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Shale Gas

Changing the Game….

Pankaj K Mishra

Edwin Drake discovered natives igniting gases that were seeping into and around Lake Erie in America. . and India many centuries ago. It wasn't until 1626 where are railroad conductor.500 years ago where the Chinese did there own natural gas exploration and recognized natural gas could be put to work by using bamboo shoots to transport the gas from swallow wells. Persia. It was about 2.History of Natural Gases The discovery of natural gas was by the ancient peoples of Greece.

Expanding on Hart's work.Natural gas was first used in America in 1816 to illuminate the streets of Baltimore with gas lamps. Lamplighter walked the street at dusk to light the lamps. William Hart dug the first successful gas well in what is now the Village of Fredonia. In 1821. two shops and a grist mill. it supplied enough natural gas for lights in two stores. . and to powered electricity. heating. the Fredonia Gas Light Company was formed in 1858. Today. natural gas accounts for 24% of total energy consumed in the United States. By 1825. An energy which was only use to light street lamp is now safely transported into homes for cooking.

can be recovered given today’s prices and drilling technology .Natural Gas Reserves Natural Gas ReservesInclude all the deposits are gas that are still in the ground waiting to be trapped. Natural Gas ReservoirsAre only those gas deposits that geologist know . or strongly believe .

000 feet deep • Low permeability • Prevalent in the area • 2. .S.300 trillion cubic feet in U.Shale Gas: How soon the previously unthinkable becomes routine What is Shale Gas? • Natural gas • Unconventional • Found in certain types of shale • 2.000-7.

Extraction Extraction  Leasing land  Exploration  Drilling  Hydraulic fracturing  Horizontal drilling  Collecting  Restoration .

Where?  Natural gas that exists in shale deposits. black shale deposits. .  Formed by the mud of shallow seas that existed 350 million years ago.  Shale containing natural gas is generally sandwiched between two thick.

Global Shale Gas Basins Top Reserve Holders .

especially in Europe and Asia Local • Shale gas contributes an 11% rise in natural gas in the U.Shale Gas Potential Worldwide • North America is currently the most profitable shale gas producer • Worldwide development of shale gas plays are expected to develop.S. • Pennsylvania Marcellus Shale contains about 500 trillion cubic feet of natural gas .

8 trillion cubic feet  The U.S. was up to 31.S.  With current technology only about 10% of shale gas is recoverable.How much is left?  By the end of 2008 shale gas production in the U.000 trillion cubic feet of shale gas only 500 trillion cubic feet recoverable. is enough to meet the United States’ gas needs for the next 90 years.S. contains an estimated 5. .  It is estimated that the shale gas in the U.

.  Natural gas historically has only provided 22% of the total energy consumed.Difficult to Obtain?  Although shale gas is one of the fastest growing trends in onshore oil and gas exploration there is still a long way to go!  Better. more efficient technology needs to be obtained.

Difficult to Obtain… • Each gas shale basins is different and each has a unique set operational challenges. • European shale gas Basin geology is so complex that each well becomes a PhD Thesis .

Environmental Issues: The overview  Protection of Groundwater  Wildlife Impacts  Community Impacts .

Recycle  It takes 2 million to 4 million gallons of water to drill and fracture a horizontal shale gas well Only.Ground Water Issues  Chemicals are added to water to aide in fracturing the rock This adds to the amount of contaminated groundwater Reduce . Reuse.1%-.8% of total water use in agriculture .

. They can drill underneath sensitive areas like wetlands to reduce wildlife disturbances.Wildlife Impacts  Gas development can adversely affect animal habitat and wildlife.

Community Impacts .

Carbon dioxide is a less potent pollutant .+ Points  Natural Gas is the cleanest of all fossil fuels Can reduce the emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere Plentiful Money $ Economy Cleaner Jobs Low Maintenance The main products of natural gas combustion are carbon dioxide and water vapor. .

+ Points  Natural gas does not contribute much to smog Emits low levels of nitrous oxide and almost no particulate matter  Can be used to fuel vehicles Cut down on the emissions from gasoline and diesel. .

Thank You ! .