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TRIGGERING CIRCUITS OF SCR 1) Resistance firing circuit

•Simplest and most economical •Firing angle from 0 to 90 degree only •R1 , R2 are large so that gate trigger circuit draws a small current. •Diode ensures current flow during positive cycle only •Current to triggering path and hence Vg are controlled by R2. Also note that it is a half wave dc pulse with peak value Vgp. •As long as Vgp –peak value of gate voltage is lesser than Vgt-gate trigger voltage, SCR does not turn on. o • When Vgp= Vgt, SCR turns on at 90 . • If Vgp> Vgt, then SCR turns on at the angle at which Vg equal to Vgt for the first time. -1 • Firing angle delay α= sin (Vgt/ Vgp)

2)RC Firing Circuit: RC full wave trigger circuit is shown.

• Diodes form a full bridge circuit. • Capacitor initially charges from a voltage almost zero. • The capacitor C is set to this low positive voltage by the clamping action of SCR gate. • When capacitor charges to Vgt (gate trigger voltage), SCR triggers and rectified voltage appears across load as vo. • Value of RC calculated from empirical relation RC ≥ 50 =

3)UJT Triggering

• Highly effective and switching time in the range of nano seconds. • The resistor RE is chosen so that the load line determined by RE passes through the device characteristic in the negative resistance region, that is, to the right of the peak point but to the left of the valley point, as shown in figure. If the load line does not pass to the right of the peak point P, the device cannot turn on. • When the emitter voltage of UJT reaches Vp (peak value in fig) through RE-C charging with time constant τ1 = REC, UJT’s E-B1 breaks down. As a result, UJT turns on and capacitor C rapidly discharges through low resistance R with a time constant τ2 = RC. • Normally τ2< τ1. • When emitter voltage decays to the valley point voltage Vv, emitter current falls below Iv and UJT turns off. -t/ • Firing angle α = T=REC ln {1/[1-(1-e τ1)]} where is angular frequency of UJT oscillator.

For ensuring turn-on of UJT RE < VBB – Vp / IP The capacitor C determines the time interval between triggering pulses and the time duration of each pulse. By varying RE, we can change the time constant RE C and alter the point at which the UJT fires. This allows us to control the conduction angle of the SCR, which means the control of load current.