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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other belts, see Belt (disambiguation).
A pair of vee-belts
Flat belt drive in the machine shop at theHagley Museum
A belt is a loop of flexible material used to link two or more rotating shafts mechanically. Belts may be used as a source of motion, totransmit power efficiently, or to track relative movement. Belts are looped over pulleys. In
2 Flat belts 1. albeit with less strength than gears or chains. aconveyor belt is one application where the belt is adapted to continuously carry a load between two points.4 Vee belts 1. .3 Belt tension 2. As a source of motion. Contents [hide] 1 Power transmission o o o o o o o o o o o 1.7 Film belts 1. Power transmission is achieved by specially designed belts and pulleys. so that the direction of the shafts is opposite.10 Rolling roads 1. However. improvements in belt engineering allow use of belts in systems that only formerly allowed chains or gears.8 Timing belts 1.2 Belt friction 2.5 Specifications 3 See also 4 References Power transmission Belts are the cheapest utility for power transmission between shafts that may not be axially aligned.1 Selection criteria 2. They run smoothly and with little noise.4 Belt wear 2.11 Flying rope 2 Standards for use o o o o o 2. The demands on a belt drive transmission system are large and this has led to many variations on the theme.9 Specialty belts 1. the belt can either drive the pulleys in the same direction.a two pulley system. or the belt may be crossed. and cushion motor and bearings against load changes.5 Multi-groove belts 1.6 Ribbed belt 1.3 Round belts 1.1 Pros and cons 1.
Flat belts were used early in line shafting to transmit power in factories. and damps and isolates noise and vibration. Load fluctuations are shock-absorbed (cushioned). such as bucksaws. conveyors for filling corn cribs or haylofts. It helps protect the machinery from overload and jam. sawmills. μ is the coefficient of friction. threshers. moreover.Power transmitted between a belt and a pulley is expressed as the product of difference of tension and belt velocity: where. balers. T1 and T2 are tensions in the tight side and slack side of the belt respectively. due to slip and stretch. inexpensive. is simple. They are related as: where. water pumps (forwells. Adjustment of center distance or addition of an idler pulley is crucial to compensate for wear and stretch. Clutch action is activated by releasing belt tension. Pros and cons Belt drive. usually 95%). Temperatures ranges from −31 °F (−35 °C) to 185 °F (85 °C). or swampy farm fields). and does not require axially aligned shafts. and electrical generators. and α is the angle subtended by contact surface at the centre of the pulley. They need no lubrication and minimal maintenance. However. Different speeds can be obtained by step or tapered pulleys. silo blowers. The flat belt is a simple system of power . this problem has been largely solved by the use of toothed belts. and are inexpensive if the shafts are far apart. high tolerance for misalignment. They have high efficiency (90-98%. The angular-velocity ratio may not be constant or equal to that of the pulley diameters. and loggingapplications. mining. They were also used in countless farming. mines. Flat belts The drive belt: used to transfer power from the engine's flywheel. Here shown driving a threshing machine.
Belts were joined by lacing the ends together with leather thonging. The V-groove transmits torque through a wedging action. It delivered high power for high speeds (500 hp for 10.000 ft/min). glueing or welding (in the case of polyurethane). These drives are bulky. so that wear was evenly distributed on both sides of the belt (DB). or when (soft) O-ring type belts are used.transmission that was well suited for its day. Flat belts also tend to slip on the pulley face when heavy loads are applied and many proprietary dressings were available that could be applied to the belts to increase friction. Early sewing machines utilized a leather belt. in cases of wide belts and large pulleys. Round belts Round belts are a circular cross section belt designed to run in a pulley with a 60 degree V-groove. Grip was better if the belt was assembled with the hair (i. so vee belts have mainly replaced the flat-belts except when high speed is needed over power. outer) side of the leather against the pulley although belts were also often given a halftwist before joining the ends (forming a Möbius strip). thus increasing friction. The Industrial Revolution soon demanded more from the system. Nevertheless. joined either by a metal staple or glued.e. Vee belts . pulleys were made with a slightly convex or "crowned" surface (rather than flat) to keep the belts centered. Because flat belts tend to climb towards the higher side of the pulley. or later by steel comb fasteners. round belts are for use in relatively low torquesituations only and may be purchased in various lengths or cut to length and joined. Round grooves are only suitable for idler pulleys that guide the belt. and can come in both endless and jointed construction. and so power transmission. They can connect inside and outside pulleys. to great effect. requiring high tension leading to high loads. a metallic connector (in the case of hollow plastic). A good modern use for a flat belt is with smaller pulleys and large central distances. either by a staple. and flat belt pulleys needed to be carefully aligned to prevent the belt from slipping off.
where the segments are linked (spliced) to form a belt of the required length. The preferred center distance is larger than the largest pulley diameter. jointed and link Vbelts may be employed. Optimal speed range is 1000–7000 ft/min. speed of movement.g. It is now the basic belt for power transmission. Twaron or Kevlar). V-belts need larger pulleys for their larger thickness than flat belts. A multiple-V-belt drive on an air compressor.Belts on a Yanmar 2GM20 marine diesel engine. The belt also tends to wedge into the groove as the load increases — the greater the load. V-belts trump flat belts with their small center distances and high reduction ratios. However they are weaker and only usable at speeds up to 4000 ft/min. polyester or aramid (e. This is known as a multiple-V-belt drive (or sometimes a "classical V-belt drive"). but less than three times the sum of both pulleys. For high-power requirements. running on matching multi-groove sheaves. The "V" shape of the belt tracks in a mating groove in the pulley (or sheave). and long service life. The V-belt was developed in 1917 by John Gates of the Gates Rubber Company. load of the bearings. The strength of these belts is obtained by reinforcements with fibers like steel. and their general cross-section shape is trapezoidal. Vee belts (also known as V-belt or wedge rope) solved the slippage and alignment problem. needing less width and tension than flat belts. They provide the best combination of traction. When an endless belt does not fit the need. . the greater the wedging action — improvingtorque transmission and making the V-belt an effective solution. They are length adjustable by disassembling and removing links when needed. They are generally endless. A link v-belt is a number of rubberized fabric links held together by metal fasteners. with the result that the belt cannot slip off. They can be supplied at various fixed lengths or as a segmented section. two or more vee belts can be joined side-by-side in an arrangement called a multi-V.
and the reason they have become so popular.Multi-groove belts A multi-groove or polygroove belt is made up of usually 5 or 6 "V" shapes along side each other. The added flexibility offers an improved efficiency. This can assist the design of a compact engine layout. Ribbed belt A ribbed belt is a power transmission belt featuring lengthwise grooves. a high speed ratio. food mixers. or even to provide a light driving force. This ability to bend the belt at the designer's whim allows it to take a complex or "serpentine" path. high-speed uses. as less energy is wasted in the internal friction of continually bending the belt. Any Vee belt's ability to drive pulleys depends on wrapping the belt around a sufficient angle of the pulley to provide grip. As the polygroove belt can be bent into concave paths by external idlers. allowing high efficiency (up to . In practice this gain of efficiency causes a reduced heating effect on the belt and a cooler-running belt lasts longer in service. They consist of a very thin belt (0. stems from the ability for them to be run over pulleys on the ungrooved back of the belt. and reduced vibration. It operates from contact between the ribs of the belt and the grooves in the pulley. thus it is more flexible. Where more must be driven. serpentine drives (possibility to drive off the back of the belt). agricultural machinery. they are actually a different kind. The entire belt may be tensioned by a single idler pulley. The ribbed belt may be fitted on various applications : compressors. stability and homogeneity of the drive tension. A further advantage of the polygroove belt. limited only by the power capacity of the belt. etc. Where a single-Vee belt is limited to a simple convex shape. lawn mowers. a power range up to 600 kW. fitness bikes. They are generally intended for low-power (10 hp or 7 kW). long life. Film belts Though often grouped with flat belts. it can wrap any number of driven pulleys. a polygroove belt may be wrapped around a pulley on its back tightly enough to change its direction. where the accessories are mounted more closely to the engine block and without the need to provide movable tensioning adjustments. Although this is sometimes done with Vee belts with a single idler pulley for tensioning. washing machines. Its single-piece structure is reported to offer an even distribution of tension across the width of the pulley where the belt is in contact. so can drive at most three accessories. multiple belts are required. although often wider. it can adequately wrap at most three or possibly four pulleys.5-15 millimeters or 100-4000 micrometres) strip of plastic and occasionally rubber. such as for modern cars with power steering and air conditioning. This gives a thinner belt for the same drive surface.
and are often used to transfer direct motion for indexing or timing purposes (hence their name). Timing belts need the least tension of all belts. or synchronous belts) are a positive transfer belt and can track relative movement. and stepper motors often utilize these belts. run at constant speed. They can bear up to 200 hp (150 kW) at speeds of 16. miniature timing systems.98%) and long life. . cog. Timing belts Timing belt Belt-drive cog on a belt-driven bicycle Timing belts. printers. notch. and other lightduty operations.000 ft/min. They are often used in lieu of chains or gears. they have no slippage. These are seen in business machines. When correctly tensioned. These belts have teeth that fit into a matching toothed pulley. so there is less noise and a lubrication bath is not necessary. and are among the most efficient. tape recorders. (also known as toothed. Camshafts of automobiles.
However. Disadvantages include a relatively high purchase cost. a flying rope can be used. The angular speed is inversely proportional to size.5–1% less than generally calculated because of belt slip and stretch. The pitch line is the line between the inner and outer surfaces that is neither subject to tension (like the outer surface) nor compression (like the inner). and vice versa. The chevron pattern design does not make the noise that some timing belts make at certain speeds. Standards for use The open belt drive has parallel shafts rotating in the same direction. linked together as in a chain. can only be used in light applications. Rolling roads Belts used for rolling roads for wind tunnels can be capable of 250 km/h. Specialty belts Belts normally transmit power on the tension side of the loop. non-leather non-reinforced belts. Industrial belts are usually reinforced rubber but sometimes leather types.Timing belts with a helical offset tooth design are available. A wire or manila rope can be used to transmit mechanical energy from a steam engine or water wheel to a factory or pump which is located a considerable distance (10 to 100s of meters or more) from the power source. Transmission efficiency is generally high. A flying rope way could be supported on poles and pulleys similar to the cable on a chair lift or aerial tramway. Actual pulley speeds tend to be 0. The helical offset tooth design forms a chevron pattern and causes the teeth to engage progressively. whereas the cross-belt drive also bears parallel shafts but rotate in opposite direction. designs for continuously variable transmissions exist that use belts that are a series of solid metal blocks. Flying rope For transmission of mechanical power over distance without electrical energy. The former is far more common. transmitting power on the compression side of the loop. because the pulleys contact both the both inner and outer belt surfaces. and is more efficient at transferring power (up to 98%). The chevron pattern design is selfaligning. less protection from overloading and jamming. Nonparallel shafts can be connected if the belt's center line is aligned with the center plane of the pulley. and the latter not appropriate for timing and standard V-belts. It is midway through the surfaces in film and flat belts and dependent on cross-sectional shape and size in timing and V-belts. and the lack of clutch action. the need for specially fabricated toothed pulleys. the less angular velocity. In . Calculating pitch diameter is an engineering task and is beyond the scope of this article. so the larger the one wheel.
according to manufacturer's tables. dusty). crossed. Smaller contact angles mean less area for the belt to obtain traction. . service environment (oily. internal combustion engine). reversed). and the selection process repeated. the drive power must be further increased. If endless belts are used.timing belts. Belt friction Main article: Belt friction Belt drives depend on friction to operate but. turned). If this is the case. minimum-diameter pulleys are desired. the desired shaft spacing may need adjusting to accommodate standard length belts. Now the pulley diameters are chosen. Small pulleys increase this elongation. the inverse ratio teeth of the belt contributes to the exact measurement. suitable distance between shafts. if the friction is excessive. larger belts transmit this same power at low belt speeds as smaller belts do at high speeds. It is generally either large diameters or large cross section that are chosen. the angle of contact between the belt and pulley may be less than 180°. shock. Minimum pulley diameters are often listed with each cross section and speed. The equation for power is: power (kW) = (torque in newton-meters) × (rpm) × (2π radians)/(60 sec × 1000 W) Factors of power adjustment include speed ratio. When corrected. This is because power capacities are based on the standard of a 180° contact angle. type of drive unit (electric motor. and pulley-belt arrangement (open. contact angle and the materials from which the belt and pulleys are made. the belt length is computed. After the cheapest diameters and belt section are chosen. and appropriate operating conditions. It is often more economical to use two or more juxtaposed V-belts. driven unit loads (jerky. These are found in engineering handbooks and manufacturer's literature. as stated earlier. since. greatly reducing belt life. Minimum pulley diameters are limited by the elongation of the belt's outer fibers as the belt wraps around the pulleys. shaft distance (long or short). In large speed ratios or small central distances. The speed of the belt is: Speed = Circumference based on pitch diameter × angular speed in rpm Selection criteria Belt drives are built under the following required conditions: speeds of and power transmitted between drive and driven unit. the horsepower is compared to rated horsepowers of the standard belt cross sections at particular belt speeds to find a number of arrays that will perform best. there will be waste of energy and rapid wear of the belt. Factors which affect belt friction include belt tension. and thus the belt carries less power. or listed separately by belt cross section. rather than one larger belt. wet. To keep the driving part at its smallest.
and pulley diameters. Timing belts. and cross-section size and shape are required. speed. the belt length is higher. size. This wear is caused by stress from rolling around the pulleys. However. and belt overloads caused by shock. excessive slippage. it can be visualized as the central distance times the height that gives the same squared value of the radius difference on. adverse environmental conditions. the length of the belt increases. when dividing by the central distance. both sides. Thus. also increasing with tension is stress (load) on the belt and bearings. in addition. or belt slapping all contribute to belt fatigue. The ideal belt is that of the lowest tension which does not slip in high loads. On the other hand. Specifications To fully specify a belt. . more so than abrasion. One important concept to remember is that as D1 gets closer to D2 there is less of a distance (and therefore less addition of length) until its approaches zero. in a similar manner to the Pythagorean theorem. require that the size of the teeth be given. is the culprit for most belt problems. Belt wear Fatigue. When adding to the length of either side. in a crossed belt drive the sum rather than the difference of radii is the basis for computation for length. Belt tensions should also be adjusted to belt type. High belt tension. half the circumference of both pulleys. of course.Belt tension Power transmission is a function of belt tension. Belt tension is determined by measuring the force to deflect the belt a given distance per inch of pulley. length. vibration. Timing belts need only adequate tension to keep the belt in contact with the pulley. the material. So the wider the small drive increases. The length of the belt is the sum of the central length of the system on both sides. and the square of the sum (if crossed) or the difference (if open) of the radii.
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