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POWER ELECTRONICS INTRODUCTION All power electronic circuits manage the flow of electrical energy between some sort

of source and a load.

FIGURE 1 General system for electric power conversion. Fig. 2, Illustrates a power electronic system. Such a system consists of an energy source, an electrical load, a power electronic circuit, and control functions.

Fig.2 • Power electronics relates to the control and flow of Electrical energy • Control is done using electronic switches, capacitors, magnetic, and control systems • Scope of power electronics: milliWatts ⇒ gigaWatts

• Power electronics is a growing field due to the improvement in switching technologies and the need for more and more efficient switching circuits

Power electronics involves the study of electronic circuits intended to control the flow of electrical energy. These circuits handle power flow at levels much higher than the individual device ratings. – PHILIP.T.KREIN

DEFINITION: Power electronics is the technology associated with the efficient conversion, control and conditioning of electric power by static means from its available input form into the desired electrical output form. Interdisciplinary nature of power electronics

The power conversion systems can be classified according to the type of the input and output power

AC to DC (rectification) – 1. Uncontrolled rectifiers (1φ,3φ)

2. Controlled rectifiers (1φ,3φ)

DC to AC (inversion) 1. Single phase inverter 2. Three phase Inverter

DC to DC (chopping) – Fixed DC Voltage to variable DC Voltage -Chopper

AC to AC - Two types

1. Fixed freqency but variable voltage – AC Voltage Regulator 2. Both voltage and frequency are variable- Cycloconverter.


• Heating and lighting control • Induction heating • Uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) • Fluorescent lamp ballasts – Passive – Active • Electric power transmission • Automotive electronics – Electronic ignitions • Motor drives • Battery chargers • Energy storage – Flywheels – Capacitors • Electric vehicles – Motors – Regenerative braking • Switching power supplies • Spacecraft power systems – Battery powered – Flywheel powered

• Power conditioning for alternative power sources – Solar cells – Fuel cells – Wind turbines ADVANTAGES • High efficiency due to low loss in powersemiconductor devices • High reliability of power-electronic inverter systems • Long lifde and less maintenance due to the absence of any moving parts • Fast dynamic response of the power electronic systems as compared to electromechanical converter systems. • Small size and less weight result in less floor space and therefore lower installation cost. • Mass production – power semiconductor devices lower cost DISADVANTAGES: • Power electronic converter circuits generate harmonics in the supply system. Load side: Increased motor heating and more acoustical noise Supply side: Other equipment performance affected

AC to AC , and AC to DC converters – operate at low input power factor.

• Power electronic controllers have low overload operating capability. If rated for taking momentary overloads –cost of controller may increase. • Regeneration of power is difficult in power electronic converter systems.


Diode Characteristics

SILICON CONTROLLED REC TIFIER (THYRISTOR) Figure 4 shows a conceptual view of a typical thyristor with the three p-n junctions and the external electrodes labeled. Also shown in the figure is the thyristor circuit symbol used in electrical schematics.

FIGURE 4 Simple cross section of a typical thyristor and the associated electrical schematic Symbols.