forms gain points for their teams. Examples of stress recognition activities include:

1. Students guess the word that contains the most important information in
each sentence they hear.

2. Students check whether stress is placed on words showing time or place. 3. Students check whether stress is placed on words that show action or time,

when or what happened. 4. Students check whether they hear "can" or "can't." 5. Students mark on a written text where they think the stressed or unstressed words are. This can be done first without listening to the spoken text, the checking their guesses while listening.

Activity 2
If you are teaching the future tense, this is the opportune time to give your students practice with the reduction gonna. If your students have already covered the future but have not studied this reduction, simply introduce it now. Have one student ask what a second will be doing tomorrow, next week, or when he returns to his home country. “What are you gonna do tomorrow?” The second will answer, “I‟m gonna get up early. I‟m gonna go to the library. I‟m gonna study for my test. I‟m gonna meet my girlfriend for lunch. I‟m gonna take my test in the afternoon.” The more practice they have with the reduction, the more comfortable their speech will be with native speakers.

Activity 3

The use of reductions in phrases like woulda, coulda and shoulda is also easy for your ESL students to practice by creating a situation in which they give advice. Have your students describe some past situation in which they could have used advice from another. You can have them relate an embarrassing situation to their partner, a frightening situation or a disappointing situation. The student who tells the story will have some good conversation practice. Then the second student then gives advice to the person who told the story using the reduction “shoulda.” When one student describes how she failed an important exam, her partner should say things like, “You shoulda studied. You shoulda gotten enough sleep. You shoulda talked to your teacher about it. You coulda hired a tutor.” The first student can then answer the other student with an explanation. “I woulda hired a tutor, but I had no money. I know I shoulda studied, but I didn‟t have the time. I know I coulda done better, and now I‟m sorry.”

Activity 4 “This is a raising awareness activity in which students have to look at what makes up
connected speech.” Level: Upper intermediate and above

TEACHER'S NOTES: Photocopy the questions below. (Those at the end.) Cut up the strips and give each student in the class a question.  Tell all of the students to get up and mingle asking and answering the questions.  Once they have finished, tell the students to take a seat and then go over what some of the replies were to the questions e.g. „I went to the movies‟ or „I went out‟ etc.  Say one or two of the sentences to the students e.g. what did you do last night? Repeat it a few times. Say it slowly or in the long way i.e. enunciating every word.  Ask the students to tell you what happens to the language when you say the question in a more natural way. Try to prompt them towards: the „did‟ and the „you‟ joining and becoming a /dj/ sound. Highlight how many of the words are connected i.e. there are six words in the original question and five when it said.  Go over a few more questions. Say them slowly and then normally. Highlight any contractions and linking etc.  Focus the students onto what exactly consists of connected speech i.e. Linking words, Junction, Elision, Assimilation, Vowel reduction Intrusion, Stress  Dictate these sentences slowly: An hour and a half. Does he like her? I am going to get you. She's a nice person.  Get the students to identify the various things that are going on in the sentences in terms of liaison and elision etc. Tell them that they can ask you to repeat the sentences as often as they need you to.  Once they have worked in pairs. Say the sentences naturally and break down the sentences for the students. An hour and a half 'An' turns into 'un' hour (using the shwa sound), we drop the 'h' off hour, 'and' turns into the weak form 'un' and the 'a' turns into a schwa. Does he like you? The 's' on does turns into /z/ and we drop the 'h' and he. I am going to get you. 'I am' contracts to 'I'm' and 'going' and 'to' turn into 'gunner'; we end up saying four words rather than six. She is a nice person 'She is' turns into 'she's' i.e. it is contracted and 'a' turns into a schwa. The 's' in 'is' joins the 'a' and almost becomes a /z/ sound.  Ask the students to repeat each of the sentences after you. Set them the homework of listening or watching something in English; tell them as they are watching or listening they should try to pick out the parts of connected speech that they can hear. Note: this activity helps to raise students' awareness of reduced speech

QUESTIONS

What are you going to do tonight? What do you usually do at the weekends? What did you do yesterday?

How is it going? What do you want to eat? What have you got there? How often do you come here?

Activity 1 “Bizarre Love Triangle”
Play the song “Bizarre Love Triangle and give students the handout with the actual lyrics. Ask them to try to identify the words that end in a consonant sound and that are followed by a vowel sound. Once they finish doing this, get them to practice the links. As they end up having difficulties doing so, it helps if you modify the lyrics of the song to make it sound slightly more “natural” to your learners. For instance, the first line of Bizarre Love Triangle is:  Every time I think of you Write it as if it were:  Every tie my thin co-view When students hear the song, they can easily relate this modified version of the lyrics to the words being sung. An alternative is to give students the modified version first and let them try to guess the actual lyrics. To make it even more challenging, don‟t play the song and get them to work in pairs or small groups and read the sentences aloud to try to guess the actual words.

Activity 2 “Linking”
Linking occurs when a word ends in a consonant and the following word starts with a vowel. The consonant sound is linked with the vowel when it is pronounced. For example in the phrase 'that's enough'- the 's' in that's is linked to the 'e' in enough. and sounds like that‟s enough. To teach linking have the students look at the examples below, read it and have theme identify what sounds or letters are joined to have a single sound. The first sentence will be with proper enunciation, and the second with linked enunciation. That's enough. (That's senough) Sit on an orange crate. (Sit ton nan norange crate.) Bring an apple and a book. (Bring gan napple and da book.) Now is a time for all of us to pack it in. (Now wis sa time for rall lof vus to pack kit tin) Lemons and oranges are not available in Autumn. (Lemons sand doranges are not tavailable in nautumn)

Activity 3 Linking sounds
Have the students do the following activities. A. With a partner, discuss and underline where you think sounds may be linked, according to what you learned about linking sounds in the Pronunciation Booster. 1. Casual dress causes a lot of problems. 2. Most employees say it‟s OK. 3. Fashion is a pain in the neck. 4. She wore stylish shoes. 5. He wore a dark coat. 6. That‟s a very hot tie! 7. She‟s a very fashionable lawyer. 8. It‟s an old-fashioned umbrella. 9. I love her elegant tennis skirt! 10. They‟re very comfortable loafers. 11. What an offensive vest! 12. I really like it. 13. I like to stand out in a crowd. 14. It‟s important to dress well. 15. I don‟t like to attract attention. Ask them to look for : a. final consonants followed by vowel sounds b. final consonants followed by the same consonant sound B. Now take turns saying each sentence, paying attention to linking sounds.

Activity4 “Linking and Vocabulary”
Have the students do this activity. Integrate weak forms into grammar work. If practising "going to" for example, the teacher can write on the board examples such as: Go on holiday Earn more money Buy a car Ask different students to read these phrases as a sentence with "going to". Listen for and highlight the weak form of "to" before the consonant sounds, and the "full" form of "to" with the linking "w" sound before the vowel.

Activity 1 “Speaking Clearly”
Let the students do this activity taken from “Speaking Clearly.” A very nice way to highlight the importance is through an activity in 'Speaking Clearly' that looks at mathematical equations. Compare the following: (A + B) x C = Y (A plus B, multiplied by C, equals Y) A + (B x C) = D (A, plus B multiplied by C, equals D) So how it is interpreted depends how the utterance is separated into chunks. After an activity like this, there are a series of equations read out which when calculated give an answer. If the thought groups have been interpreted correctly, then the right answer will be given. (2 + 3) x 5 = 25 2 + (3 x 5) = 17 With a listening text, after explaining the concept of thought groups with examples on the board, get your students to mark the groups on a short text. Then they can listen to the tape to see if they were right. We mark the groups with slash marks at the beginning & the end of each group. Here is a short text, similar to one in the book, with the thought groups marked: a. /Who shall we invite to the party?/ b. /Well, //we could ask Helen./ a. /OK,// but what about Ben./ b. /OK// we could ask Helen & Ben,// & don't forget Josh./ a. /Yes,// Josh.// What about Sarah & John?/ b. /OK.// So that's Helen & Ben,// Josh //& Sarah & John./ a. /Yes./ The division of the thought groups in line 6 tells us that Josh will be going on his own but Helen will go with Ben & Sarah with John.

Activity 2 “Computer Junkies”
Let the students to do the following activity. Then have them read it taking in consideration the rule of thought groups. 1. Listen and underline the focus word in each thought group. Listen for airplane tickets. It sounds like a compound noun. Thanks to the exploding popularity / and accessibility of technology, / many people / now spend so much time / in front of their computers / that days pass / before they leave the house. / Why should they? / On the Internet / they can make new friends,/ chat with old ones,/ order take-out food, / go shopping,/ check in with their boss, / reserve airplane tickets / and plan their next vacation. Or they might just "surf the net," / a phrase used to describe / what you're doing / when you explore the Internet

/ with no particular task in mind. / 2. Listen to these words from the paragraph. Draw a dot over the strongly stressed syllables. exploding popularity accessibility technology computers Internet vacation describe explore reserve shopping particular 3. Check your answers by using a dictionary.

Activity 3 “Let's Get Some Pizza”
Let the students to do the following activity. Then have them read it taking in consideration the rule of thought groups. 1. Listen and underline the focus word in each thought group. One of the focus words in this paragraph is a compound noun. The focus is on the first word of the compound noun shown inside the brackets. Example: reserve [pizza stands]. Americans love pizza / and it's everywhere! / They get it from pizza stands, / the Italian restaurant / around the corner, / or the local deli / offering slices to go. Some people make it themselves / from do-it-yourself packages. / One of the most popular / of all pizzas / is sold in the frozen food section / of the local supermarket. / More than 1.8 billion slices / of frozen pizza / are sold each year. / Fifty-six percent / of working moms / with children under thirteen / say that frozen pizza / is their children's favorite food. / With a long list of available toppings,/ health-conscious shoppers / may prefer the fat and cholesterol-free types / or even the rice flour "Pizza-Soy pie" created in Chico, California. /The pizza industry / in this country / is expected to be hot / for years to come. /

Activity 4 “Poetry”
Let the students to do the following activity. Then have them read it taking in consideration the rule of thought groups. These poems follow the intonation of natural conversational speech. Read the instructions before you listen. 1. Listening • Listen to each poem several times. Each line of the poem is read as one or two thought groups. Notice the focus words and where the speaker slows down or pauses. • Become familiar with the intonation and the rhythm. • Clarify any new vocabulary. 2. Speaking • Practice one line at a time. • Remember to make the biggest fall in pitch at the end of the sentence where you see the period. • Record the whole poem. Monitor your pronunciation. Decide if there is anything you want to change. Re-record the poem and listen to it

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