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“Multiples Attenuation in Western Offshore Basin”
A comparative study of available techniques of multiple attenuation by processing a long offset deep marine seismic data.
Pankaj K Mishra M.Sc. Geophysics IIT Kharagpur
UNDER THE GUIDENCE OF
Prof. S.K.Nath Former Head of Department Department of Geology and Geophysics IIT Kharagpur, India
Mr. S. Basu Senior Geophysicist, SPIC Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Ltd India
INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT It is a great pleasure to pay my gratitude to my academic supervisor Prof. S.K Nath (former Head, Department of Geology and Geophysics, IIT Kharagpur) for providing me enough theoretical background as well as such a opportunity to do my master dissertation in industry and also for his guidance throughout my master degree. I am grateful to Mr. S.Basu (SPIC, ONGC, Mumbai) for his true guidance throughout this project .Their full and continual support helped me a lot. I am thankful to Mr. D. Chatterjee (GGM, SPIC ONGC Mumbai) for providing all the facilities necessary for this project. I am also thankful to Prof. Biswajit Mishra, (Head of the Department of geology and geophysics, IIT Kharagpur) for providing me all possible facilities throughout the program. I would also like to express my heartfelt thanks to Mr. T.K. Bharti (SPIC, ONGC), who has contributed his time in helpful discussion and created friendly atmosphere which led to the successful completion of the work and preparation of my thesis. Finally, I acknowledge Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur for providing me such a great platform.
-Pankaj K Mishra
these interfering multiple reflections have to be eliminated.Chapter1: Introduction 1. and consequently our seismic data processing algorithms. The travel times of the primary reflections are used to map the structure of lithology contrasts while their amplitudes provide information about the magnitude of the lithology contrasts as well as other information such as presence or absence of fluids in the pore spaces of the rock. where seismic waves are multiply reflected between sea surface and sea bottom. The energy of these interbed multiples and water layer reverberations can become so strong that the primary reflection arrivals of deeper target reflectors become completely invisible. as the “signal”. the majority of all oil and gas resources are discovered in offshore continental shelf areas both in shallow and deep water. they have to be at least attenuated. The efficient elimination of multiples requires large amounts of computer time. In a marine exploration we encounter the problem that the water layer often behaves as a wave trap (Backus. Almost exclusively. The efficient elimination of multiples from marine seismic data is one of the outstanding problems in geophysics. geophysicists have to provide an image of the physical properties in the subsurface that shows where reservoirs can be expected. Before oil-producing wells can be drilled. As a result. For correctly locating a target reflector that might indicate an oil reservoir. 1959). those waves that are scattered back towards the surface only once. or since this is only rarely possible. The marine seismic industry is a multi-million dollar market. our conceptual model of the seismic reflection method. In seismic exploration the problem of multiple reflections contaminating seismograms and thus disguising important information about subsurface reflectors is well-known. Today. . marine seismograms often show a ringy character with strong multiples superposed on most of the primary arrivals from deeper reflectors. Waves that are transmitted through the sea bottom can also reverberate between deeper reflectors. treat primary reflections. and improvement of the accuracy and efficiency of the removal of multiples will lead to cost reduction and shorter turnaround times in this industry.1 The Problem of Multiple Reflections Subsurface images provided by the seismic reflection method are the single most important tool used in oil and gas exploration.
1. Whereas the shot records over the shallow water .free surface multiples of first and second order (c). Figur1. The shot records over the deep water contain long period water bottom multiples and peg-leg multiples associated with reflectors just below the water bottom. they all have two common properties that can be exploit to attenuate then varying degree of successperiodicity and moveout that is different from primaries.2 Classification of Multiples: Multiples can be either short period or long period.intrabed multiples of first and second order (e). In recorded marine seismogram most multiple reflections arise from an interface with a strong impedance contrast such as free surface and water bottom.peg-leg multiples of first and second order (d).1 shows ray path diagrams for: (a). Regardless of the type of multiples.water bottom multiples of first and second order (b).interbed multiples of first and second order These are few of the numerous configurations of ray paths associated with multiple reflections encountered in marine data.
In the early days of seismic processing (the 1960’s).3 Attenuation of Multiples: The standard approach in seismic data processing is to attenuate the multiples before imaging. prediction-error filters. prediction-error filtering significantly (Verschuur. multiple removal algorithms are to a large extend presented by wave theory based. in data space. (2). multi-channel. Predictability has always been important in multiple removal. their predictability as the auto-convolution of the primaries (Surface Related Multiple Elimination (SRME)). Each of these approaches has distinctive advantages and disadvantages. . providing a unified theory for surface-related and internal multiples (Berkhout. Most algorithms for the attenuation of multiples in data space are based on three main characteristics of the multiples: (1). 1991). single trace statistical prediction was very successful (Robinson.their difference in moveout with respect to the primaries in CMPs (f-k and radon) (3).their periodicity in arrival time (predictive deconvolution). 1. In the early 1980’s prediction-error filtering has been given a wave theoretical base. that is. 1957). The guided waves in the shallow water records also contain multiples which have ray paths within the water layer. It has increased the effectiveness of multi-channel.contain short period multiples and reverberations. 1982). Nowadays. Same kind of multiples can be shown in the stack section also as demostrated in the figure below.
half-offsets and time. Apart from these we observe a series of multiples in between primary and first order multiple. this data must be full of swell and cable noises but here we don’t see anything like that.We will attenuate this by F-K filtering. Apart from these we have an observer report which gives some additional information about the geometry. And since it is a long offset data primary reflections associated with water bottom multiple go straight as a linear event at longer offset because there occurs refraction. offsets and time while the second are function of the CMP co-ordinates. The near offset part by 2D SRME and the far offset part by muting in parabolic Radon transform domain. Once geometry is merged the data is ready to be processed. The raw data display is shown in figure (2. This means data as a Function of time. I consider two main sets of data: source gathers and CMP gathers. Elimination of these direct arrivals is very easy task we simply mute the part over water bottom applying a top mute. This is not desired in our output seismogram. Since this dissertation is mainly concerned about multiple elimination I will not be describing this procedure and I will apply this mute somewhere in between the processing. In land acquisition this geometry is called self processing sequence SPS and contains information about shot points. In marine acquisition this is called UKOOA and similarly it contains information about source location.. receivers. These are also continuing up to long offset.1). either FFID or CDP shorted etc. Our next job is to analyze the given data I will start from here with the real data provided. However predictive deconvolution is not enough effective to eliminate all these. Seeing the data we can analyze that.In this thesis. We do not see significant linear noise as it is a deep marine data. We can see first order and second order multiples of the primary events at 2 second. But it can work well after 2D SRME. static corrections etc. As we start processing the seismic data our first job is to merge the corresponding geometry with the data. . receiver location etc. I refer to data space as the un-migrated space. However it doesn’t change the data anyway but puts header values in it and by doing this we can excess the data in desired format. This data has gone through some very initial processing because since this is a deep marine data. Hence this data must have gone a low cut filtering that eliminated these noises. Some straight lines at the upper left corner are the direct arrivals. The refraction ending in between 8 and 9 second (the upper dark one) is to be removed . Chapter 2: Geometry Merging and Raw Data Analysis For processing we are given a raw seismic data and its geometry. near 4 second and 6 second. These multiples are short period multiples and can be treated by predictive deconvolution.The first are function of the source co-ordinates. We will try to eliminate this in two parts. Water Bottom starts at 2 second approximately.
.1: the raw seismic record however with a low cut filter.Figure 2.
Chapter 3: F-K Filtering 3. t-k. as shown in the figure 3. 3. Noises and multiples are separated because of their different dip as well as frequency. Once multiples are separated and we know the region where these are lying we can subtract that part from data in f-k domain. . f-x and f-k.1. The remaining data is inversely transformed into T-X space. After executing the corresponding module an interactive panel is displayed having data in four domains tk.2: f-k AnalysisBefore applying f-k filter we need to do an interactive f-k analysis to know where exactly the multiples are in f-k domain then only we can do the elimination.Data in T-X domain is transferred to Frequency Wave number domain using FFT.1: Principle.
So by dragging multiples and linear refractions we can locate them in f-k domain and select those regions by drawing a polygon.According to our convenience we can change the display and get it displayed into t-x and f-k domain only.3 Effect of f-k filtering on the data The effect of f-k filter is shown in figure 3. This f-k analysis id quite interactive and the output can be seen simultaneously as many times as we please while choosing the location of correct polygon. It is the property of the software as we draw a line in t-x domain a line appears in f-k domain showing its position in the same.2.3(b) the f-k filtered data as compared to 3. This polygon is saved in the data base and is used in f-k filtering.3(a) the raw data- . 3. As shown in figure 3.
4(a)-shot gather and frequency response without f-k filtering .Figure3.
shot gather and frequency spectrum after f-k filtering .4 (b).Figure3.
Also the performance of an f-k filter in suppressing multiples strongly depends on primary and multiple reflections being mapped to separate regions of the f-k plane. therefore. This is the drawback of f-k filtering. for which the difference in move out can be large. This is in general the case on far-offset traces. So we should not try to use much of this technique to remove all the noises at a time. but not on short-offset traces for which the difference in move out is small. Because f-k filtered data is not very suitable for some special processing like AVO analysis. This usually makes f-k filtering an undesirable option for multiple elimination. And this we can see comparing outputs f-k filter has treated direct arrivals as a linear noise and the response can be seen. However f-k filter is an effective tool for removing linear noises if there is any. . We can see the beauty of f-k filtering in the shot gathers before and after but if we study the frequency responses it is clear that the amplitudes of the reflection have been affected in an undesired way that is have been decreased. is poor at small offsets even if the subsurface geology is not very complex. Instead we should use other methods.4: ConclusionF-k filtering has been like a tradition in seismic processing and is a conventional tool to remove linear noises and multiples and very easy to apply. The performance of f-k filtering.3.
(In reality it changes because of divergence and absorption) • The noise component is zero. (In reality there are several types of noise like wind. i. only moderate success can be achieved with this simple. shallow water-bottom) can be achieved with predictive deconvolution. In general. 1987).Chapter 4: Predictive Deconvolution 4. To suppress multiples choose a lag corresponding to the twoway-travel time of the multiple. The main goal of the predictive deconvolution is the suppression of multiples.The attenuation of short-period multiples (most notably reverberations from relatively flat. If the input signal is mixed-phase a spiking deconvolution or wavelet shaping may improve the result of the following predictive deconvolution. one-dimensional procedure.e.) • The source waveform does not change as it travels in the sub surface . • The source generates a compression plane wave that impinges on layer boundaries at normal incidence.1: Principle. There are certain assumptions to de followed for deconvolution as• The earth is made up of horizontal layers of constant velocity. (Assumptions are violated in both structurally complex areas with gross lateral Facies change. The key assumption is that genuine reflections come from an earth reflectivity series that can be considered random and therefore not predictable (Yilmaz. it is stationary. • Reflectivity is a random series. The desired output is a time advanced (parameter lag) version of the input signal. (This implies that the seismogram has the characteristics of seismic wavelet in that their Autocorrelation and amplitude spectrum are similar. leaving only its non-predictable part (signal). commercial activities etc. Convolution model is the mathematical depiction of the recorded seismogram: .) • The source waveform is known. for other than short-period multiples. The periodicity of the multiples is exploited to design an operator that identifies and removes the predictable part of the wavelet (multiples).
thus increases temporal resolution and yields a representation of subsurface reflectivity. Predictive deconvolution attempts to predict and remove only the “tail” of the input wavelet. The “tail” consists of reverberations that are intruded into the down going seismic . Deconvolution compresses the basic wavelet in the recorded seismogram.Sometimes it can remove a significant part of the multiple energy from the seismic section which is our purpose here. attenuates reverberations and short period multiples.Signal S (T) = Input Wavelet W (t) * Earth Reflectivity R (t) + Noise N (t) Deconvolution or converse of Convolution is an attempt to obtain the earth reflectivity from signal measured: Predictive improves the temporal resolution of seismic data by compressing the basic seismic wavelet .
280. decrease the S/N ratio of the data. Too little white noise may cause the deconvolution operator to become unstable.4: Determination of Operator length: For determination of operator we keep a prediction distance constant (say PD=8) and vary operator length such as 140.defines how many orders of the multiple the operator will address Design window .2: Pre-conditioning for Deconvolution: Wide band pass filter for removing random noise True amplitude recovery Spherical divergence correction Mute 4. 4.3: Parameters of Deconvolution: Prediction distance or gap . and after analyzing their output and frequency responses we decide the optimum operator length.the length of the filter .320. For example I am comparing four combinations of operator lengths with constant predictive distance=8. Too much white noise may:-Decrease the effectiveness of the Deconvolution Narrowing the bandwidth of data. The amount of white noise to add will generally be in the range of 0. Operator Length . .180.360 etc. Therefore sometimes predictive deconvolution is also called as error filtering 4.240.the part of the wavelet to preserve (the primary reflection).1% to 1%.data window for which the autocorrelation is determined where reverberations are most prominent White Noise: Addition of white noise to data (auto corrologram) during operator design to prevent Operator instability (divisions by zero while calculating wavelet inverse ) Equalizing the amplitude in addition to the signal. For predictive deconvolution we want to predict the multiples and to attenuate them.wavelet by multiple reflections (multiples).
1(a): Deconvolution Gather and frequency response OL=140. PD=8 Figure 4.1(b): Deconvolution Gather and frequency response OL=240.Figure 4. PD=8 .
1(d): Deconvolution Gather and frequency response OL=360.Figure 4.1(c): Deconvolution Gather and frequency response OL=320. PD=8 . PD=8 Figure 4.
1(d): Deconvolution Gather and frequency response OL=320. PD=2 Figure 4.1(d): Deconvolution Gather and frequency response OL=320. Figure 4. so we choose this operator length and now we analyze the following combinations of different predictive distances with this operator length. PD=4 .We see that operator length 320 is optimally more effective.
1(d): Deconvolution Gather and frequency response OL=320. PD=12 .Figure 4. PD=8 Figure 4.1(d): Deconvolution Gather and frequency response OL=320.
Figure 4. PD=2 . PD=16 Figure 4.1(d): Deconvolution Gather and frequency response OL=320.1(d): Deconvolution Gather and frequency response OL=320.
So up to now we have decided OL=320 and PD=16. .1% and 1%. Now we see white noise generally it is taken in between 0.1(d): Deconvolution Gather and frequency response OL=320. PD=28 Finally we see that predictive distance 16 is giving better result comparatively.Figure 4.
1(b) CMP gathers before Radon transforms.Chapter 5: Parabolic Radon Transform Radon transforms work on the basis of move out difference between primary and multiples. Before doing radon transform we need velocity of that data .With this velocity we go in an interactive Radon domain and select a Radon mute which is basically the line separating primaries from most of the multiples .1(b) CMP gathers after Radon transform. compared to Figure 5. So we take Decon data as the input of radon transform. Parabolic Radon transform attenuates long period multiple and in general short period multiples are supposed to be attenuated by predictive deconvolution.Hence before Radon transform we pick velocity in the CMP domain .We examine the effect of Radon transform in Figure 5. The data is transformed into tau-p domain after NMO correction where multiples and primaries are separated. . because even after normal move out correction multiples have some move out and that makes them separated from primaries.
Surface Related Multiple Elimination techniques are based on work done at Delft University (Verschuur.Chapter 6: 2D Surface Related Multiple Removals The Radon demultiple is currently the mainstay of marine demultiple processing flows (Figure 3). In convolution based 2D SRME primaries are convolved with themselves to model the multiples. SRME predicts and constructs the multiple via a convolution model. Diffracted and 3D multiples also pose problems due to their distorted move out behavior. 1992). . New innovations involve true 3D algorithms (although difficult and expensive) and non-iterative versions. M’ (z0) = P0 (zi)*P0 (z0) Adaptive subtraction of the predictive multiple from input data P”(z0) = P(z0) – A(0)M’(z0) The first describes a spatial convolution along the surface of seismic data with the multiple prediction operators. Prediction or surface multiples by convolution in space and time of seismic data P (z0) with itself. Cross convolution of these two set of data and adding the result will produce multiple prediction trace for the source receiver pair. The SRME algorithm generates a pre-stack multiple model that can then be subtracted from the data using an adaptive subtraction or pattern recognition algorithm. so called “Partial SRME” (Hugonnet. The process then becomes a series of cross-convolutions of common midpoint (CMP) gathers. By this summation (Kirchhoff) only the multiple events will be added constructively thus the full multiple models will be predicted . 2002). In practice. i. 2D SRME does not require any a priori information other than primaries. These modeled are then subtracted from the data which is combination of primary and multiple by the means of adaptive subtraction and the output is primary only theoretically. such as with peg-leg multiples or multiple energy found on the near traces. the recorded data itself is used as a first estimate of the primary wave field. but experiences difficulties when the move out differential decreases. They focus on attenuating all multiple energy relating to the surface through an entirely data driven process. seismic data without multiples.This will be subtracted from the original data to get multiple free data.e. The principle rests on the concept that generating all surface related multiples affiliated with one reflector is simply a matter of propagating the recorded data down to that particular reflector. For each source receiver traces from input data related to source location in this case shot record are combined at the surface with traces of multiple prediction operator data belongings to desire receiver position. It provides a high degree of attenuation. It works similarly well in all areas. especially on long period multiples found in deep water.
Figure 6.1: Shot Gathers and frequency spectrum of raw data without 2D SRME .
Figure 6.2: Shot gather and frequency spectrum after 2D SRME .
Chapter 7: Conclusions .
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