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**“Multiples Attenuation in Western Offshore Basin”
**

A comparative study of available techniques of multiple attenuation by processing a long offset deep marine seismic data.

Pankaj K Mishra M.Sc. Geophysics IIT Kharagpur

UNDER THE GUIDENCE OF

Prof. S.K.Nath Former Head of Department Department of Geology and Geophysics IIT Kharagpur, India

Mr. S. Basu Senior Geophysicist, SPIC Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Ltd India

INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT It is a great pleasure to pay my gratitude to my academic supervisor Prof. S.K Nath (former Head, Department of Geology and Geophysics, IIT Kharagpur) for providing me enough theoretical background as well as such a opportunity to do my master dissertation in industry and also for his guidance throughout my master degree. I am grateful to Mr. S.Basu (SPIC, ONGC, Mumbai) for his true guidance throughout this project .Their full and continual support helped me a lot. I am thankful to Mr. D. Chatterjee (GGM, SPIC ONGC Mumbai) for providing all the facilities necessary for this project. I am also thankful to Prof. Biswajit Mishra, (Head of the Department of geology and geophysics, IIT Kharagpur) for providing me all possible facilities throughout the program. I would also like to express my heartfelt thanks to Mr. T.K. Bharti (SPIC, ONGC), who has contributed his time in helpful discussion and created friendly atmosphere which led to the successful completion of the work and preparation of my thesis. Finally, I acknowledge Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur for providing me such a great platform.

-Pankaj K Mishra

Almost exclusively. and improvement of the accuracy and efficiency of the removal of multiples will lead to cost reduction and shorter turnaround times in this industry.Chapter1: Introduction 1. The efficient elimination of multiples requires large amounts of computer time.1 The Problem of Multiple Reflections Subsurface images provided by the seismic reflection method are the single most important tool used in oil and gas exploration. our conceptual model of the seismic reflection method. and consequently our seismic data processing algorithms. 1959). these interfering multiple reflections have to be eliminated. The travel times of the primary reflections are used to map the structure of lithology contrasts while their amplitudes provide information about the magnitude of the lithology contrasts as well as other information such as presence or absence of fluids in the pore spaces of the rock. For correctly locating a target reflector that might indicate an oil reservoir. marine seismograms often show a ringy character with strong multiples superposed on most of the primary arrivals from deeper reflectors. the majority of all oil and gas resources are discovered in offshore continental shelf areas both in shallow and deep water. where seismic waves are multiply reflected between sea surface and sea bottom. . they have to be at least attenuated. The efficient elimination of multiples from marine seismic data is one of the outstanding problems in geophysics. treat primary reflections. Today. The marine seismic industry is a multi-million dollar market. In seismic exploration the problem of multiple reflections contaminating seismograms and thus disguising important information about subsurface reflectors is well-known. Waves that are transmitted through the sea bottom can also reverberate between deeper reflectors. those waves that are scattered back towards the surface only once. or since this is only rarely possible. As a result. geophysicists have to provide an image of the physical properties in the subsurface that shows where reservoirs can be expected. Before oil-producing wells can be drilled. The energy of these interbed multiples and water layer reverberations can become so strong that the primary reflection arrivals of deeper target reflectors become completely invisible. as the “signal”. In a marine exploration we encounter the problem that the water layer often behaves as a wave trap (Backus.

interbed multiples of first and second order These are few of the numerous configurations of ray paths associated with multiple reflections encountered in marine data.water bottom multiples of first and second order (b). Regardless of the type of multiples.1.1 shows ray path diagrams for: (a). Figur1. they all have two common properties that can be exploit to attenuate then varying degree of successperiodicity and moveout that is different from primaries. The shot records over the deep water contain long period water bottom multiples and peg-leg multiples associated with reflectors just below the water bottom.peg-leg multiples of first and second order (d).intrabed multiples of first and second order (e).2 Classification of Multiples: Multiples can be either short period or long period.free surface multiples of first and second order (c). In recorded marine seismogram most multiple reflections arise from an interface with a strong impedance contrast such as free surface and water bottom. Whereas the shot records over the shallow water .

Most algorithms for the attenuation of multiples in data space are based on three main characteristics of the multiples: (1). 1957). prediction-error filtering significantly (Verschuur. multi-channel. 1991). Each of these approaches has distinctive advantages and disadvantages. Same kind of multiples can be shown in the stack section also as demostrated in the figure below. (2). In the early 1980’s prediction-error filtering has been given a wave theoretical base. In the early days of seismic processing (the 1960’s). their predictability as the auto-convolution of the primaries (Surface Related Multiple Elimination (SRME)). It has increased the effectiveness of multi-channel. . prediction-error filters. 1.3 Attenuation of Multiples: The standard approach in seismic data processing is to attenuate the multiples before imaging. that is. providing a unified theory for surface-related and internal multiples (Berkhout. Predictability has always been important in multiple removal. The guided waves in the shallow water records also contain multiples which have ray paths within the water layer.their difference in moveout with respect to the primaries in CMPs (f-k and radon) (3).contain short period multiples and reverberations. Nowadays. multiple removal algorithms are to a large extend presented by wave theory based. single trace statistical prediction was very successful (Robinson. in data space.their periodicity in arrival time (predictive deconvolution). 1982).

receiver location etc. Chapter 2: Geometry Merging and Raw Data Analysis For processing we are given a raw seismic data and its geometry. We do not see significant linear noise as it is a deep marine data. Water Bottom starts at 2 second approximately. Apart from these we have an observer report which gives some additional information about the geometry. These are also continuing up to long offset. I consider two main sets of data: source gathers and CMP gathers. .We will attenuate this by F-K filtering. As we start processing the seismic data our first job is to merge the corresponding geometry with the data. static corrections etc. These multiples are short period multiples and can be treated by predictive deconvolution. Apart from these we observe a series of multiples in between primary and first order multiple. half-offsets and time. We can see first order and second order multiples of the primary events at 2 second.The first are function of the source co-ordinates. The raw data display is shown in figure (2. This means data as a Function of time. Since this dissertation is mainly concerned about multiple elimination I will not be describing this procedure and I will apply this mute somewhere in between the processing. In marine acquisition this is called UKOOA and similarly it contains information about source location. near 4 second and 6 second. This is not desired in our output seismogram. this data must be full of swell and cable noises but here we don’t see anything like that.. The refraction ending in between 8 and 9 second (the upper dark one) is to be removed . Some straight lines at the upper left corner are the direct arrivals. However predictive deconvolution is not enough effective to eliminate all these. either FFID or CDP shorted etc. I refer to data space as the un-migrated space. Seeing the data we can analyze that. In land acquisition this geometry is called self processing sequence SPS and contains information about shot points. The near offset part by 2D SRME and the far offset part by muting in parabolic Radon transform domain. This data has gone through some very initial processing because since this is a deep marine data. receivers. And since it is a long offset data primary reflections associated with water bottom multiple go straight as a linear event at longer offset because there occurs refraction. Elimination of these direct arrivals is very easy task we simply mute the part over water bottom applying a top mute. offsets and time while the second are function of the CMP co-ordinates. However it doesn’t change the data anyway but puts header values in it and by doing this we can excess the data in desired format. Once geometry is merged the data is ready to be processed. Our next job is to analyze the given data I will start from here with the real data provided. Hence this data must have gone a low cut filtering that eliminated these noises.In this thesis. But it can work well after 2D SRME. We will try to eliminate this in two parts.1).

Figure 2.1: the raw seismic record however with a low cut filter. .

.1. as shown in the figure 3.Chapter 3: F-K Filtering 3. Once multiples are separated and we know the region where these are lying we can subtract that part from data in f-k domain. t-k. The remaining data is inversely transformed into T-X space. Noises and multiples are separated because of their different dip as well as frequency. 3. After executing the corresponding module an interactive panel is displayed having data in four domains tk.1: Principle.Data in T-X domain is transferred to Frequency Wave number domain using FFT.2: f-k AnalysisBefore applying f-k filter we need to do an interactive f-k analysis to know where exactly the multiples are in f-k domain then only we can do the elimination. f-x and f-k.

It is the property of the software as we draw a line in t-x domain a line appears in f-k domain showing its position in the same.2.3 Effect of f-k filtering on the data The effect of f-k filter is shown in figure 3. This f-k analysis id quite interactive and the output can be seen simultaneously as many times as we please while choosing the location of correct polygon. As shown in figure 3.3(b) the f-k filtered data as compared to 3. 3. This polygon is saved in the data base and is used in f-k filtering.According to our convenience we can change the display and get it displayed into t-x and f-k domain only. So by dragging multiples and linear refractions we can locate them in f-k domain and select those regions by drawing a polygon.3(a) the raw data- .

4(a)-shot gather and frequency response without f-k filtering .Figure3.

Figure3.shot gather and frequency spectrum after f-k filtering .4 (b).

therefore.3. Because f-k filtered data is not very suitable for some special processing like AVO analysis. This is in general the case on far-offset traces. for which the difference in move out can be large. However f-k filter is an effective tool for removing linear noises if there is any. . We can see the beauty of f-k filtering in the shot gathers before and after but if we study the frequency responses it is clear that the amplitudes of the reflection have been affected in an undesired way that is have been decreased. And this we can see comparing outputs f-k filter has treated direct arrivals as a linear noise and the response can be seen. The performance of f-k filtering.4: ConclusionF-k filtering has been like a tradition in seismic processing and is a conventional tool to remove linear noises and multiples and very easy to apply. So we should not try to use much of this technique to remove all the noises at a time. Also the performance of an f-k filter in suppressing multiples strongly depends on primary and multiple reflections being mapped to separate regions of the f-k plane. Instead we should use other methods. but not on short-offset traces for which the difference in move out is small. is poor at small offsets even if the subsurface geology is not very complex. This is the drawback of f-k filtering. This usually makes f-k filtering an undesirable option for multiple elimination.

To suppress multiples choose a lag corresponding to the twoway-travel time of the multiple. it is stationary. commercial activities etc. The key assumption is that genuine reflections come from an earth reflectivity series that can be considered random and therefore not predictable (Yilmaz. (In reality it changes because of divergence and absorption) • The noise component is zero. If the input signal is mixed-phase a spiking deconvolution or wavelet shaping may improve the result of the following predictive deconvolution. one-dimensional procedure. (This implies that the seismogram has the characteristics of seismic wavelet in that their Autocorrelation and amplitude spectrum are similar. The periodicity of the multiples is exploited to design an operator that identifies and removes the predictable part of the wavelet (multiples).The attenuation of short-period multiples (most notably reverberations from relatively flat. shallow water-bottom) can be achieved with predictive deconvolution. for other than short-period multiples. Convolution model is the mathematical depiction of the recorded seismogram: . • The source generates a compression plane wave that impinges on layer boundaries at normal incidence. only moderate success can be achieved with this simple. 1987). The desired output is a time advanced (parameter lag) version of the input signal. leaving only its non-predictable part (signal). In general.e.) • The source waveform does not change as it travels in the sub surface . i.) • The source waveform is known. • Reflectivity is a random series. (Assumptions are violated in both structurally complex areas with gross lateral Facies change. The main goal of the predictive deconvolution is the suppression of multiples. There are certain assumptions to de followed for deconvolution as• The earth is made up of horizontal layers of constant velocity.Chapter 4: Predictive Deconvolution 4. (In reality there are several types of noise like wind.1: Principle.

The “tail” consists of reverberations that are intruded into the down going seismic .Signal S (T) = Input Wavelet W (t) * Earth Reflectivity R (t) + Noise N (t) Deconvolution or converse of Convolution is an attempt to obtain the earth reflectivity from signal measured: Predictive improves the temporal resolution of seismic data by compressing the basic seismic wavelet .Sometimes it can remove a significant part of the multiple energy from the seismic section which is our purpose here. thus increases temporal resolution and yields a representation of subsurface reflectivity. Predictive deconvolution attempts to predict and remove only the “tail” of the input wavelet. Deconvolution compresses the basic wavelet in the recorded seismogram. attenuates reverberations and short period multiples.

240. Operator Length . Too little white noise may cause the deconvolution operator to become unstable.data window for which the autocorrelation is determined where reverberations are most prominent White Noise: Addition of white noise to data (auto corrologram) during operator design to prevent Operator instability (divisions by zero while calculating wavelet inverse ) Equalizing the amplitude in addition to the signal.the part of the wavelet to preserve (the primary reflection). .280.3: Parameters of Deconvolution: Prediction distance or gap . 4.2: Pre-conditioning for Deconvolution: Wide band pass filter for removing random noise True amplitude recovery Spherical divergence correction Mute 4. The amount of white noise to add will generally be in the range of 0. For predictive deconvolution we want to predict the multiples and to attenuate them.320.1% to 1%.4: Determination of Operator length: For determination of operator we keep a prediction distance constant (say PD=8) and vary operator length such as 140. and after analyzing their output and frequency responses we decide the optimum operator length.180. Too much white noise may:-Decrease the effectiveness of the Deconvolution Narrowing the bandwidth of data.defines how many orders of the multiple the operator will address Design window .wavelet by multiple reflections (multiples).the length of the filter . Therefore sometimes predictive deconvolution is also called as error filtering 4.360 etc. decrease the S/N ratio of the data. For example I am comparing four combinations of operator lengths with constant predictive distance=8.

PD=8 .1(a): Deconvolution Gather and frequency response OL=140.1(b): Deconvolution Gather and frequency response OL=240. PD=8 Figure 4.Figure 4.

PD=8 .1(d): Deconvolution Gather and frequency response OL=360.Figure 4. PD=8 Figure 4.1(c): Deconvolution Gather and frequency response OL=320.

PD=4 . PD=2 Figure 4. Figure 4. so we choose this operator length and now we analyze the following combinations of different predictive distances with this operator length.1(d): Deconvolution Gather and frequency response OL=320.1(d): Deconvolution Gather and frequency response OL=320.We see that operator length 320 is optimally more effective.

1(d): Deconvolution Gather and frequency response OL=320.1(d): Deconvolution Gather and frequency response OL=320.Figure 4. PD=8 Figure 4. PD=12 .

PD=16 Figure 4.1(d): Deconvolution Gather and frequency response OL=320.Figure 4.1(d): Deconvolution Gather and frequency response OL=320. PD=2 .

. PD=28 Finally we see that predictive distance 16 is giving better result comparatively. Now we see white noise generally it is taken in between 0. So up to now we have decided OL=320 and PD=16.1(d): Deconvolution Gather and frequency response OL=320.Figure 4.1% and 1%.

. compared to Figure 5. because even after normal move out correction multiples have some move out and that makes them separated from primaries.1(b) CMP gathers before Radon transforms.1(b) CMP gathers after Radon transform. So we take Decon data as the input of radon transform.With this velocity we go in an interactive Radon domain and select a Radon mute which is basically the line separating primaries from most of the multiples . The data is transformed into tau-p domain after NMO correction where multiples and primaries are separated.We examine the effect of Radon transform in Figure 5.Chapter 5: Parabolic Radon Transform Radon transforms work on the basis of move out difference between primary and multiples. Parabolic Radon transform attenuates long period multiple and in general short period multiples are supposed to be attenuated by predictive deconvolution.Hence before Radon transform we pick velocity in the CMP domain . Before doing radon transform we need velocity of that data .

especially on long period multiples found in deep water. 2D SRME does not require any a priori information other than primaries. The process then becomes a series of cross-convolutions of common midpoint (CMP) gathers. By this summation (Kirchhoff) only the multiple events will be added constructively thus the full multiple models will be predicted . M’ (z0) = P0 (zi)*P0 (z0) Adaptive subtraction of the predictive multiple from input data P”(z0) = P(z0) – A(0)M’(z0) The first describes a spatial convolution along the surface of seismic data with the multiple prediction operators.Chapter 6: 2D Surface Related Multiple Removals The Radon demultiple is currently the mainstay of marine demultiple processing flows (Figure 3). The principle rests on the concept that generating all surface related multiples affiliated with one reflector is simply a matter of propagating the recorded data down to that particular reflector. For each source receiver traces from input data related to source location in this case shot record are combined at the surface with traces of multiple prediction operator data belongings to desire receiver position. The SRME algorithm generates a pre-stack multiple model that can then be subtracted from the data using an adaptive subtraction or pattern recognition algorithm. i. It provides a high degree of attenuation. so called “Partial SRME” (Hugonnet. but experiences difficulties when the move out differential decreases. such as with peg-leg multiples or multiple energy found on the near traces. In convolution based 2D SRME primaries are convolved with themselves to model the multiples. It works similarly well in all areas. In practice. They focus on attenuating all multiple energy relating to the surface through an entirely data driven process. the recorded data itself is used as a first estimate of the primary wave field. seismic data without multiples. 1992). 2002).This will be subtracted from the original data to get multiple free data. Surface Related Multiple Elimination techniques are based on work done at Delft University (Verschuur. . Prediction or surface multiples by convolution in space and time of seismic data P (z0) with itself. Cross convolution of these two set of data and adding the result will produce multiple prediction trace for the source receiver pair. Diffracted and 3D multiples also pose problems due to their distorted move out behavior. SRME predicts and constructs the multiple via a convolution model. New innovations involve true 3D algorithms (although difficult and expensive) and non-iterative versions. These modeled are then subtracted from the data which is combination of primary and multiple by the means of adaptive subtraction and the output is primary only theoretically.e.

1: Shot Gathers and frequency spectrum of raw data without 2D SRME .Figure 6.

Figure 6.2: Shot gather and frequency spectrum after 2D SRME .

Chapter 7: Conclusions .

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