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Child and Adolescent Development Module 2: Patterns of Growth and Development

2.1 Directional pattern
    Develo pment proceeds from the head downward. The child gains control of the head first, then the arms, and then the legs. Zygote- fertilized ovum Fetus- product of conception (40 weeks of gestation) or 10 th lunar month of gestation Newborn/neonate- birth to 28th day Infant- 29th day to 12 months of age    Develo pment proceeds from the center of the body outward. This means that the spinal cord develops before outer parts of the body. The child's arms develo p before the hands and the hands and feet develop before the fingers and toes. Finger and toe muscles (used in fine motor dexterity) are the last to develop in physical development.

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Primary Germ
     Outer layer skin nervous system pituitary gland mammary gland        Middle layer bones, muscles, joints connective tissue adipose tissue kidney reproductive organs adrenal gland Inner Layer epithelial lining o digestive system (gastrointestinal track) o respiratory system o circulatory/ cardiovascular system  thyroid gland  parathyroid gland  liver  pancreas  

2.2 Sequential pattern

2.3 Secular pattern
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b. Homo erectus. Phylogeny. Reflection c. Ontogeny. Interaction b. noted for a Philosophical Pragmatism with three elements: a.ideals in democratic governance and scientific inquiry Consummate Juvenilism: “Every being develops from itself”. Baldwin believed that “Evolu tionary Biology” is the hand maiden of indi vidual development. Dewey believed that the school is a setting for development through LIFE EXPERIENCES. C. Baldwin identified the adaptation process in every human being in meeting needs and facing challenges and problems in life. He proposed that education serves as a lever of social change and charged schools with a mandate to become places tha t set d evelopm ent in the right direction. Inherited—parents c. Charles Cooley described self-percep tion with “Looking oneself in a glass” b. Homo sapiens. 1891-discovered by Eugene Dubois) ii. D. . acknowledged the inherited & acquired characteristics of a person from childhood to adulthood a. Evolution is the process of change which results to distinctive characteristics of a person and changes in the “phenom enon”. Charles Darwin on Theory on Evolution: Origin of the Species c.evolutionary history ii. a. The greatest evid ence is by natural selection on the origin of species d.individual evolution John Dewey  A.Neanderthal (Thinking bei ng or rational organism) e. Moral Development is part of social development of every individual. Critical Thinking. Terms to Remember: i. Evolution of Man i.Philocanthropus erectus (Java Man. Acquired—environmental influence Baldwin effect a. B. D. B.Child and Adolescent Development Module 3: Origins in development of a person James Baldwin   A. C.

etc. b. art) Technological Rationality D. Individuals are profoundly integrated into consumer capitalist thought and behavior “mechanics of traditionalism” Man has freedom in his inner consciousness but man is integrated into society and thus has the same standards as society Man sees society outside himself and evaluates it based on its own standards Man becomes alienated from his individuality Values. noted for One-Dimensional Man (1964) a. Emphasize intrinsic desires (sexuality) and aesthetics (nature. a. b. Social. operationalized. e. B. b. For Marcuse. Individual critical thought must now be repressed so it won’t interfere with incredible capitalist successes F. commodities and consumption play a far greater role in contemporary capitalist society than that imagined by Marx G. but only within the parameters imposed by technological rationality. a. ideals that don’t fit are repressed Economic. for instance: we have economic choice in the marketplace but we can’t engage in economic competition. aspiration. Marcuse argues we must go back to a pre-rational realm H. technical. C. and Political freedoms are highly publicized but are actually slight instruments of domination We think we are free. d.Child and Adolescent Development Herbert Marcuse   A. Freedom . Totalitarian a. c. Powerful critique of new modes of domination and control Classical liberalism fostered the ideal of individual rationality over superstition and irrationality Human thought must now be rational. means-ends. E.

libido . operates on the “pleasure principal” (maximizing pleasure at any cost).Child and Adolescent Development Module 4: Psychoanalytic Theories The psychosexual theory By Sigmund Freud Conscious Things we are currently aware of. Unconscious We will rarely if ever know what is in out unconscious. Impetus . C. b. o Defense mechanisms . Ego Superego Rational part of the personality that Internalized values of family and tries to satisfy the id within the society. Types a. Object . Life instincts (eros) esp. Are needs that reside in the unconscious.instincts directed at survival of the self and species. c. Aim .what will gratify the need (to eat).bodily deficit or need (like food deprivation). Death instincts (thanatos) . they are generated by the ID.instincts directed towards death (the only way to be free of conflict).results in danger to the ego and anxiety.unconscious processes for coping with anxiety. .what propels us to act (like hunger). Source . Three levels of consciousness (aspects of mental life) Preconscious We are not currently aware of this but can be with a little effort. o These defense mechanisms operate at the unconscious level. It guilt) and ego ideal (via reward)]. Characteristics a. three divisions of personality Id Primitive source of sexual and aggressive urges. o The ego uses a number of different defense mechanisms to find ways to control id-based impulses and superego-based anxieties and guilt. Instincts A.” Notes: o Id-superego conflict .through which the instinct achieves its aim (like food). d. b. [Conscience develops (via boundaries set by the superego. B. operates on the “reality principle.

its opposite. Suppression is voluntary. A voluntary attempt to put out of mind and consciousness something we find upsetting and distasteful. Stems from inadequate resolution of the Oedipus or Electra complex. Stinginess. A refusal to pay attention to subjects that are disturbing because they are connected to unconscious aggressive or sexual impulses. desires that are derived from the unconscious. Oedipus and Electra complexes emerge Sexual interest goes underground.Child and Adolescent Development Ambivalence Avoidance Denial Fixation Projection Rationalization Reaction formation Regression Repression Sublimation Suppression A feeling of both love and hatred toward some person at the same time. A transferring of sexual impulses and other desires and impulses into other kinds of behavior. Suppression is considered the second most important defense mechanism. Results from difficulty in toilet training. A refusal to accept the reality of something by blocking it from consciousness. A denial of negative and hostile feelings in oneself by attributing them to someone else. chewing Receptive-results from overindulgence during the oral stage. normal sexual adjustment is achieved . frugality. A situation that occurs when ambivalent feelings creates problems and which is dealt with by suppressing one element and overemphasizing the other. painting and other kinds of creative arts. An obsessive preoccupation with or attachment to something or someone. Repression is considered the most basic defense mechanism. Result is the “Don Juan” type in males and for females being domineering and castrating. and perfectionism are the result. unlike repression which works at the unconscious level. The stages have been successfully navigated. Envy. five “psychosexual stages” of development Oral Anal Phallic Latency Genital Focus is on the mouth. the person is sexually healthy. dominance. Focus is on the anus and defecation. A barring from consciousness of wishes. An individual’s return to an earlier stage in development when confronted with stressful or anxiety provoking situations. Oedipus and Electra complexes are resolved by child identifying with the same sex parent If the rest of the stages were navigated successfully. toilet training is an issue Focus is on the genitals. sucking. such as writing. Aggressive-results from under indulgence during the oral stage. and manipulation of others is the result. eating. Dependence is the result. A means of excusing one’s behavior by offering reasons or excuses. rigidity. memories.