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MODULE 9 TASK 9.

02
Name I/C No. Date started : Adibah Binti Wahab : 900130-43-5402 : 4/10/2012

Checked by : Miss Siti Suzaili

INTRODUCTION

SAFETY RULES AND REGULATIONS To ensure your safety, and that of your co-workers, please observe and obey the rules and guidelines appropriate to the general populace or specific jobs: Observe and practice the safety procedures established for the job. In case of sickness or injury, no matter how slight, report at once to your supervisor. In no case should an employee treat his or her own or someone elses injuries or attempt to remove foreign particles from someone elses eye. In case of injury resulting in possible fracture to legs, back, or neck, or any accident resulting in an unconscious condition, or a severe head injury, the employee is not to be moved until medical attention has been given by authorized personnel. Do not wear loose clothing or jewelry around machinery. It may catch on moving equipment and cause a serious injury. Never distract the attention of another person, as you might cause him or her to be injured. If necessary to get the attention of another person, wait until it can be done safely. Where required, you must wear protective equipment, such as goggles, safety glasses, masks, gloves, hair nets, etc. appropriate to the task. Safety equipment such as restraints, pull backs, and two-hand devices are designed for your protection. Be sure such equipment is adjusted for you. Pile materials, skids, bins, boxes, or other equipment so as not to block aisles, exits, fire fighting equipment, electric lighting or power panel, valves, etc. Fire Doors and Aisles Must be Kept Clear! Keep your work area clean. Use compressed air only for the job for which it is intended. Do not clean your clothes with it, and do not fool around with it. Observe No Smoking regulations. Shut down your machine before cleaning, repairing, or leaving it. Tow motors and lift trucks will be operated only by authorized personnel. Walk-type lift trucks will not be ridden and no one but the operator is permitted to ride the tow motors. Do not exceed a speed that is safe for existing conditions. Running and horseplay are strictly forbidden. Do not block access to fire extinguishers.

Do not tamper with electric controls or switches. Do not operate machines or equipment until you have been properly instructed and authorized to do so by your supervisor. Do not engage in such other practices as may be inconsistent with ordinary and reasonable common sense safety rules. Report any unsafe condition or acts to your supervisor. Help to prevent accidents. Use designated passages when moving from one place to another; never take hazardous shortcuts (i.e., between moving equipment or across roadways). Lift properlyuse your leg muscles, not your back muscles. For heavier loads, ask for assistance. Do not adjust, clean, or oil moving machinery. Keep machine guards in their intended places. Do not throw objects. Clean up spilled liquid, oil, or grease immediately. Wear hard-sole shoes and appropriate clothing (i.e., shorts or mini dresses are not permitted). Place trash and paper in proper containers and not in cans provided for cigarette butts.

Why is safety so important in the workplace? Safety is important in the workplace to ensure a safe and healthy environment for all the employees. It is important to make sure the employees are responsible to follow all the safety rules set by the company to avoid any injuries that might occur during working time.

What is PPE? PPE stands for Personal Protective Equipment, is designed to protect workers from serious workplace injuries or illnesses resulting from contact with chemical, radiological, physical, electrical, mechanical, or other workplace hazards. Besides face shields, safety glasses, hard hats, and safety shoes, protective equipment includes a variety of devices and garments such as goggles, coveralls, gloves, vests, earplugs, and respirators.

How can you help to prevent accidents in a workplace?

Make sure that you wear proper attire before entering a workplace. Follow the rules appointed by the company about safety precautions in the workplace. Make signboards about the safety rules for guidance and reminder for the employees. Employees should not fool around and must always be cautious while working.

SAFETY ATTIRE

SAFETY SIGNS

There are 4 main categories, each has a different shape and colour.

Meaning

Shape & Colour

Symbols

PROHIBITION

- You must not do. - Do not do. - Stop.

RED means STOP!

MANDATORY

- You must do. - Carry out the action given by the sign. BLUE means OBEY.

WARNING

- Caution. - Risk of danger. - Hazard ahead.

YELLOW means risk of DANGER.

SAFE CONDITION

- The safe way. - Where to go in emergency situation.

GREEN means GO.

STANDARD OPERATION PROCEDURES

Milling Machine
1) Keep all guards in place while operating the machine. 2) While operating the milling machine allow no one else to touch it. 3) Keep hands away from moving cutting tools. 4) Do not make measurements of the stock while the milling machine is powered. 5) Do not allow large quantities of chips to accumulate around the work piece or machine table. After stopping the machine, use a brush or rag to remove all excess chips from the mill bed and stock. 6) Use a rag or Kevlar gloves to handle sharp cutting tools. 7) Cutting tools must be securely fastened in the machine spindle with the proper accessory. Never try to tighten cutting bits or tools by hand. 8) Do not power the machine to tighten or loosen cutting bits or tools. 9) Work pieces and stock must be rigidly fastened to the mill bed with clamps, a vise, or special fixtures. 10) Use appropriate speeds and feeds for the type and size of cutter being used and the material being machined. 11) Make sure the cutting tool is clear of the work piece before starting the machine.

Grinding Machine A. Inspection

Before using the polisher/grinder inspect it and its surroundings for the following: Make sure the electric power connections are made correctly and that the power cable is not damaged. Make sure the polisher/grinder, including the wheel and the bowl, are clean. Make sure the table and the floor around the table are clean and dry. Do not use the polisher/grinder until all necessary corrections have been made. B. Preparations Make sure your polishing cloth or grinding paper are mounted properly. It should not be able to slip and all air bubbles must be removed. Make sure your specimen is suitable for polishing/grinding. The polishing surface must be flat and all edges (top and bottom) must be rounded (not sharp). Otherwise, there is a good chance that the cloth or paper will grab the specimen and pull it from your hand, or the edges may cut the cloth and possibly your hand. Make sure the rim is in place. Never operate the polisher/grinder without the rim in place. C. Polishing Start the motor and wait for it to come up to speed. Gently lower the specimen to the center of the wheel. Once it is down apply pressure and slowly move it to approximately half way to the edge of the wheel. Slowly but firmly move the specimen in a clockwise direction. Use polishing media sparingly. Excess will just go down the drain or splatter all over the table.

D. Finishing Up When you are completely finished using the polisher/grinder you must do the following: Turn off the polisher/grinder. Clean up the wheel, making sure you remove the polishing cloth and all traces of the adhesive and polishing residue. Clean the bowl, giving it a final rinse with water. Wipe the lid and rim with a moist towel or sponge. Dry them if necessary. Wipe up the area around the polisher/grinder. Dry it if necessary. Replace the wheel, rim and lid.

Lathe Machine Instructions:

1) All stock must be properly secured in the lathe chuck or mounted prior to the machining process taking place. Use the correct sized clamp or vise for the stock being machined. 2) Turn the chuck or faceplate by hand to ensure there is no binding or danger of the work striking any part of the lathe. 3) Check to ensure the cutting tool will not run into the chuck or lathe dog. If possible, feed away from the chuck or dogs. 4) Before starting the lathe, ensure the spindle work has the cup center imbedded; tail, stock and tool rests are securely clamped; and there is proper clearance for the rotating stock. 5) Prior to starting the lathe, ensure that small diameter stock does not project too far from the chuck without support from the tail stock center. 6) When using wood, do not mount a split work piece or one containing knots. 7) When roughing stock, do not force the tool in the work piece or take too big a cut. 8) The operator must always be aware of the direction and speed of the carriage or cross-feed prior to engaging the automatic feed. 9) Never leave the key in the chuck. Do not let go of the key until it is free of the chuck and secured in its proper holding place. 10) Select turning speed carefully. Large diameter stock must be turned at a very low speed. Always use the lowest speed to rough out the stock prior to final machining. 11) The correct speed and feed for the specific material and cutting tool must be used. Stop the machine before making adjustments or measurements. 12) Do not remove metal or wood chips from the table or stock by hand. Use a brush or other tool to properly remove chips or shavings from the table or stock. 13) Never attempt to run the chuck on or off the spindle head by engaging the power. 14) Do not stop the rotation of the chuck by reversing the power to the lathe unless tapping holes. 15) Do not leave tools, bits or excess pieces of stock on the lathe bed. 16) All belts and pulleys must be guarded. If frayed belts or pulleys are observed, the lathe must be taken out of service and the belts or pulleys replaced. 17) Stop the machine immediately if odd noise or excessive vibration occurs. 18) Only properly sharpened drill bits and cutting tools in good condition should be used. Dull drill bits and chipped or broken cutting tools must be removed from service. 19) Disconnect the lathe from power source and follow OSEH Guideline IHS011, Lock-out/Tag-out Control of Hazardous Energy Sources if making repairs or servicing. 20) When an operator has finished working on the lathe, and before leaving the lathe for any reason, the power must be shut off and the machine must come to a complete stop. 21) When an operator observes an unsafe condition with the lathe or stock being worked, the operator must report it immediately to the designated MSSA and the lathe shall be taken out of service until the problem has been corrected.

Power Saw Instructions:

1) Ensure the guard doors are closed and the blade is properly adjusted prior to turning on the machine. 2) Adjust the upper guard assembly to within 1/4 inch of the stock prior to starting the machine. Set the band saw at the appropriate speed for the type of stock being machined. 3) Check to ensure the band saw blade is sharpened. 4) Check to ensure the band saw is correct for the type of stock and correct speed being used. 5) Allow the saw to reach full set speed prior to cutting stock. 6) Do not force stock into the saw blade. Let the speed of the blade cut stock appropriately. 7) Make release cuts before cutting long curves. 8) Plan saw cuts to avoid backing out of curves in the stock. 9) Never push a piece of stock with hands in front of the saw blade. Use a push stick. Keep hands at a safe distance on either side of the stock being machined. 10) Use a push stick or board to push small or irregular sized stock. Small work pieces can also be secured with a tabletop vise or clamp. 11) All round stock must be secured in a tabletop vise or clamp prior to starting the cut. 12) Hold the stock flat on the table prior to starting the cut. 13) If the saw blade binds on a piece of stock, turn the saw off and wait until it comes to a complete stop before attempting to remove the blade from the stock. 14) Do not allow large quantities of chips to accumulate around the work piece or drill press table. After stopping the machine, use a brush or rag to remove all excess chips from the drill press table and stock.

CNC Milling Machine Instructions:


1) Set the machine to zero so that it can use the dimensions in the program to cut the raw material accurately. When a CNC machine is started, it does not have a reference point. Place the machine in manual mode by pressing the positive X-axis traverse button for one second. Follow that by pressing the Y-axis button and the Z-axis button. This will allow the machine to set a reference point based on a home position.

2) Set the vise or work-holding device on the table. Place a dial indicator on the spindle and manually move it above the vise. Place the tip of the dial indicator on the front jaw and manually move the dial indicator along the X-axis. If the indicator does not move, the vise is straight. Tap it in whichever direction to adjust it if the indicator moves and tighten when straight. Remove the dial indicator and send the spindle back to the home position.

3) Place all of the needed tools into the tool turret. Place the machine in tool teach mode and call up each tool individually. The tool teach mode can usually be found on the tool information screen. The machine will automatically bring each tool to the probe and you will hear a beep when the tool is taught.

4) Touch the top of the raw material using any of the tools and set the Z zero point. The machine will use this location to determine any depth cuts. This dimension is crucial to machining and must be as accurate as possible.

5) Place an edge finder in the spindle and set to 1,000 revolutions per minute, or rpm. Place the tip of the edge finder very close to the right side of the material. Slowly bring the edge finder closer to the material. When it touches the side, you will see the tip of the edge finder line up with its body. Continue in that direction until the tip becomes misaligned again. That is the edge of the X-axis; set the X zero to this point. Follow the same directions on the Y-axis and set that point as Y zero.

6) Send the spindle to the home position and start the program. Set your rapids very low. Rapids dictate the speed of the spindle during tool changes and the approach it takes for cutting. You can make adjustments to the rapids with the override on the face of the control and set them anywhere between 0 and 100, which is full speed. Make sure it is coming in at the correct spot and watch the first piece closely to watch for any mistakes or errors in the setup.

CNC Lathe Machine

Instructions: 1) Load program as is necessary from machine directory/library or from network drive. 2) Review program thoroughly paying attention to tool requirements and any messages,which may
appear in the programs. Check Z distance between tools to ensure sufficient clearance will be achieved between the tool and the chuck when turret indexes.

3) Install necessary tool in turret as is dictated by the program. 4) Ensure correct inserts are used and inspected prior to their use. 5) Set tool length via tool probe or touching part as is applicable to your machine.
NOTE: Pay attention to values in offset tables to ensure they are realistic.

6) Determine part stick out and set z value as is applicable. (You may have to do this twice to
accommodate tools used after pullout)

7) Jog turret away from part and turn on all safety switches. Rapid over ride, single block, single
loop, dry run, as applicable to your specific machine.

8) Initiate programs via cycle start ensuring feed pots are set to 0%.(10% on Cincinnati lathes) 9) Using single block and cycle start advance program to start position (start of cut) to ensure it is
correct. If correct proceed through entire program in this fashion. Allow tool to complete one block at a time while you monitor your tool position on the CRTand at the work piece.

10) Should discrepancies occur repeat necessary steps to correct them. If you alter the program at
any point you must repeat steps 7 to 9.

11) After tool positions and program have been verified using the above procedure, the program
must be re-ran completely to verify all tool positions + program function. This will ensure your entire set up operation is correct.

12) Once entire program has been confirmed safety switches can be disabled and production can
resume.

WHAT IS 5S?
The 5S Process, or simply "5S", is a structured program to systematically achieve total organization, cleanliness, and standardization in the workplace. A well-organized workplace results in a safer, more efficient, and more productive operation. It boosts the morale of the workers, promoting a sense of pride in their work and ownership of their responsibilities. "5S" was invented in Japan, and stands for five (5) Japanese words that start with the letter 'S': Seiri, Seiton, Seiso, Seiketsu, and Shitsuke. Table 1 shows what these individual words mean. An equivalent set of five 'S' words in English have likewise been adopted by many, to preserve the "5S" acronym in English usage. These are: Sort, Set (in place), Shine, Standardize, and Sustain. Some purists do not agree with these English words -they argue that these words have lost the essence of the original 5 Japanese words.
Table 1. 5S Definitions Japanese Term English Equivalent Meaning in Japanese Context

Seiri Seiton Seiso Seiketsu Shitsuke

Tidiness Orderliness Cleanliness Standardization Discipline

Throw away all rubbish and unrelated materials in the workplace Set everything in proper place for quick retrieval and storage Clean the workplace; everyone should be a janitor Standardize the way of maintaining cleanliness Practice 'Five S' daily - make it a way of life; this also means 'commitment'

Seiri The first step of the "5S" process, seiri, refers to the act of throwing away all unwanted, unnecessary, and unrelated materials in the workplace. People involved in Seiri must not feel sorry about having to throw away things. The idea is to ensure that everything left in the workplace is related to work. Even the number of necessary items in the workplace must be kept to its absolute minimum. Because of seiri, simplification of tasks, effective use of space, and careful purchase of items follow.

Seiton Seiton, or orderliness, is all about efficiency. This step consists of putting everything in an assigned place so that it can be accessed or retrieved quickly, as well as returned in that same place quickly. If everyone has quick access to an item or materials, work flow becomes efficient, and the worker becomes productive. The correct place, position, or holder for every tool, item, or material must be chosen carefully in relation to how the work will be performed and who will use them. Every single item must be allocated its own place for safekeeping, and each location must be labeled for easy identification of what it's for.

Seiso Seiso, the third step in "5S", says that 'everyone is a janitor.' Seiso consists of cleaning up the workplace and giving it a 'shine'. Cleaning must be done by everyone in the organization, from operators to managers. It would be a good idea to have every area of the workplace assigned to a person or group of persons for cleaning. No area should be left uncleaned. Everyone should see the 'workplace' through the eyes of a visitor - always thinking if it is clean enough to make a good impression.

Seiketsu The fourth step of "5S", or seiketsu, more or less translates to 'standardized clean-up'. It consists of defining the standards by which personnel must measure and maintain 'cleanliness'. Seiketsu encompasses both personal and environmental cleanliness. Personnel must therefore practice 'seiketsu' starting with their personal tidiness. Visual management is an important ingredient of seiketsu. Colorcoding and standardized coloration of surroundings are used for easier visual identification of anomalies in the surroundings. Personnel are trained to detect abnormalities using their five senses and to correct such abnormalities immediately.

Shitsuke The last step of "5S", Shitsuke, means 'Discipline.' It denotes commitment to maintain orderliness and to practice the first 4 S as a way of life. The emphasis of shitsuke is elimination of bad habits and constant practice of good ones. Once true shitsuke is achieved, personnel voluntarily observe cleanliness and orderliness at all times, without having to be reminded by management.