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Afghanistan is a land locked mountains country of south Asia.

It became the focus of world attention in 1979 when it came under Soviet Union occupation. Thus commenced a political drama which not only provoked worldwide condemnation of the Russians but also resulted in the disintegration of USSR in 1991. The Afghanistan issue kept the whole world on the tenterhooks for over a decade. The free world united its entire political, economic, financial and military resources to check the expansion of communist control in the region. Geographical Location:Afghanistan has an area of 251,825 square miles. It occupies an important position in south west Asia. It is a mountainous country and lies in the Hindu Kush range. It is surrounded by Pakistan on south east, by Iran on west, by Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan on north and partly touches China towards north east. Most of the country is over 4000 feet above sea level but the Hindu Kush range. Afghanistan population mostly consists of the pathans and Tajiks. The country is mainly agricultural. Kabul is the capital of the state. Historical Background:Afghanistan enjoys an important strategic position an Asia. It is an ancient land which served as a trade route in central Asia. Science antiquity it provided invasion routes to the subcontinent. In 328 BC it was conquered by Alexander the great. Through ages it has been called by different names e.g. Bactria in ancient times and Khorasan in the Middle Ages. Later on Afghanistan remained under the rule of different powers. From the tenth to thirteenth centuries it passed the Ghaurids. The Khwarizmi and the Mongols. It became an independent country in 1747. During the 19th century it became the center of political struggle between Russia and Great Britain. Afghanistan fought two wars with Britain in the last quarter of that century. Despite military successes Great Britain failed to maintain a permanent hold over this tribal country. However Afghanistan became a buffer state between British India and Russia but its foreign policy remained under British control. The third Anglo-Afghan war in 1919 led to complete independence of Afghanistan in 1921. Later on Afghanistan was ruled by three kings namely Amanullah, influence Habibullah and Zahir Shah. Under king Zahir Shah Afghanistan remained under the influence of Russia and India. As a result she maintained an anti-Pakistan policy. In 1973Muhammad Daud deposed king Zahir Shah and four years later in 1977 declared Afghanistan as a republic. Soviet Occupation of Afghanistan:The rule of Sardar Muhammad Daud came to an end on April 1978 when the community staged a successful coup and installed Tarakai as the president. Soon differences developed between the communist leaders. The government of Tarakai too did not last long because through a revolution Tarakai was killed in October 1979. Hafeezullah Amin took over as the new President. Foreign minister and defense minister of the strife torn country. The new government was not

1979 condemned the soviet action. In early January 1980 during US defense minister Harold Brown’s visit to Beijing (China) the Chinese vice-premier Deng Xiaoping proposed an international alliance against soviet expansionism. The UN general assembly passed a resolution on January 14 1980. A total number of 104 countries voted for an 18 nations against the resolution whereas 18 abstained from voting. Which called for immediate withdrawal of soviet troops from Afghanistan? The resolution received 111 votes in favor to 22 against with 12 abstentions. 1980. 400 aircraft and 200 helicopters moved into the afghan country. The process of condemnation of soviet occupation of Afghanistan continued throughout the year 1980. The Muslims world too realized the gravity of the situation and contented special summit meeting of Afghanistan of Islamic conference OIC in Makah in January 1981. 2000 tanks. In July 1981 USSR further complicated the matter by annexing the Wakhan Salient which separated its territory from Pakistan. The world opinion was fully reflected in the UN general assembly resolution of November 20. President Hafeezullah Amin was killed and Babrak Kamal the soviet agent was placed at the helm of the affairs. On the other hand the USSR showed scant respect for the world opinion and continued to consolidate her stranglehold on Afghanistan. Stiff Afghan Resistance & problem of Refugees:- . USA and Japan on May 8. political. which not only deplored the soviet intervention but also demanded immediate pull out of all foreign troops from Afghanistan.favorably inclined towards Moscow. It opposed the stationing of Russian troops in Afghanistan. Reaction of the world to soviet aggression:The soviet military intervention stunned the peace nations of the world. social & religious forums pressed up on Russia to withdraw its forces from non-aligned Afghanistan. This attitude was not linked by the soviet leadership. This new revolution was followed by large scale soviet military invasion of Afghanistan on December 27 1979. Thus on December 27 1979 the Soviet Union moved a large number of troops backed by tanks and aircraft into Afghanistan. He ordered immediate supply of military equipment to Pakistan. “faced with the open invasion of the right of afghan people to freedom and self-determination and the right to preserve them their Islamic identity we are determined to continue to support the struggle of the people of concern over the situation created by the foreign military intervention in Afghanistan:. 1981 in a joint communiqué issued in Washington demanded unconditional pull out of soviet troops from Afghanistan. Pressure on USSR kept on mounting with each passing day as almost all the main international. The soviet military presence in Afghanistan created grave dangers for the security of neighboring Pakistan. it was the third organized soviet military intervention in another sovereign country. After Hungary (1956) and Czechoslovakia (1968). It is reported that about 80000 soldiers. The conference declared. This soviet act of make aggression was openly condemned by the free world. The US president Jimmy Carter showed quick reaction and on December 29. Thus the Soviet Union came to have a common border with Pakistan. The intentions of Soviet Union were quite clear.

aircrafts. schools and hospitals to the ground. Both Pakistan and Iran welcomed their Afghan brethren with open arms and established refugee camp where they were provided shelter with medical treatment and other basic amenities of life.000 soldiers and a large number of tanks. After the soviet occupation of Afghanistan in 1979 only Pakistan and Iran stood in the way of Russian expansion to the Persian Gulf and the Arabian Sea.The Soviet Union deployed more than 100.UK.2 and 1. However the brave Afghan people put up a stiff resistance and inflicted heavy loss of men and material on the Russians. In their just fight for the preservation of freedom the Afghan Mujahedeen were given full moral. The freedom fighters launched a Jihad against the Russian aggressors. Pakistan’s role in Afghanistan crisis:Pakistan along with Iran was directly affected by the Afghan crisis. The Russians in their bid to shatter the will of the Afghan perpetrated unlimited atrocities on the innocent peace loving people of Afghanistan. The rest of the free world too did not lag behind. The United Nations high commissioner for refugees (UNHCR) and other international agencies also provided generous help to the Afghan refugees. financial and military support by the entire free world particularly the USA. Millions of people either lost their lives or fled for safety to the neighboring countries Pakistan and Iran. The exodus of the Afghans continued unabated till by the end of 1981 the number of Afghan refugees in Pakistan and Iran rose to 2. They resorted to indiscriminate bombing which razed the public buildings. All the nations came forward with all sort of moral. helicopters and modern weapons to bring Afghanistan under its firm control. Thus the soviet military presence in neighboring Afghanistan gave Pakistan the status of a frontline state against communism. Japan and the Muslim nations.5 million respectively. economic and military assistance for the brave Afghans. The Mujahedeen took full advantage of the different terrain of their country and adopted guerilla tactics to a deadly effect. . France.